Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe – Test Bank

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Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe – Test Bank

Chapter 6

 

 

1. Leo Kanner used the term early infantile autism, which literally means ____.​

a. ​absence of language
b. ​need of sameness
c. ​outside of oneself
d. ​within oneself

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   ASD Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. Early theories about autism attributed the autistic child’s behaviors to ____.​

a. ​biological abnormalities of the brain
b. ​the inability to integrate senses
c. ​the parent’s wish that the child not exist
d. ​lack of stimulating environments

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   ASD Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. A DSM-5 diagnosis of ASD will be based on ____.​

a. ​five different subtypes
b. ​one overarching category
c. ​dimensional symptoms
d. ​easily separated symptoms

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   ASD Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. Which statement about ASD is true?​

a. ​ASD is a subtype of Asperger’s disorder.
b. ​ASD is a single domain disorder.
c. ​ASD is a disorder children outgrow.
d. ​ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   ASD Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. Which statement about the social skills of children with ASD is true?​

a. ​Children with ASD experience profound difficulties relating to others, even when they have average or above-average intelligence.
b. ​Children with ASD experience profound difficulties relating to others, but only when they have below-average intelligence.
c. ​Children with ASD experience profound difficulties relating to others, but only when they have co-occurring ID.
d. ​Children with ASD experience profound difficulties relating to others, but only when they have below-average intelligence and no useful language.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. Children who have been diagnosed with ____ have deficits in recognizing facial expressions. a. depression​

a. ​depression
b. ASD
c. ​ADHD
d. ​anxiety

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. ​Joint attention refers to the ability to ____.

a. ​communicate with two people at the same time
b. ​coordinate one’s focus of attention on another person and an object of mutual interest
c. ​hold a conversation on two different topics
d. ​pay attention to the conversation that two other people are having

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. With respect to attachment, most children with ASD ____.​

a. ​do not form meaningful social attachments to their parents
b. ​form indiscriminate attachments with any adult
c. ​do not form attachments with any individual except their parents
d. ​prefer their caregivers over unfamiliar adults

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. Children with ASD ____.​

a. ​have reduced sharing of emotions
b. ​initial most social interactions
c. ​tend to listen to the speaker
d. ​make exaggerated facial expressions

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. The use of protodeclarative gestures requires ____.​

a. ​verbal ability and shared social attention
b. ​theory of mind and verbal ability
c. ​implicit understanding and shared social attention
d. ​intelligence and shared social attention

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. ​____ children with ASD do not develop any useful language.

a. ​All
b. ​The majority of
c. ​Approximately half of
d. ​A small number of

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. Children with ASD are most likely to use ____.​

a. ​instrumental gestures
b. ​expressive gestures
c. ​protodeclarative gestures
d. ​joint social behaviors

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​Echolalia in children with ASD is believed to be a(n) ____.

a. ​sign of pathology
b. ​sign of co-occurring obsessive–compulsive disorder
c. ​important step in their language acquisition
d. uncontrollable habit

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. The primary language deficit of children with ASD (who develop language) is ____.​

a. ​grammatical usage
b. ​semantics
c. ​morphological usage
d. ​pragmatics

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Traditional intelligence tests, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), may ____ the intellectual functioning of children with ASD.​

a. ​underestimate
b. ​artificially inflate
c. ​stereotype
d. ​accurately reflect

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Children with ASD may engage in self-stimulatory behavior because ____.​

a. ​they crave stimulation, and self-stimulation serves to excite their nervous systems
b. ​they are ready to play
c. ​they are hungry
d. ​they need to hurt themselves to focus

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. Special cognitive skills that are above average for the general population, as well as well above the autistic child’s own general level of intellect are referred to as ____.​

a. ​savant skills
b. ​splinter skills
c. ​macro skills
d. ​supernatural skills

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. The tendency to focus on one feature of an object in the environment while ignoring other equally important features is called stimulus ____.​

a. ​dominance
b. ​specialization
c. ​screening
d. ​overselectivity

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. The tendency to focus on certain types of sensory input over others is called sensory ____.​

a. ​dominance
b. ​specialization
c. ​screening
d. ​overselectivity

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. The theory of mind hypothesis of ASD suggests that children with ASD ____.​

a. ​focus on one feature of an object in an environment while ignoring other equally important features
b. ​do not understand others’ mental states
c. ​cannot take in the larger picture because of a tendency to focus on details
d. are unable to split their social attention in social situations

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. A person lacking central coherence ____.​

a. ​processes information in bits and pieces but fails to see the big picture
b. ​does not understand others’ mental states
c. ​cannot coordinate left and right body movements
d. ​fails to understand social hierarchies

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. If you were to administer the WISC to a child with ASD, which subscale would likely cause the child the most difficulty?​

a. ​Non-verbal subtests involving short-term memory
b. ​Image memory tasks
c. ​Repetitive design tasks
d. ​Verbal comprehension subtests

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. Children with ASD are likely to experience problems with ____.​

a. ​repetition
b. ​gastrointestinal problems
c. ​overeating
d. ​non-verbal play

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. The cognitive deficit most specific to children with ASD is ____.​

a. ​weak central coherence
b. ​deficits in executive functions
c. ​deficient theory of mind
d. ​sensory overselectivity

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. Many children with ASD also have ____.​

a. ​intellectual disability and epilepsy
b. ​superior intelligence
c. ​schizophrenia
d. ​intellectual disability and schizophrenia

