A History Of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder – Test Bank

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A History Of Western Music 9th Edition by J. Peter Burkholder – Test Bank

CHAPTER 6: New Developments in the Fourteenth Century

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The interest in capturing the pleasure of daily life in song, art, and literature could be interpreted as a response to what fourteenth-century condition?
a. the crisis in the church
b. the development of technologies such the mechanical clock and the compass
c. the difficulty of life caused by a long-term economic slump, famine, and rise in disease
d. the emergence of empirical reasoning based on observation
e. the rise of Italian city-states

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   111–113 | 140–141

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century| Echoes of the New Art

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. When did the Black Death epidemic peak in Europe?
a. ca. 1300 d. ca. 1375
b. ca. 1325 e. ca. 1400
c. ca. 1350

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   112

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century                              MSC:   Factual

 

  1. During the Babylonian Captivity, the papal throne was in
a. Avignon d. Pisa
b. Milan e. Rome
c. Paris

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   112

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century                              MSC:   Factual

 

  1. What effect did the Great Schism have on fourteenth century society?
a. it divided Eastern and Western Christendom
b. it led to corruption in the Church
c. it paved the way for the modern scientific method
d. it reduced the size of the Holy Roman Empire
e. it weakened papal authority

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   112

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century                              MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which best describes the attitude of secularism?
a. knowledge of humanity and nature is based on absolute reason
b. knowledge of humanity and nature is based on direct observation and experience
c. life can be improved through technology and innovation
d. a person can determine his or her own destiny
e. there are theological explanations for every facet of life

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   113

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century                              MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. All of the following artistic creations exemplify interest in secular society and experiences of everyday life except
a. Boccaccio’s Decameron
b. Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales
c. Dante’s Divine Comedy
d. Machaut’s Rose, liz, printemps, verdure
e. the Roman de Fauvel

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   113

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century                              MSC:   Applied

 

  1. The Roman de Fauvel is an allegory about
a. the Ars Nova d. corruption at the French court
b. the Babylonian Captivity e. the Great Schism
c. the Black Death

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   113

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century                              MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The Roman de Fauvel includes isorhythmic motets by
a. Francesco Landini d. Philippe de Vitry
b. Guillaume de Machaut e. Philippus de Caserta
c. Jacques de Liège

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   113 | 118

TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century| Isorhythm MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The treatise known as Ars nova describes
a. corruption at the French court
b. an expanded system of rhythm and meter
c. the formes fixes
d. a more precise method of notating pitch than had existed previously
e. new rules for harmonic progressions and dissonance control

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   114                TOP:   Ars Nova Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In fourteenth-century French music, the smallest possible rhythmic value was called the
a. breve d. semibreve
b. long e. semiminim
c. minim

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   114                TOP:   Ars Nova Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Fourteenth-century music saw an increased use of thirds and sixths as
a. cadences d. perfect consonances
b. dissonances e. perfections
c. imperfect consonances

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   115                TOP:   Ars Nova Notation

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The following is an example of
a. color d. mensuration
b. hocket e. talea
c. isorhythm

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   118–119        TOP:   Isorhythm

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Guillaume de Machaut lived
a. ca. 1200–1277 d. ca. 1300–1377
b. ca. 1250–1340 e. ca. 1325–1397
c. ca. 1285–1349

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   119                TOP:   Guillaume de Machaut

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Machaut wrote in all of the following genres except
a. isorhythmic motet d. monophonic chanson
b. madrigal e. polyphonic chanson
c. Mass Ordinary

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   120 | 121–126| 132

TOP:   Guillaume de Machaut| The Fourteenth-Century Madrigal

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Why is it difficult to evaluate Machaut’s place in the history of fourteenth-century music?
a. he is the only composer to have set Ordinary texts in his time
b. he oversaw the copying of his complete works, saving only his best works
c. his music is atypical in its frequent use of thirds and sixths
d. it was rare for composers to write their own poetry
e. very little music by his contemporaries survives

