A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank

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A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin – Test Bank

Chapter 6

 

 

 

  1. Multiple Choice

 

NOTE:   The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

4, 7, 12, 25, 29, 37, 55, 60

 

 

  1. According to the Scottish Realist philosophers,
  2. the mind is composed of a set of faculties
  3. the mind is really nothing more than an assortment of associated ideas based on experience
  4. we cannot really be sure about the reality of objects around us
  5. there is nothing in the mind that was not first in the senses

 

  1. Faculty psychology derived from
  2. British Empiricist thought
  3. associationism
  4. Hume’s skepticism
  5. Scottish Realist philosophy

 

  1. The Scottish Realist philosopher Thomas Reid divided the faculties into two broad categories,
  2. innate and learned
  3. intellectual and active
  4. those localized in the brain; those spread throughout the rest of the body
  5. cognitive and emotional

 

  1. Prior to William James, what was true about psychology in America?
  2. it didn’t really exist
  3. it was based entirely on the Wundtian model
  4. it was modeled on faculty psychology
  5. it was taught as part of the biology curriculum

 

  1. Today you begin studying psychology by signing up for General Psychology. If you were a student in 1840 and wanted to take an introductory psychology course, what would happen?
  2. you would take a course called “Mental Philosophy”
  3. you would have to take a biology course
  4. you would be out of luck—psychology didn’t exist then
  5. you would have to go to Germany and study psychophysics

 

  1. American psychology’s first textbook was
  2. William James’s Principles of Psychology
  3. Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics
  4. Wundt’s Principles of Physiological Psychology
  5. Upham’s Elements of Mental Philosophy

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Upham’s Elements of Mental Philosophy?
  2. it was based on faculty psychology
  3. it included information about the new experimental psychology found in Germany
  4. it proclaimed that psychology was an empirical science
  5. it deliberately avoided any discussion of morality

 

  1. Upham’s Elements of Mental Philosophy included all of the following except
  2. discussion of intellectual faculties
  3. research into thresholds
  4. discussion of association
  5. morality

 

 

  1. Upham’s Elements of Mental Philosophy was divided into three main sections,
  2. intelligence, language, the will
  3. the mind, the body, the soul
  4. the intellect, emotion, and action
  5. sensation, perception, consciousness

 

  1. Upham later took a part of his Elements of Mental Philosophy and expanded it into a book of its own. Which part?
  2. sensation and perception
  3. the moral sensibilities or conscience
  4. association and memory
  5. disordered action (insanity)

 

  1. Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore was founded in 1876. It was
  2. patterned after German universities that emphasized research
  3. established by the Morrill Land Grant Act
  4. created for the purpose of training ministers
  5. designed for undergraduate education only

 

  1. The concept of the women’s sphere included the idea that
  2. women, although treated unfairly in the nineteenth century, had abilities equal to those of a

man

  1. women could only be free of elderly parent caring if they had an older brother in the home
  2. women were considered to be intellectually incapacitated once a month
  3. women were thought to have a wider range of abilities than men

 

  1. According to the variability hypothesis
  2. greater variability in a trait is a bad thing for species survival
  3. men’s average intelligence was greater than women’s, but women showed more extreme

scores (very high and very low)

  1. women were considered to be intellectually incapacitated once a month
  2. men showed a greater degree of variability in intelligence then women

 

  1. A study by Bache compared the reaction times of whites, blacks, and Native Americans. Which of the followed occurred?
  2. whites were slowest, a result interpreted as showing they were less impulsive than the two

other groups

  1. blacks and Native Americans were slower than whites, a result consistent with white

superiority (this was during Galton’s time, when fast reaction time was considered a good

thing)

  1. there were no differences, but Bache altered the data to make whites look better
  2. whites and Native Americans were fast and blacks were slow, a result that reinforced

stereotypes of black inferiority

 

  1. Near the turn of the century, Stetson found that black and white children did not differ in their ability to memorize poems. He concluded that
  2. there were no significant racial differences in memory
  3. the blacks must have cheated
  4. memorization must be a poor test of intelligence
  5. there might be racial differences in IQ for adults, but there weren’t any for children

 

 

 

 

 

  1. For an African-American with an advanced degree in psychology in, say, 1950, what was the most likely employment?
  2. faculty position at a major university, because of preferential hiring
  3. teaching at a historically black college
  4. physical labor
  5. none of these—no African American earned an degree in psychology until the 1970s

 

  1. All of the following is true about the career of Francis Sumner except
  2. he was the first African-American to earn a doctorate in psychology
  3. his doctoral dissertation, completed at Howard University, was on race psychology
  4. his dissertation was a critical examination of Freudian and Adlerian psychoanalysis
  5. one of his students, Kenneth Clark, became APA president

 

  1. Francis Sumner was
  2. a student of Kenneth Clark, who was the first African-American to earn a doctorate

in psychology

  1.        mentor to the two African-American psychologists who did a famous study on the

preferences of black children for black or white dolls

  1. both a student of Kenneth Clark, who was the first African-American to earn a doctorate

in psychology and mentor to the two African-American psychologists who did a famous study on the

preferences of black children for black or white dolls

  1. none of these

 