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. As many as _____ % of individuals with ASD have a head size that is above average.​

a. ​80
b. ​85
c. ​90
d. ​95

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. ____ in some children with ASD distinguishes them from those with intellectual disability or language disorders.​

a. ​Low-set ears
b. ​Abnormally large head circumference
c. ​Flattened bridge of the nose
d. ​Wide-spaced eyes

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. A child with intellectual disability but not ASD would more likely display ____.​

a. ​more sporadic delays on the WISC-IV
b. ​general delays across all areas of intellectual functioning on the WISC-IV
c. ​higher scores on other tests of intellectual functioning than the WISC-IV
d. ​special splinter skills in music and drawing on the WISC-IV

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

29. Children with ASD and language development are most likely to show deficits in ____.​

a. ​language acquisition
b. ​length of utterances
c. ​spontaneous social conversation
d. ​grammatical complexity

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. Recent findings estimate the prevalence of ASD worldwide to be ____.​

a. ​one per 124
b. ​one per 500
c. ​one per 257
d. ​one per 68

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. The rise in prevalence of ASD is most likely due to ____.​

a. ​increase in mercury in the diet
b. ​greater recognition of milder forms of ASD
c. ​more harmful vaccines administered
d. ​stricter guidelines for diagnosis

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. Which statement about gender differences in ASD is true?​

a. ​ASD is equally common in boys and girls.
b. ​ASD is more common in boys.
c. ​ASD is more common in boys, except among those with profound ID, where the numbers of boys and girls are similar.
d. ​ASD is more common in boys, except among those with average or above-average IQ, where the numbers of boys and girls are similar.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. Which racial/ethnic group has the highest prevalence of ASD?​

a. ​African American
b. ​Non-Hispanic white
c. ​Asian
d. ​Native American

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. The extreme male brain theory of ASD suggests that ____.​

a. ​autistic brains are more “systemizing”
b. ​autistic brains are less “systemizing”
c. ​females are more “systemizing”
d. ​males are more “empathizing”

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. The deficits of ASD become increasingly noticeable ____.​

a. ​from birth
b. ​around 6 months of age
c. ​around 2 years of age
d. ​when the child enters school

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. The two strongest predictors of adult outcomes in children with ASD are ____.​

a. ​absence of stereotyped behavior and theory of mind
b. ​intellectual ability and language development
c. ​parental responsiveness and early intervention
d. ​intact motor skills and sensory specialization

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children be screened for ASD at _______.​

a. ​12 months
b. ​15 months
c. ​12 months and 24 months
d. ​18 months and 24 months

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. ____ has been associated with ASD more than any other genetically based condition.​

a. ​Tuberous sclerosis
b. ​Down syndrome
c. ​PKU
d. ​Fragile X

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. Family members of children with ASD display higher than normal rates of ____.​

a. ​echolalia
b. ​intellectual disability
c. ​language deficits
d. ​social communication

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. Many parents who have a child with ASD feel that the ____ in vaccines increased number of incidences of ASD.​

a. ​niacin
b. ​copper
c. ​mercury
d. ​lead

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. Studies of brain metabolism in individuals with ASD suggest decreased blood flow in these two lobes.​

a. ​frontal and temporal
b. ​frontal and parietal
c. ​temporal and parietal
d. ​occipital and temporal

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. Dr. Ivar Lovaas is most noted for his work in developing ____.​

a. ​TEACCH
b. ​Floor Time
c. ​Applied Behavioral Analysis
d. ​Pivotal Response Therapy

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. A step-by-step approach to presenting a stimulus and requiring a specific response that is used in the treatment of ASD is called ____.​

a. ​subtle trial training
b. ​response training
c. ​trial-response approach
d. ​discrete trial training

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. ____ strengthens behaviors by capitalizing on naturally occurring opportunities.​

a. ​Naturalistic training
b. ​Discrete trial training
c. ​Incidental training
d. ​Pivotal response training

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. The promise of early intervention with ASD derives primarily from ____.​

a. ​the likelihood that parents have not yet become discouraged
b. ​the likelihood that intrusive and disruptive behaviors will not yet have been developed
c. ​the willingness of young children to please adults
d. ​the plasticity of neural systems early in development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. The UCLA Young ASD Project attempts to modify children’s symptoms by ____.​

a. ​imitating the children whenever they engage in perseverative behaviors
b. ​using behavior modification techniques such as rewarding and shaping
c. ​removing children from their homes and placing them in more structured settings
d. ​applying electric shock

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. In contrast to children with ASD, children formerly diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder ____.​

a. ​do not display social impairments
b. ​do not display restricted interests
c. ​display normal intellectual abilities
d. ​display less language delay

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   DSM-5: Defining Features of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. What is it called when an individual with ASD is unable to play with a toy while listening to a social partner?​

a. ​echolalia
b. ​theory of mind
c. ​protoimperative
d. ​joint attention

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. Some studies have indicated the effectiveness of ____ in comparison to other treatments.​

a. ​medication
b. ​skills training
c. ​ABA
d. ​operant speech training

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. A child is close to school again and needs to learn to sit in a chair. Which would be a step-by-step approach using a stimulus that requires a specific response?​

a. ​skills training
b. ​TEACCH
c. ​discrete trial training
d. ​ABA

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

51. In comparison to children with ASD, children with childhood-onset schizophrenia ____.​

a. ​tend to be younger at diagnosis
b. ​show a more chronic and declining course
c. ​show similar social and language deficits
d. ​show less intellectual impairment

