Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition By Butcher – Hooley Mineka -Test Bank

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Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition By Butcher – Hooley Mineka -Test Bank

Chapter 6: Panic, Anxiety, Obsessions, and Their Disorders

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

6.1-1. Neurotic behavior

  1. is maladaptive and means that a person is out of touch with reality.
  2. is a current term, used to describe many disorders in the DSM-5.
  3. is what we now refer to as “hysteria.”
  4. is maladaptive but means that a person is not out of touch with reality.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-1

Page Ref: 163

Topic: Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. is maladaptive but means that a person is not out of touch with reality.

 

6.1-2.  DSM-III classification, which omited the concept of neurosis, was an improvement because

  1. each category now has a specific effective treatment.
  2. now anxiety disorders are identified regardless of whether anxiety symptoms are expressed.
  3. diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined.
  4. each category is made up of symptoms that have one causal origin.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-2

Page Ref: 163-164

Topic: Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. diagnostic criteria are now based on shared, observable symptoms and are more clearly defined.

 

6.1-3. Fear is a basic emotion that involves

  1. concern about the future.
  2. the activation of the “fight or flight” response.
  3. negative thoughts, but not a change in physiological arousal.
  4. a complex blend of negative mood and self-preoccupation.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-3

Page Ref: 164

Topic: The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. the activation of the “fight-or-flight” response.

 

6.1-4. Which of the following would be an example of anxiety?

  1. Julie jumped when she saw the snake.
  2. Hilda dreaded walking home alone.
  3. Carl was certain that the food was poisoned.
  4. The voices in Paul’s head told him he should be afraid.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-4

Page Ref: 164

Topic: The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. Hilda dreaded walking home alone.

 

6.1-5. The main way to tell someone is having an uncued panic attack rather than is in a state of fear is

  1. whether he or she thinks about what is happening.
  2. whether he or she shows physiological changes such as increased heart rate.
  3. if he or she has a subjective belief that something awful is about to happen.
  4. if he or she feels a strong urge to flee.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-5

Page Ref: 164

Topic: The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. if he or she has a subjective belief that something awful is about to happen.

 

6.1-6. Which of the following is a typical symptom of panic attacks?

  1. Hallucinations
  2. Delusions
  3. Fear of dying
  4. Paranoia

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-6

Page Ref: 164

Topic: The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Fear of dying

 

6.1-7. Which of the following is one of the five primary types of anxiety disorders recognized in the DSM-5?

  1. hypochondriasis
  2. agoraphobia
  3. dissociative fugue
  4. bipolar disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-7

Page Ref: 165

Topic: Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. agoraphobia

 

6.1-8. What is one of the major ways the anxiety disorders differ from each other?

  1. Whether they have a genetic component.
  2. Whether they are treatable.
  3. Whether there are more fear/panic symptoms or anxiety symptoms involved.
  4. Whether the disorder is associated with other anxiety disorders.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-8

Page Ref: 165

Topic: Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Whether there are more fear/panic symptoms or anxiety symptoms involved.

 

6.1-9. Neuroticism

  1. is a tendency to experience negative mood states.
  2. is simply another term for anxiety.
  3. is a tendency to believe negative things about oneself.
  4. is a tendency to feel anxious.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-9

Page Ref: 166

Topic: Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. is a tendency to experience negative mood states.

 

6.1-10. Gradual exposure to feared cues is

  1. an old treatment for anxiety disorders that is no longer used.
  2. a common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders.
  3. likely to make someone with an anxiety disorder worse in the long term.
  4. a useful treatment for phobias but not other anxiety disorders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-10

Page Ref: 166

Topic: Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. a common component of treatment for all anxiety disorders.

 

6.1-11. Individuals who suffer from phobias

  1. are likely to believe that their fear is justified.
  2. suffer from uncued panic attacks.
  3. are unlikely to have other psychological diagnoses.
  4. have a disproportionate fear of some specific object.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-11

Page Ref: 166

Topic: Specific Phobias

Skill: Factual

Answer:

  1. have a disproportionate fear of some specific object.

 

 

6.1-12. Martin is afraid to fly. He knows his boss wants him to take a trip for the business. Martin feels miserable, because he wants to keep his job but cannot even imagine getting on a plane. The most likely diagnosis for Martin is

  1. agoraphobia without history of panic disorder.
  2. social phobia.
  3. specific phobia, situation type.
  4. panic disorder with agoraphobia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-12

Page Ref: 166-167

Topic: Specific Phobias

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. specific phobia, situation type.

 

6.1-13. Why do people with phobias continue to avoid the thing they fear?

  1. Avoidance is reinforced by anxiety reduction.
  2. There is something wrong with their fight or flight system.
  3. They are cognitively unable to make any other decision due to their disorder.
  4. Their low self-esteem causes them to choose not to fight their fear.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-13

Page Ref: 168

Topic: Specific Phobias

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Avoidance is reinforced by anxiety reduction.

 

6.1-14. Which of the following is associated with a unique physiological response pattern?

  1. agoraphobia
  2. blood-injection-injury phobia
  3. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  4. generalized anxiety disorder

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-14

Page Ref: 168

Topic: Specific Phobias

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. blood-injection-injury phobia

 

6.1-15. An evolutionary psychologist might say, “The unique physiological response in this disorder, involving fainting at the sight of the feared object, may have evolved because fainting might inhibit further attack from a predator.” What disorder is being discussed?

  1. blood-injection-injury phobia
  2. agoraphobia with panic attacks
  3. social phobia
  4. animal phobia

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-15

Page Ref: 168

Topic: Specific Phobias

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. blood-injection-injury phobia

 

6.1-16. Which of the following phobias is a 10-year-old boy most likely to suffer from?

  1. animal phobia
  2. driving phobia
  3. claustrophobia
  4. social phobia

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-16

Page Ref: 168

Topic: Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender Differences

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. animal phobia

 

6.1-17. Which of the following explanations for Diana’s scissors phobia would Freud be most likely to offer?

  1. Constant warnings about the importance of not running with scissors have generalized to an overall fear of scissors.
  2. Diana suffers from womb envy, creating an unconscious desire to harm her pregnant mother.
  3. Diana’s mother is a seamstress and Diana unconsciously wants to kill her.
  4. Diana once saw her brother seriously injured by a sharp object.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-17

Page Ref: 169

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Diana’s mother is a seamstress and Diana unconsciously wants to kill her.

 

6.1-18. When Charissa was a young child, she stepped on a bee and was stung. Since that time, she has been terrified of flying insects and runs away if she sees any.

What form of learning is this?

  1. defense mechanism
  2. vicarious conditioning
  3. observational learning
  4. classical conditioning

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-18

Page Ref: 169

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. classical conditioning

 

6.1-19. When Kenneth was a young boy he went to a dentist who treated him uncaringly and inflicted a good deal of pain. Even years later, he has an uncontrollable and intense fear of not only dentists but physicians, too. This best illustrates how phobias might be the result of

  1. generalization in classical conditioning.
  2. observational conditioning.
  3. secondary gain.
  4. the inflation effect.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-19

Page Ref: 169

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. generalization in classical conditioning.

 

6.1-20. Nicole’s mother is terribly afraid of snakes. Although Nicole has never actually seen a snake, her mother has told her time and again to be careful to look for them when she is walking. Now Nicole has an intense fear of snakes and refuses to walk in the grass. This is an example of

  1. vicarious conditioning of a phobia.
  2. classical conditioning of a phobia.
  3. operant conditioning of a phobia.
  4. unconscious displacement of anxiety onto a phobic object.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-20

Page Ref: 169

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. vicarious conditioning of a phobia.

 

6.1-21. When do phobias like claustrophobia and driving phobia begin?

  1. Adolescence
  2. Childhood
  3. Middle adulthood
  4. Late adulthood

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-21

Page Ref: 168

Topic: Specific Phobias/Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender Differences

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Adolescence

 

6.1-22. Casey and Josh have both been bitten by strange dogs. Casey has a dog of his own at home that he loves. Josh has little experience with dogs. Which is likely to develop a phobia?

  1. Both boys are likely to develop a phobia because of the traumatic nature of the event.
  2. Casey is more likely to develop a phobia because his schema of dogs has been violated.
  3. Casey is less likely to develop a phobia because he has had lots of earlier positive experiences with dogs.
  4. It will depend on which boy is more sensitive to pain.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-22

Page Ref: 170

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Casey is less likely to develop a phobia because he has had lots of earlier positive experiences with dogs.

 

6.1-23. Wendy went swimming in the ocean last week and became mildly fearful when she swallowed a lot of water and felt as though she would drown. Just yesterday someone told her that a shark was seen in the water at the same time she was swimming. Now she is petrified of going into the ocean. This best illustrates

  1. the observational learning explanation for phobias.
  2. the inability of the phobic person to direct his or her attention away from a feared object.
  3. the “inflation effect.”
  4. classically conditioned generalization based on direct experience.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-23

Page Ref: 170

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. the “inflation effect.”

 

6.1-24. Which of the following is likely to maintain or strengthen conditioned fears over time?

  1. a genetic vulnerability to phobias
  2. overestimating the likelihood that the event will reoccur
  3. having previously experienced a less traumatic event
  4. viewing the trauma as uncontrollable and inescapable

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-24

Page Ref: 170

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. overestimating the likelihood that the event will reoccur

 

6.1-25. Which of the following illustrates how cognitive variables may act to maintain acquired fears?

  1. Jane no longer went to the park due to her fear of dogs.
  2. Karen would think happy thoughts whenever she drove over a bridge.
  3. Ryan’s fear of heights caused him to always wonder just how high up he was in a building.
  4. Melvin knew that his heart was racing because he was afraid.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-25

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Ryan’s fear of heights caused him to always wonder just how high up he was in a building.

 

6.1-26. Evolutionary preparedness explains

  1. why phobic people are likely to maintain their avoidance behavior.
  2. how the inflation effect works.
  3. why cognitive variables are so important in phobias.
  4. why some types of phobias are much more common than others.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-26

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. why some types of phobias are much more common than others.

 

6.1-27. What has research on the preparedness theory of phobias found?

  1. Fear responses cannot be conditioned to fear-irrelevant stimuli.
  2. Acquired fear responses can be elicited with subliminal exposure to fear-relevant stimuli.
  3. Prepared fears are innate.
  4. There are cross-cultural differences in the stimuli people are “prepared” to fear.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-27

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Acquired fear responses can be elicited with subliminal exposure to fear-relevant stimuli.

 

6.1-28. It is fairly easy to condition monkeys and humans to fear snakes but almost impossible to condition either to fear a flower. This supports the ________ theory of phobias.

  1. classical conditioning
  2. vicarious conditioning
  3. preparedness
  4. psychoanalytic

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-28

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. preparedness

 

6.1-29. From an evolutionary perspective, what concept explains the easy acquisition of a fear of spiders or snakes?

  1. vicarious conditioning
  2. defense mechanisms
  3. prepared learning
  4. behavioral inhibition

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-29

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. prepared learning

 

6.1-30. Which of the following provides evidence against a role for inherited factors in the development of phobias?