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   120–121 | 127

TOP:   Guillaume de Machaut| Reputation MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Machaut’s virelai Douce dame jolie uses the literary theme of
a. Ars Subtilior d. pastorelle
b. chanson de geste e. satire
c. fin’ amors

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   124                TOP:   Monophonic Songs

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following provides evidence that Machaut conceived of his polyphonic songs with the cantus, not the tenor, as the principal voice?
a. at least one monophonic song appears in a later manuscript with a tenor
b. the tenor parts are in a lower range than the cantus
c. in some songs the cantus is partially isorhythmic
d. the tenor parts are untexted
e. the tenor parts have awkward leaps that make them unsingable

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   126                TOP:   Polyphonic Songs

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In Machaut’s songs, melismas are decorative (rather than serving to emphasize the text) when they occur
a. at the beginnings of poetic lines d. on accented syllables
b. at the ends of poetic lines e. on unaccented syllables
c. in the middle of poetic lines

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   126–127        TOP:   Polyphonic Songs

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following has a French text?
a. Francesco Landini’s Così pensoso
b. Francesco Landini’s Non avrà ma’ pietà
c. Guillaume de Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame
d. Philippe de Vitry’s Cum statua/Hugo, Hugo, Magister invidie
e. Philippus de Caserta’s En remirant vo douce pourtraiture

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   128–129        TOP:   The Ars Subtilior

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. All of the following are likely reasons why the Ars Subtilior went out of fashion except
a. the complexity of the music appealed mainly to elite audiences
b. the formes fixes went out of style
c. the Italian style of Jacopo da Bologna and Francesco Landini was more naturalistic
d. when the Great Schism ended, the papal court moved from Avignon back to Rome
e. a simpler style was being cultivated in northern France

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   127–129        TOP:   The Ars Subtilior

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Jacopo da Bologna’s Non al suo amante sets a text by which famous Italian poet?
a. Dante Aligheri d. Francesco Petrarca
b. Giovanni Boccaccio e. Antonio Squarcialupi
c. Gherardello da Firenze

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   132

TOP:   The Fourteenth-Century Madrigal   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following compositional devices is characteristic of Italian Trecento madrigals?
a. canon
b. isorhythm
c. melismas on the first and last syllables of poetic lines
d. opening and closing refrains
e. simultaneous conflicting meters

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   132

TOP:   The Fourteenth-Century Madrigal   MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Italian ballata is similar in form to the
a. ballade d. rondeau
b. caccia e. virelai
c. madrigal

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   133                TOP:   The Ballata

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which cadence structure occurs frequently in Landini’s music?
a. d.
b. e.
c.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   133–135        TOP:   Landini

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. All of the following guide scholars and performers about the use of voices and instruments in fourteenth-century polyphony except
a. aspects of musical style
b. depictions of music-making in contemporary art
c. descriptions of music-making in contemporary literature
d. payment records from churches and courts
e. the composers’ indications in the manuscripts

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   135–137        TOP:   Concept

MSC:  Conceptual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Syncopation was impossible before the innovations of the Ars Nova.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   114                TOP:   Ars Nova Notation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The term talea refers to a repeating segment of melody in the tenor of an isorhythmic motet.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   118                TOP:   Isorhythm

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. All of the movements of Machaut’s Messe de Nostre Dame are isorhythmic.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   121–123

TOP:   Guillaume de Machaut | Mass         MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Machaut authored the texts of his monophonic and polyphonic chansons.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   120–121 | 124 | 126

TOP:   Guillaume de Machaut| Monophonic Songs| Polyphonic Songs

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The formes fixes originally had associations with dancing.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   126                TOP:   Polyphonic Songs

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Most French and Italian polyphonic songs from the fourteenth century are for three or four voices.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   126 | 132 | 133

TOP:   Polyphonic Songs| The Fourteenth-Century Madrigal| Francesco Landini

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The Ars Subtilior was cultivated at the papal court in Avignon.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   127                TOP:   The Ars Subtilior

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In an Italian Trecento caccia, all three voices are canonic.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   132                TOP:   The Caccia

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The classifications haut (“high”) and bas (“low”) refer to the relative loudness of instruments.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   136                TOP:   Instruments

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In many French and Italian polyphonic songs from the fourteenth century, the lower voices have no texts. This indicates that the songs must have originally been performed with instruments playing the lower voices.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   137

TOP:   Fourteenth-Century Music in Performance                                MSC:   Conceptual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What manuscript did the image below come from? How can you tell?

