A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay – Test Bank

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A History of World Societies Combined Volume 10th Edition By John P. McKay – Test Bank

c6- Essay

Answer each of the following questions with an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.

 

 

1. Describe some of the ways the Etruscans influenced Roman culture.

 

 

2. Describe the different concepts of law in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. How did law change from republic to empire?

 

 

3. The Roman Republic underwent two great social upheavals: the Struggle of the Orders and the civil wars of the late republic. Compare these two upheavals in terms of causes, participants, and results. Was Rome better off after each upheaval? Explain your answer.

 

 

4. “The acquisition of empire spelled doom for the republic.” Assess the validity of this quote, considering the problems resulting from the wars of conquest and the attempts to solve these serious problems.

 

 

5. One of the most important events during the time of the Roman Empire was the birth of Christianity. Describe the evolution of Christianity. How do historians explain the success of early Christianity?

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The Etruscans at one point controlled the villages that eventually became Rome. Under Etruscan influence, the Romans prospered, and temples and public buildings were built. From the Etruscans, the Romans acquired connections to Mediterranean trade routes, including trade connections to Greece. The Romans also adopted the Etruscan alphabet and the toga as a distinctive style of dress. Another influence came from the Roman conquest of Italy, which involved taking over Etruscan city-states and led to the urbanized nature of Roman culture.

2. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Roman civil law was first embodied in an oral tradition of laws. These laws were recorded during the Struggle of the Orders, in what was known as the Laws of the Twelve Tables. This writing of the laws ensured that they would be applied equally to both patricians and plebeians. The Roman Republic also had several different concepts of law, from the ius civile (laws of statutes and customs for the citizens of Rome), the ius gentium (laws of the peoples that included more than just citizens and diplomatic matters), and the ius naturale (laws of nature that applied to all human behaviors). Roman law was further revised during the empire, particularly during the reign of Augustus, who made various changes to how women were treated by law (for example, women were released from guardianship if they had a certain number of children).

3. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The Struggle of the Orders was an attempt by the plebeian class to gain power in relation to the patricians, who in the early republic dominated Roman government. The plebeians based their claims for more power on the need for the republic to have a strong army, which relied heavily on the plebeians for infantry members. Furthermore, many plebeian families had also acquired economic power. By the end of the Struggle, the plebeians had obtained equality under the law, and the result was a strongly unified Roman state. The late republic was divided by the need for land reform, which the Gracchus brothers tried unsuccessfully to propose. The civil wars of the first century B.C.E. were power struggles between military leaders that further divided the republic and led to the creation of the empire. The First Triumvirate led by Caesar and the Second Triumvirate from which Octavian (Augustus) emerged as victorious destabilized the republic. There were positive outcomes of the civil wars, such as the creation of new colonies and an enlarged empire, but they also led to more power struggles in the empire.

4. Answer would ideally include:

 

· This essay should fully describe the problems (burgeoning slavery, decline of the free peasant farmer, economic competition from the provinces, enhanced political power of the generals, increased influence of Greek culture) that resulted from the establishment of the Roman Empire. Second, the reforming efforts of such men as the Gracchus brothers, Gaius Marius, and Julius Caesar must be described and analyzed for their effectiveness in dealing with the problems. Finally, the essay should assess the relationship between the fragility of constitutional governments and the impact of overseas conquest.

5. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Christianity has its origins in both the Hebrew religion and the era’s various messianic movements. The essay should discuss the relationship between Jews and the Romans as well as the existence of the various mystery religions. The essay should then discuss the theological contributions of Jesus and his teachings, being sure to indicate both the unique and typical aspects of this movement compared with existing Hebrew religion and other messianic movements. The role of Paul in transforming Christianity into a religious movement for both Jews and Gentiles must be considered; his earlier contact with Stoic philosophy and his fundamental reorientation of the religion must be discussed. Finally, Christianity’s success should be explained by considering the religion’s universal message, its appeal among women and inclusion of all social classes, and its strong leadership. External factors, such as the role Roman roads played in its spread and the social conditions of the Mediterranean world at the time, should also be mentioned.

 

c6- Matching

 

Use the following to answer questions 1-10:

 

Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or example provided in the Definitions section.

 

Terms

a. Senate

b. consuls

c. patricians

d. plebeians

e. Punic Wars

f. paterfamilias

g. pax Romana

h. Messiah

i. pagan

j. bishop

 

 

1. Primary executives in the Roman Republic, elected for one-year terms, who commanded the army in battle, administered state business, and supervised financial affairs. _________________

 

 

2. The assembly that was the main institution of power in the Roman Republic, originally composed only of aristocrats. _________________

 

 

3. Originally referring to those who lived in the countryside, the term came to mean those who practiced religions other than Judaism or Christianity. _________________

 

 

4. A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage in which Rome emerged the victor. _________________

 

 

5. The Roman hereditary aristocracy, who held most of the political power in the republic. _________________

 

 

6. In Jewish belief, a savior who would bring a period of peace and happiness for Jews; many Christians came to believe that Jesus was that savior. _________________

 

 

7. The common people of Rome, who were free but had few of the patricians’ advantages. _________________

 

 

8. The oldest dominant male of the family, who held great power over the lives of family members. _________________

 

 

9. The “Roman peace,” a period during the first and second centuries C.E. of political stability and relative peace. _________________

 

 

10. A Christian Church official with jurisdiction over a certain area and the power to determine the correct interpretation of Christian teachings. _________________

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. b. consuls
2. a. Senate
3. i. pagan
4. e. Punic Wars
5. c. patricians
6. h. Messiah
7. d. plebians
8. f. paterfamilias
9. g. pax Romana
10. j. bishop

 

c6- Multiple Choice

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. What was an important difference between the political systems of the Romans and Greeks?
A) Some Greek city-states had monarchies, while Roman city-states never did.
B) Rome extended citizenship to its conquered peoples, while the Greeks did not.
C) Rome had written laws, while no Greek city-states did.
D) Greeks endured civil war, while Romans did not.