  1. In their study of doll preferences, Clark and Clark
  2. found evidence that was eventually cited in the Brown v. Board of Education case that

eliminated segregated schools

  1. showed that black children did not feel inferior to white children—they tended to choose

black dolls

  1. failed to find racial differences in doll preferences
  2. found that white children preferred male dolls, while black children preferred female dolls

 

  1. Both Kenneth B. and Mamie Phipps Clark were
  2. presidents of APA
  3. prevented from earning PhDs because of racism
  4. both long-time faculty members at Howard University
  5. students of Francis Sumner at Howard University

 

  1. In their doll studies, the Clarks discovered that African American children
  2. did not understand what to do with dolls—because of poverty, they had not experienced

dolls before

  1. were very aggressive towards dolls, reflecting the pent up effects of racism
  2. preferred light-skinned dolls to darker-skinned dolls
  3. all of these

 

  1. William James
  2. thought of himself more as a philosopher than as a psychologist, especially after 1892
  3. always loved the precision of laboratory work
  4. was a leader in the fight to establish the truth of materialism
  5. rejected spiritualism, fearing that it would harm the reputation of the new science of

psychology

 

  1. Which of the following is true about William James?
  2. he was a strong advocate of the philosophical position of materialism
  3. he judged the value of ideas like “free will” in terms of their usefulness
  4. he believed that the claims of spiritualists should be rejected without being taken

seriously; they were undermining the scientific status of psychology

  1. later in his career his interests in philosophy declined and he became completely

immersed in psychology

 

  1. With which of the following statements would William James be most likely to agree?
  2. when we see a bear, we experience the emotion of fear, and as a result we run away
  3. the proper way to study consciousness is to analyze it into its fundamental units
  4. the function of habit is to allow consciousness to focus on more important matters having to

do with adapting to the environment

  1. as a young science, psychology must gain respectability and cannot afford to be associated

with the ridiculous claims made by believers in spiritualism

 

  1. According to William James’s philosophy,
  2. materialism is the most reasonable belief for an educated person to hold
  3. first, you must establish the absolute truth of some proposition by using reason and

logic; then you can decide if it is useful (or “pragmatic”)

  1. a proposition can be considered to be true if it is in some way useful for the individual in

adapting to the environment

  1. any position contending that truth is relative cannot be true

 

  1. According to William James, which of the following is true about consciousness?
  2. it is best thought of as analogous to a train—one unit, but can be broken down into units
  3. it cannot be observed directly; therefore it cannot be of interest to scientific psychology
  4. it is personal, ever changing, and selective
  5. it can be conceived of as the sum total of our experiences, with its elements connected

through associations

 

  1. Which of the following is an implication of the theory of emotion advocated by William James?
  2. cognition (this is a bear and I therefore should be afraid) precedes emotional arousal

(heart beating fast, running away, etc.)

  1. a tendency to be depressed is “constitutional”—there’s really nothing you can do about it
  2. being emotionally depressed is the direct cause of postural changes (e.g., slouching)
  3. forcing oneself to smile will make one feel happier

 

  1. Which of the following statements would you be least likely to find in a letter by William James concerning psychical research?
  2. many so-called mediums practice deception, but we should keep an open mind and

carefully and objectively investigate them anyway

  1. one perplexing problem is that spirit-controls seem only to bring up trivial issues

(e.g., the dead husband asking why his wife moved his photo)

  1. I have studied Mrs. Piper and I can find no evidence of fakery or fraud on her part
  2. as a young science, psychology must gain respectability and cannot afford to be

associated with such controversial research

 

  1. In the Principles, James defined psychology as
  2. the study of immediate conscious experience
  3. the scientific study of observable human behavior
  4. the science of mental life
  5. the study of human faculties

 

  1. Concerning methodology, which of the following methods did James believe to be the most essential?
  2. introspection
  3. reaction time
  4. psychophysics
  5. surveys

 

 

 

 

  1. James was critical of all of the following research methods except
  2. introspection
  3. reaction time
  4. psychophysics
  5. surveys

 

  1. What did William James think of the reaction time and psychophysics research that originated in Germany?
  2. he valued the methods highly because of the precision involved
  3. he valued them because he realized that if psychology was to become a science, it

needed to quantify its phenomena

  1. both he valued the methods highly because of the precision involved and he valued them because he realized that if psychology was to become a science, it needed to quantify its phenomena
  2. none of these—he referred to them sarcastically as “brass instrument” psychology

 

  1. According to the James-Lange theory of emotion,
  2. we react with physical emotions only after we have made a cognitive appraisal of

the situation we happen to be in

  1. the strong emotions are each associated with a unique pattern of bodily action
  2. emotions can be defined as tendencies to act
  3. the proper sequence is: we meet a bear, are frightened, and run

 

  1. According to James, what was the proper metaphor for the mind?
  2. stream
  3. train
  4. chain
  5. any of these would be appropriate

 

  1. To support of his theory of emotion, James argued that
  2. if you remove the bodily actions from the description of a strong emotion, there is

nothing left (no “mind-stuff”)

  1. emotions fail to occur unless we first make a cognitive appraisal of the situation
  2. all strong emotions have exactly the same pattern of physiological arousal
  3. all emotions are instinctive

 

  1. If the James-Lange theory of emotion is true, it follows that
  2. all strong emotions must have exactly the same pattern of physiological arousal
  3. if you force yourself to smile, your mood will become positive
  4. both all strong emotions must have exactly the same pattern of physiological arousal and if you force yourself to smile, your mood will become positive
  5. none of these