  1. the high concordance rate seen in fraternal twins
  2. the impact of nonshared environmental factors
  3. the preparedness hypothesis
  4. the early onset of many phobic reactions

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-30

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobias/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. the impact of nonshared environmental factors

 

6.1-31. Lauren is phobic of birds. Her therapist shows her how to approach a bird in a cage. The therapist then takes the bird out, pets it and feeds it. She then encourages Lauren to do the same behaviors. This type of procedure is called

  1. exposure therapy.
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. participant modeling.
  4. virtual reality therapy.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-31

Page Ref: 171-172

Topic: Specific Phobias/Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. participant modeling.

 

6.1-32. Which of the following seems to be the best treatment for phobias?

  1. exposure therapy
  2. psychoanalysis
  3. cognitive restructuring
  4. family therapy

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 6.1-32

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Treatments

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. exposure therapy

 

6.1-33. Virtual reality environments

  1. permit the use of a combination of exposure therapy, participant modeling, and stress inoculation.
  2. have been shown to be effective in treating agoraphobia.
  3. appear to be more effective in treating phobias than live exposure to the feared stimulus.
  4. allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-33

Page Ref: 172-173

Topic: Specific Phobias/Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. allow exposure therapy to be conducted in a simulated setting.

 

6.1-34. Kayla has just started college and wants to make friends. She refuses to go to large parties because she is afraid that she will blush and sweat, and that other people will laugh at her. She is fine when talking to people in one-on-one settings. Kayla’s most likely diagnosis is

  1. social phobia.
  2. specific phobia, situational type.
  3. agoraphobia without history of panic disorder.
  4. generalized social phobia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-34

Page Ref: 173

Topic: Social Phobias

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. social phobia.

 

6.1-35. Social phobia

  1. is characterized by significant fear of most social situations.
  2. and antisocial personality commonly are comorbid disorders.
  3. involves a fear of one or more specific social situations.
  4. typically develops in childhood.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-35

Page Ref: 173

Topic: Social Phobias

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. involves a fear of one or more specific social situations.

 

6.1-36. The individual with generalized social phobia

  1. has a specific phobia for all social situations.
  2. exhibits a fear of most social situations.
  3. typically has a fear of public speaking, using a public restroom, and restaurants.
  4. is likely to receive a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-36

Page Ref: 173

Topic: Social Phobias

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. exhibits a fear of most social situations.

 

6.1-37. Most individuals diagnosed with social phobia

  1. can identify the origin of their social phobia.
  2. have no other anxiety or mood disorders.
  3. are men.
  4. abuse alcohol.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-37

Page Ref: 174

Topic: Social Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. can identify the origin of their social phobia.

 

6.1-38. Studies of preparedness and social phobia

  1. find that angry faces act as fear-relevant stimuli.
  2. reveal that an explicit perception of threat is necessary to evoke a sympathetic response.
  3. do not provide justification for the seemingly irrational nature of social phobia.
  4. provide an explanation for why such a maladaptive behavioral response persists.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-38

Page Ref: 175

Topic: Social Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. find that angry faces act as fear-relevant stimuli.

 

6.1-39. Behaviorally inhibited young children are more likely to develop specific phobias. This is an example of a ________ causal factor.

  1. conditioning
  2. preparedness
  3. cognitive
  4. biological

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-39

Page Ref: 176

Topic: Social Phobias/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. biological

 

6.1-40. Individuals with social phobia are likely to

  1. be aggressive.
  2. attribute events in their lives to external factors.
  3. have been raised in a permissive environment.
  4. attribute negative life events to internal, global, and stable factors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-40

Page Ref: 176

Topic: Social Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. attribute events in their lives to external factors.

 

6.1-41. Cognitive approaches to social phobia focus on

  1. extinguishing problematic behavioral responses.
  2. challenging automatic thoughts.
  3. identifying the underlying cause of the phobia.
  4. minimizing symptoms.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-41

Page Ref: 177

Topic: Social Phobias/Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. challenging automatic thoughts.

 

6.1-42. Panic attacks, by definition,

  1. are seen in individuals with panic disorder.
  2. are unexpected (“uncued”).
  3. require the presence of at least 4 of 13 characteristic symptoms.
  4. are 30-60 minutes in duration.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-42

Page Ref: 178

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. require the presence of at least 4 of 13 characteristic symptoms.

 

6.1-43. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of panic disorder?

  1. Uncued panic attacks
  2. Depersonalization
  3. Panic attacks, cued and uncued, consisting of at least 6 of the 13 symptoms of a panic attack
  4. Derealization

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-43

Page Ref: 178

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Uncued panic attacks

 

6.1-44. When Jill experienced her first panic attack, she felt as if she were outside of herself, watching herself struggle to catch her breath. Jill’s sense of not being part of herself is one of the symptoms of a panic attack known as

  1. derealization.
  2. depersonalization.
  3. dissociative fugue.
  4. personality disintegration.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-44

Page Ref: 178

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. depersonalization.

 

6.1-45. Compared to anxiety, panic is

  1. less focused.
  2. longer lasting.
  3. slower to develop.
  4. more intense.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-45

Page Ref: 178

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. more intense.

 

6.1-46. Panic disorders are often misdiagnosed because

  1. the symptoms overlap so much with major depression.
  2. the symptoms are so chronic and mild, they do not seem like serious forms of psychopathology.
  3. patients are so embarrassed by their problems, they do not make them known to professionals.
  4. symptoms are so somatic they are treated by physicians for medical problems.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-46

Page Ref: 178

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. symptoms are so somatic they are treated by physicians for medical problems.

 

6.1-47. Agoraphobia is best described as a fear of

  1. going to the dentist.
  2. being alone.
  3. being judged by people.
  4. experiencing a panic attack.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-47

Page Ref: 179

Topic: Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobia/Agoraphobia

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. experiencing a panic attack.

 

6.1-48. ________ was once thought to be a fear of crowded places, but now is seen as a complication of having panic attacks in public.

  1. Agoraphobia
  2. Claustrophobia
  3. Generalized anxiety disorder
  4. General social phobia

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-48

Page Ref: 179

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Agoraphobia

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Agoraphobia

 

6.1-49. Mrs. B. tells her psychologist, “I cannot leave a certain region around my home without having terrible fears. I am terribly worried when I am in a car or bus. I am afraid I will have another one of those terrifying experiences.” What disorder does Mrs. B probably have and what experience is she talking about?

  1. The disorder is specific phobia, the experience is a panic attack.
  2. The disorder is agoraphobia, the experience is a panic attack.
  3. The disorder is obsessive-compulsive disorder, the experience is an obsession.
  4. The disorder is generalized anxiety disorder, the experience is anxiety.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-49

Page Ref: 179

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Agoraphobia

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. The disorder is agoraphobia, the experience is a panic attack.

 

6.1-50. In order to qualify as a full-blown panic attack, which of the following must be present?

  1. one or two panic symptoms, most of which are physical
  2. at least four of thirteen symptoms, most of which are physical
  3. slow onset of at least four to thirteen symptoms
  4. slow onset with one to two symptoms developing over the course of an hour

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-50

Page Ref: 178

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Agoraphobia

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. at least four of thirteen symptoms, most of which are physical

 

6.1-51. Panic disorder is best described as a(n) ________ condition.

  1. chronic
  2. acute
  3. dissociative
  4. inherited

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-51

Page Ref: 180

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Prevalence, Age of

Onset, and Gender Differences

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. chronic

 

6.1-52. James began having panic attacks immediately after his mother died suddenly. As they became more frequent, he began to fear going into public situations where they might occur. Now he is unable to leave his apartment and has others go out to shop for him. What is unusual about this case?

  1. It is unusual for a person with severe agoraphobia to be a man.
  2. It is unusual for panic attacks to begin after a stressful life event.
  3. It is unusual for fear of panic attacks to lead to agoraphobia.
  4. There is nothing unusual about this case.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-52

Page Ref: 180

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Prevalence, Age of

Onset, and Gender Differences

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. It is unusual for a person with severe agoraphobia to be a man.

 

6.1-53. Which of the following is a sociocultural explanation for the higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women?

  1. Historically, women have had to stay and care for young. Thus, a hypervigilant state was adaptive.
  2. Women have a natural tendency to be more cautious than men.
  3. High levels of male hormones lead to aggression and fearlessness.
  4. It is more acceptable for women to exhibit fear.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-53

Page Ref: 180

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Prevalence, Age of

Onset, and Gender Differences

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. It is more acceptable for women to exhibit fear.

 

6.1-54. Approximately ___ to ___ of people with severe agoraphobia are women.

  1. 10; 20
  2. 30; 40
  3. 60; 70
  4. 80; 90

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-54

Page Ref: 180

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Prevalence, Age of

Onset, and Gender Differences

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. 80; 90

 

6.1-55. Agoraphobics are highly likely to have all of the following EXCEPT

  1. PTSD.
  2. alcohol abuse.
  3. depression.
  4. neurotic personality disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-55

Page Ref: 181

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Comorbidity with Other

Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. neurotic personality disorder.

 

6.1-56. Most first panic attacks

  1. follow some distressing event.
  2. are uncued.
  3. are followed by the development of panic disorder.
  4. last more than an hour.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-56

Page Ref: 181

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/The Timing of a First

Panic Attack

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. follow some distressing event.

 

6.1-57. Research using panic provocation agents has revealed

  1. the neurobiological basis for panic disorder.
  2. that there is no biological explanation for panic disorder.
  3. flaws in the studies using sodium lactate infusion.
  4. that there are probably multiple biological explanations for panic disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-57

Page Ref: 183

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Biological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. that there are probably multiple biological explanations for panic disorder.

 

6.1-58. What is thought to explain the effectiveness of the SSRIs in treating panic disorder?

  1. They increase serotonergic activity.
  2. They increase noradrenergic activity.
  3. They decrease serotonergic activity.
  4. They decrease noradrenergic activity.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-58

Page Ref: 183

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Biological Causal

Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. They decrease noradrenergic activity.

 

6.1-59. Which brain structure is recognized as playing a central role in panic attacks?

  1. Amygdala
  2. Cerebellum
  3. Hippocampus
  4. Locus coeruleus

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-59

Page Ref: 182

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Biological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Amygdala

 

6.1-60. “Repeated stimulation of the limbic system by discharges from the locus coeruleus may lower the threshold for later experiences of anxiety. Then, through learning, controlled by the prefrontal cortex, the person actively avoids fearful situations.” This quotation most clearly refers to the biological processes involved in

  1. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  2. panic disorder with agoraphobia.
  3. generalized anxiety disorder.
  4. social phobia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-60

Page Ref: 182

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Biological Causal

Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. panic disorder with agoraphobia.

 

6.1-61. Betty is hyper-aware of such bodily sensations as heart rate and respiration rate. When she perceives heart or breathing as getting faster she becomes afraid that she is having a heart attack. These thoughts make her symptoms worse and she has a panic attack. Betty’s pattern of thinking best illustrates

  1. cognitive theory of panic.
  2. the psychoanalytic theory of panic.
  3. the importance of perceived control in panic disorder.
  4. the role of the locus coeruleus in panic.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-61

Page Ref: 184

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. cognitive theory of panic.

 

6.1-62. Anxiety sensitivity is

  1. a fear of open spaces.
  2. a belief that anxiety will kill.
  3. a trait-like belief that certain bodily symptoms may have harmful consequences.
  4. a fear that situations in which panic attacks occur will be devastating.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-62

Page Ref: 186

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. a trait-like belief that certain bodily symptoms may have harmful consequences.