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. Which statement about childhood-onset schizophrenia is false?​

a. ​Childhood-onset schizophrenia appears to be a more severe form of adult-onset schizophrenia.
b. ​The criteria used to diagnose schizophrenia in adults can reliably be used to diagnose schizophrenia in children.
c. ​Childhood-onset schizophrenia typically has a sudden onset.
d. ​Childhood-onset schizophrenia is likely to persist into adolescence and adulthood.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. The most common presenting symptom for children with childhood-onset schizophrenia is ____.​

a. ​auditory hallucinations
b. ​visual hallucinations
c. ​paranoid delusions
d. ​flat affect

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. The most common comorbid disorders in children with schizophrenia are ____.​

a. ​ASD and other PDDs
b. ​anxiety disorders
c. ​conduct disorder and depression
d. ​pica and mental retardation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Precursors and Comorbidities
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. Schizophrenia is extremely rare prior to ____.​

a. ​the preschool years
b. ​the early school years
c. ​adolescence
d. ​early to mid-adulthood

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. Current views regarding the causes of schizophrenia emphasize ____.​

a. ​biological factors
b. ​family environment factors
c. ​disruptions to prenatal development
d. ​genetic vulnerability and early neurodevelopmental insults

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes and Treatment of COS
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Which characteristic is least prevalent in the families of children with schizophrenia?​

a. ​communication deviance
b. ​use of harsh criticism toward the children
c. ​economic hardship
d. ​supportive bonds

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Causes and Treatment of COS
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Children with schizophrenia may be treated with ____ to diminish psychotic symptoms.​

a. ​behavior modification
b. ​individual therapy
c. ​medications
d. ​family treatment

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes and Treatment of COS
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Current treatments for child-onset schizophrenia emphasize medications in combination with ____.​

a. ​critical feedback
b. ​intellectual skills training
c. ​an educational support program
d. ​behavior analysis

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes and Treatment of COS
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. Medications help control psychotic symptoms in children with schizophrenia by blocking ____ transmission at the ____ receptor.​

a. ​dopamine, G2, GABA
b. ​dopamine, 5HT2, serotonin
c. ​serotonin, D2 dopamine
d. ​dopamine, D2 dopamine

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Causes and Treatment of COS
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. What does it mean to say that ASD is a “spectrum” disorder?​

ANSWER:   ASD is defined as a spectrum disorder because its symptoms, abilities, and characteristics are expressed in many different combinations and in any degree of severity (Lai et al., 2013). Thus, ASD is not an “all or nothing” phenomenon.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   DSM-5: Defining Features of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

62. What are the core features of ASD?​

ANSWER:   The core features of ASD are represented by two symptom domains: (1) social communication and social interaction and (2) restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   DSM-5: Defining Features of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

63. Describe the features that commonly characterize the speech of children with ASD who have developed some useful language.​

ANSWER:   Although almost all children with ASD show delays in their language development, it is their lack of spontaneity and their use of qualitatively unusual forms of communication that is most striking (Chiang & Carter, 2008). The rhythm and intonation of their speech is often unusual (Peppe et al., 2007), but most noticeable is their lack of social chatter—their failure to use language for social communication.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Core Deficits of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. Discuss the theory of mind hypothesis of ASD. What findings provide support for this hypothesis?​

ANSWER:   By age 4, most children can comprehend what others might know, think, and believe; this is something that even older individuals with ASD have great difficulty doing. The ToM hypothesis of ASD begins with the premise that the ability to read the intentions, beliefs, feelings, and desires of others from their external behavior has adaptive significance in human evolution. ToM proposes that all humans are, by nature, mind readers.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

65. In what ways are children with intellectual disability distinguishable from children with intellectual disability in addition to ASD?​

ANSWER:   Most children with ID without ASD show a general delay across all areas of intellectual functioning on this test. In contrast, the performance of children with ASD tends to be uneven across different WISC subtests.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Associated Characteristics of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. In what ways are children with ASD distinguishable from children with language delays?​

ANSWER:   Features of atypical development, that are very similar to those found in ASD but are less severe, have recently been detected in infant siblings of children with ASD by the infants’ first birthday (Ozonoff et al., 2014). Possible early indicators of ASD may include: “uses few gestures to express social interest,” “doesn’t respond when name is called,” “rarely makes eye contact when interacting,” “limited babbling, particularly in a social context,” and “displays odd or repetitive ways of moving hands and/ or fingers” (Zwaigenbaum et al., 2009). Children with ASD have been found to differ from typically developing children on most of these indicators between the ages of 12 and 24 months. However, in one study, only early communicative gestures were found to distinguish children with ASD from those with developmental delay or language impairment.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. Explain the controversial extreme male brain theory of ASD.​

ANSWER:   Those with ASD are presumed to fall at the extreme high end of a continuum of cognitive abilities associated with systemizing (understanding the inanimate world), and at the extreme low end of abilities associated with empathizing (understanding our social world). Both abilities are present in all males and females, but males are presumed to show more systemizing and females more empathizing.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

68. Discuss the evidence for genetic factors in the etiology of ASD.​

ANSWER:   The discovery of the fragile-X anomaly (see Chapter 5) in about 2% to 3% of children with ASD led to increased attention to this and other chromosomal defects that might be related to ASD. Some studies have found that as many as 15% to 20% of siblings of individuals with ASD also have the disorder, a number nearly twice that seen in earlier reports. New research using molecular genetics has pointed to particular areas on many different chromosomes as possible locations for susceptibility genes for ASD (Klinger et al., 2014). Susceptibility genes are causally implicated in the susceptibility to ASD but do not cause it directly on their own.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Causes of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. Discuss the potential causes for the recent increase in rates of ASD.​