 

 

2. Other than Greeks, who were the first people to build permanent settlements in Italy?
A) Etruscans
B) Egyptians
C) Hittites
D) Persians

 

 

3. The villages that became Rome were located on what river?
A) Po
B) Tiber
C) Danube
D) Adige

 

 

4. How are women portrayed in Rome’s founding legends?
A) Dominant and superior
B) Meek and quiet
C) Virtuous and brave
D) Conniving and deceitful

 

 

5. According to legend, who founded Rome?
A) Latium
B) Romulus and Remus
C) Domitian
D) Silla and Gaulius

 

 

6. According to the most common Roman creation myth, who assisted Rome’s first ruler, Romulus, with the rule of the city?
A) He was helped by a council of advisors called the Senate.
B) He was assisted by his brother Remus, a military commander.
C) He was only able to rule the city with help of the gods.
D) He relied heavily on his aristocratic wife and her family.

 

 

7. What is one possible reason that the Romans overthrew the Etruscans in 509 B.C.E.?
A) The Etruscans refused to fight with the Romans against the invading Gauls.
B) The Etruscan military allied with the Athenians in an effort to expel the Romans.
C) Etruscan rulers had become increasingly authoritarian.
D) The Etruscans and Carthaginians allied to undermine the Roman economy.

 

 

8. Which of the following was true of Roman religion?
A) It was a deeply reflective religion emphasizing inner piety.
B) It was largely a matter or rites and ceremonies, not inner piety.
C) It was centered on ancestor worship.
D) It advocated human sacrifice.

 

 

9. What did Romans, like the Persians, do once they conquered an area?
A) They killed the men and took the women as slaves.
B) They built large temples to please the gods and ensure success.
C) They forced the men to serve in the Roman military.
D) They built roads to facilitate communication and trade.

 

 

10. How was Roman society divided in the early republic?
A) Into two groups—the patricians and the plebeians
B) Between Roman citizens and non-Romans who were seen as subject peoples
C) Between urban and rural dwellers
D) Between Roman citizens and their slaves

 

 

11. In the early republic, which group controlled political power and military leadership?
A) Plebeians
B) Etruscan nobles
C) Patricians
D) Merchants

 

 

12. During the republic, which of the following was true of the Roman Senate?
A) Its only function was to pass legislation.
B) It had little power and was advised by consuls.
C) Like the consuls, it changed its membership annually.
D) One of its chief responsibilities was to advise officials and consuls.

 

 

13. Why was the ius gentium important to Roman society?
A) It covered both Roman citizens and foreigners as a kind of universal law.
B) It was the first written law code in the Mediterranean world.
C) It limited the rights of patricians and elevated plebeians.
D) It provided for the impeachment of the consuls.

 

 

14. During the Struggle of the Orders, how did the plebeians force political concessions?
A) Plebian farmers refused to sell agricultural goods to the cities.
B) All plebeians declined to pay annual taxes and local fees.
C) Plebian men refused to serve in the military.
D) Plebian leaders ordered the assassination of several senators and consuls.

 

 

15. What was recorded on the Twelve Tables?
A) Myths
B) Prayers
C) Religious texts
D) Laws

 

 

16. One result of the Struggle of the Orders was the creation of a law code that made all
A) plebeians more powerful than patricians.
B) patricians more powerful than plebeians.
C) Roman-born citizens more important than foreigners.
D) citizens, plebeian and patrician, equal before the law.

 

 

17. In the third century B.C.E., the main challenge to Roman control of the Mediterranean came from which of the following?
A) Ptolemaic Egypt
B) Carthage
C) Alexandria
D) Macedonia

 

 

18. The First Punic War ended with a Roman victory and the creation of Rome’s first
A) monarchy.
B) diplomatic corps.
C) navy.
D) hospitals.

 

 

19. Who was the Carthaginian general who brought the Second Punic War to the gates of Rome?
A) Scipio Aemilianus
B) Pyrrhus
C) Tarquin the Proud
D) Hannibal

 

 

20. What was one reason Hannibal failed to win the Second Punic War?
A) Carthage never recovered from the loss at Cannae.
B) His allies failed to provide food and supplies for his troops.
C) He failed to form an alliance with Rome’s neighbors.
D) He was unable to get his army across the Alps into Italy.

 

 

21. In Roman families, what was the paterfamilias?
A) The oldest dominant male in a family, who had near absolute power
B) A family council that was composed of all adult males
C) The marriage contract between husband and wife
D) The male family member who was entitled to vote for public office

 

 

22. What was relatively unusual about women in Roman families?
A) They seldom ventured outside their homes.
B) They were not allowed to learn to read or write.
C) They had no role in raising their children.
D) They were able to inherit and own property.

 

 

23. How did Romans view slavery during the republic?
A) The only people who could be taken as slaves were North Africans.
B) It was viewed as a lifelong condition for the enslaved.
C) It was an unfortunate state but one from which a slave might become free.
D) It became less economically important over time as Rome grew to include more citizens.

 

 

24. To what does the term latifundia refer?
A) All lands conquered by Roman armies
B) A new social class primarily created by imperial expansion
C) Huge agricultural estates created by warfare and absentee farmers
D) Lands given to returning soldiers as payment for their service

 

 

25. What was the main feature of the reform program proposed by Tiberius Gracchus?
A) To provide free bread to the poor of Rome
B) To redistribute public land to poor Romans
C) To abolish the class distinctions of patricians and plebeians
D) To establish colonies populated by ex-soldiers and their families

 

 

26. How did Gaius Marius recruit men to serve in an African campaign?
A) He promised them citizenship.
B) He recruited them by paying them gold coins.
C) He offered to pardon them if they had been criminals.
D) He promised land to landless men in return for their service.