 

  1. All of the following are associated with G. Stanley Hall except
  2. founded and became first president of APA
  3. created American Journal of Psychology, America’s first psychology journal
  4. became first American student to earn a doctorate at Leipzig with Wundt
  5. was first president of Clark University

 

  1. G. Stanley Hall is known as the first person to accomplish a number of things. Which of the following is not one of his “firsts?”
  2. he was the first American to be named the official “assistant” in Wundt’s laboratory
  3. he was the first president of America’s first “graduate student only” university

(Clark University)

  1. he was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association
  2. he founded the first journal in the United States devoted exclusively to psychology

(the American Journal of Psychology)

 

 

  1. As a developmental psychologist, Hall believed that
  2. adolescence should not be seen as a distinct “stage”—the storm and stress idea is not

valid

  1. the development of the individual mirrors the evolution of the species
  2. strict discipline needs to be in place in the schools
  3. adolescents and the elderly could be studied empirically, but children could not (no

capacity for introspection)

 

  1. By “genetic” psychology, Hall meant
  2. comparative psychology
  3. developmental psychology
  4. abnormal psychology
  5. all of these were included

 

  1. With which of the following statements would Hall agree?
  2. education should not get in the way of a child’s natural curiosity
  3. children do not have sexual interests (i.e., he disagreed strongly with Freud)
  4. psychologists should study humans—comparative psychology is irrelevant
  5. children are better off being raised in the city than being raised in the country

 

  1. Which of the following is inappropriately paired?
  2. Hall—adolescence
  3. Calkins—paired associate learning
  4. Washburn—evolutionary theory of color vision
  5. Small—invented animal mazes

 

  1. While at Johns Hopkins University, Hall
  2. created maze learning as a method
  3. created the first research laboratory of experimental psychology in America
  4. brought Freud to America for a lecture series
  5. completed his doctoral dissertation on the muscular perception of space

 

  1. While at Clark University, Hall became known for
  2. limiting laboratory work to human psychology
  3. emphasizing undergraduate research and downplaying graduate study
  4. his Monday evening seminars for graduate students
  5. creating the first research laboratory of experimental psychology in America

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Small’s maze learning research?
  2. his first maze was a simple T-shaped maze
  3. his analysis of maze learning was criticized for being overly anthropomorphic
  4. he thought about using the Hampton Court maze as a model, but decided that maze was

too complex

  1. he concluded that the sense of vision was essential in order for the rats to learn the maze

 

  1. On the basis of his questionnaire research of children, Hall concluded that
  2. schools were too permissive—more discipline was needed
  3. children should be raised in the country, not the city
  4. children are much more knowledgeable than people think they are
  5. it is essential to eliminate any early sexuality on the part of children

 

  1. Which of the following is appropriately matched?
  2. Hall—adolescence is storm and stress
  3. James—consciousness is like a train
  4. Calkins—famous textbook in comparative psychology
  5. Ladd-Franklin—invented paired associates learning
  6. What did Miles discover about the origins of the stylus maze?
  7. Boring claimed credit for the invention
  8. its invention appeared to be an example of a multiple
  9. it had been invented long before animal mazes were put into use by Small at Clark
  10. it was first used as a way of measuring IQ

 

  1. I began graduate studies as a “guest” at Columbia but was advised to go to Cornell, where I would be able to earn a doctorate in psychology (which I did). Who am I?
  2. Mary Whiton Calkins
  3. Christine Ladd-Franklin
  4. Margaret Washburn
  5. Lucy Day Boring

 

  1. All of the following characterized the career of Mary Calkins except
  2. published an important evolutionary theory of color vision
  3. published important works on “self” psychology
  4. invented a well-known procedure for investigating memory
  5. worked in the Harvard lab of Hugo Münsterberg

 

  1. The education of Mary Calkins included
  2. completing a dissertation on association under the direction of Hugo Münsterberg
  3. earning a doctorate from Clark University after studying with Edmund Sanford
  4. being E. B. Titchener’s first doctoral student at Cornell
  5. being the only woman in Wundt’s lab at Leipzig

 

  1. A method of paired associate learning was developed by
  2. Edmund Sanford
  3. Willard Small
  4. Margaret Washburn
  5. Mary Calkins

 

  1. Of the psychologists in Chapter 6, who wrote a well-known (multiple editions) text on comparative psychology?
  2. Mary Calkins
  3. Edmund Sanford
  4. Margaret Washburn
  5. Christine Ladd-Franklin

 

  1. In her research on memory, Calkins
  2. relied exclusively on introspection as a method
  3. created stimulus-response pairs to learn that were based on word association norms
  4. concluded that frequency was more important than recency, primacy, or vividness as

a predictor of recall

  1. found that the only factor to improve memory was repetition

 

  1. In her research on memory, Calkins investigated frequency, vividness, primacy, and recency. All enhanced memory, but which was the most critical factor, according to her results?
  2. frequency
  3. vividness
  4. primacy
  5. recency

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In her memory research, Calkins found that
  2. primacy enhanced memory, but recency did not
  3. simultaneous and successive association produced equal levels of recall
  4. making a particular stimulus more “vivid” actually reduced recall
  5. recall was enhanced by primacy, recency, vividness, but not by frequency

 