 

ANS:

The image is from the Roman de Fauvel. The manuscript contains music, poetry, and images and tells the story of a horse named Fauvel. The horse appears in the center column at the top and bottom.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   113–114        TOP:   European Society in the Fourteenth Century

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Identify at least two innovations of the Ars Nova notational system.

 

ANS:

1) duple divisions of note values are now acceptable; 2) the minim is now the smallest note value; 3) the invention of mensuration signs, symbols that are ancestors of our modern time signatures.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   114                TOP:   Ars Nova Notation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. When Jacques de Liège opposed the musical innovations of the fourteenth century, he complained that “perfection is brought low, [and] imperfection is exalted.” What does he mean by perfection and imperfection in this context?

 

ANS:

It could have two meanings: one is the development of duple or “imperfect” meters. In the old style, the only meter was triple and the name of the metrical unit was the perfection; the triple unit may have had associations with the Trinity. He could also be referring to composers widely using thirds and sixths. These had been previously regarded as dissonances, but in the fourteenth century composers and theorists accepted them as “imperfect consonances.”

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   115                TOP:   Ars Nova Notation

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Using appropriate vocabulary, explain the organization of the tenor in an isorythmic motet.

 

ANS:

The tenor of an isorhythmic motet is organized into a repeating rhythmic cycle, called the talea, and a repeating melodic phrase, called the color. In some motets, the talea and the color are the same length. In other motets, two or more repetitions of the talea are needed to complete one cycle of the color. Hocket in the upper voices may occur at repetitions of the talea.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   118                TOP:   Isorhythm      MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The following is a tenor from an isorhythmic motet by Phillipe de Vitry. How many measures long is the talea? How many measures long is the color?

 

ANS:

The talea is two measures long (half-whole-half-two half rests). The color is ten measures long (cde ddd efe dde gde ddc). There are six statements of the talea to one statement of the color.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   118                TOP:   Isorhythm      MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Define “hocket.”

 

ANS:

Hocket is a rapid alternation of sounded pitches and rests in two voices. In isorhythmic motets passages of hocket sometimes alternate with repetitions of the talea. Compositions that make extensive use of the technique are called hockets.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   119                TOP:   Isorhythm      MSC:  Applied

 

  1. What is the main characteristic of the Ars Subtilior repertory?

 

ANS:

An emphasis on rhythmic and mensural complexity, taking the developments of the Ars Nova to an extreme.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   127                TOP:   The Ars Subtilior

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. How does the musical substance of a caccia relate to its text?

 

ANS:

The caccia is a composition in which there are two canonic upper voices above a tenor. The upper canonic voices “chase” each other. Often texts of caccias relate to hunting, fishing, or other animated scenarios. The chasing of the canonic voices is similar to the chasing, bustling scenes described in the text.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   132–133        TOP:   The Caccia     MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Describe two scenarios in which a performer would be likely to use musica ficta.

 

ANS:

To avoid the tritone F-B in a melody (melodic tritone); or to avoid sounding a tritone against the lowest note (harmonic tritone); or to create a major sixth before the octave at a cadence where there would normally be a minor sixth.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   138–139        TOP:   Musica Ficta

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Look at the example below. In m. 3, contratenor, the composer did not specify a C-sharp. It has been supplied by the editor (indicated by being printed above the staff). In m. 9, contratenor, the composer did specify a C-sharp (indicated by being printed in front of the note within the staff). Why did the composer specify a C-sharp in m. 9, but not in m. 3?