 

 

27. What did Julius Caesar do once he became leader of Rome?
A) He enacted a series of basic reforms throughout the empire.
B) He stripped citizenship from people living in the empire but outside Italy.
C) He ended all colonization efforts in Gaul, Spain, and North Africa.
D) He ordered dozens of assassinations of his principal political opponents.

 

 

28. What was one of Augustus’s important military reforms?
A) He created an all-volunteer force.
B) He developed an all-mercenary force.
C) He assembled an all-plebeian army.
D) He began a permanent standing army.

 

 

29. What does the phrase Roma et Augustus mean?
A) It is the title of an historical account of Augustus’s reign by Tacitus.
B) It is an epic poem of Augustus’s deeds written by Virgil.
C) It means that the empire was divinely ordained.
D) It refers to the cult of the emperor and the state.

 

 

30. Under Augustus, women could be freed from male guardianship if they
A) had a certain number of children.
B) were related to Augustus.
C) had a son killed in a war.
D) bought their freedom from the state.

 

 

31. The Aeneid emphasized the parallels between Aeneas and Dido in the poem and what pair in real life?
A) Romulus and Remus
B) Antony and Cleopatra
C) Augustus and Caesar
D) Caesar and Cleopatra

 

 

32. Which emperor transformed the principate into a hereditary monarchy?
A) Nero
B) Hadrian
C) Claudius
D) Vespasian

 

 

33. What was an important achievement of the emperor Hadrian?
A) He included landless men in the army.
B) He defeated the Parthians in a series of naval battles.
C) He conquered Gaul, Spain, and the British Isles.
D) He established an efficient imperial bureaucracy.

 

 

34. What important improvements in urban planning were made in Rome during the second century C.E.?
A) Separate districts were created for different ethnic groups in the cities.
B) A new domestic police force was developed in the city of Rome.
C) Hundreds of miles of aqueducts and sewers were built.
D) Streets were made straight, and all roads and streets were paved.

 

 

35. How did Rome solve the problem of feeding its growing population?
A) Emperors provided free bread, olive oil, and wine to the population.
B) Leaders started subsidizing the cost of basic commodities.
C) Emperors combined small tenant farms into huge agricultural operations.
D) The Senate forced thousands of residents out of the city to colonize the frontiers.

 

 

36. Who was largely responsible for the new burst of expansion in continental Europe in the second century C.E.?
A) Colonists from the capital
B) Greek Hellenists
C) Retired soldiers
D) Small farmers

 

 

37. During the pax Romana, what regions were the major grain producers of the empire?
A) Gaul and Italy
B) Southern Spain and Italy
C) Egypt and Syria
D) Britain and Belgium

 

 

38. Who played the role of middlemen between the Romans and the Chinese in the trade along the Silk Road?
A) Indians
B) Goths
C) Parthians
D) Jews

 

 

39. Who were the Zealots?
A) People who wanted to expel the Romans from Judea
B) A group that believed that Jesus was the Messiah
C) Followers of a new mystery religion
D) A group that felt Christ’s message applied only to Jews

 

 

40. Who or what did militant Jews believe would come and destroy the Roman Empire?
A) The Messiah
B) The son of God
C) A plague inflicted by God
D) An army of angels

 

 

41. What did the mystery religions offer adherents in the Roman Empire?
A) Access to political power
B) The promise of eternal life
C) Independence from the state
D) Veneration of the state

 

 

42. What writings provide the historical documentation of the life of Jesus?
A) The sermons he wrote are the main source for his life story.
B) The biographies written by his contemporaries tell his life story.
C) The four Gospels of the Bible provide the principal evidence for his life and deeds.
D) Accounts written by Pontius Pilate provide the most comprehensive information.

 

 

43. Why did Pontius Pilate condemn Jesus to death?
A) He believed Jesus was the Messiah.
B) He was an adherent of the mystery religions.
C) He was told to do it by the emperor Tiberius.
D) He was concerned with maintaining social order.

 

 

44. What was one of the primary early rituals celebrated by Christians?
A) Re-creating the preaching of Jesus
B) Visiting the site of the crucifixion
C) Protest marches against the Romans
D) A commemorative meal

 

 

45. What did Paul of Tarsus advocate with regard to Christian ideals?
A) That Christ’s teachings should be proclaimed to all
B) That Christianity should be used to defeat Rome
C) That Christ’s message applied only to Jews
D) That Christians should avoid contact with pagans

 

 

46. Which of the following generally characterized the relationship between Christians and Roman pagans?
A) There was increasing pagan toleration with sporadic outbursts of persecution.
B) Unrelenting pagan persecution continued until the late fourth century.
C) Christians often tried to overthrow the state and Romans responded.
D) There was mutual understanding and toleration of each other.

 

 

47. What significant political change did Diocletian enact?
A) He used the titles “Augustus” and “Caesar.”
B) He adopted the court ceremonies of the Persian Empire.
C) He converted to Christianity and made it the state religion.
D) He divided the Roman Empire into two parts.

 

 

48. What was one of the advantages of the huge estates, or villas, created in the fourth century?
A) They were a way peasants could avoid paying taxes.
B) They offered protection in an unsettled world.
C) They provided the basis for agriculture, trade, and industry.
D) They facilitated a process of cultural exchange.