  1. Calkins studied with all of the following except
  2. Hall
  3. Sanford
  4. James
  5. Münsterberg

 

  1. Margaret Washburn
  2. was best known for her research on color vision
  3. was the first person to earn a PhD from E. B. Titchener
  4. was the first woman to make a presentation at a meeting of E. B. Titchener’s group of

“Experimentalists”

  1. all of these

 

  1. I published on binocular vision in the very first issue of the American Journal of Psychology and I later became the first woman to be present at a meeting of E. B. Titchener’s group of “Experimentalists.” Who am I?
  2. Christine Ladd-Franklin
  3. Margaret Washburn
  4. Mary Calkins
  5. Laurel Furumoto

 

  1. My reputation is based primarily on my ability as a textbook writer. My Elements of Physiological Psychology, which appeared in 1887, was the first detailed description of the new Wundtian laboratory psychology in the English language. I spent most of my career at Yale. Who am I?
  2. James Mark Baldwin
  3. William James
  4. G. Stanley Hall
  5. George Trumbull Ladd

 

  1. Which of the following is true about James Mark Baldwin?
  2. he earned his reputation primarily through the writing of textbooks
  3. his books on development were heavily influenced by evolutionary theory
  4. he founded the first psychology laboratory in Mexico
  5. he contributed more to empirical research than to theory

 

  1. I established the first psychology laboratory (a) in Canada, and (b) at Princeton University. Who am I?
  2. G. Stanley Hall
  3. George Trumball Ladd
  4. James Mark Baldwin
  5. Edmund Sanford

 

 

 

 

 

Answers

 

  1. A 32. D
  2. D 33. B
  3. B 34. A
  4. C 35. A
  5. A 36. B
  6. D 37. C
  7. A 38. A
  8. B 39. C
  9. C 40. D
  10. D 41. A
  11. A 42. C
  12. C 43. B
  13. D 44. C
  14. A 45. B
  15. C 46. B
  16. B 47. A
  17. B 48. B
  18. B 49. C
  19. A 50. A
  20. D 51. A
  21. C 52. D
  22. A 53. C
  23. B 54. C
  24. C 55. A
  25. C 56. B
  26. C 57. A
  27. D 58. B
  28. D 59. A
  29. C 60. D
  30. A 61. B
  31. A 62. C

 

 

 

 

  1. Short Answer

 

 

  1. What was a “faculty,” according to pre-Jamesian psychologists? Give an example.
  2. What were the three main topics considered by Upham in his Elements of Mental Philosophy?
  3. What was the “periodic function” and how did it affect opportunities for women?
  4. What was the “variability hypothesis” and how did it affect opportunities for women?
  5. For African Americans who were able to attain higher education, what were their employment options?
  6. Describe the career and contributions of Francis Sumner.
  7. What was the essence of the pragmatic philosophy of William James?
  8. What did William James mean by “brass instrument psychology” and what did he think of this approach?
  9. What was the functional value of consciousness, according to James?
  10. What was the functional value of habit, according to James?
  11. In a sentence, what is the essence of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
  12. What was Hall’s recapitulation theory?
  13. As a psychologist, Hall was known as the first person to do several things. What were two of these things?
  14. What did Hall mean by “genetic” psychology?
  15. What role was played by the Hampton Court maze in psychology’s history?
  16. Describe the method of paired associates learning. Who created it?
  17. Describe Ladd’s major contribution to the “new” psychology.
  18. What is the Baldwin effect?

 

 

 

III. Essay

 

 

  1. Describe how the Scottish Realist philosophers reacted to British empiricism/ associationism. What did they propose instead?
  2. Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, was said to be the “prototype” of the new university in America. Explain.
  3. What was the “women’s sphere,” and what were its consequences for intellectual women in the nineteenth century? What opportunities in higher education did exist for women during this time?
  4. Research is normally considered to be free of bias, yet there are two studies described in the chapter that should have led to the conclusion that blacks and whites had similar cognitive skills, but didn’t Describe these studies and show how bias affected the conclusions.
  5. Explain this sentence: Although William James was not a functionalist, his ideas about consciousness and habit were clearly functionalist in spirit.
  6. Describe how James evolved his pragmatic philosophy (be sure to work the term materialism and the name Renouvier into your answer).
  7. Describe how William James conceived of human consciousness.
  8. Describe the James-Lange theory of emotion, the arguments used by James to support it, and its fatal flaw.
  9. Describe the origins of maze learning as a method. What did Small conclude about the manner in which rats learned mazes?
  10. Describe how the theory of evolution influenced (a) James and (b) Hall.
  11. Describe the memory research of Mary Calkins, both procedurally and in terms of what she concluded about memory.
  12. Consider the three main female characters in Chapter 6. Describe a major contribution of each.