ANSWER:   Many causes for the apparent dramatic increase in ASD have been proposed—vaccines, mercury, diet, acetaminophen, caffeine, antibiotics, allergies, environmental pollutants, and electromagnetic radiation—but to date, none has been scientifically substantiated. It seems likely that most, if not all, of the rise in prevalence is caused by a greater awareness among parents and professionals; a broadening of the concept and its definition over the years; greater recognition and diagnosis of milder forms of ASD; changes in diagnostic criteria and categories; diagnostic substitution (i.e., the number of children receiving special education under other diagnostic categories, primarily ID, speech impairment, and learning disabilities, has decreased as those diagnosed with ASD have increased); and better case-finding methods​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Prevalence and Course of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

70. What are the goals of treatment for children with ASD?​

ANSWER:   The goals for most treatments are to minimize the core problems of ASD, maximize the child’s independence and quality of life, and help the child and family cope more effectively with the disorder​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

71. How are disruptive behaviors in early treatment of children with ASD addressed?​

ANSWER:   Many procedures are effective in eliminating disruptive behavior, including rewarding competing behaviors, ignoring the behavior, and mild forms of punishment.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Treatment of ASD
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

72. What are some symptoms of initial stages of childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS)?​

ANSWER:   In the initial stages of COS, the afflicted youngster may have difficulty concentrating, sleeping, or doing schoolwork, and may start to avoid friends. As the illness progresses, she or he may begin to speak incoherently and see or hear things that no one else does. Periods of improvement may be followed by terrifying relapses that are characterized by disordered thinking in which the youngster leaps illogically from one idea to another. The youngster may experience hallucinations, paranoia, and delusions. During their psychotic phases, youngsters with schizophrenia may be convinced that they have godlike powers or that people are spying on them. When in the grip of a psychosis, they may behave unpredictably and may become violent and suicidal.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

73. Why might it be difficult to identify schizophrenia in young children?​

ANSWER:   schizophrenia may be expressed differently at different ages. For example, hallucinations, delusions, and formal thought disturbances are extremely rare and difficult to diagnose before the age of 7; when they do occur, they may be less complex and reflect childhood themes (Caplan, 1994). A failure to adjust diagnostic criteria for developmental changes, such as social withdrawal or peer problems, may overlook children who show early signs of schizophrenia but may not develop the full-blown adult type until a later age.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   DSM-5: Defining Features of Schizophrenia
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

74. Identify and explain two psychotic symptoms that youngsters with COS may experience.​

ANSWER:   It is characterized by severe psychotic symptoms, including: bizarre delusions (false beliefs), hallucinations (false perceptions), thought disturbances, grossly disorganized behavior or catatonic behavior (motor dysfunctions ranging from wild agitation to immobility), extremely inappropriate or flat affect, and significant deterioration or impairment in functioning (APA, 2013).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia (COS)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

75. Discuss the connection between vulnerability and stress in the cause of COS.​

ANSWER:   Current views regarding the causes of COS are based on a neurodevelopmental model in which a genetic vulnerability and early neurodevelopmental insults result in impaired connections between many brain regions. This impaired neural circuitry may increase the child’s vulnerability to stress.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Causes and Treatment of COS
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Chapter 7

1. ​Learning disabilities differ from physical disabilities in childhood in that they are ____.

a. ​more pronounced
b. ​not as easy to detect
c. ​not diagnosed by professionals
d. ​fairly rare

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. ​____ is/are connected to the later onset of learning disorders.

a. ​Parental age
b. ​Communication disorders
c. ​Head injuries
d. ​Developmental delay

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. ​Which statement regarding the general intellect of children with learning disabilities is true?

a. ​Children with learning disabilities usually have mild intellectual disability.
b. ​Children with learning disabilities usually have below-average intelligence.
c. ​Children with learning disabilities usually have average intelligence.
d. ​Children with learning disabilities usually have average or above-average intelligence.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. ​Which statement about learning disabilities is true?

a. ​Learning problems occurring as a result of intellectual disability may qualify as “learning disabilities.”
b. ​Learning problems occurring as a result of brain injury may qualify as “learning disabilities.”
c. ​Learning problems occurring as a result of either intellectual disability or brain injury may qualify as “learning disabilities.”
d. ​Learning disabilities can affect daily routines, work, and family life.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. ​Which disorder is determined by achievement test results that are substantially below what is expected for the child’s age, schooling, and intellectual ability?

a. ​communication disorder
b. ​phonological awareness
c. ​specific learning disorder
d. ​fluency disorder

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. ​Dyslexia refers to ____.

a. ​problems with fine motor control
b. ​problems decoding and recognizing simple words
c. ​a specific kind of reading problem in which the child reverses letters
d. ​problems in writing

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. ​A child diagnosed with a learning disorder would typically score ____.

a. ​better on IQ tests than on tests of academic achievement
b. ​lower on IQ tests than on tests of academic achievement
c. ​comparably high on both IQ tests and tests of academic achievement
d. ​comparably low on both IQ tests and tests of academic achievement

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. ​By the age of ____, a child’s auditory map for phonetic discrimination is complete.