 

 

49. Which of the following was true of the emperor Constantine?
A) He supported Christianity.
B) He abdicated his power.
C) He raised taxes on clergy.
D) He was assassinated by the army.

 

 

50. When was Christianity made the official religion of the Roman Empire?
A) 337.C.E.
B) 380 C.E.
C) 405 C.E.
D) 418 C.E.

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. B
2. A
3. B
4. C
5. B
6. A
7. C
8. B
9. D
10. A
11. C
12. D
13. A
14. C
15. D
16. D
17. B
18. C
19. D
20. B
21. A
22. D
23. C
24. C
25. B
26. D
27. A
28. D
29. D
30. A
31. B
32. D
33. D
34. C
35. A
36. C
37. D
38. C
39. A
40. A
41. B
42. C
43. D
44. D
45. A
46. A
47. D
48. B
49. A
50. B

 

 

c6- Short Answer

Answer each question with three or four sentences.

 

 

1. What developments in the Roman military during the early republic made it so effective and for such a long time?

 

 

2. Explain how the Roman Senate demonstrated Roman ideals related to shared government.

 

 

3. Explain why Rome and Carthage were natural rivals and why the Roman victory in the Punic Wars led to the establishment of Roman control of the Mediterranean world.

 

 

4. What was the significance of Augustus’s rule? In the long run, did he help or hurt the Roman Empire?

 

 

5. What do the terms princeps civitatis, principate, and Roma et Augustus tell us about Augustus’s power?

 

 

6. Describe the Roman family structure. What role did women play?

 

 

7. How was the Roman road system used to create, expand, and maintain the empire?

 

 

8. Discuss the aspects of Jesus’s teaching and life that were Jewish in origin, and how he differed from Jewish orthodoxy.

 

 

9. How did the Roman Empire influence the development of Christianity?

 

 

10. What were some of the economic hardships faced by the Roman Empire in the fourth century C.E. onward?

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The Romans fought many wars in their conquest of Italy and their empire, which taught them the skills of diplomacy and determination. Citizens made up most of the army, and the wealthy bought their own weapons and armor. With strict organization and by quickly learning the value of alliances, the Romans were able to conquer Italy by about 265 B.C.E.

2. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The Romans were determined to avoid the authoritarian style of government of the Etruscans, and they sought to find a system of government in which power and responsibility were shared. Although the Senate did not pass legislation, it advised consuls and other officials. The fact that senators served life terms provided stability in a system where consuls changed annually. In this way, multiple individuals shared responsibility for maintaining the republic’s civic, religious, and social duties.

3. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Shortly after establishing their republic and defeating the Etruscans, the Romans moved into southern Italy. Expansion into the Mediterranean brought them into direct trade competition and ultimately conflict with Carthage, a city in North Africa. The Carthaginians engaged in a series of wars to create a large trade empire that stretched from Sicily to Gibraltar. They posed a threat to the ambitious Romans who defeated the Carthaginians in the Punic Wars. As a result of Rome’s victory in the Punic Wars, Rome established a Mediterranean trade empire and was drawn into conflict with Greece and other Mediterranean powers.

4. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Augustus restored many of the offices and forms of the republic and simultaneously transformed the republic to an empire by creating a kind of monarchy with himself in the center. The army was loyal to him on a personal level, and he created a stable government. In the short term, his victory over Marc Antony at Actium (in 27 B.C.E.) ended the civil wars of the late republic, and he was able to restore peace and order. Despite his ability to rule efficiently, however, he created precedents that led to problems after his rule. In the government he created, all power was held by a single ruler, and rulers could more easily use the army to manipulate power through personal loyalty. Although he reformed the Senate, he didn’t give it enough power to carry out its duties, which left it vulnerable to ambitious military leaders.

5. Answer would ideally include:

 

· In order to fit his growing position into the republican constitution, Augustus maintained titles traditional to the republic. In this way, he kept his power in the background and avoided the appearance of a monarchical or authoritarian rule, even as he created the office of emperor. Initially, Augustus was given the honorary title princeps civitatis (“first citizen of the state”) by the Senate. This was in keeping with the idea of Augustus as the leader of a principate or the “first among equals.” The cult of Roma et Augustus (Rome and Augustus) demonstrated the growth of Augustus’s power as it spread through the empire and became a symbol of Roman unity. This cult portrayed Augustus as the guardian of the state and firmly tied his image to that of Rome.

6. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The Roman family structure was headed by the paterfamilias, or oldest dominant male of the family, who held nearly absolute power over the lives of his family members. No son could legally own property until his father’s death, and most important matters were settled by a council of the family’s adult males. Although Roman women had no part in these family councils, they could inherit and own property. Women gained respect for being virtuous and loyal to their husbands and for their role as mothers with responsibility for raising children.

7. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Similar to the Persians, Romans built roads throughout the areas they conquered to facilitate communication and trade between different parts of the state. For example, Roman soldiers built roads to connect fortified camps and constantly improved roads such as those behind Hadrian’s Wall. The road system allowed the Roman army to move about more easily and Romans ideas, like Christianity, to spread. Roads also impressed the conquered peoples and brought them benefits from being conquered. During the empire, the roads were expanded for tens of thousands of miles, bringing people from all parts of Europe in direct contact with each other for the first time.

8. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Jesus believed in a single God and preached a life of morality, both of which are concepts that came from Jewish tradition. His beliefs were derived from the Jewish scriptures. Unlike most Jewish preachers, however, Jesus taught in his own name, not in the name of Yahweh, and he claimed to be the Messiah (another Jewish concept) who was promised in the Jewish scriptures as coming to build a new Jewish kingdom; many followers supported his claim. Jesus promised a heavenly kingdom rather than an earthly one.

9. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The early practice of mystery religions made Romans familiar with such Christian concepts as eternal life. Persecutions also played a role as Christians saw themselves as invincible—nothing could set them back. The size of the Roman Empire gave Christians a wide territory in which to work and live. Roman roads were important for spreading the faith. The emperor Constantine supported the church and expected support in return. His adoption of Christianity was part of his strategy to present himself as God’s appointed ruler on earth, an ideology of political legitimization that dominated the next 1,300 or 1,400 years of European history.

10. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Emperors of the late empire needed more revenue to support the army and their courts, but agriculture and commerce, the two main sources of imperial revenue, were strained by wars and invasions. City markets lacked goods for trade, and travel between cities was dangerous; thus, overall trade was reduced. Some areas were so unstable that many families moved out; in other instances, thousands were killed by invading armies. Coins were devalued, which caused inflation. Furthermore, the monetary system was abandoned in some areas, and payment in kind (payment by goods or services) became the norm.

 

 

 

C7- Essay

Answer each of the following questions with an essay. Be sure to include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.

 

 

1. What did the Qin emperor standardize, and how did that standardization help him organize and rule his realm?

 

 

2. What were the distinctive features of the Han period, and how did the Han Dynasty build on its predecessor, the Qin Dynasty?

 

 

3. What was life like for peasants during the Han Dynasty? Include a description of the role of women and children.

 

 

4. What different solutions did Chinese statesmen from the Qin era through the Tang use to address the problem of aggressive nomads to the north and west?

 

 

5. Describe the impact of Chinese civilization on Vietnam and Korea. What aspects of Vietnamese culture were most affected by China, and how were those elements spread from Chinese civilizations? How did non-Chinese accommodate themselves (or not) to these influences from China?

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The First Emperor of the Qin standardized the Chinese script, weights, measures, coinage, and axle lengths of carts. All of these projects facilitated the emperor’s control of the state, reduced the influence of the nobility, and increased trade between different regions of China. Requiring all regions of China to use the same script allowed the emperor to disperse laws and official proclamations throughout the realm and to collect records of populations and taxes. It also helped to ensure a single Chinese script that would be exported to other parts of Asia. Standardized weights, measures, and coinage helped to make trade easier, as did the standardized axle size, which made the movement of goods and labor around China easier.

2. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The essay should begin with a discussion of the collapse of the Qin Dynasty and the emergence of the Han. The Han reduced Qin taxes and interference in an effort to appease the people, but continued the centralized style of government. A good essay should describe the unique features of the Han period: imperial expansion and increased foreign trade and intellectual ferment (restoration of the Confucian “classics”). Next, it should indicate those features of the Han period that were a continuation of Qin policies or even older historical patterns: autocratic government with educated, nonhereditary bureaucracy; a monopoly on the use of force; philosophical continuity; agrarian, peasant-based society; cities as centers of government and trade.

3. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Most peasants worked long hours, and all year long, to produce enough food to sell to cover taxes and social obligations and support their families’ basic needs. Many borrowed money to cover these expenses and had to sell their lands to cover the debts. This forced many peasants to become migrant workers, some of whom were settled in frontier lands. Families were dominated by the eldest male, and children were dominated by parents. Marriages were arranged by the parents of the bride and groom. Women were encouraged to be loyal wives and devoted mothers and to sacrifice their needs for those of their family.

4. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The Qin emperor mobilized large armies and built a wall to stop the incursions of nomads from the north. The early Han tried buying off the nomads with gifts of luxury goods and marriage alliances. The Han emperor Wu embarked on a policy of military expansion that aimed in part to outflank the Xiongnu nomads in Korea, Manchuria, and Central Asia. Both the Han and the Tang attempted to fight the barbarians with barbarians, recruiting nomads as auxiliaries.

5. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Those aspects of Chinese civilization most likely to be found outside of China—the alphabet, Buddhism, Confucianism, and so forth—helped to create a somewhat common cultural framework for the region. Chinese culture was spread through conquest, as in Vietnam and Korea, and through peaceful transfer, as in the case of Japan. The essay should attempt to describe and analyze how extensive and deep this cultural borrowing (and imposition) was. Political resistance to Chinese control (such as that of Trieu Da and then the Trung sisters) is one clue to this aspect of the essay, as is the use of Chinese characters to write indigenous languages. The building of roads and waterways facilitated communication, whereas Chinese art, architecture, and music had an important impact on Vietnam.

 

 

C7- Matching

Use the following to answer questions 1-12:

 

Select the word or phrase from the Terms section that best matches the definition or example provided in the Definitions section.

 

Terms

  1. Great Wall
  2. Confucian classics
  3. Records of the Grand Historian
  4. Silk Road
  5. tributary system
  6. eunuchs
  7. Age of Division
  8. Grand Canal
  9. Pure Land
  10. Chan
  11. Shinto
  12. Nara

 

 

1. A school of Buddhism that taught that by calling on the Buddha Amitabha, one could achieve rebirth in Amitabha’s paradise. _________________

 

 

2. A system first established during the Han Dynasty to regulate contact with foreign powers. States and tribes beyond its borders sent envoys bearing gifts and received gifts in return. _________________

 

 

3. Japan’s capital and first true city; it was established in 710 and modeled on the Tang capital of Chang’an. _________________

 

 

4. A rammed-earth fortification built along the northern border of China during the reign of the First Emperor. _________________

 

 

5. A comprehensive history of China written by Sima Qian. _________________

 

 

6. The Way of the Gods, Japan’s native religion. _________________

 

 

7. A canal, built during the Sui Dynasty, that connected the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers, notable for strengthening China’s internal cohesion and economic development. _________________

 

 

8. The trade routes across Central Asia linking China to western Eurasia. _________________

 

 

9. The ancient texts recovered during the Han Dynasty that Confucian scholars treated as sacred scriptures. _________________

 

 

10. A school of Buddhism (known in Japan as Zen) that rejected the authority of the sutras and claimed the superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of Buddhist truths. _________________

 

 

11. Castrated males who played an important role as palace servants. _________________

 

 

12. The period after the fall of the Han Dynasty, when China was politically divided. _________________

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. i. Pure Land
2. e. tributary system
3. l. Nara
4. a. Great Wall
5. c. Records of the Grand Historian
6. k. Shinto
7. h. Grand Canal
8. d. Silk Road
9. b. Confucian classics
10. j. Chan
11. f. eunuchs
12. g. Age of Division

 

 

C7- Multiple Choice

Choose the letter of the best answer.