 

ANS:

In mm. 3–4, there is obviously a cadence, and the singer would have known to raise the C to a C-sharp in preparation for the cadence in m. 4. In m. 9, it is not obvious that a C-sharp would be desired, and the change is not obvious from the rules. In fact, it is counterintuitive, since the C-sharp creates a melodic tritone with the G on the downbeat of m 10.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   140                TOP:   Musica Ficta

MSC:  Conceptual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each genre with the correct form below.

a. ballade d. rondeau
b. ballata e. virelai
c. madrigal

 

 

  1. A bba A

 

  1. A bba A bba A bba A

 

  1. aab

 

  1. aabC aabC aabC

 

  1. AB aA ab AB

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

Match each genre with a composition in that genre, below.

a. ballade d. motet
b. caccia e. rondeau
c. madrigal

 

 

  1. Francesco Landini, Così pensoso

 

  1. Guillaume de Machaut, Rose, liz, printemps, verdure

 

  1. Jacopo da Bologna, Non al suo amante

 

  1. Philippe de Vitry, Cum statua/Hugo, Hugo/Magister invidie

 

  1. Phillipus de Caserta, En remirant vo douce pourtraiture

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Compare and contrast French and Italian compositional practices in polyphonic song ca. 1300–1400. How are they similar and how are they different?  Consider such aspects as musical and poetic form, rhythm and meter, declamation, harmonic language, and anything else you consider relevant.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. In his Messe de Nostre Dame, Machaut chose different compositional forms and styles depending on the length of the text for a given movement. Explain and illustrate this.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

CHAPTER 7: Music and the Renaissance

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Europe emerged as a world power during the Renaissance for all of the following reasons except
a. advances in navigational technology enabled Europeans to establish trade routes to other continents
b. the Byzantine Empire collapsed
c. economic stability led to the growth of the middle class
d. the Hundred Years’ War ended
e. people learned that the earth revolved around the sun

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   145–146        TOP:   Europe from 1400 to 1600

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Many aspects of European culture in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were influenced by
a. the Copernican Revolution
b. the discovery of civilizations in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and India
c. the Great Schism
d. the Protestant Reformation
e. the revival of ancient Greek and Roman writing and art

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   146

TOP:   The Renaissance in Culture and Art                                           MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Which phrase best describes the meaning of the term humanism?
a. the appreciation of all living things
b. the precept of doing good deeds to help one another
c. the reliance on the authority of received wisdom
d. the study of things pertaining to human knowledge
e. the use of human observations to develop knowledge

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   147–148        TOP:   Humanism

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of humanism?
a. developing strict rules for the treatment of consonance and dissonance
b. expanding the musical range to use lower and higher pitches
c. imitating ancient Greek and Roman orators to argue a point of view persuasively
d. memorializing patrons of the arts in paintings and musical compositions
e. using perspective to create the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   146–148        TOP:   Humanism

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In this painting, what technique is particularly evident?
a. chiaroscuro d. perspective
b. humanism e. realism
c. naturalism

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   148–149

TOP:   Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture                              MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Proportionately more music from the fifteenth century survives with the names of the composers compared to previous eras. What explains this?
a. compared to the fourteenth century, fifteenth-century composers were more interested in writing music that was pleasing to the ear
b. the development of music printing gave composers greater authority
c. in the fifteenth century, composition was regarded as more important than improvisation
d. the intellectual movement of humanism emphasized the accomplishments of individuals
e. rulers displayed their power and wealth by employing the best musicians

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   149

TOP:   Humanism  | Interest in Individuals                                           MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. In Renaissance music, composers used cadences and contrasts of texture to make the musical structure of a composition clear. This is similar to what aspect of contemporary art?
a. chiaroscuro in painting
b. clarity of line and function in architecture
c. classical-style columns in architecture
d. naturalism in sculpture
e. perspective in painting

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   149–150

TOP:   Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture                              MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In the Renaissance, most musicians also served as
a. church officials d. domestic servants
b. craftsmen e. lawyers
c. doctors

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   152

TOP:   Patronage and the Training of Musicians                         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the Renaissance, how were women most likely to receive musical instruction?
a. they attended choir schools
b. they had private tutors in the home
c. they learned through the apprentice system
d. they received lessons as novices or nuns in convents
e. women were not allowed to receive musical instruction