 

 

Chapter 7

  1. Multiple Choice

 

NOTE:       The following items also appear in the online study guide that is available to students:

2, 9, 17, 36, 48, 52, 56, 57

 

 

  1. In his 1898 paper on “The Postulates of a Structural Psychology,” Titchener argued that
  2. the basic structure of the mind must be understood before its functions could be studied
  3. neither the structure of the mind nor its functions could be separated from each other –

both had to be studied at the same time

  1. structuralism in psychology is analogous to physiology in the biological sciences
  2. the goal of structuralism is to determine how the mind enables the individual to adapt to the

environment

 

  1. According to Titchener, in his 1898 paper on “The Postulates of a Structural Psychology,” structuralism is analogous to the study of
  2. anatomy
  3. physiology
  4. both anatomy and physiology
  5. physics

 

  1. According to Titchener, structuralism is to functionalism as
  2. physiology: anatomy
  3. the question “what is mind for?”: the question “what is mind?”
  4. anatomy: physiology
  5. physics: chemistry

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Titchener?
  2. by admitting them into his graduate program and to his inner circle of colleagues (the

“Experimentalists”), he promoted the welfare of women in psychology

  1. he relied on introspection early in his career, but quickly abandoned it when its problems

became evident

  1. he argued strenuously against the existence of imageless thought
  2. he made his reputation at Cornell, but returned to Oxford later in his career

 

  1. All of the following characterize Titchener’s system except
  2. an interest in studying individual differences in adult conscious experience
  3. use of systematic experimental introspection as a key method
  4. rejection of the idea of studying animals, children, or the insane
  5. extensive training to increase objectivity

 

  1. Which of the following was true about E. B. Titchener?
  2. despite strong opposition to behaviorism, he valued Watson’s friendship because Watson

was a “laboratory man”

  1. he was very close to William James—like James, he disliked the tedium of laboratory

work

  1. he was strongly anti-female, refusing to have any women in his laboratory
  2. he became a major figure in the APA, one of the few people elected to its presidency on two

separate occasions

 

  1. All of the following are true about Titchener’s famous Laboratory Manuals except
  2. they were designed for use in drill courses
  3. they were the first manuals of experimental psychology, but they were eventually replaced

by Sanford’s manuals

  1. they included both qualitative and quantitative experiments
  2. the instructor’s manuals were actually longer than the student manuals
  3. If you happened to be enrolled in a drill course in 1910, what would your experience be like?
  4. this would be an introductory psychology course and you would be “drilled” in the

basic concepts of psychology with rote learning exercises

  1. you would learn laboratory procedures by being asked to produce original research
  2. you would learn basic reaction time and psychophysics procedures, but you would

not encounter introspection (that was for advanced training)

  1. you would replicate classic studies, probably with Titchener’s Manuals as your guide

 

  1. In Titchener’s Manuals,
  2. introspection was an important part of the qualitative experiments
  3. the experiment using the olfactometer was an example of a quantitative experiment
  4. a study examining just noticeable differences would be an example of a qualitative

experiment

  1. the instructor’s manuals were not very detailed, a major weakness

 

  1. In Titchener’s drill courses, the term observer referred to
  2. someone watching an experiment and taking notes on the interactions between the two lab

partners

  1. the person collecting the data (called the “experimenter” today)
  2. the person participating in the experiment and contributing introspective data to it
  3. the person who was in charge of the overall operation of the laboratory

 

  1. Titchener’s Manuals could be used today, most likely in which course?
  2. psychological statistics
  3. learning and memory
  4. sensation and perception
  5. physiological psychology

 

  1. Which of the following was true about Titchener’s Experimentalists?
  2. Titchener formed the group as way to compete directly with the APA
  3. the group disbanded in the early 1920s after the APA created sessions for experimental

psychologists at the annual APA meeting

  1. before Titchener’s death in 1927, the only woman to attend a meeting was Mary Calkins
  2. women were excluded from joining, a policy that changed after Titchener’s death

 

  1. Meetings of Titchener’s Experimentalists featured
  2. a wide range of topics, everything from experimental psychology to clinical psychology
  3. formal presentations of papers, followed by informal discussions of them
  4. informal presentations and apparatus demonstrations
  5. attendance limited to Titchener and his former students

 

  1. All of the following were students or close colleagues of Titchener. Who would you be most surprised to see at a meeting of the Experimentalists?
  2. E. G. Boring (T’s doctoral student)
  3. Margaret Washburn (T’s doctoral student)
  4. Walter Pillsbury (T’s doctoral student)
  5. Edmund Sanford (experimental psychologist from Clark University)

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Titchener’s version of psychology’s goals?
  2. he placed the goal of synthesis higher in priority than the goal of analysis
  3. the most important goal was to understand the nervous system and most of Titchener’s

research was focused on this goal

  1. his prime focus was analysis (into structural elements); synthesis was not a goal
  2. the goal of explanation involved the nervous system, but little of Titchener’s research

concerned nervous system activity

 

  1. In Titchener’s 1909 Textbook of Psychology, most of the topics dealt with
  2. sensation and perception
  3. association and learning
  4. thinking and other higher mental processes
  5. the history of psychology up to that point

 

  1. Which of the following was true of Titchener’s version of introspection?
  2. there had to be special rules of introspection for children
  3. to give a description of immediate experience was to commit the stimulus error, a problem

that invalidated an introspection

  1. introspections could only be completed by those who had received extensive training
  2. it was virtually identical to the procedures used by Wundt

 

  1. According to Titchener’s version of introspection,
  2. introspections could only be completed by those who had received extensive training and

had become “introspecting machines”

  1. extensive training was to be avoided because it would introduce bias
  2. the descriptions had to be very brief (a word or two) in order to eliminate memory problems
  3. because Titchener recognized it was impossible to give accurate introspections of

emotional experiences, emotion could not be studied in the laboratory

 