 

6.1-63. Catastrophizing, fear of standing in line, and fear of crowded places are characteristic of which of the following?

  1. social phobia
  2. generalized anxiety disorder
  3. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  4. agoraphobia

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-63

Page Ref: 179

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. agoraphobia

 

6.1-64. Which of the following statements is correct in regard to the role of cognitions in panic?

  1. Panic can be prevented in a panic provocation study by explaining what will happen.
  2. Panic clients are more likely to interpret bodily sensations as catastrophic events.
  3. Only individuals who tend to catastrophize develop panic disorder.
  4. Cognitive therapy is less effective than emotive therapy for panic disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-64

Page Ref: 184

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Panic clients are more likely to interpret bodily sensations as catastrophic events.

 

6.1-65. The cognitive model does not account for

  1. nocturnal panic attacks.
  2. the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapies.
  3. findings from panic provocation studies.
  4. evidence of a role for genes in anxiety disorders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-65

Page Ref: 185

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. nocturnal panic attacks.

 

6.1-66. High levels of anxiety sensitivity

  1. increase the risk of all types of anxiety disorder.
  2. are seen in all who develop agoraphobia.
  3. predict the development of spontaneous panic attacks.
  4. can be effectively treated with drugs that minimize noradrenergic function.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-66

Page Ref: 186

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. predict the development of spontaneous panic attacks.

 

6.1-67. Why do many people with panic disorder continue to believe they are having a heart attack despite the fact that they never have had one?

  1. They continue to go through classical conditioned learning experiences each time they have a panic attack.
  2. They tend to engage in “safety behaviors” that they believe are the reason the catastrophe didn’t happen.
  3. They tell themselves that physicians may have missed earlier heart attacks.
  4. They have such a high level of fear that learning is not possible.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-67

Page Ref: 186

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. They tend to engage in “safety behaviors” that they believe are the reason the catastrophe didn’t happen.

 

6.1-68. Which of the following are the antidepressants most widely prescribed today for the treatment of panic disorder?

  1. SSRIs
  2. Tricyclics
  3. Anxiolytics
  4. Benzodiazepines

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-68

Page Ref: 187

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. SSRIs

 

6.1-69. Harold’s panic attacks have become so severe that he has finally sought treatment. He sees a psychiatrist who writes Harold a prescription that should offer him some immediate relief. Which of the following drugs is Harold most likely to have been prescribed?

  1. SSRIs
  2. Tricyclics
  3. Monamine oxidase inhibitors
  4. Benzodiazepines

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-69

Page Ref: 187

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Benzodiazepines

 

6.1-70. Quentin is seeking medication to treat his panic disorder. Due to Quentin’s history of substance abuse, his doctor hesitates. After some consideration, the doctor is most likely to write Quentin a prescription for a ________, confident that abuse won’t be an issue.

  1. SSRI
  2. tricyclic
  3. monamine oxidase inhibitor
  4. benzodiazepine

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-70

Page Ref: 187

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. SSRI

 

6.1-71. While in treatment for panic disorder, Leroy is asked to engage in behaviors that activate the sympathetic nervous system. In other words, Leroy is engaging in behaviors that produce the physical sensation of fear. What type of treatment does this appear to be?

  1. Exteroceptive exposure
  2. Interoceptive exposure
  3. Anxiety sensitivity training
  4. Cognitive reconditioning

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-71

Page Ref: 187

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. Interoceptive exposure

 

6.1-72. Amber feels anxious almost all the time. She finds herself worrying that her husband will leave her (although he has never shown any indication that he would), that she chose the wrong job, that her children might not be safe at their school, and that she might get sick and leave her family in financial ruin. She calls her husband almost everyday to find out when he will be home. She complains to her physician that she is always tired but cannot sleep or relax. Amber’s most likely diagnosis is

  1. generalized anxiety disorder.
  2. generalized social phobia.
  3. panic disorder with agoraphobia.
  4. obsessive compulsive disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-72

Page Ref: 188

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. generalized anxiety disorder.

 

6.1-73. According to the psychoanalytic view, what makes generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) different from specific phobias?

  1. Defense mechanisms are not functional in GAD.
  2. Different defense mechanisms are employed by those with GAD and those with specific phobias.
  3. The underlying conflict in GAD is between the ego and the superego, while it is between the id and ego in specific phobias.
  4. Individuals with specific phobias suffer from self-hate and project this emotion on the feared stimulus.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-73

Page Ref: 190

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Defense mechanisms are not functional in GAD.

 

6.1-74. Derek’s moods have always seemed to be unpredictable and irrational. Nancy, who has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder, never knows when he is going to come home and yell at her and the kids. In family therapy it is revealed that Derek’s moods are really not irrational, but a reflection of the day’s sales at his store. Which of the following would be most likely to decrease Nancy’s anxiety?

  1. Derek can commit more money to advertising so as to increase sales.
  2. Derek and Nancy should separate.
  3. Derek could call home each day and let Nancy know how the day went.
  4. Derek should sell the business.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-74

Page Ref: 191

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Derek could call home each day and let Nancy know how the day went.

 

6.1-75. Which of the following have studies of control in humans and monkeys provided support for?

  1. Genes play only a minimal role in the development of generalized anxiety disorder.
  2. Early experiences with mastery and control may serve as protective factors, decreasing the likelihood of developing generalized anxiety disorder.
  3. Exposure to uncontrollable events does not increase the chances of developing generalized anxiety disorder.
  4. The comorbidity of specific phobias and generalized anxiety disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-75

Page Ref: 191

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Early experiences with mastery and control may serve as protective

factors, decreasing the likelihood of developing generalized anxiety disorder.

 

6.1-76. Which of the following is NOT one of the benefits that those with GAD commonly believe they derive from worrying?

  1. If I worry about it now, I won’t be as upset when it happens.
  2. If I worry about it, it is less likely to happen.
  3. If I worry about it, I won’t have to think about other things that are even worse.
  4. If I worry about it, I’ll be more prepared when it does happen.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 6.1-76

Page Ref: 191

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. If I worry about it now, I won’t be as upset when it happens.

 

6.1-77. One of the main functions that worry seems to serve in generalized anxiety disorder is

  1. it keeps people distracted from what is really bothering them.
  2. it keeps people with the disorder feeling happier than if they didn’t worry.
  3. it prevents people with the disorder from developing depression.
  4. it keeps people from feeling the emotional and physiological consequences of anxiety.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 6.1-77

Page Ref: 192

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. it keeps people from feeling the emotional and physiological consequences of anxiety.

 

6.1-78. One of the main problems with the worry in generalized anxiety disorders is

  1. it keeps people distracted from what is really bothering them.
  2. it is a form of avoidance and prevents extinction.
  3. it increases the effects of operant conditioning on their fears.
  4. it keeps people with the disorder feeling happier than if they don’t worry.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 6.1-78

Page Ref: 192

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. it is a form of avoidance and prevents extinction.

 

6.1-79. Neurobiological factors involved in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder provide evidence for the hypothesis that

  1. both disorders are caused by an excess of the GABA neurotransmitter.
  2. fear and anxiety are fundamentally distinct.
  3. the two disorders are genetically identical.
  4. panic may be an acute version of generalized anxiety disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-79

Page Ref: 193

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. fear and anxiety are fundamentally distinct.

 

6.1-80. What disorder does GAD appear to be most related to?

  1. PTSD
  2. Panic disorder
  3. Specific phobia
  4. Major depression

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-80

Page Ref: 193

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Major depression

 

6.1-81. The effectiveness of Valium (or benzodiazepines) in treating GAD supports the hypothesis that

  1. a serotonin deficiency underlies GAD.
  2. heightened autonomic arousal causes the anxiety of those with GAD.
  3. a GABA deficiency underlies GAD.
  4. anxiety increases noradrenergic activity.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-81

Page Ref: 193

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. a GABA deficiency underlies GAD.

 

6.1-82. If a pharmaceutical company were looking for a drug that would maximally treat generalized anxiety disorder they would want one that

  1. suppressed the activity of the locus coeruleus in the brain stem and the central gray in the midbrain.
  2. decreased GABA levels while increasing norepinephrine.
  3. increased GABA levels while regulating serotonin.
  4. decreased serotonin levels and suppressed activity in the locus coeruleus.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-82

Page Ref: 193

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. increased GABA levels while regulating serotonin.

 

6.1-83. Which of the following is a disadvantage of treating GAD with a benzodiazepine?

  1. A therapeutic response is not seen for several weeks.
  2. There is a high risk of overdose.
  3. Such drugs are frequently misused.
  4. The somatic symptoms are not treated.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-83

Page Ref: 193

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Such drugs are frequently misused.

 

6.1-84. Persistent and recurrent thoughts are

  1. compulsions.
  2. delusions.
  3. hallucinations.
  4. obsessions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-84

Page Ref: 194

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. obsessions.

 

6.1-85. Most people with obsessive-compulsive disorder

  1. experience obsessions, but compulsions are relatively rare.
  2. experience compulsions, but obsessions are relatively rare.
  3. experience both obsessions and compulsions.
  4. develop compulsions in childhood, and obsessions in adolescence or adulthood.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-85

Page Ref: 194

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. experience both obsessions and compulsions.

 

6.1-86. Which of the following is characteristic of the obsessions seen in OCD?

  1. The obsessions serve to alleviate the anxiety created by the compulsions.
  2. The obsessions are clearly related to a traumatic life event.
  3. The obsessions are rarely related to the compulsions exhibited.
  4. Individuals with OCD know that their obsessions are irrational.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-86

Page Ref: 194

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Individuals with OCD know that their obsessions are irrational.

 

6.1-87. Tara believes that it is extremely important to be clean. She cleans her kitchen and bathroom daily and the rest of the house at least once every few days. She uses antibacterial soap and sterile water to clean. She says she wants people to be able to eat off her floors. Tara is very proud of her house and the way she keeps it. She

  1. has obsessive compulsive disorder.
  2. has specific phobia, situational type.
  3. generalized anxiety disorder.
  4. has no disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-87

Page Ref: 194-195

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. has no disorder.

 

6.1-88. Jessica spends much of her day counting or saying certain words to herself. When she is not doing this, she is checking whether she left her doors unlocked. These symptoms illustrate

  1. compulsions.
  2. obsessions.
  3. both obsessions (the counting and saying words) and compulsions (the checking).
  4. neither obsessions nor compulsions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-88

Page Ref: 194-195

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. compulsions.

 

6.1-89. Mark feels the need to tap everything within his arms reach twice. He doesn’t have any particular thoughts associated with this, he just becomes anxious if he doesn’t do it, because “something bad might happen.” Mark

  1. does not have obsessive compulsive disorder.
  2. has obsessive compulsive disorder.
  3. has an unusual type of specific phobia.
  4. has no disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-89

Page Ref: 194-195

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. has obsessive compulsive disorder.

 

6.1-90. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of OCD?