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   152

TOP:   Patronage and the Training of Musicians                         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Why was Italy such an important region for musical patronage in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?
a. the economy was better in Italy compared to the north
b. the Italian language was better suited to the new compositional techniques for projecting the text
c. Italy was comprised of numerous city-states, each with its own ruler and court
d. most of the choir schools were located in Italy
e. the papal throne was located in Rome

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   152–153

TOP:   Patronage and the Training of Musicians                         MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The development of an international musical style in the fifteenth century can be attributed to
a. the development of music printing
b. the migration of composers between northern and southern courts
c. the preference for thirds and sixths as consonances
d. the rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations
e. the unity of the church

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   154

TOP:   Cosmopolitan Musicians and the International Style       MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries can be viewed as a unified repertory due the consistent use of what compositional technique across the two centuries?
a. cantus-tenor framework d. isorhythm
b. dramatic expression of the text e. strict control of dissonance
c. formes fixes

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   154                TOP:   The New Counterpoint

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Why, in 1477, did music theorist Johannes Tinctoris opine that “there is no composition written over forty years ago which is . . . worthy of performance”?
a. Tinctoris believed that earlier music did not adequately express the text
b. Tinctoris found the older compositions to be too dissonant
c. Tinctoris preferred music for four or more voices
d. Tinctoris was advocating for Pythagorean intonation
e. Tinctoris was reacting against the humanists’ preference for ancient models

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   154–155        TOP:   The New Counterpoint

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Who is likely to have written this passage:

 

“At this time, consequently, the potential of our music has undergone such a marvelous increase that it appears to be a new art, the wellspring of which new art, if I may so call it, is held to be among the English, among whom Dunstable stood forth as leader. Contemporary with him in France were Dufay and Binchois, to whom directly succeeded those of today, Ockeghem, Busnoys, Regis, and Caron . . . ”

a. Pietro Aaron d. Johannes Tinctoris
b. Franchino Gaffurio e. Gioseffo Zarlino
c. Heinrich Glarean

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   154–155        TOP:   The New Counterpoint

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which term or phrase best describes the texture of this passage:
a. free counterpoint d. stratified rhythm
b. homophony e. treble-dominated
c. imitative counterpoint

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   157

TOP:   New Compositional Methods and Textures                               MSC:   Applied

 

  1. Mean-tone temperaments, in which intervals are adjusted slightly so that thirds sound consonant, demonstrate what aspect of Renaissance thinking?
a. the desire to express appropriate feelings and persuade the listener
b. the goal of aligning music with the language arts
c. the preference for human experience over received wisdom
d. the search for symmetry and arithmetic perfection in life
e. the virtue of imitating ancient Greek and Roman culture

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   157–158        TOP:   Tuning and Temperament

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. As the Renaissance progressed, composers increasingly favored musical structures based on
a. borrowed melodies
b. isorhythm
c. the formes fixes
d. the grammar and emotional content of the text
e. the pitches in the tenor voice

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   158                TOP:   Words and Music

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. All of the following demonstrate ways in which composers projected the texts they set to music except
a. changing from polyphony to homophony for a new phrase of text
b. dramatizing the emotion using chromaticism
c. marking grammatical divisions in the text with cadences
d. using just intonation to create acoustically pure fifths and thirds
e. writing rhythms that match the natural spoken rhythms of the words

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   158                TOP:   Words and Music

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Music theorist Franchino Gaffurio incorporated the ideas of which writer into his treatises?
a. Aaron d. Plato
b. Copernicus e. Zarlino
c. Glareanus

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   159

TOP:   Reawakened Interest in Greek Theory                            MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In his treatise Dodekachordon, Glarean adds four modes to the eight Church modes to parallel the Greek system of tonoi. This reflects what aspect of Renaissance thinking?
a. the desire to express appropriate feelings and persuade the listener
b. the goal of aligning music with the language arts
c. the preference for human experience over received wisdom
d. the search for symmetry and arithmetic perfection in life
e. the synthesis of Greek culture with inherited Christian ideas