a. ​1 month
b. ​6 months
c. ​1 year
d. ​5 years

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Language Development
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. ​To strengthen a child’s neural circuits for verbal memory, a parent should ____.

a. ​teach the child to play baseball
b. ​put the child in piano class
c. ​teach the child to swim
d. ​use flashcards of math problems

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.357
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

10. ​____ is one of the best predictors of school performance and overall intelligence.

a. ​Well-developed fine motor skill
b. ​Early infant stimulation
c. ​Early attainment of developmental milestones
d. ​The development of language

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Language Development
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. ​Deficits in ____ are a chief reason that most children with communication and learning disorders have problems in learning to read and spell.

a. ​phonology
b. ​comprehension
c. ​attention
d. ​adaptation

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Language Development
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. ​Phonological awareness is a broad construct that includes ____.

a. ​recognition of the independence of sounds and letters
b. ​awareness that sounds cannot be manipulated within syllables in words
c. ​detection of rhyme and alliteration
d. ​reciting the alphabet

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Language Development
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. ​____ is highly related to expressive language development.

a. ​Semantic ability
b. ​Pragmatic awareness
c. ​Phonological awareness
d. ​Morphological ability

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Language Development
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. To see if a child has phonological awareness, a teacher might ____.

a. ​ask the child to rhyme words
b. ​have the child try to complete a page of math problems
c. ​have the child sing out loud
d. ​ask the child to recite the alphabet

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Language Development
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

15. ​Julia’s father asked her to go to her bedroom to select a book that they could read together. Julia went upstairs to her bedroom and chose her favorite book from her bookshelf. On her way back downstairs, Julia’s mother asked her what she was doing. Julia’s response was “Book read.” Based on this description, Julia may meet the criteria for ____.

a. ​phonological disorder
b. ​expressive language disorder
c. ​speech sound disorder
d. ​stuttering

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

16. ​Deficits in phonological awareness are diagnosed when a child ____.

a. ​cannot express his/her thoughts
b. ​cannot understand others
c. ​stutters
d. ​has trouble manipulating sounds

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. ​Which sound is least likely to be misarticulated by children with phonological problems?

a. ​s
b. ​l
c. ​a
d. ​th

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. ​By the early school-age years, which communication disorder is most prevalent?

a. ​language disorder
b. ​speech sound disorder
c. ​childhood-onset fluency disorder
d. ​pragmatic communication disorder

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. ​By mid to late adolescence, most children with communication disorders ____.

a. ​stop speaking
b. ​have acquired normal language
c. ​show declines in the quality of speech
d. ​drop out of school

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. ​Which statement regarding gender differences in rates of communication disorders is true?

a. ​Girls are more likely to be diagnosed with communication disorders, due to biological differences.
b. ​Girls are more likely to be diagnosed with communication disorders, due to referral bias.
c. ​Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with communication disorders, due to biological differences.
d. ​Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with communication disorders, due to acting out behaviors.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. ​____ education strategies are based on the premise that children with special needs will benefit from associating with normally developing peers.

a. ​Segregation
b. ​Inclusion
c. ​Incorporation
d. ​Cooperation

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. ​Studies comparing language-impaired children with and without a positive family history for a language-based learning disability suggest that children with a positive family history may inherit ____.

a. ​co-morbid behavior problems
b. ​temporal processing deficits
c. ​structural abnormalities in the temporal lobe
d. ​brain lesions in a pinpointed region

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. ​Language functions are housed primarily in the ____.

a. ​left temporal lobe
b. ​right temporal lobe
c. ​frontal lobe
d. ​occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. ​For some children, recurrent ____ during the first year of life may be related to speech and language delays.

a. ​fevers
b. ​throat infections
c. ​ear infections
d. ​feeding problems

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. ​Studies investigating the causes of communication disorders suggest that ____.

a. ​there is no genetic basis for language problems
b. ​left-handed people are more likely to develop language impairments
c. ​communication problems are often tied to poor parental efforts to stimulate language development
d. ​there is an interaction of genetic influences, slowness of brain maturation, and possible minor brain lesions

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. ​The age at which stuttering tends to recede is around ____.

a. ​2 years
b. ​5 years
c. ​9 years
d. ​10 years

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. ​Which statement about gender differences in rates of stuttering is true?

a. ​Boys and girls are equally affected by stuttering.
b. ​Girls are more likely to stutter than boys.
c. ​Boys are more likely to stutter than girls.
d. ​Boys are more likely to stutter than girls, except among children of low socioeconomic status.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ​Which is an appropriate treatment for children who stutter?

a. ​teach parents how to discipline their children
b. ​aggressively encourage proper speech
c. ​contingency management procedures
d. ​make the child accountable for progress

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. ​Almost ________ of children who stutter before the age of 5 will no longer stutter once they have been in school for about a year.

a. ​10%
b. ​50%
c. ​80%
d. ​100%

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. ​Which statement about the causes of stuttering is true?

a. ​Empirical studies have shown stuttering to be due to unresolved emotional problems or anxiety.
b. ​The communicative behavior of mothers significantly contributes to the development of stuttering.
c. ​Stuttering is probably related to abnormal development of the right hemisphere of the brain.
d. ​A combination of genetic and environmental factors seem to cause the abnormal development

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Communication Disorders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. ​Which of the following is a category of learning disorders?

a. ​social
b. ​mathematics
c. ​phonological
d. ​fluency

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. ​The most common underlying feature associated with reading disorders is ____.