  1. Titchener believed that introspectors had to be highly trained. Why?
  2. they needed to be able to analyze their unconscious experiences
  3. by developing an introspective habit, they could overcome memory problems
  4. both they needed to be able to analyze their unconscious experiences and by developing an introspective habit, they could overcome memory problems
  5. none of these—Titchener realized that overtraining would burn out his introspectors

 

  1. According to Titchener’s system, _______ was the basic element of ______.
  2. sensation; an image
  3. an image; an idea or thought
  4. an emotion; a sensation
  5. a perception; a sensation

 

  1. For Titchener, the basic elements of human conscious experience are
  2. sensations and perceptions
  3. sensations, images, and perceptions
  4. sensations, images, and feelings
  5. sensations, sensations, and sensations (i.e., everything reduces to sensations)

 

  1. According to Titchener, every sensation includes the attribute(s) of
  2. intensity
  3. quality
  4. duration
  5. all of these

 

  1. All of the following characterize Titchener’s system except
  2. had an interest in studying individual differences in adult conscious experience
  3. believed the use of introspection was the key method
  4. rejected the idea that experimental psychology should be concerned with studying

animals, children, or those with psychological disorders

  1. required extensive training in introspection so as to avoid the stimulus error

 

 

 

 

 

  1. As a school of psychology, structuralism
  2. turned out to be no different from functionalism
  3. spread rapidly beyond Titchener’s Cornell and became the dominant school of psychology

in America in the first half of this century

  1. faded soon after Titchener’s death
  2. was primarily interested in the question, “What is mind for?”

 

  1. Titchener believed that it was important to understand
  2. individual differences from one mind to another
  3. the generalized adult mind
  4. how the mind developed across the life span
  5. how the knowledge of the mind could be used to improve education

 

  1. Why was the “imageless thought” research a problem for Titchener?
  2. it implied that some mental contents could not be reduced to elementary images
  3. it meant that all introspection involved the stimulus error
  4. it indicated that his introspectors were not sufficiently trained
  5. it suggested that there were important individual differences in reaction time

 

  1. What was Titchener’s most important lasting contribution, according to the text?
  2. the creation of the method of systematic experimental introspection
  3. the promotion of basic laboratory research
  4. the idea that psychology must be the study of the mind
  5. the idea that the structure of the mind had to be understood before the function of the mind

could be investigated

 

  1. When John Watson, behaviorism’s founder, attacked structuralism, what was his main argument?
  2. structuralism was unscientific in its approach
  3. structuralists overemphasized applied research, at the cost of basic research
  4. he believed that psychologists should be interested in the functioning of the nervous system

and nothing else

  1. because of the subjectivity of introspection, agreement on the elements of conscious could

never be reached

 

  1. In the controversy between Baldwin and Titchener, what was the main issue?
  2. the level of training required before someone could introspect competently
  3. whether or not imageless thought could occur in a psychophysics task
  4. whether experimental or correlational research was to be favored
  5. whether or not introspection ought to be used in psychology

 

  1. What was Dunlap’s goal at the Carlisle conference?
  2. he wanted to change the professional focus of experimental psychologists from research

to teaching

  1. he desired to shift attitudes among experimentalists from Titchener’s view to the functionalist

view

  1. he was hoping to improve the status of women in experimental psychology
  2. he wanted to establish a national laboratory to promote experimental research in psychology

 

  1. Social Darwinists believed that
  2. evolutionary forces needed to be controlled in order for society to advance
  3. government needed to be an active force in caring for the less fortunate
  4. those who accumulate great wealth should share it with the poor
  5. there should be no government regulation of business

 

 

  1. Even though it might not have been intended as such, which of the following is the paper that is normally considered to mark the origination of functionalism?
  2. Dewey’s reflex arc paper
  3. Angell’s APA presidential address
  4. Woodworth and Thorndike’s paper on transfer
  5. Titchener’s paper contrasting structuralism and functionalism

 

  1. What did Dewey have to say about the reflex arc?
  2. it should be seen as a coordinated system that helps adjust individuals to their environments
  3. its analytical structure must be understood before its function could be studied
  4. it was important to separate the stimulus part from the response part
  5. it shouldn’t be conceived of as an “arc” – a “stream” would be a better metaphor

 

  1. The Chicago and the Columbia functionalists all had a number of things in common. Which of the following was not one of them?
  2. they rejected the usefulness of introspection as a method
  3. they were influenced by evolutionary thinking
  4. they had roots in rural (pragmatic) America
  5. they were interested in the question “What is mind for?”