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   159

TOP:   Reawakened Interest in Greek Theory                            MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Who is likely to have written this passage:

 

“So among the fourteen modes which arise from the seven octave species, our time recognizes only eight, although thirteen are used, some constantly, some more rarely, as we shall show afterwards. Yet it neither divides those eight by a true relationship nor by definite laws, but circumscribes them with certain rules neither universal nor accurate.”

a. Pietro Aaron d. Johannes Tinctoris
b. Franchino Gaffurio e. Gioseffo Zarlino
c. Heinrich Glarean

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   159

TOP:   Reawakened Interest in Greek Theory                            MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Renaissance writers echoed the ancient Greek idea that music should be a part of every citizen’s education. An example of this is
a. the addition of four modes to the original eight to parallel the Greek tonoi
b. the competition among patrons to hire the best musicians
c. the increase in amateur music-making
d. the preference for equal-voiced textures in polyphony
e. the use of chromaticism

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   159 | 160–161

TOP:   New Application of Greek Ideas| Music Printing             MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The development of music printing contributed to all of the following except
a. the creation of new instrumental genres
b. the growth of amateur music-making
c. the increasing status of musical virtuosity
d. the popularity of secular vocal music in regional or national languages
e. the rise of music literacy

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   160–161

TOP:   Music Printing| New Repertories and Genres                   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Printing from moveable type was first developed in
a. China d. Germany
b. Flanders e. Italy
c. France

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   162                TOP:   Innovations | Music Printing

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. All of the following musical developments began during the sixteenth century except
a. composing and marketing music for amateur playing and listening
b. the creation of a large repertory of notated instrumental music
c. the development of sacred repertories in vernaculars
d. the growth of regional and national musical styles and genres
e. the preference for four-voice polyphony with soprano, alto, tenor, and bass voice ranges

 

 

ANS:  E                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   160–161 | 164

TOP:   New Currents in the Sixteenth Century                           MSC:  Conceptual

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Renaissance was a term that people living in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries used to describe the era in which they lived.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   144                TOP:   Music and the Renaissance

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. During the Renaissance, composers abandoned the older genres of the motet and chanson.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   145 | 158        TOP:   Music and the Renaissance

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In the fifteenth century, the best choir schools were in northern European cities.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   152

TOP:   Patronage and the Training of Musicians                         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Hiring the best musicians was a way for rulers to display their wealth and power to audiences and competing rulers.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   152

TOP:   Patronage and the Training of Musicians                         MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The use of parallel fifths and octaves in counterpoint was forbidden beginning in the fifteenth century.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   154                TOP:   The New Counterpoint

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. In Pythagorean intonation, thirds and sixths sound consonant.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   157                TOP:   Tuning and Temperament

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Equal temperament was widely used in the Renaissance.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   158                TOP:   Tuning and Temperament

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The idea that different scales or modes convey certain emotional states was new in the Renaissance.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   159–160

TOP:   New Applications of Greek Ideas   MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Before the invention of music printing, composers rarely made money by selling their music.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   160–161        TOP:   Music Printing

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Martin Luther instigated the Counter-Reformation of the church.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   161 | 164        TOP:   Reformation

MSC:  Factual

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Briefly explain one or two ways in which this drawing relates to ideas that grew out of humanism.

 

ANS:

It celebrates the beauty of the human form; it shows an effort to understand the world as it really is (the geometry of the human form); it shows the symmetry and orderliness of the human form; it shows an effort to understand how the body works (like dissection). [Other answers may apply.]

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   146–149

TOP:   The Renaissance in Culture and Art| Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. How did the fall of Constantinople in 1396 and the collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453 contribute to the European Renaissance?

 

ANS:

Because of these events, many Byzantine scholars fled to Italy. They brought the writings of the ancient Greeks with them and taught the Italians how to read Greek. This contributed to European interest in rediscovering ancient Greek and Roman culture.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   147                TOP:   Humanism     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. How is the word chapel used in discussing Renaissance music history?