a. ​associating new words with those in memory
b. ​visually processing the shapes of letters
c. ​interpreting the meaning of words
d. ​distinguishing or separating sounds in spoken words

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. ​Mary is reading out loud to her class. She reads “from,” when in fact the word is “form.” Mary has made a(n) ____ error.

a. ​omission
b. ​reversal
c. ​transposition
d. ​sight

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

34. ​Decoding can be described as ____.

a. ​interpreting the hidden meaning of words
b. ​recognizing concepts in sentences
c. ​breaking a word into parts rapidly enough to read the whole word
d. ​errors in sequence of words and spelling

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. ​Evidence of mathematics disorder typically emerges ____.

a. ​well before entry into school
b. ​upon entry into school
c. ​several years after beginning school
d. ​in early adolescence

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. ​A child with a mathematics disorder would most likely have difficulty with ____.

a. ​reading
b. ​visual-spatial ability
c. ​coordination
d. ​memory

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. ​A child with a writing disorder has the most difficulty with ____.

a. ​spelling accuracy
b. ​visual-spatial ability
c. ​gross motor skills
d. ​memory

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. ​The most common learning disorder is in ____.

a. ​reading
b. ​mathematics
c. ​written language
d. ​memory

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. ​Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with learning disorders because ____.

a. ​their parents are more likely to seek help
b. ​they are more likely to also have behavior problems
c. ​their problems are more severe
d. ​they actually do out number girls in epidemiological studies

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. ​The course of SLD is associated with ____.

a. ​improvement in high school
b. ​better reading comprehension in adulthood
c. ​reduction in reading deficits, but not in mathematics
d. ​dropping out of school

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. ​Children with learning disorders are least likely to show features of ____.

a. ​conduct problems
b. ​ADHD
c. ​depression
d. ​autism

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. ​Children with learning disorders are likely to also have ____.

a. ​low sports self-concept
b. ​difficulty with appearance self-concept
c. ​poor academic self-concept
d. ​trouble balancing an overactive social life with school

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. ​As adults, men with learning disorders ____.

a. ​experience poor job satisfaction
b. ​engage in greater levels of antisocial behavior
c. ​experience greater levels of depression
d. ​perceive lower levels of social support

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. ​In comparison to men with learning disorders, women tend to have ____.

a. ​have higher self-esteem
b. ​have better paying jobs
c. ​outgrow their difficulties
d. ​have more relationship problems

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. ​Which factor is least likely to lead to increased resiliency and adaptation in children with learning disorders?

a. ​easy or positive temperament
b. ​positive sense of efficacy and self-esteem
c. ​competent and supportive caregivers
d. ​clear consequences for when mistakes are made

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. ​The cause of most learning disorders is ____.

a. ​limited exposure to reading material in the home
b. ​genetically based neurological problems
c. ​perinatal injury and/or anoxia
d. ​poor instructional methods

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. ​Heritability accounts for approximately ____ of the variance in reading disorders.

a. ​10%
b. ​25%
c. ​60%
d. ​95%

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

48. ​The planum temporale in individuals with reading disorders is ____.

a. ​larger on the right side of the brain
b. ​larger on the left side of the brain
c. ​of equal size on both sides of the brain
d. ​scarred and malfunctioning

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. ​Shaywitz and Shaywitz (2002) found that the brains of dyslexic children compared to nonimpaired children had ____.

a. ​higher activation primarily in the right hemisphere
b. ​lower activation primarily in the right hemisphere
c. ​higher activation primarily in the left hemisphere
d. ​lower activation primarily in the left hemisphere

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Eden et al. (1996) found that the brains of adults with reading disorders show no activation in an area that detects ____.​

a. ​pressure
b. ​auditory stimuli
c. ​vestibular changes
d. ​visual motion

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. ​With regard to reading and phonological processing, a specific defect in perception of ____ may interfere with many different brain functions, and has been noted in children with autism and learning disorders.

a. ​visual motion
b. ​auditory stimuli
c. ​spatial orientation
d. ​written expression

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. ​Nonverbal learning disabilities are deficits related to ____.

a. ​cellular abnormalities in the left hemisphere
b. ​functional abnormalities in the right hemisphere
c. ​abnormalities of the planum temporale
d. ​excesses of dopamine neurotransmitters

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. ​Nonverbal learning disabilities are characteristic of children who perform worse at ____ than reading.

a. ​sports
b. ​singing
c. ​math
d. ​spelling

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. ​The most likely relationship between learning disorders and behavior problems in young children is that ____.

a. ​behavior problems, such as inattentiveness, interfere with learning behaviors and may lead to later learning disorders
b. ​learning disorders are frustrating for children and may lead them to act out
c. ​the two are distinct disorders that arise separately but increase the potency of either or both problems over time
d. ​behavior problems are ultimately the root cause of learning disorders

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. ​____ is based on the premise that the ability to decode and recognize words accurately and rapidly must be acquired before reading comprehension can occur.

a. ​Recognition Learning
b. ​Direct Learning
c. ​Direct Instruction
d. ​Recognition Instruction

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. ​Which intervention would be least likely to be used with a child with a learning disorder?

a. ​implementation of behavioral reinforcement
b. ​prescribing of medications that help learning
c. ​teaching the child to monitor their own thought processes
d. ​individual counseling to help the child to develop more positive feelings about their abilities

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. ​Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) mandate that children with special needs ____.