  1. The presence of compulsive behaviors
  2. A persistent awareness of the irrational nature of the obsessions experienced
  3. Evidence of psychosis
  4. The symptomatic behavior causes distress

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-90

Page Ref: 195

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. the symptomatic behavior causes distress

 

6.1-91. Dagmar is a musician and she loves the fact that she constantly hears new melodies in her head. In fact, she cannot remember a time when she did not hear music. Why is this NOT an example of an obsession?

  1. Obsessions must be accompanied by ritualistic actions.
  2. Obsessions must come on suddenly in response to a stressful life event.
  3. Obsessions must be voluntary thoughts that a person knows are irrational.
  4. Obsessions must be intrusive thoughts the person finds disturbing.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 6.1-91

Page Ref: 195

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Obsessions must be intrusive thoughts the person finds disturbing.

 

6.1-92. Which of the following is unique about OCD, as compared to other anxiety

disorders?

  1. It afflicts more men than women.
  2. The incidence is about equal for men and women.
  3. It usually begins in childhood.
  4. It is a culture-bound disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-92

Page Ref: 197

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender

Differences

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. The incidence is about equal for men and women.

 

6.1-93. Which of the following is true of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

  1. Nearly six times more women than men suffer from OCD.
  2. This disorder tends to begin in adolescence or early adulthood, but is not uncommon in children.
  3. Once thought to be a fairly common disorder, with new diagnostic criteria, it is seen as quite rare.
  4. Although most people have both obsessive thoughts and compulsive rituals, rarely are the two issues related.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-93

Page Ref: 197

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Gender

Differences

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. This disorder tends to begin in adolescence or early adulthood, but is not uncommon in children.

 

6.1-94. Which of the following is a common type of obsession seen in OCD?

  1. Fear of contamination
  2. Counting over and over
  3. Hand washing
  4. Double checking locked doors

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-94

Page Ref: 195

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Fear of contamination

 

6.1-95. What of the following are among the most common obsessive thoughts in people with OCD?

  1. Worry about humiliating oneself in public
  2. Fear of contamination and fear of harming others
  3. Being the victim of crime and having a panic attack in public
  4. Desire to get intoxicated on drugs and alcohol

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-95

Page Ref: 195

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Fear of contamination and fear of harming others

 

6.1-96. Which of the following is one of the five primary types of compulsive acts seen in individuals with OCD?

  1. Cleaning
  2. Fear of contamination
  3. Fear of danger
  4. Scanning

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-96

Page Ref: 196

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Cleaning

 

6.1-97. What do all of the compulsions seen in OCD have in common?

  1. They all take 15-20 minutes to perform.
  2. All involve counting.
  3. They are engaged in as means of alleviating tension.
  4. There is little desire to engage in the compulsion.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-97

Page Ref: 196

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. They are engaged in as means of alleviating tension.

 

6.1-98. Some things seem to be consistent across all the different forms that obsessive-compulsive disorder takes. These include

  1. a tendency to have an aggressive, impulsive personality.
  2. an overwhelming fear that something terrible will happen to the person or to others for which they are responsible.
  3. a strong resistance to depressive and other mood disorders.
  4. an inability to see that the compulsive actions they engage in are unnecessary and ridiculous.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 6.1-98

Page Ref: 199

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. an overwhelming fear that something terrible will happen to the person or to others for which they are responsible.

 

6.1-99. According to the behavioral viewpoint, compulsions are repeated because

  1. they act of engaging in the behavior is pleasurable.
  2. they serve to reduce anxiety.
  3. they are reflexive responses that can’t be controlled.
  4. they permit the expression of repressed urges.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-99

Page Ref: 196

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. they serve to reduce anxiety.

 

6.1-100. Which of the following is a true statement about Mowrer’s two-process theory of avoidance learning?

  1. It provides an explanation for the development of all anxiety disorders.
  2. While it suggests mechanisms for the development of GAD, it does not account for the development of panic disorder and OCD.
  3. It does not account for the effectiveness of extinction procedures in the treatment of OCD.
  4. It has not been helpful in explaining why people with OCD develop obsessions in the first place and why some people never develop compulsive behaviors.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-100

Page Ref: 198

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. It has not been helpful in explaining why people with OCD develop obsessions in the first place and why some people never develop compulsive behaviors.

 

6.1-101. Mowrer’s two-process theory of avoidance learning provides a theoretical rationale for an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. What is this treatment?

  1. response activation therapy
  2. exposure prevention therapy
  3. response provocation therapy
  4. exposure therapy with response prevention

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-101

Page Ref: 197

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Psychosocial Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. exposure therapy with response prevention

 

6.1-102. The fact that dirt and contamination were threats to our ancestors suggests

  1. that preparedness theory may help explain obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  2. that fear of these things is rational.
  3. that obsessive-compulsive disorder probably exists in many species, not just humans.
  4. that obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the oldest disorders in existence.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-102

Page Ref: 198

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. that preparedness theory may help explain obsessive-compulsive disorder.

 

6.1-103. Which of the following provides a unique challenge when trying to eliminate the obsessions seen in OCD?

  1. The client is likely to feel that his or her concerns are justified.
  2. Attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more.
  3. Obsessions are likely to only be experienced under certain environmental conditions.
  4. Medications are ineffective in suppressing obsessions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-103

Page Ref: 198

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Attempting to not think about something may lead to thinking about it more.

 

6.1-104. Thought-action fusion is

  1. a psychotic symptom that helps distinguish between anxiety disorders and psychotic disorders.
  2. support for the preparedness theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  3. the belief that thinking about something is as bad as actually doing it.
  4. the reason why trying to suppress unwanted thoughts often causes an increase in those thoughts.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-104

Page Ref: 198

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. the belief that thinking about something is as bad as actually doing it.

 

6.1-105. Research on the role of genetics in the development of OCD suggests that

  1. there may be “neurotic” personality factors that increase susceptibility to OCD.
  2. altered serotonergic functioning is inherited.
  3. genes do not play a role in OCD.
  4. an abnormality on the X chromosome underlies OCD.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.1-105

Page Ref: 199

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. there may be “neurotic” personality factors that increase susceptibility to OCD.

 

6.1-106. As discussed in your text, much evidence now suggests a number of biological causal factors in obsessive-compulsive disorder including

  1. a minimal or absent genetic contribution.
  2. abnormalities in the functioning of the basal ganglia.
  3. abnormalities in dopamine systems.
  4. decreased activity in the orbital frontal cortex.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-106

Page Ref: 199

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. abnormalities in the functioning of the basal ganglia.

 

6.1-107. Anxiety disorders

  1. exist only in technologically advanced cultures.
  2. probably exist in all societies, but take different forms in different cultures.
  3. are especially prevalent in Japan, where strong pressures exist to compete and succeed.
  4. involve different causal factors in different cultures.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.1-107

Page Ref: 206-207

Topic: Sociocultural Causal Factors for All Anxiety Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. probably exist in all societies, but take different forms in different cultures.

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

6.2-1. The basic emotion that involves activation of the “fight-or-flight” response is

__________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.2-1

Page Ref: 164

Topic: The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns

Skill: Factual

Answer: fear

 

6.2-2. _____________ are persistent and strong fears triggered by specific objects or

situations that are unreasonable.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.2-2

Page Ref: 165-166

Topic: Specific Phobias

Skill: Factual

Answer: Specific phobias

 

6.2-3. That humans have evolved to fear certain objects or situations because they pose real threats is called __________ learning.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.2-3

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: prepared

 

6.2-4. One of the best behavioral treatments for specific phobias is __________ therapy.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.2-4

Page Ref: 171

Topic: Specific Phobia/Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: exposure

 

6.2-5. The __________ is the part of the brain that plays a central role in panic attacks.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.2-5

Page Ref: 182

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: amygdala

 

6.2-6. The role of worry is now central to our understanding of __________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.2-6

Page Ref: 188

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: generalized anxiety disorder

Short Answer Questions

 

6.31. What are the three components of fear?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.3-1

Page Ref: 164

Topic: The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns

Skill: Factual

Answer: Modern definitions of fear define fear as a basic emotion, characterized by

physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components. The sympathetic nervous system

is activated by a fear-producing stimulus, a feeling of fear is experienced, and there is

some appropriate behavioral response, such as running away.

 

6.3-2. What differences in life experiences can lessen the likelihood that someone will develop a phobia?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-2

Page Ref: 170

Topic: Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities

Skill: Applied

Answer: Previous positive or nontraumatic experiences with the conditioned stimulus (e.g., if lots of good experiences with dogs, less likely to develop a phobia after being bitten), observing a nonfearful other approaching the situation or object, and having a feeling of control or ability to escape from a traumatic event will lessen the likelihood.

 

6.3-3. How do cognitions help maintain phobias?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-3

Page Ref: 170

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: Phobic people are constantly on the alert for their phobic object or situation, or for relevant stimuli. Nonphobic people tend to focus their attention away from these things. Phobic people overestimate the probability that the feared object will be followed by something bad, which may strengthen the fear over time.

 

6.3-4. Describe how a phobia could be learned through vicarious conditioning.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-4

Page Ref: 169

Topic: Specific Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Phobias can be learned by watching another person who has a phobia. Watching that person behave with fear around the feared object or situation can cause distress in the observer and lead to learning of the phobia.

 

6.3-5. Describe the purpose of exposure therapy for specific phobia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-5

Page Ref: 171-172

Topic: Specific Phobias/Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: To place people in the situation they fear for long enough that extinction

occurs and their fear subsides.

 

6.3-6. What do the results of panic provocation agents tell us about panic disorder?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.4-6

Page Ref: 183

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: That no one neurobiological mechanism could explain the results, so there

may be multiple different biological causes of panic.

 

6.3-7. How do “safety behaviors” contribute to the persistence of panic disorder?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.3-7

Page Ref: 186

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: Panic disorder often persists despite infrequent panic attacks and no occurrence of dire consequences as a result of a panic attack. This may be explained by the use of “safety behaviors,” behaviors that the individual engages in before or during an attack. When nothing catastrophic occurs, it is attributed to the use of the safety behaviors, as opposed to the lack of any real danger.

 

6.3-8. What is necessary for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-8

Page Ref: 189

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: In order to be diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), an individual must exhibit worry on the majority of days over at least a 6-month period. The worry must not be associated with another disorder and it must be perceived as difficult to control. In addition to the experience of worry, at least three of the following six symptoms must be present: (1) restlessness or edginess, (2) a feeling of being easily tired, (3) problems concentrating, (4) irritability, (5) muscle tension, and (6) sleep disturbance.

 

6.3-9. What role might a lack of safety signals play in the development and maintenance of generalized anxiety disorder?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-9

Page Ref: 191

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: It is well-established that a lack of predictability and control creates stress. Safety signals are environment cues that signal when it is appropriate to relax. For example, if you knew your boss was always in a good mood on Friday, it might be safe to relax and not worry about a mistake you made. The fact that it is Friday would serve as a safety signal. The rest of the week, however, you should feel anxious about having made a mistake. When safety signals are present, it signals that one can relax. In the absence of such signals, anxiety prevails, providing a possible explanation for generalized anxiety disorder.

 

6.3-10. What benefit do those with GAD derive from worrying?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-10

Page Ref: 191-192

Topic: Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Research has revealed that worrying does have a positive effect on those with GAD. While it does not prevent catastrophe, when those with GAD worry, emotional and physiological responses to negative stimuli are suppressed. In other words, the act of worrying about an event lessens the impact of that event if and when it does occur.