 

ANS:

A chapel refers to a group of salaried musicians and clerics associated with a particular ruler (it does not refer to a religious space).

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   151                TOP:   Patronage and the Training of Musicians

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Toward the end of the fifteenth century, composers sought greater equality of voices. Their music features sections of imitation and homophony. Explain how both textures display an equality of voices.

 

ANS:

In imitation, each voice presents the same melody in turn, so they are melodic equals. In homophony, all the voices are in essentially the same rhythm, so they are rhythmic equals.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   156–157        TOP:   New Compositional Methods and Textures

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Define chromaticism.

 

ANS:

Chromaticism is the use of two or more successive semitones moving in the same direction, such as a melody that goes A–B-flat–B-natural

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   160                TOP:   New Applications of Greek Ideas

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. How does the use of chromaticism in sixteenth-century music reflect the interest in ancient Greek theory?

 

ANS:

In the Middle Ages, especially in chant, music was diatonic. Although there were some chromatic inflections (such as in the use of musica ficta), direct melodic motion by semitone was not allowed. In the Renaissance, musicians learned about the ancient Greek chromatic genus of tetrachord and imitated it in their music as an expressive device.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   160                TOP:   New Applications of Greek Ideas

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Why was the development of music printing essential to the spread of Reformation ideas?

 

ANS:

Reform church leaders needed to develop new music for their services and spread their ideas through music. The ability to make hundreds or thousands of copies of music quickly and cheaply helped to spread and reinforce their ideas.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   162–163        TOP:   Reformation   MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Name one secular, one instrumental, and one sacred genre that were newly developed in the Renaissance.

 

ANS:

Secular: villancico, frottola, madrigal [different from the Trecento madrigal], lute song. Instrumental: variations, prelude, toccata, canzone, sonata. Sacred: chorale, metrical psalm, anthem.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   161 | 164       TOP:   New Repertories and Genres| Reformation

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Was the following passage of music printed using single impression or multiple impression technique? How can you tell?

 

 

 

ANS:

This was printed using single impression technique. With this method, each piece of type contains both the note and the staff lines. Sometimes the edges of the staff lines on adjacent pieces of type do not line up well, creating a jagged look with gaps between each piece of type.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   163                TOP:   Innovations | Music Printing

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Provide an example of a musical technique or idea that was new in the Renaissance and has since become a widely accepted expectation of music.

 

ANS:

[Answers will vary.] Examples include: SATB voices; music can express emotions; rules of consonance and dissonance; focus on consonance; music should directly appeal to the listener; equal temperament; natural declamation of the words; different scales (e.g., major and minor) represent different emotional moods; etc.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   164                TOP:   The Legacy of the Renaissance

MSC:  Conceptual

 

MATCHING

 

Match each event with the year it took place.

a. 1417 d. 1517
b. 1453 e. 1563
c. 1501

 

 

  1. Council of Trent ends

 

  1. Great Schism ends

 

  1. Hundred Years’ War between France and England ends

 

  1. Odhecaton, the first collection of polyphony, was printed

 

  1. Protestant Reformation begins

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

Match each individual to the title of the publication for which he was responsible.

a. Pietro Aaron d. Nicholas Yonge
b. Heinrich Glarean e. Gioseffo Zarlino
c. Ottaviano Petrucci

 

 

  1. Odhecaton A, 1501

 

  1. Toscanello in musica, 1524

 

  1. Dodekachordon, 1547

 

  1. Le istitutioni harmoniche, 1558

 

  1. Musica Transalpina, 1588

 

  1. ANS:  C

 

  1. ANS:  A

 

  1. ANS:  B

 

  1. ANS:  E

 

  1. ANS:  D

 

ESSAY

 

  1. The revival of ancient Greek culture affected music somewhat differently compared to the other arts. How and why did it differ?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

  1. Demonstrate how economic, technological, and philosophical factors, and new developments in musical style, came together to contribute to the growth of amateur music-making in the Renaissance.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

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