 

 

1. Which year marked the beginning of a unified China under the Qin state?
A) 206 C.E.
B) 581 C.E.
C) 221 B.C.E.
D) 764 C.E.

 

 

2. How is the title Shihuangdi best translated?
A) First King
B) First Emperor
C) God of All
D) Mightiest Disciple

 

 

3. Which group of people did the First Emperor order to move to the capital?
A) Nobility
B) Merchants
C) Military generals
D) Foreigners

 

 

4. What did the first Qin emperor standardize, enabling China to operate more efficiently?
A) The prices for rice and wheat were set by the government so that no one paid more than others.
B) The Chinese script, weights, measures, and coinage were standardized to facilitate trade.
C) Scholars were put to work on an official volume of Confucian theories so that religious rituals could be standardized.
D) Ritual celebrations were set to a calendar so that they could be observed everywhere at the same time.

 

 

5. What defensive barrier was built by the Qin emperor using conscripted labor?
A) The Grand Canal
B) The First Wall
C) The Silk Road
D) The Great Wall

 

 

6. What happened to the Qin Dynasty after the death of the First Emperor?
A) Legalists gained power.
B) The Qin state collapsed.
C) The position of emperor became a weak figurehead.
D) His heir established popular reforms.

 

 

7. What did the Han emperor Gaozu do to reestablish stability after the fall of the Qin Dynasty?
A) He resurrected Legalism as the guiding philosophy of government.
B) He enacted harsh laws and high taxes in order to quell uprisings.
C) He outlawed Confucian philosophy.
D) He retained the centralized government created by the Qin.

 

 

8. According to the census of 2 C.E., how many people lived in China at that time?
A) 3 million
B) 16 million
C) 58 million
D) 116 million

 

 

9. The Han government shared what popular view about commerce by merchants?
A) That it was the key to China’s economic prosperity
B) That it exploited the true producers of wealth
C) That it should be largely unregulated
D) That it should not include the silk trade

 

 

10. Which statement is true about the Confucian classics?
A) They were the texts written by Confucius in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C.E.
B) They rejected the ideas of yin and yang and instead promoted piety.
C) They were written by the disciples of Confucius after his death.
D) They were the ancient books recovered after the book burning of the third century B.C.E.

 

 

11. The Confucian scholar-official system began during the
A) Han Dynasty.
B) Qin Dynasty.
C) Age of Division.
D) Zhou period.

 

 

12. The Confucian classics viewed natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes as evidence of what?
A) The natural world had forces of its own.
B) The people did not properly worship their ancestors.
C) The gods were dissatisfied with the sacrifices offered to them.
D) The emperor failed to keep the forces of Heaven and earth in balance.

 

 

13. What was significant about Sima Qian’s writings?
A) They told the history of the eunuchs who served the Han emperors.
B) They were the first collection of Daoist ideas on government.
C) They included a comprehensive history of China and set a standard for historical writing.
D) They represented the first time a Han official had written in support of Legalism.

 

 

14. Which of the following was invented in China around 105 C.E.?
A) Writing
B) Bronze technology
C) Wet-field rice cultivation
D) Paper

 

 

15. Who became China’s main military threat in the fifth to fourth centuries B.C.E.?
A) Koreans from the Silla kingdom
B) Nomadic horsemen of the north
C) Internal rebels trying take control of trade
D) Bactrian merchants on the Silk Road

 

 

16. Who formed the first great confederation of nomadic tribes, known as the Huns in the West?
A) The Xiongnu
B) The Chengdu
C) The Qin
D) The Chang’an

 

 

17. The early Han policy for dealing with the Xiongnu was to
A) invade and destroy their camps.
B) make peace with gifts and brides.
C) send them sons of the emperors.
D) capture as many of their horses as they could.

 

 

18. By taking over city-states in Central Asia, the Han under Emperor Wu were taking control of what transregional route?
A) Grand Canal
B) Silk Road
C) Incense Route
D) Khyber Pass

 

 

19. What was the key to the Han tributary system?
A) The exchange of gifts via envoys
B) Sending royal children as hostages
C) Frequently sending armies to invade
D) Sending Confucian scholars as teachers

 

 

20. Which of the following was true of metalworking in Han China?
A) It was less sophisticated than Roman metalworking.
B) It led to bronze replacing iron in tools.
C) It involved the use of liquefied iron poured into molds.
D) It resulted in bronze being phased out of all products.

 

 

21. Han coins and jewelry were usually made of what metal?
A) Bronze
B) Iron
C) Gold
D) Silver

 

 

22. Why did Han officials encourage peasants to be independent and productive?
A) Peasants made up the bulk of the population and contributed vital taxes and labor services to the state.
B) All peasants had high social ambitions and were easily coerced into doing difficult jobs for the possibility of advancement.
C) China’s peasants were well known for their military skills and were required to serve in the emperor’s army.
D) Most peasants also had secondary skills such as metalworking and weaving and were vital to keeping the economy strong.