 

6.3-11. What are obsessions? Compulsions? Give an example of each.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.3-11

Page Ref: 194

Topic: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: Obsessions are persistent, recurrent, intrusive thoughts. Examples include contamination and fear of harming self or others. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts the person feels driven to perform in a ritualistic way. They are usually in response to an obsession and done to reduce anxiety. Examples include washing and checking.

 

 

Essay Questions

 

6.4-1. Discuss the difference between fear and anxiety.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 6.4-1

Page Ref: 164-165

Topic: The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Fear is a basic emotion that involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the body for action. Fear is a response to a threat that we are faced with; fear is a reaction to a stimulus that is before us. Anxiety is not a basic emotion, but a combination of emotions and thoughts that are directed toward some anticipated event. Thus, fear is a reaction to a stimulus and anxiety is a more cognitive reaction to some dreaded event. Fear is a reaction to something in front of us, while anxiety is a dread of some future event. GRADING RUBRIC – 9 points total, 3 for each definition and 3 for explaining how the two differ.

 

6.4-2. How do cognitive factors affect the onset and maintenance of social phobia?

Explain and provide 3 specific examples to illustrate your understanding.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.4-2

Page Ref: 176

Topic: Social Phobias/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: Cognitive factors play a role in both the onset and maintenance of social phobia. It has been suggested that those who develop social phobias may tend to expect that others will reject them or view them negatively, setting the stage for a fear of any situation in which one will be evaluated. An expectation that one will behave in a socially unacceptable fashion can also contribute to the development of social phobia, as well as increase the chance that one’s behavior will be unacceptable. Thus, both negative expectations of how one will be perceived and how one will act can contribute to social phobia. These cognitive distortions may then maintain social phobia by increasing social awkwardness and a belief in negative evaluations. There is also some evidence to suggest that perceptions of uncontrollability and unpredictability, possibly resulting from social defeat, may also play a role in the development of social phobia. GRADING RUBRIC – 6 points total, 2 for each of 3 cognitive factors identified.

 

6.4-3. Discuss the theory of evolutionary preparedness and how it may apply to specific phobia, social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.4-3

Page Ref: 171, 198

Topic: Specific Phobias/Social Phobias/OCD/ Preparedness

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Our evolutionary history has affected the stimuli we are most likely to fear.

People and primates seem genetically prepared to quickly associate certain objects with fear rather than other objects. While there are many types of specific phobias, most involve animals and situations that were a threat to our ancestors. Those primates and humans who had this rapid acquisition of fear were more likely to survive and pass on their genes. The fear itself is not inherited, the tendency to make certain connections quickly is. It was also advantageous to acquire fears of social stimuli that signaled danger – angry or contemptuous faces. So social phobias may have an evolutionary basis. The most common obsession in OCD – contamination and dirt – was also a threat to our ancestors and may have the same type of preparedness component. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points, 4 for explanation of preparedness, 2 for each disorder.

 

6.4-4. Compare the comprehensive learning theory and the cognitive theory of panic disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.4-4

Page Ref: 183-185

Topic: Panic Disorder with and Without Agoraphobia/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: The comprehensive learning theory suggests that initial panic attacks cause conditioning of anxiety to internal and external cues. Anxiety then is created in the presence of these cues, leading to more panic attacks. Because anxiety is conditioned to internal cues, panic attacks can seem to come out of nowhere. The internal cues that resemble panic attacks can cause an attack, regardless of how the person is actually feeling at the time. The cognitive theory suggests that people with panic disorder are highly sensitive to body sensations and tend to catastrophize in response to unusual sensations. This causes a vicious circle ending in a panic attack. The difference here is that it is the meaning people attribute to their symptoms that cause the panic. It is not necessary for people to make any attributions in the learning theory. So the learning theory is a better explanation for panic attacks that occur without any negative thoughts, such as during sleep. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points, 5 for each theory.

 

6.4-5. Discuss the findings of cross-cultural research on the anxiety disorders. Provide at least two examples of disorders that illustrate the role of culture.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 6.4-5

Page Ref: 206-207

Topic: Sociocultural Causal Factors for All Anxiety Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: As with most disorders, cultural influences are seen in the anxiety disorders.

While most emotional responses are universal, the stimuli that elicit emotional reactions will vary and how emotions are expressed varies. In the case of anxiety disorders, the prevalence of the different types of disorders varies with culture. Differences in sources of anxiety are easily found. Nigerians, for example, are likely to be concerned about fertility and maintaining a large family. In some Asian cultures Koro, a fear of the penis shrinking and disappearing, may be seen,. Both of these sources of anxiety are clearly related to the value the culture places on procreating, a concern not seen in most Western societies. Social phobia takes different forms across cultures, being characterized by a fear of embarrassing one’s self in some and a fear of embarrassing others in some. Thus, the anxiety disorders are very much impacted by culture in numerous ways. GRADING RUBRIC – 8 total, 4 for general discussion and 2 each for 2 specific examples.

 

Chapter 7: Mood Disorders and Suicide

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

7.1-1. What do all mood disorders have in common?

  1. The presence of a negative mood state.
  2. They are at least 6 months in duration.
  3. The presence of irrational thoughts.
  4. They are characterized by emotional extremes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-1

Page Ref: 212

Topic: Mood Disorders and Suicide

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. They are characterized by emotional extremes.

 

7.1-2. What are the two key moods involved in mood disorders?

  1. Anger and depression
  2. Sadness and anxiety
  3. Mania and depression
  4. Anger and mania

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-2

Page Ref: 212

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Mania and depression

 

7.1-3. Which of the following is true of major depressive episode?

  1. It does not begin until adolescence.
  2. It is equally common in men and women.
  3. It occurs five times as often in elderly people as in middle-aged adults.
  4. It is the most prevalent mood episode.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-3

Page Ref: 212

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. It is the most prevalent mood episode.

 

7.1-4. In order to meet the criteria for a major depressive episode, a person MUST have

  1. a depressed mood or loss of pleasure most of the day for at least 2 weeks.
  2. significant weight loss.
  3. intense irritability.
  4. insomnia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-4

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer:

  1. a depressed mood most of the day for at least 2 weeks.

 

 

7.1-5. “Normal”feelings of depression becomes a mood disorder when

  1. there is no identifiable cause for it.
  2. the degree of impairment is judged severe enough to warrant a diagnosis.
  3. it lasts for more than a month.
  4. it ceases to be justified and adaptive.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-5

Page Ref: 213-214

Topic: What Are Mood Disorders?

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. the degree of impairment is judged severe enough to warrant a diagnosis.

 

7.1-6. Two months after her husband’s death, Connie was still not herself. She often forgot to feed the dog, was late for work on a regular basis, and had not yet thrown out his clothes. Which of the following diagnoses could apply to Connie according to the DSM-5?

  1. adjustment disorder with depressed mood
  2. dysthymia
  3. postpartum depression
  4. major depressive disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-6

Page Ref: 215

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. major depressive disorder

 

7.1-7. “Postpartum blues” are

  1. a serious disorder.
  2. common, usually brief, and not a disorder.
  3. a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder.
  4. serious, brief, and a type of unipolar depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-7

Page Ref: 216

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. common, usually brief, and not a disorder.

 

7.1-8. In which of the following disorders must symptoms be present for at least 2 years in order for a diagnosis to be made?

  1. Dysthymia
  2. Bipolar I disorder
  3. Major depressive disorder
  4. Bipolar II disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-8

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorder/Dysthymic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Dysthymia

 

7.1-9. How does dysthymia compare to major depressive disorder?

  1. Symptoms are much more severe than in major depressive disorder.
  2. Symptoms change from day to day, with lots of days with normal functioning in between dysthymic episodes.
  3. There are many more symptoms required to meet dysthymia than to meet major depressive disorder.
  4. Symptoms are mild to moderate but last for much longer than in major depressive disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-9

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorder/Dysthymic Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Symptoms are mild to moderate but last for much longer than in major depressive disorder.

 

7.1-10. What is the most important characteristic used to distinguish dysthymia from major depression?

  1. the length of time the person has had the symptoms
  2. how severe the symptoms are
  3. whether there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder
  4. the types of symptoms the person has

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-10

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. whether there are occasional brief periods of normal moods during the disorder

 

7.1-11. Sean describes himself as having hardly ever being happy. He occasionally feels okay, but it never lasts more than a day or so. He has trouble sleeping, doesn’t eat much, and feels like nothing will ever change in his life. He says this has been going on for as long as he can remember. The best diagnosis for Sean is

  1. cyclothymia.
  2. dysthymia.
  3. major depressive disorder.
  4. bipolar II.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-11

Page Ref: 217

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Dysthymic Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. dysthymia.

 

7.1-12. Which of the following is a symptom of major depressive disorder?

  1. Checking and rechecking things
  2. appetite and weight loss
  3. Running thoughts
  4. Impulsive spending

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 7.1-12

Page Ref: 218

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. appetite and weight loss

 

7.1-13. George, a 22-year-old mechanic, always seems to have a cloud over his head. For the past three weeks, he has had problems sleeping and he has little appetite or enjoyment of food. While he may sometimes seem to be relatively content for short periods of time, this happens very rarely and it never lasts for more than a week. If George were to seek help for his negative mood state, which of the following diagnoses would he most likely receive?

  1. Adjustment disorder with depressed mood
  2. Chronic adjustment disorder with depressed mood
  3. Bipolar II
  4. Major depressive disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-13

Page Ref: 218

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. Major depressive disorder

 

7.1-14. Brittany came to a therapist complaining that she just doesn’t enjoy life lately. She says that for the past couple of months, she finds she just doesn’t feel like doing the things that she used to love to do. She has also lost a lot of weight and sleeps much more than usual but still feels tired all the time. She says she just can’t concentrate on anything. However, she denies feeling sad. Brittany’s most likely diagnosis is

  1. dysthymic disorder.
  2. bipolar II disorder.
  3. major depressive disorder.
  4. no disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-14

Page Ref: 218

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. major depressive disorder.

 

7.1-15. Depression

  1. can occur even in infants and very young children.
  2. is extremely rare in childhood.
  3. cannot occur in childhood.
  4. can occur in childhood in females but not in males.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-15

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. can occur even in infants and very young children.

 

7.1-16. Depression during adolescence

  1. is much rarer than during childhood.
  2. has little effect on adult functioning.
  3. can affect a person into young adulthood.
  4. is decreasing in prevalence.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-16

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. can affect a person into young adulthood.

 

7.1-17. Herbert awakens early in the morning and feels more depressed in the morning than the evening. He has lost all interest in activities and derives no pleasure from things that used to please him. If he is suffering from major depression, Herbert’s symptoms suggest the subtype called

  1. mood-congruent.
  2. melancholic.
  3. dysthymic.
  4. postpartum.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-17

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. melancholic.

 

7.1-18. A person who shows psychotic depression that involves mood-congruent thinking

  1. is diagnosed as having “double depression.”
  2. usually responds rapidly to anti-depressant medications.
  3. rarely shows the symptoms of melancholia.
  4. has a poorer prognosis than others with major depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-18

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. has a poorer prognosis than others with major depression.