 

  1. Which of the following is correctly associated with John Dewey?
  2. he extended functionalist thinking into comparative psychology by extensively studying

maze learning

  1. he argued that reflexes should be carefully analyzed into separate stimulus and response

components (thus paving the way for behaviorism)

  1. as a Darwinian and a believer in the survival of the fittest, he believed that schooling

should be available only to those students who were the best and the brightest

  1. he believed that teachers should promote divergent thinking and avoid rote learning

 

  1. John Dewey’s reflex arc paper,
  2. clearly identified (and named) functionalism as a school and denounced structuralism
  3. argued for an understanding of reflexes as they help the organism adjust to the world
  4. argued that reflex arcs could be reduced to simple stimuli and responses
  5. provided strong support for Titchener’s vision of psychology

 

  1. Which of the following is appropriately paired?
  2. Dewey—progressive education
  3. Thorndike—Columbia bible
  4. Angell—puzzle box research
  5. Carr—systematic experimental introspection

 

  1. A way to contrast structuralism and functionalism is to say that the former asks the question “what is mind?” while the latter asks the question “what is mind for?” This way of describing the difference between structuralism and functionalism was suggested in
  2. Dewey’s reflex arc paper
  3. Titchener’s paper contrasting the two schools
  4. Woodworth’s Columbia bible
  5. Angell’s APA presidential address

 

  1. According to Chicago’s James Angell, as articulated in his APA presidential address,
  2. the theory of evolution has been overemphasized
  3. it is time to think of functionalism as a formal school of thought in psychology
  4. reducing consciousness to its elements fails to capture the importance of consciousness

for everyday life

  1. we are interested in the “what” of consciousness rather than the “how” and the “why” of

consciousness

  1. I succeeded Angell as head of the department at Chicago and was known for doing a lot of maze learning research (I even had a type of maze named after me). Who am I?
  2. Edgar Hampton
  3. John Dewey
  4. Harvey Carr
  5. Willie Mays

 

  1. The Chicago functionalists included all of the following except
  2. Woodworth
  3. Carr
  4. Angell
  5. Dewey

 

  1. All of the following are associated with James McKeen Cattell except that he
  2. embraced Galton’s approach to measuring mental ability
  3. originated the distinction between independent and dependent variables
  4. created the term “mental test”
  5. used tests that failed to predict student success at Columbia

 

  1. Cattell’s attitude about the proper way to measure mental ability was closest to that of
  2. Binet
  3. Ebbinghaus
  4. Galton
  5. Terman

 

  1. Which of the following would you be most surprised to see on a list of mental tests compiled by Cattell?
  2. complete reaction time
  3. differentiate word meanings
  4. distinguish among colored threads
  5. bisect a 50 cm line

 

  1. What did Wissler find in his study of Cattell’s mental tests at Columbia?
  2. the tests were unrelated to academic performance
  3. the tests were unrelated to each other
  4. both the tests were unrelated to academic performance and the tests were unrelated to each other
  5. none of these

 

  1. In his study of mental testing at Columbia, Wissler found which of the following to be most highly correlated with the students’ academic grades?
  2. score on the Binet-Simon
  3. score on reaction time
  4. score on a test of associations
  5. score in gym class

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Thorndike’s explanation for how his cats escaped from the puzzle boxes?
  2. cats systematically attempted one complex escape strategy after another
  3. cats would only solve the problem after they achieved insight into the relationship between the

strings and pedals and the door mechanism

  1. behaviors that “worked” to enable the cat to escape were said to be “stamped in”
  2. both cats systematically attempted one complex escape strategy after another and cats would only solve the problem after they achieved insight into the relationship between the strings and pedals and the door mechanism

 

  1. What did Thorndike conclude from his puzzle box research?
  2. he rejected the concept of trial and error learning as simplistic
  3. cats are capable of learning by imitation (i.e., by watching other cats escape)
  4. because they were unable to escape from the boxes despite repeated tries, the cats could

not be considered to have “consciousness” or “rationality”

  1. cats initially behaved randomly, but eventually used only the behaviors that worked for escape

 

  1. What was Thorndike’s attitude toward the typical animal research that was being done in his day?
  2. he thought it was too focused on maze learning
  3. he believed it was fatally flawed by a reliance on anecdotes
  4. he thought it needed to get out of the lab and into more realistic environments
  5. like all scientists, he had a healthy respect for his peers and hoped to build on their work

 

  1. In his puzzle box research, Thorndike found that
  2. cats could easily learn to escape from boxes involving up to four distinct responses
  3. learning to escape was easier if the cats could observe other cats escaping successfully
  4. connections between stimuli and responses would be strengthened by repeated exercise
  5. successful responses were “stamped in” but unsuccessful responses were unaffected by

consequences

 

  1. Thorndike’s puzzle box research was criticized by comparative psychologists like Wesley Mills on the grounds that
  2. Thorndike’s cats were in a panic situation and could not act intelligently, as they would if put

into a more natural environment

  1. Thorndike’s explanations were overly anthropomorphic and not very parsimonious
  2. Thorndike was being cruel to the cats
  3. Thorndike did not attempt to impose experimental control over the situation

 

  1. The conflict between Mills and Thorndike was in essence an argument over whether
  2. the laboratory was the best place to study animal behavior
  3. animals can be said to show thinking and reasoning powers
  4. introspective analysis was appropriate for comparative psychology
  5. structuralism or functionalism should be the dominant school of psychology

 

  1. In his post-puzzle box research, what did Thorndike conclude about his “laws?”
  2. the Law of Exercise had limited value, especially for complex learning
  3. Law of Exercise was OK; Law of Effect was out
  4. the Law of Effect needed to be modified—punishment worked more rapidly and effectively

than rewards

  1. he thought that both of his laws (Effect and Exercise) survived the test of time remarkably well

 

  1. All of the following are true about R. S. Woodworth except
  2. he argued that causality could not be inferred from correlation
  3. he believed that “formal discipline” trained the mind so that the skills would transfer to other

mental activities

  1. his Columbia bible institutionalized the distinction between independent & dependent variables
  2. he introduced and popularized the concept of “drive”