 

 

23. Who arranged marriages in a typical Han family?
A) Buddhist monks
B) The nearest noble
C) The groom
D) Parents

 

 

24. How did the inheritance system in Han China usually work?
A) All land and property were passed to the eldest son.
B) All children inherited equally.
C) Land was divided equally among the sons in a family.
D) Land and money were divided between the spouse and the oldest child.

 

 

25. What was the most glorified virtue in Han times?
A) Filial piety
B) Bureaucratic honesty
C) Honoring the emperor
D) Gentlemanly conduct

 

 

26. Ban Zhao’s Admonitions for Women promoted the ideal virtues for Han women, particularly the virtue of
A) pride.
B) humility.
C) physical strength.
D) piety.

 

 

27. Which of the following took place during the Age of Division?
A) A eunuch ruled China through child emperors.
B) The Han Dynasty only maintained control of northern China.
C) Buddhism was widely suppressed by most local rulers.
D) Nanjing became the capital of southern China.

 

 

28. Under the rule of the Kushan king, artists began to depict the Buddha in human form because of influence from what culture?
A) Persian
B) Daoist
C) Roman
D) Greek

 

 

29. The Mahayana Buddhism that spread to Central Asia was influenced by Iranian religions to become more
A) sacrificial.
B) devotional.
C) ritualistic.
D) monastic.

 

 

30. What attracted Chinese women to Buddhism?
A) It encouraged women to pursue salvation and serve the faith on terms nearly equal to men.
B) It guaranteed every woman status as a bodhisattva.
C) It taught that being born female was higher than being born male.
D) It accepted the idea of female rulers and female independence.

 

 

31. Buddhist monasteries quickly became popular throughout northern and southern China and included among their patrons
A) court eunuchs.
B) men only and no women.
C) rulers of both regions.
D) nomadic pastoralists.

 

 

32. What was one of the objections to Buddhism in China?
A) Buddhists sought to build monasteries on land that was sacred to Confucians.
B) Buddhists wanted to provide education for everyone, not just sons of the nobility.
C) Buddhist monks established missionaries to convert all people, including members of the imperial family.
D) Buddhist monasteries and temples were built on untaxed land, and monks did not perform labor service.

 

 

33. Yang Jian, who established the Sui Dynasty, came from a mixed family of Chinese and non-Chinese from what part of Asia?
A) Korea
B) The north
C) The southeast
D) Japan

 

 

34. What new method for choosing government officials was introduced in 605 C.E. under the Sui Dynasty?
A) Written examinations
B) Military challenges
C) Monastic training
D) Oral examinations

 

 

35. How did the Sui Dynasty contribute to China’s infrastructure?
A) A well-planned government complex was established in Beijing.
B) Protective walls were built around cities for the first time.
C) The Yellow and Yangzi Rivers were connected by a canal.
D) China’s first roads were built between Beijing and Chang’an.

 

 

36. What title did Taizong of the Tang Dynasty gain when he defeated the Turks in 630 C.E.?
A) Second Emperor
B) Son of Heaven
C) Sultan
D) Great Khan

 

 

37. How did Empress Wu of the Tang seize power for herself?
A) She waged a coup d’etat against her husband.
B) She took advantage of the illness of Emperor Gaozong.
C) She murdered her two sons.
D) She claimed she was pregnant with the dead emperor’s son.

 

 

38. Who led a rebellion against the Tang government in 755 C.E.?
A) Yang Guifei
B) Emperor Gaozong
C) Empress Wu
D) An Lushan

 

 

39. During what dynasty did the great age of Chinese poetry occur?
A) Han
B) Qin
C) Sui
D) Tang

 

 

40. Which Buddhist school of thought appealed to laypeople during the Tang era?
A) Therevada School
B) Chan School
C) Zen School
D) Pure Land School

 

 

41. Which area of East Asia was the least affected by Chinese cultural influences?
A) Japan
B) Tibet
C) Korea
D) Vietnam

 

 

42. What written language was used by educated people throughout East Asia by the eighth century?
A) Korean
B) Japanese
C) Chinese
D) Vietnamese

 

 

43. Who established the Nam Viet kingdom in the third century B.C.E.?
A) A Buddhist monk
B) A Confucian scholar
C) A former Qin general
D) A Viet prince

 

 

44. Who did the Vietnamese Trung sisters lead an uprising against in 39 C.E.?
A) Han rulers
B) Trieu Da
C) Nam Viet
D) Qin officials

 

 

45. Which of the three kingdoms of Korea was able to unify the entire peninsula under its control?
A) Paekche
B) Choson
C)
D) Silla

 

 

46. Why were the Yamato rulers of Japan able to come to power?
A) They had a strong military and claimed to be descended from the sun-goddess.
B) They claimed they had been chosen by the Tang and the Silla.
C) They claimed they possessed special powers that would ensure an overthrow of the Han Dynasty.
D) They promised material wealth for all followers and to never allow women to rule.