a. ​should have access to all educational services
b. ​should have special education classroom placement
c. ​should have regular education classroom placement
d. ​should be appropriately tested for educational level

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. ​According to your text, almost ____ % of school-age children in the United States receive some level of support through special education.

a. ​14
b. ​16
c. ​22
d. ​26

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. ​This Act, signed into U.S. law in 2002, allowed for more intensified efforts by each state to improve the academic achievement of public school students considered at risk for school failure.

a. ​No Child Left Behind
b. ​No Child Left Out
c. ​All Children Included
d. ​All Children Moving Forward

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. ​To prevent ____, it is important to provide early interventions that teach both phonologic and verbal abilities.

a. ​aphasia
b. ​stuttering
c. ​ataxia
d. ​dyslexia

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. ​Differentiate between the terms learning disabilities, communication disorders, and specific learning disorder.

ANSWER:   ​Learning disability is a lay term (not a diagnostic term) that refers to significant problems in mastering one or more of the following skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, and mathematics. Communication disorder is a diagnostic term that refers to deficits in language, speech, and communication. Specific learning disorder is a diagnostic term that refers to specific problems in learning and using academic skills. The DSM-5 integrates the frequently co-occurring problems in reading, mathematics, and written expression into this one category, and uses specifiers to designate impairments in one or more of these areas.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

62. Straus and Werner (1943) pointed out that children learn in their own individual ways. List the three important concepts developed from their idea that continues to influence the field to this day.​

ANSWER:   ​Children approach learning in different ways, so each child’s individual learning style and uniqueness should be recognized and used to full advantage. 2. Educational methods should be tailored to an individual child’s pattern of strengths and weaknesses; one method should not be imposed on everyone. 3.Children with learning problems might be helped by teaching methods that strengthen existing abilities rather than emphasize weak areas.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Definitions and History
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. ​What is meant by a “perceptual map” for language and how does it develop?

ANSWER:   ​A perceptual map forms that represents similarities among sounds and helps the infant learn to discriminate among different phonemes. These maps form quickly; 6-month-old children of English-speaking parents already have auditory maps different from infants in non–English-speaking homes, as measured by neuron activity in response to different sounds (Kuhl et al., 2006). By their first birthday, the maps are complete, and infants are less able to discriminate sounds that are not important in their own language.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Language Development
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

64. ​Why is it common to have more than one specific learning disorder?

ANSWER:   ​Writing, and arithmetic overlap and build on the same functions of the brain, it is not surprising that a child or adult can have more than one form of SLD (Scanlon, 2013). Recall that phonological awareness facilitates the ability to speak and, later on, to read and write. A single gap in the brain’s functioning can disrupt many types of cognitive activity. These disruptions, in turn, can interfere with the development of important fundamental skills and compound the learning difficulties in a short time.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

65. What particular difficulties and errors might suggest that a child has a reading disorder?​

ANSWER:   ​A child with a SLD with impairment in reading lacks the critical language skills required for basic reading: word reading accuracy, reading comprehension, and reading rate or fluency. Dyslexia is an alternative term sometimes used to describe this pattern of reading difficulties. These core deficits stem from problems in decoding—breaking a word into parts rapidly enough to read the whole word—coupled with difficulty reading single small words (Vellutino et al., 2007). When a child cannot detect the phonological structure of language and automatically recognize simple words, reading development will very likely be impaired (Peterson & Pennington, 2010). The slow and labored decoding of single words requires substantial effort and detracts from the child’s ability to retain the meaning of a sentence, much less a paragraph or page.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

66. What kind of deficits might a parent or teacher notice from a child who has a writing disorder?​

ANSWER:   Children with impairment in written expression often have problems with tasks that require eye–hand coordination, despite their normal gross motor development. Teachers notice that, as compared with children who have normal writing skills, children with impairments in writing produce shorter, less interesting, and poorly organized essays and are less likely to review spelling, punctuation, and grammar to increase clarity (Hooper et al., 2011, 2013). However, spelling errors or poor handwriting that do not significantly interfere with daily activities or academic pursuits do not qualify a child for this diagnosis. In addition, problems in written expression signal the possibility of other learning problems because of shared metacognitive processes: planning, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-modification (Heim & Benasich, 2006).​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

67. ​You are a clinical psychologist and you have recently diagnosed Jeremy, an 8-year-old boy, with a learning disorder. Jeremy’s parents are worried about what this will mean for Jeremy as he goes through school, as well as when he is an adult. What would you tell Jeremy’s parents about the short- and long-term prognosis for children with specific learning disorders?

ANSWER:   ​Poor reading comprehension and poor spelling and written work. They may be able to read and pronounce the first part of a word correctly but then guess the rest of the word. As they struggle with these difficulties throughout elementary school, being fearful of or refusing to read aloud is common. By adolescence through to adulthood, these patterns often shift from basic coding difficulties to marked problems in reading comprehension and written expression, including poor spelling and poor mathematical problem solving. Over time, teens and adults learn to manage these difficulties to the best of their ability, but may avoid situations that require reading, writing, or numerical ability. Thus, over the life span SLD is associated with many functional consequences, such as lower academic achievement, higher school dropout rates, poor overall mental health and well-being, and lower employment and income (APA, 2013).
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

68. It has been suggested that language-based learning disorders are related to neurological deficits in sensitivity. What is the nature of this argument?​

ANSWER:   ​A specific defect in the perception of visual motion may interfere with many different brain functions, and it has been noted among children with autism as well as those with learning disorders (Benassi et al., 2010; Skottun & Skoyles, 2008). To detect differences between consonant sounds—such as b and t—we must be able to distinguish between very rapid changes in sound frequency. A subtle neurological deficit in sensitivity could prohibit this distinction, which would then show up clinically as problems in reading and phonological processing (Raschle et al., 2011).
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

69. ​How do the biological causes of language-based learning disabilities and nonverbal learning disabilities differ?