 

7.1-19. Sam has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. He tells you that he is certain the world will end next Tuesday because everyone in it is so wicked. He refuses to consider that he might be wrong. Sam has

  1. mood congruent delusions.
  2. mood incongruent delusions.
  3. atypical features.
  4. melancholic features.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-19

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. mood congruent delusions.

 

7.1-20. What is meant by the phrase “double depression”?

  1. Symptoms are consistent with two different subtypes of major depression.
  2. The individual has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and a mood disorder.
  3. Symptoms of both typical and atypical depression are exhibited.
  4. An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-20

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. An individual with dysthymia later develops major depressive disorder as well.

 

7.1-21. Kerry suffers from depression. He is experiencing delusions that his brain is deteriorating and that he is aging quickly. These delusions

  1. clearly suggest a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
  2. are typical of depressive delusions because they are mood congruent.
  3. suggest that he is suffering from a bipolar rather than a unipolar disorder.
  4. are most likely to persist after the depression remits.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-21

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. are typical of depressive delusions because they are mood congruent.

 

7.1-22. Margaret has been suffering with dysthymia for several years and has sought treatment on several occasions. About one month ago she developed more severe symptoms of depression, which have been maintained almost daily. The condition she is experiencing is best described as

  1. double depression.
  2. chronic melancholia.
  3. adjustment disorder with bipolar features.
  4. recurring melancholic depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-22

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. double depression.

 

7.1-23. Deena has major depressive disorder. Most days she feels very sad, but when her sister came and told Deena she was going to be an aunt, Deena felt happy for a little while. She has been gaining weight and sleeping much of the day. Deena most likely has

  1. melancholic features.
  2. double depression.
  3. atypical features.
  4. psychotic features.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-23

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. atypical features.

 

7.1-24. A recurrent depressive episode

  1. is preceded by one or more previous episodes.
  2. suggests that chronic major depression has developed.
  3. typically lasts 2-3 weeks.
  4. is characteristic of all forms of bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-24

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. is preceded by one or more previous episodes.

 

7.1-25. The average duration of an untreated episode of depression is

  1. 6-9 months.
  2. 1 year.
  3. 2 years.
  4. unknown as individuals not seeking treatment haven’t been studied.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-25

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. 6-9 months.

 

7.1-26. Which of the following is a true statement about the recurrence of depressive symptoms?

  1. If a recurrence is not experienced within 1 year after an initial depressive episode, recurrence is highly unlikely.
  2. Most individuals diagnosed with major depression will exhibit a recurrence.
  3. Those with depression with psychotic features are less likely to experience a recurrence.
  4. Clients are usually asymptomatic between depressive episodes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-26

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Most individuals diagnosed with major depression will exhibit a recurrence.

 

7.1-27. A rapid return of symptoms immediately after drug treatment is terminated is a common example of ________; a return to depressive symptoms after a period of spontaneous remission of symptoms is called a ________.

  1. melancholia; recurrence
  2. recurrence; relapse
  3. relapse; recurrence
  4. mood-congruent depression; mood-incongruent depression

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-27

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. relapse; recurrence

 

7.1-28. Seasonal affective disorder is best described as a ________ depressive disorder.

  1. mood-congruent
  2. minor
  3. psychotic
  4. recurrent

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-28

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. recurrent

 

7.1-29. Over the past two years, Kelly has experienced depressive episodes three different times. Two of the three episodes occurred in the winter and the third occurred last fall. It is now winter and Kelly’s depressive symptoms once again are consistent with major depressive disorder. Which of the following diagnoses should she be given?

  1. dysthymic disorder
  2. chronic major depressive disorder
  3. recurrent major depressive disorder
  4. recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-29

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern

 

 

7.1-30. Which of the following statements is supported by research on the role of genetic influences in unipolar disorder?

  1. The more severe the depressive disorder, the greater the genetic contribution.
  2. Twin studies do not consistently find evidence of an inherited susceptibility to depression.
  3. Genes play a more significant causal role in bipolar disorders than they do in unipolar disorders.
  4. Bipolar and unipolar disorders are equally heritable.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-30

Page Ref: 221

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. The more severe the depressive disorder, the greater the genetic contribution.

 

7.1-31. The finding that people with one type of serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment had higher rates of depression than either those without the gene or those with the gene without the maltreatment suggests that

  1. childhood maltreatment causes depression.
  2. only one type of gene causes depression.
  3. either or a gene or certain environmental factors need to be present to cause depression.
  4. both a gene and certain environmental factors need to be present to cause depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-31

Page Ref: 222

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. both a gene and certain environmental factors need to be present to cause depression.

 

7.1-32. Which of the following is true about the monoamine hypothesis of depression?

  1. Alternative theories have replaced this theory.
  2. It has not been replaced by a compelling alternative.
  3. This theory remains the standard of current and accurate information.
  4. This theory has been continuously updated to meet current research.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-32

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. It has not been replaced by a compelling alternative

 

7.1-33. Drugs that alter the availability of norepinephrine and serotonin are not clinically effective in the treatment of depression for several weeks. Which of the following does this finding suggest?

  1. These neurotransmitters are not involved in depression.
  2. It is overactivity of these neurotransmitters that underlies depression, not underactivity.
  3. That the effectiveness of antidepressants is a placebo effect, as opposed to a result of a biochemical manipulation.
  4. Changes in neurotransmitter function, as opposed to neurotransmitter level, cause depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-33

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Changes in neurotransmitter function, as opposed to neurotransmitter level, cause depression.

 

7.1-34. Individuals who do not show a decrease in cortisol levels in response to an injection of dexamethasone

  1. have a severe form of depression.
  2. are likely to be suffering from both major depression and a personality disorder.
  3. will not respond well to pharmacological treatment.
  4. have an HPA axis that is not functioning normally.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-34

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. have an HPA axis that is not functioning normally.

 

7.1-35. Which of the following is most likely to be seen in children who are at risk for depression?

  1. decreased left hemisphere activity
  2. decreased right hemisphere activity
  3. increased serotonin levels
  4. increased GABA levels

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-35

Page Ref: 224

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. decreased left hemisphere activity

 

7.1-36. Which of the following is a brain area that has been found to exhibit abnormalities in depressed patients?

  1. amygdala
  2. basal ganglia
  3. posterior cingulate cortex
  4. medulla oblangata

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 7.1-36

Page Ref: 225

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. amygdala

 

7.1-37. Many people who are depressed

  1. show very little REM sleep, instead they spend large amounts of time in the deeper stages (3 and 4) of sleep.
  2. do not enter REM sleep until much later in the night than normal and have smaller amounts of REM sleep throughout the night than normal.
  3. enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night.
  4. enter REM sleep at a normal time, but have very slow and mild rapid eye movements and have less overall time in REM sleep than normal.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-37

Page Ref: 225-226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. enter REM sleep earlier than normal and have larger amounts of REM sleep early in the night.

 

7.1-38. The fact that bright light may be an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder suggests that

  1. this is a not a real form of depression as any response to light is merely a placebo effect.
  2. this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting.
  3. changes in circadian rhythms underlie most forms of depression.
  4. seasonal affective disorder is a unique entity that should not be categorized with other forms of unipolar depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-38

Page Ref: 226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. this form of depression is produced by a malfunctioning biological clock that needs resetting.

 

7.1-39. Independent life events are those that

  1. only affect one area of a client’s functioning.
  2. are out of the client’s control.
  3. are linked causally to the behavior or personality of the client.
  4. affect the client and not those around him or her.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-39

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. are out of the client’s control.

 

7.1-40. John’s erratic behavior finally ruined his marriage. What kind of life event would this be described as?

  1. acute
  2. chronic
  3. dependent
  4. independent

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-40

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. dependent

 

7.1-41. Which of the following is true?

  1. Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event.
  2. Both first time and recurrent episodes of depression are usually preceded by a very stressful life event.
  3. Even mildly stressful events are associated with the onset of episodes of depression.
  4. Mildly stressful events are only associated with the onset of first time depression, not with recurrent episodes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-41

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. Most first time episodes of depression are preceded by a very stressful life event.

 

7.1-42. A review of several studies found that ________ increased the likelihood of developing a more severe depression.

  1. experiencing a stressful life event
  2. being in an intimate relationship
  3. working outside of the home
  4. having religious faith

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-42

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. experiencing a stressful life event

 

7.1-43. Which of the following is an example of a COGNITIVE diathesis for depression?

  1. neuroticism
  2. optimism
  3. attributing negative events to internal causes
  4. attributing negative events to external causes

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-43

Page Ref: 228

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. attributing negative events to internal causes

 

7.1-44. Which of the following reactions to poor test performance suggests a cognitive diathesis for depression?

  1. I’ll do better next time.
  2. I’ll never understand this.
  3. Why didn’t I study more?
  4. That test was way too hard.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-44

Page Ref: 228

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. I’ll never understand this.

 

7.1-45. Joanne tends to blow up at people and then feel guilty. She worries a lot. She complains that she just doesn’t really find anything exciting and life is boring.

Joanne

  1. shows evidence of neuroticism and low positive affectivity, and has a high risk of developing depression.
  2. shows evidence of neuroticism and has a moderate risk of developing depression.
  3. shows evidence of introversion, and has a mild risk of developing depression.
  4. shows no evidence of any kind that would increase her risk for developing depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-45

Page Ref: 228

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. shows evidence of neuroticism and low positive affectivity, and has a high risk of developing depression.

 

7.1-46. Parental loss only results in a vulnerability to depression when

  1. the loss is due to death.
  2. poor parental care is a consequence of the loss.
  3. the loss is not explained adequately to the child.
  4. both parents are lost at an early age.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-46

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. poor parental care is a consequence of the loss.

 

7.1-47. According to Freud, depression

  1. and grief are the same thing.
  2. must be treated with introjection.
  3. is a consequence of loss.
  4. reflects fixation in the anal stage.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-47

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. is a consequence of loss.

 

7.1-48. Freud suggested that depression

  1. was actually a healthy adaptation to stress.
  2. was a result of overly high self-esteem.
  3. involved the anal stage of development.
  4. was anger turned inward.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-48

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. was anger turned inward.

 

7.1-49. Which of the following is a behavioral explanation for depression?

  1. lack of environmental reinforcers
  2. insecure attachment
  3. pessimistic tendencies
  4. reliance on depressogenic schemas

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-49

Page Ref: 229

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. lack of environmental reinforcers

 

7.1-50. Depressogenic schemas

  1. are inherited.
  2. predispose a person to develop depression.
  3. serve a protective function and are readily modified by positive life experiences.
  4. ensure that a low rate of reinforcement will be experienced.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-50

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. predispose a person to develop depression.

 

7.1-51. A therapist with a ________ orientation would emphasize the depressed person’s need to improve his or her social skills.

  1. interpersonal
  2. psychodynamic
  3. cognitive
  4. sociocultural

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-51

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. interpersonal

 

7.1-52. Beck’s negative cognitive triad involves feeling negatively about

  1. helplessness, hopelessness, and sorrow.
  2. one’s self, one’s experiences, and one’s future.
  3. one’s past, one’s present, and one’s future.
  4. one’s family, one’s self, and one’s friends.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-52

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. one’s self, one’s experiences, and one’s future.