 

  1. According to Woodworth and Thorndike’s work on transfer,
  2. “formal discipline” (e.g., studying Greek) is an effective educational tool, providing much

positive transfer

  1. they found that cats would easily learn to escape from Box L, which required three behaviors,

if each behavior had been learned separately in other boxes

  1. they concluded that their procedures were too far removed from “formal discipline” to allow

them to draw any conclusions about education

  1. the amount of transfer is proportional to the amount of similarity between task 1 and task 2
  2. In the so-called Columbia bible, Woodworth
  3. associated dependent variables with experimental research and independent variables

with correlational research

  1. distinguished between experimental (causal) and correlational (non-causal) methods
  2. rejected the concept of transfer
  3. emphasized the importance of correlational techniques and downplayed experimental

methods

 

  1. Concerning motivation, Woodworth
  2. rejected an S-O-R formulation in favor of the more parsimonious S-R model
  3. believed that human behavior could not be fully understood without studying motivation
  4. believed that because motives were personal, they could not be studied scientifically
  5. none of these—it was Thorndike, not Woodworth, who was interested in

motivation

 

  1. By changing S-R to S-O-R, Woodworth was asserting that
  2. imageless thoughts do not really exist if introspection is done properly
  3. responses can be predicted directly from stimuli
  4. theories must consider the importance of internal factors like motivation when predicting

behavior

  1. the processes that intervene between stimuli and responses cannot be observed;

therefore they have no place in a science of psychology

 

  1. In his famous experimental psychology text, the so-called “Columbia bible,” Woodworth
  2. emphasized the importance of the correlational over the experimental method
  3. devoted equal time to the correlational and experimental methods
  4. argued that causal conclusions could not be drawn from psychological research
  5. defined an experiment as a situation involved the manipulation of what he called an

independent variable

 

  1. In his famous experimental psychology text, the so-called “Columbia bible,” Woodworth established distinctions, now taken for granted in psychology, between
  2. an S-R approach to psychology and an S-O-R approach
  3. experimental and correlational research strategies
  4. both an S-R approach to psychology and an S-O-R approach and experimental and correlational research strategies
  5. none of these

 

 

 

Answers

 

  1. A 31. D
  2. A 32. A
  3. C 33. A
  4. C 34. A
  5. A 35. D
  6. A 36. B
  7. B 37. A
  8. D 38. D
  9. A 39. C
  10. C 40. C
  11. C 41. A
  12. D 42. B
  13. C 43. C
  14. B 44. B
  15. D 45. C
  16. A 46. D
  17. C 47. C
  18. A 48. D
  19. B 49. B
  20. B 50. C
  21. C 51. A
  22. D 52. A
  23. A 53. A
  24. C 54. B
  25. B 55. D
  26. A 56. B
  27. D 57. B
  28. D 58. C
  29. A 59. D
  30. D 60. B

 

  1. Short Answer

 

 

  1. In a sentence, sum up the essential difference between structuralism and functionalism.
  2. From Titchener’s Manuals, give an example of a qualitative experiment and a quantitative experiment.
  3. Why did Titchener believe it was so important for introspectors to be highly trained?
  4. According to Titchener, what were the fundamental elements of human conscious experience, and what were some of the “attributes” of each?
  5. What was the essence of Dewey’s argument about the reflex arc?
  6. In his APA presidential address, what was the basic contrast between structuralism and functionalism drawn by Angell?
  7. What was the outcome of Wissler’s study, which examined Cattell’s mental tests?
  8. What was Thorndike’s Law of Exercise? In what way did he modify it later?
  9. What does it mean to refer to Woodworth as an eclectic psychologist?
  10. Why did Woodworth insert the “O” into the “S-R” formulation?
  11. In the Columbia bible, how did Woodworth define the “experiment?”

 

 

 

III. Essay

 

 

  1. Describe Titchener’s Manuals, the kind of course for which they were designed, and their overall contribution to psychology’s history.
  2. Describe the formation of Titchener’s Experimentalists, the nature of the meetings, and their overall contribution to psychology’s history.
  3. Explain why it was difficult to introspect in an experiment of emotion. How did Titchener solve the problem (to his satisfaction at least)?
  4. Describe the imageless thought controversy and explain why (a) it was such a threat to Titchener’s system and (b) it contributed to the demise of introspection as a method.
  5. Describe how introspection was used as a method by Titchener and explain why it was eventually discarded.
  6. Explain why the text refers to functionalism as “America’s psychology”.
  7. Because of its connection with evolutionary thought, functionalism leads naturally the study of developmental, abnormal, educational, and comparative psychology. Explain.
  8. Functionalists were interested in studying not just normal adults, but also children, the insane, and animals. They were also interested in individual differences and the process of learning. Show how these interests can be related to the Jamesian conception of the basic function of consciousness.
  9. Describe the philosophy of Cattell’s approach to mental testing, and why the approach collapsed after Wissler’s study.
  10. Describe Thorndike’s explanation for how his cats learned to escape from puzzle boxes and connect it to Morgan’s law of parsimony.
  11. Describe the Thorndike-Mills controversy and explain its importance for the study of animal behavior.
  12. The so-called Columbia bible distinguished between experimental and correlational research. What was the distinction and what was its importance for experimental psychology?

 

 

 

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