ANSWER:   SLD with impairment in written expression as well, are associated with brain deficits that differ from those described for language-based learning disorders. These deficits are largely found in areas not related to verbal ability, which has led to the term nonverbal learning disability. Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is associated with deficits related to right-hemisphere brain functioning, which are characteristic of children who perform considerably worse at math than reading. These deficits involve social/emotional skills, spatial orientation, problem solving, and the recognition of nonverbal cues such as body language (Hulme & Snowling, 2009). In addition to math deficiencies, NLD may be accompanied by neuropsychological problems such as poor coordination, poor judgment, and difficulties adapting to novel and complex situations.​
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

70. ​Discuss the two major findings that implicate specific biological underpinnings of reading disorders.

ANSWER:   ​1. Language difficulties for people with reading disorders are specifically associated with the neurological processing of phonology and storage of such information into memory; and 2. behavioral and physiological abnormalities are found in the processing of visual information. It is not surprising, therefore, that phonological and visual processing problems often coexist among people with reading disorders (Skottun & Skoyles, 2008).
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

71. Summarize the use of computer-assisted learning for specific learning disorders.​

ANSWER:   ​Computers have been used as simple instructional tools to deliver questions and answers since the 1970s. Since discovering phonological awareness and timing problems in the brain, researchers are now testing whether computers can remedy some basic auditory problems. Some children with communication and learning disorders are unable to process information that flashes by too quickly, such as the consonant sounds ba and da, and this deficit interferes with vital speech processes. Computer programs are able to slow down these grammatical sounds, allowing young children to process them more slowly and carefully
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

72. ​Eight-year-old Jessica has a mathematics disorder. You have been asked to make recommendations to Jessica’s parents and teacher as to how they might help Jessica. From a behavioral and cognitive–behavioral standpoint, what specific recommendations would you make?

ANSWER:   ​Behavioral methods often are used in conjunction with a complete program of direct instruction, which typically proceeds in a cumulative, highly structured manner (Wright & Jacobs, 2003), as shown in A Closer Look 7.2. Because this method places a strong emphasis on the behavior of the teacher in terms of explicit correction, reinforcement, and practice opportunities, it is sometimes referred to as “faultless instruction”: Each concept should be so clearly presented that only one interpretation is possible. Each lesson is structured according to field-tested scripts. Teachers work with one small group of students at a time, and shoot questions at them at a rate as high as 10 to 12 per minute. This highly structured, repetitive method is clearly effective. Like behavioral methods, these procedures actively involve students in learning, particularly in monitoring their own thought processes. Considerable emphasis is placed on self-control by using strategies such as self-monitoring, self-assessment, self-recording, self-management of reinforcement, and so on (Alwell & Cobb, 2009; Cobb et al., 2006). Essentially, children are taught to ask themselves several questions as they progress, to make themselves more aware of the material.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

73. ​List the steps involved in Direct Behavioral Instruction.

ANSWER:   ​1. Review the child’s existing abilities. 2. Develop a short statement of goals at the beginning of each lesson. 3. Present new concepts and material in small steps, each followed by student practice. 4. Provide clear and detailed instructions and explanations. 5. Provide considerable practice for all students. 6. Check student understanding of concepts continually, in response to teacher questions. 7. Provide explicit guidance for each student during initial practice. 8. Provide systematic feedback and corrections. 9. Provide explicit instruction and practice for exercises completed by students at their desks.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

74. ​Discuss the importance of placing children with different needs in classrooms with typically developing peers. How can this improve communication skills, academic performance, and social skills?

ANSWER:   ​Integrating children with special needs into the regular classroom began as the inclusion movement during the 1950s, based on studies showing that segregated classes for students with disabilities were ineffective and possibly harmful (Baldwin, 1958). Resource rooms and specially trained teachers replaced the special classes that had been in vogue, a change that had the further advantage of removing the need to label and categorize children.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

75. ​Discuss why children with learning disorders might display more acting out behaviors at school and the behavioral strategies used.

ANSWER:   ​Many problems that children with communication and learning disorders have stem from the fact that the material is simply presented too fast for them (Tallal & Benasich, 2002). Thus, a strategy to provide children with a set of verbal rules that can be written out and reapplied may be more beneficial than one that relies on memory or on grasping the concept all at once. Tried-and-true behavioral principles of learning are well suited to this task of teaching systematically. Behavioral methods often are used in conjunction with a complete program of direct instruction, which typically proceeds in a cumulative, highly structured manner (Wright & Jacobs, 2003), as shown in A Closer Look 7.2. Because this method places a strong emphasis on the behavior of the teacher in terms of explicit correction, reinforcement, and practice opportunities, it is sometimes referred to as “faultless instruction”: Each concept should be so clearly presented that only one interpretation is possible. Each lesson is structured according to field-tested scripts. Teachers work with one small group of students at a time, and shoot questions at them at a rate as high as 10 to 12 per minute.
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
REFERENCES:   Specific Learning Disorder
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

 

 

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