 

7.1-53. Debbie receives her paper back from her instructor. It is marked with an A grade and has several positive comments. The instructor also suggested Debbie reword one small section. Debbie becomes extremely upset and tells her friends her instructor hated the paper and wants her to redo it. This is an example of

  1. selective abstraction.
  2. dichotomous thinking.
  3. arbitrary inference.
  4. learned helplessness.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-53

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. selective abstraction.

 

7.1-54. Selective abstraction

  1. is a tendency to think in extremes.
  2. is a tendency to jump to conclusions based on little or no evidence.
  3. is part of Beck’s cognitive triad.
  4. is a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other aspects.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-54

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. is a tendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other aspects.

 

7.1-55. Which of the following is an example of arbitrary inference?

  1. Life is so unfair.
  2. If she won’t go out with me, I’ll die.
  3. She looked at me funny. She hates me.
  4. Why should I even try? She’ll definitely reject me.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-55

Page Ref: 231

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. She looked at me funny. She hates me.

 

7.1-56. While there is much support for some elements of Beck’s cognitive theory,

  1. treatments based on his view of depression are not effective.
  2. findings supporting it as a causal hypothesis are limited.
  3. it does not account for the known biological aspects of depression.
  4. is does not account for sex differences in depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-56

Page Ref: 231-232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. findings supporting it as a causal hypothesis are limited.

 

7.1-57. No matter what prisoners try to do, they cannot escape. Eventually, they become passive and depressed. This illustrates the central idea in the ________ theory of depression.

  1. attribution
  2. depressogenic schema
  3. learned helplessness
  4. behavioral

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-57

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. learned helplessness

 

7.1-58. Jacob and Matt both flunk their math test. Jacob says to his friends that there is no point in his continuing in the course because, although Jacob feels highly about himself, he suspects that the teacher just doesn’t like him. Matt says he is going to drop the course because he is just stupid in math. According to the reformulated learned helplessness theory,

  1. Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob.
  2. Matt is more likely to feel helpless than Jacob.
  3. Jacob is more likely to become depressed than Matt.
  4. Jacob is more likely to feel helpless than Matt.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-58

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Matt is more likely to become depressed than Jacob.

 

7.1-59. Which of the following is the type of attribution that is most likely to cause depression?

  1. I am never going to make it through this course because it is too early in the morning and I’m having trouble getting up.
  2. I am never going to make it through this course because I’m stupid and I just can’t learn the material.
  3. I am never going to make it through this course because the professor is unfair.
  4. I am never going to make it through this course because I just don’t feel like studying lately.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-59

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. I am never going to make it through this course because I’m stupid and I just can’t learn the material.

 

7.1-60. Abramson revised the learned helplessness theory to suggest that

  1. the worldview dimension of attributions is the most important to depression.
  2. hopelessness is needed to produce depression, helplessness is not important.
  3. the number of negative life events someone experiences is more important than his or her attributions for those events.
  4. the pessimistic attributional style people have about negative events produces depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-60

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the pessimistic attributional style people have about negative events

produces depression.

 

7.1-61. Which of the following statements about rumination is true, according to the ruminative response styles theory?

  1. Rumination is a protective factor against depression.
  2. People who ruminate a great deal tend to have more lengthy periods of depressive symptoms.
  3. Gender differences in depression are explained by ruminative styles.
  4. Biological factors have been most clearly linked to the development of rumination in those who do not have a family history of mood disorders.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-61

Page Ref: 233-234

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. People who ruminate a great deal tend to have more lengthy periods of depressive symptoms.

 

7.1-62. When a nondepressed student lives with a depressed roommate, which of the following often results?

  1. frequent verbal fights, which may even become physical
  2. increased depression and hostility in the roommate who was not originally depressed
  3. a decrease in depression in the depressed roommate
  4. increased caretaking by the nondepressed roommate, but only after the nondepressed roommate becomes depressed

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-62

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. increased rejection and hostility in the roommate who was not originally depressed

 

7.1-63. Which of the following is a major risk factor for panic disorder, depression, and other anxiety disorders?

  1. the presence of neuroticism
  2. the presence of positive affect
  3. the presence of helplessness
  4. the presence of rumination

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-63

Page Ref: 234

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. the presence of neuroticism

 

7.1-64. A relationship between depression and marital dissatisfaction

  1. has yet to be established.
  2. only exists due to the submissive behavior of depressed wives.
  3. is only seen when depression leads to substance abuse.
  4. is well-established.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-64

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. is well-established.

 

7.1-65. Which statement best describes the relationship between mood disorders and domestic distress?

  1. Critical comments trigger negative affect in the spouse.
  2. Women who are depressed avoid their partners.
  3. Whenever there is a problem, it is caused by a man who, in a manic episode, is unaware of the nature of his behavior or even who he is attacking.
  4. Men become violent as a way of protecting themselves when their wives, who suffer from depressive episodes, become impulsively aggressive.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-65

Page Ref: 236

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Critical comments trigger negative affect in the spouse.

 

7.1-66. Childhood depression

  1. has been clearly linked to genetic factors.
  2. is more likely in children with a depressed parent.
  3. has not been associated with parental depression.
  4. can usually be causally related to marital discord.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-66

Page Ref: 237

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. is more likely in children with a depressed parent.

 

7.1-67. A hypomanic episode is best described as a

  1. mild manic episode.
  2. short manic episode.
  3. manic episode characterized by inactivity.
  4. manic episode followed by symptoms of a mild depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-67

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. mild manic episode.

 

7.1-68. The main difference between a manic episode and a hypomanic episode is

  1. whether the person also experiences depression.
  2. the number of symptoms the person has.
  3. whether the person has irritable mood.
  4. the amount of social and occupational impairment.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-68

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. the amount of social and occupational impairment.

 

7.1-69. Bipolar disorder is to major depression as ________ is to ________.

  1. dysthymia; cyclothymia
  2. cyclothymia; dysthymia
  3. mania; hypomania
  4. hypomania; mania

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-69

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. cyclothymia; dysthymia

 

7.1-70. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of cyclothymia?

  1. The occurrence of two or more episodes of major depression
  2. Unremitting symptoms for a period of at least two years
  3. Clinically significant distress or impairment
  4. The occurrence of at least one episode of anxiety

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-70

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. clinically significant distress or impairment

 

7.1-71. Which of the following would eliminate a potential diagnosis of cyclothymia?

  1. Gil had been showing both hypomanic and depressed symptoms for over three years.
  2. Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this.
  3. Bob’s most recent hypomanic episode lasted 3 days.
  4. Between her more recent episodes, Carla functioned quite well for 3 weeks.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-71

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her, although there was no evidence for this.

 

7.1-72. Lori has periods of dejection and apathy that are not as severe as are seen in major depression. She also has periods when she abruptly becomes elated and has little need for sleep. Her symptoms never reach the level of psychosis, but the mood swings have been recurrent for over four years. The best diagnosis for Lori is

  1. schizoaffective disorder.
  2. bipolar I disorder.
  3. recurrent dysthymia.
  4. cyclothymia.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-72

Page Ref: 238

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. cyclothymia.

 

7.1-73. Which of the following is necessary for a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder?

  1. the occurrence of two or more episodes of major depression
  2. unremitting symptoms for a period of at least two years
  3. symptoms of psychosis
  4. the occurrence of at least one manic episode

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-73

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. the occurrence of at least one manic episode

 

7.1-74. Although bipolar I disorder is described as “bipolar,”

  1. a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis.
  2. few patients show both manic and depressed symptoms.
  3. both depressed and manic symptoms typically occur simultaneously.
  4. a year or two commonly passes between manic and depressed episodes.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-74

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis.

 

7.1-75.  A diagnosis of bipolar I disorder indicates that the person has met DSM-5 criteria for

  1. an episode of mania.
  2. an episode of mania or major depression.
  3. an episode of hypomania and a major depression.
  4. an episode of mania and psychois.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-75

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. an episode of mania.

 

7.1-76. Angela has had several periods of extremely “up” moods. They last for a couple of weeks and she has gotten into trouble several times. During those times she doesn’t sleep, spends way too much money, gets involved in bad business decisions, talks quickly and thinks even more quickly and believes she can do anything. The best diagnosis for Angela is

  1. manic disorder.
  2. bipolar II disorder.
  3. bipolar I disorder.
  4. cyclothymic disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-76

Page Ref: 239

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. bipolar I disorder.

 

7.1-77. Which statement about bipolar I disorder is accurate?

  1. The depressive phase is more likely to involve psychotic features than in major depressive disorder.
  2. The onset of bipolar symptoms are never associated with seasons of the year as they are in unipolar depression.
  3. Single episodes of the disorder are extremely rare.
  4. Manic and depressive phases are always separated by lengthy intervals of normal mood.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-77

Page Ref: 241-242

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. Single episodes of the disorder are extremely rare.

 

7.1-78. A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder indicates that the person has experienced

  1. an episode of mania.
  2. an episode of mania or major depression.
  3. an episode of hypomania and an episode of major depression.
  4. an episode of mania and an episode of major depression.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-78

Page Ref: 240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. an episode of hypomania and an episode of major depression.

 

7.1-79. Carleen comes to therapy because she is feeling sad. Carleen says her she has often had periods of extreme sadness in the past and they typically last between 6 and 8 months. During those times she overeats, has trouble sleeping, feels exhausted all the time, and thinks a lot about dying. At other times, however, Carleen says she feels wonderful. During those times, which last about a week, she gets a lot done, feels as if she could do anything, talks a lot and quickly, doesn’t sleep, but doesn’t feel tired. Carleen says her “up” times are great and have never caused her any trouble. Carleen’s most likely diagnosis is

  1. major depressive disorder.
  2. dysthymia.
  3. bipolar I.
  4. bipolar II.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-79

Page Ref: 240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. bipolar II.

 

7.1-80. Which of the following is a true statement about rapid cycling in bipolar disorders?

  1. It is seen in men more than women.
  2. It occurs in only those with Bipolar II disorder.
  3. Lithium may trigger a cycling episode.
  4. It is seen in 5-10 percent of those with bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-80

Page Ref: 241

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. It is seen in 5-10 percent of those with bipolar disorder.

 

7.1-81. Why is it not wise to treat an individual who has a bipolar disorder with a tricyclic antidepressant?

  1. The unpleasant side effects cause many to stop taking them.
  2. Individuals with bipolar disorder may or may not exhibit symptoms of depression.
  3. The drugs used to treat unipolar disorders do not alter the activity of the neurotransmitters that are affected in bipolar disorder.
  4. The combination of antidepressants and lithium is likely to be lethal.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-81

Page Ref: 247

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. The unpleasant side effects cause many to stop taking them.

 

7.1-82. The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication indicated ________percent of people with mood disorders receive no treatment or inadequate care.

  1. 40
  2. 50
  3. 60
  4. 70

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-82

Page Ref: 246

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. 60

 

7.1-83. Which of the following is true?

  1. Neither unipolar nor bipolar disorder have a strong genetic contribution.
  2. Unipolar and bipolar disorders have an equally strong genetic contribution.
  3. Unipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than bipolar disorder.
  4. Bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than unipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-83

Page Ref: 242

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Bipolar disorder is more strongly inherited than unipolar disorder.