 

 

47. What was the native religion of Japan?
A) Zen
B) Shinto
C) Yamato
D) Mahayana

 

 

48. Prince Shôtoku’s reforms of Japan included adopting what administrative ideas from China?
A) Using Legalism to organize a society
B) Instituting a ladder of ranks and using Confucianism as a guiding principle
C) Administering the country through a Daoist hands-off approach
D) Establishing an official policy of “family comes first”

 

 

49. Which of the following was a result of increased Japanese contact with the Asian mainland in the eighth century C.E.?
A) The introduction of Buddhism
B) A general decline in prices due to competition
C) A smallpox epidemic
D) The disappearance of the Japanese language

 

 

50. Which of the following was Japan’s capital and first true city?
A)
B) Tokyo
C) Chang’an
D) Nara

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. C
2. B
3. A
4. B
5. D
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. D
11. A
12. D
13. C
14. D
15. B
16. A
17. B
18. B
19. A
20. C
21. A
22. A
23. D
24. C
25. A
26. B
27. D
28. D
29. B
30. A
31. C
32. D
33. B
34. A
35. C
36. D
37. B
38. D
39. D
40. D
41. B
42. C
43. C
44. A
45. D
46. A
47. B
48. B
49. C
50. D

 

 

C7- Short Answer

Answer each question with three or four sentences.

 

 

1. How did the Han promote Confucianism, and did the philosophy aid the government?

 

 

2. Explain what the Silk Road is and how China prospered from it beginning with the Han Dynasty onward.

 

 

3. What was the extent of the expansion of Chinese territory and trade during the Han empire? What regions were added to the empire?

 

 

4. How do the Han and Roman empires compare in terms of how they handled peoples on their borders?

 

 

5. Why was Buddhism so appealing to the people of China?

 

 

6. The Tang Dynasty is said to have been one of the high points of Chinese civilization. What were the accomplishments of this period in Chinese history?

 

 

7. Describe the Tang city. Who lived in it, and what kinds of goods were traded there?

 

 

8. What were the reasons for suspicion of, and sometime persecution of, Buddhism in China?

 

 

9. Explain the difference between Pure Land and Chan Buddhism under the Tang.

 

 

10. Describe the relationship between Korea and Japan from the fourth and sixth centuries. What was exchanged between the two?

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Confucianism made a comeback, as ancient books were recovered (as the “classics”) after the widespread book burning of the Qin. Under the Han emperors, Confucian scholars were placed in privileged positions within the government. By encouraging Confucian scholars to seek government positions, the Han emperors were also promoting education. These scholars elevated the role of the emperor who linked heaven and earth. The support of one philosophy also created a uniform culture throughout China.

2. Answer would ideally include:

 

· The term Silk Road refers to trade routes across Central Asia, which linked China to the West. There were city-states along these routes, in which China could trade silk and other products. During the Han Dynasty, China assumed control over much of the Silk Road, establishing military garrisons that protected the city-states and made China’s trade along these routes easier. The Chinese began to grow new foodstuffs and spices and used the two-humped Bactrian camels used in Central Asia.

3. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent armies against the Xiongnu, but after their limited value, he turned west in search of allies. He established military districts in northern Korea and took over part of northern Vietnam. The Han also established a tributary system to encourage trade with other powers, such as Ferghana, and as an alternative to military interactions with other states. China and foreign powers exchanged gifts, much of which could be traded along the Silk Road, which introduced new goods into China and the states with which it exchanged gifts.

4. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Both Han China and the Roman Empire had many diverse peoples along their borders. Both recruited soldiers from these border areas to serve in their armies and established colonies of soldiers in the border areas to monitor them. Exchange of material goods with the border peoples encouraged them to assimilate with the larger empires. While the Han drew no distinction between the original and added territories, Rome adopted graduated citizenship, was more culturally diverse, and spread republican ideas. China had no cultural rivals, and the dynastic principle was stronger.

5. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Buddhist ideas about reincarnation and karma provided Chinese scholars with a new intellectual challenge and stimulated debate. Buddhism provided rulers with a unifying force for Chinese and non-Chinese subjects alike and reinforced the concept of the emperor’s magical status. For the majority of Chinese people, Buddhism promised peace and eternal bliss, a contrast to the violence and turmoil of the age. Buddhism was also appealing to women, as it promised salvation equal to that available to men.

6. Answer would ideally include:

 

· China under the Tang Dynasty experienced both economic growth and an expansion of the civil government based on a system of merit-based exams. Although despised by later historians, the Chinese accepted the only woman ruler of China, Empress Wu, who proved to an effective ruler. There was a vibrant urban culture during this period, and it was the great age of Chinese poetry. This period also saw the spread and evolution of Buddhism, to the point where Buddhism fully penetrated Chinese daily life. The Tang capital cities were great cosmopolitan metropolises, where knowledge of the outside world was stimulated by contact with merchants and envoys from other states.

7. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Tang cities, such as Chang’an, were very large and had people from many different places and cultures living in them for trade purposes. The cities were separated into rectangular grids, each walled blocks that were locked at night. Students might discuss how this aided security for the inhabitants and allowed the city rulers to monitor and control the population. Many different religions were practiced within the cities, and new goods, cultures, and customs were introduced there.

8. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Although Buddhism was generally very popular in China, it was sometimes viewed with suspicion by the government because of its foreign origins. The government also sometimes opposed Buddhism because Buddhist temples and monasteries were nontaxable and Buddhist monks did not contribute to the labor force. This reduced both the overall tax revenue from the land and the amount of men providing labor service.

9. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Pure Land Buddhism appealed to ordinary Chinese people because of its simplicity and because of the compassion of the bodhisattva Guanyin, who would help them achieve rebirth in paradise. Chan Buddhism appealed more to the educated elites, rejecting the authority of the sutras and claiming the superiority of mind-to-mind transmission of truths. It emphasized meditation and monastic discipline.

10. Answer would ideally include:

 

· Korea and Japan had a lot of contact during this time period, and people from Korea moved into Japan, bringing with them silk making, their spoken language, the written Chinese language, bronze swords, iron plows, and crossbows. Japan also adopted a social order similar to Korea’s with a warrior aristocracy organized into clans and who dominated serfs and slaves captured in battle. Over time, the clans fought each other until one leader emerged to unite the kingdom.

 

 

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