 

7.1-84. Efforts to find the gene or genes that underlie bipolar disorder suggest that

  1. multiple genes are involved.
  2. the underlying gene is on the Y chromosome.
  3. the underlying gene is on the X chromosome.
  4. there is a genetic basis for bipolar disorder, but not for cyclothymia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-84

Page Ref: 242

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. multiple genes are involved.

 

7.1-85. Which of the following neurochemical profiles has been associated with manic episodes?

  1. High serotonin, high norepinephrine, high dopamine
  2. Low serotonin, high norepinephrine, high dopamine
  3. Low serotonin, low norepinephrine, high dopamine
  4. Low serotonin, high norepinephrine, low dopamine

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-85

Page Ref: 242-243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. Low serotonin, high norepinephrine, high dopamine

 

7.1-86. Knowing what we know about the neurotransmitter imbalances in bipolar disorder, a physician should give which of the following pieces of advice?

  1. “Eat lots of foods that are rich in norepinephrine.”
  2. “Don’t take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior.”
  3. “Stay away from drugs that include lithium because bipolar is associated with excessive lithium activity.”
  4. “If you can keep your serotonin levels normal, you do not have to worry about having a manic episode.”

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-86

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. “Don’t take drugs that increase dopamine levels because they can produce manic-like behavior.”

 

7.1-87. Reynaldo has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The most effective drug for him is

  1. one that will increase his dopamine levels.
  2. one that will counteract the effect of sodium in his nerve cells.
  3. lithium.
  4. dexamethasone.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-87

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. lithium.

 

7.1-88. The effectiveness of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder

  1. supports the hypothesized role of serotonin in this disorder.
  2. is inconsistent with the established effects of dopamine on mood states.
  3. supports the role of dopamine in mania.
  4. suggests that it is not neurotransmitter function that is disrupted in bipolar disorder, but neurotransmitter levels.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-88

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. supports the role of dopamine in mania.

 

7.1-89. Which of the following is a hormonal abnormality associated with both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression?

  1. decreased thyroid hormone levels
  2. increased thyroid hormone levels
  3. decreased cortisol levels
  4. increased cortisol levels

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-89

Page Ref: 243

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. increased cortisol levels

 

7.1-90. Stressful life events

  1. do not trigger manic episodes.
  2. appear to increase the time to recovery from a manic episode.
  3. do not generally precipitate an initial manic episode, but tend to play more of a role over time.
  4. play no role in the development or progression of bipolar II disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-90

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. appear to increase the time to recovery from a manic episode.

 

7.1-91. A sophisticated prospective study of the role of stressful life events in bipolar disorder by Ellicott, Hammen, and colleagues found that

  1. low levels of stress protected an individual against manic episodes.
  2. stress did not play a lesser role with the occurrence of more episodes.
  3. high levels of stress were not associated with the occurrence of manic or depressive episodes.
  4. low levels of stress protected an individual against depressive episodes.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-91

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. stress did not play a lesser role with the occurrence of more episodes.

 

7.1-92. Recent research on relapse among bipolar patients suggests that

  1. stressful life events have very little influence.
  2. personality styles interact with stress to increase the likelihood of relapse.
  3. relapse is most likely among those with unrealistically positive attributional styles.
  4. the more frequently a person has bipolar episodes, the less likely stressful events are able to induce a relapse.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-92

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. personality styles interact with stress to increase the likelihood of relapse.

 

7.1-93. Cross-cultural studies of mood disorders are made difficult due to

  1. the variability in the prevalence of bipolar disorders.
  2. the variability in the prevalence of unipolar disorders.
  3. the lack of clear-cut distinctions between bipolar and unipolar disorders.
  4. differences in diagnostic practices.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-93

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. differences in diagnostic practices.

 

7.1-94. Which of the following might explain why rates of depression are low in China and Japan?

  1. Mental illnesses are not stigmatized, thus those who are depressed receive much social support and do not seek treatment.
  2. The heavy emphasis on the individual decreases the likelihood of blaming the self for failure.
  3. Symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic.
  4. Blunted emotions characterize Asian peoples, so both positive and negative emotional extremes are rare.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-94

Page Ref: 244

Topic: Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Symptoms of depression tend to be discussed as somatic.

 

7.1-95. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  1. were the first antidepressants to be developed.
  2. are more effective than the tricyclic antidepressants.
  3. may lead to sexual problems.
  4. act to stabilize the mood swings of those with bipolar disorder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-95

Page Ref: 248

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. may lead to sexual problems.

 

7.1-96. Jill’s marriage has suffered ever since the birth of her second child. Since the birth, she has been depressed and has had little interest in intimacy with her husband. Jill feels unattractive with the additional weight she carries since the birth and has been rejecting her husband’s advances. After discussing her feelings with Dr. Tora, Dr. Tora has decided to prescribe her an antidepressant. Considering the problems she has been having in her marriage, which of the following is Dr. Tora most likely to prescribe?

  1. imipramine
  2. Prozac
  3. bupropion
  4. venlafaxine

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 7.1-96

Page Ref: 248-249

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. bupropion

 

7.1-97. Lithium

  1. is more effective than antidepressants at treating bipolar depression.
  2. has both antimanic and antidepressant effects.
  3. is an anticonvulsant.
  4. is well-tolerated by most bipolar patients.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-97

Page Ref:  248

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Pharmacotherapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. has both antimanic and antidepressant effects.

 

7.1-98. Quentin is severely depressed and presents an immediate and serious suicidal risk. In the past he has not responded to tricyclics. A wise course of action is to treat him with

  1. Prozac because it can reduce symptoms in 12-24 hours.
  2. electroconvulsive therapy because it can rapidly reduce symptoms.
  3. lithium because suicide is almost always accompanied by manic episodes.
  4. anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine and valproate because they can prevent future depressions.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-98

Page Ref: 249

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Alternative Biological Treatments

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. electroconvulsive therapy because it can rapidly reduce symptoms.

 

7.1-99. Transcranial magnetic stimulation

  1. is a biological test for altered brain waves in bipolar disorder.
  2. is a noninvasive biological test for changes in brain function in depression.
  3. is a noninvasive biological treatment for manic episodes.
  4. is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-99

Page Ref: 249

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Alternative Biological Treatments

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. is a noninvasive biological treatment for depression.

 

7.1-100. Nadia has been depressed for several months. She is considering cognitive therapy. What advice would you give her?

  1. “Cognitive therapy is much less effective than interpersonal therapy and takes much longer, too.”
  2. “Many studies have shown the usefulness of cognitive therapy and it seems to prevent relapse.”
  3. “Drug treatment is much more effective than cognitive therapy and has less likelihood of relapse.”
  4. “The only way that cognitive therapy is of any value is if it is coupled with family therapy.”

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-100

Page Ref: 250

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. “Many studies have shown the usefulness of cognitive therapy and it seems to prevent relapse.”

 

7.1-101. Behavior activation treatment

  1. focuses on implementing cognitive changes.
  2. combines pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy.
  3. combines interpersonal therapy and behavioral methodology.
  4. emphasizes activity and involvement in interpersonal relationships.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-101

Page Ref: 251

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. emphasizes activity and involvement in interpersonal relationships.

 

7.1-102. Diane’s treatment for depression included training in meditation techniques that helped her become aware of her unwanted negative thoughts and to accept them as just thoughts. She was undergoing

  1. mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
  2. psychodynamic therapy.
  3. behavioral activation therapy.
  4. transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-102

Page Ref: 251

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.

 

7.1-103. One factor that is especially likely to produce depression relapse is

  1. family members ignoring the depressed behavior expressed by the depressed individual.
  2. excessive attention from family members.
  3. family members discussing the depressed individual’s negative thoughts and feelings with him or her.
  4. behavior by a spouse that can be interpreted as criticism.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-103

Page Ref: 252

Topic: Treatments and Outcomes/Psychotherapy

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. behavior by a spouse that can be interpreted as criticism.

 

7.1-104. Which statement about the risk of suicide is true?

  1. Depressed people are no more likely to commit suicide than nondepressed people.
  2. The risk of suicide is greatest at the lowest point in a depression.
  3. About half of people who complete suicide do so in the recovery phase of a depressive episode.
  4. Suicide is most likely when a person in a manic episode is getting “high.”

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-104

Page Ref: 252

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. About half of people who complete suicide do so in the recovery phase of a depressive episode.

 

7.1-105. Which of the following is most likely to attempt suicide?

  1. A 25-year-old single man
  2. A 25-year-old single woman
  3. A 25-year-old divorced man
  4. A 25-year-old divorced woman

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-105

Page Ref: 253

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Who Attempts and Who Commits Suicide?

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. a 25-year-old divorced woman

 

7.1-106. The majority of individuals who ATTEMPT suicide are ________ and the majority of those who COMPLETE suicide are ________.

  1. women and people between age 18 and 24; men and people over age 65
  2. men and people over age 65; women and people between age 18 and 24
  3. adolescents; the elderly
  4. the elderly; adolescents

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-106

Page Ref: 253

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Who Attempts and Who Commits Suicide?

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. women and people between age 18 and 24; men and people over age 65

 

7.1-107. The director of a city health department wants to know who is most likely to complete suicide in her city. The group with the highest risk is

  1. teenagers, especially depressed girls.
  2. elderly men with chronic physical illnesses.
  3. young women who were recently separated or divorced.
  4. college-educated people.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-107

Page Ref: 253

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Who Attempts and Who Commits Suicide?

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. elderly men with chronic physical illnesses.

 

7.1-108. Childhood suicide

  1. is common.
  2. has been declining since the early 1950s.
  3. is the third most common cause of death in the US for 15 to19 year-olds
  4. most commonly is seen in victims of early onset schizophrenia.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-108

Page Ref: 254

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Suicide in Children

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. is one of the top ten causes of death for children in the United States.

 

7.1-109. Which of the following is most likely to attempt, but not complete, suicide?

  1. 14-year-old Joan who has been depressed since her parent’s divorce
  2. Charlie, a 16-year-old with a history of petty crimes
  3. 12-year-old Paul who receives constant rejection from the girls at school and has an overprotective mother
  4. Crystal, a 14-year-old substance abusing teen who has been diagnosed with attention deficit disorder

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.1-109

Page Ref: 254

Topic: The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern/Suicide in Adolescents and

Young Adults

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. 14-year-old Joan who has been depressed since her parent’s divorce

 

7.1-110. Melissa is severely depressed and wants to commit suicide. If she is typical of most individuals who commit suicide,

  1. she is determined to kill herself and will choose a lethal means such as a gun to ensure that she is successful.
  2. she is ambivalent about committing suicide.
  3. she will change her mind at the last minute and reexamine her problems in a more objective fashion.
  4. she will show no outward signs of her distress.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-110

Page Ref: 257

Topic: Suicidal Ambivalence

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. she is ambivalent about committing suicide.

 

7.1-111. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is true about the relationship between religion and rate of suicide?

  1. Suicide rates in Catholic countries are high but are low in Islamic countries.
  2. Suicide rates in Catholic countries are low but are high in Islamic countries.
  3. Suicide rates in both Catholic and Islamic countries are low.
  4. Suicide rates in both Catholic and Islamic countries are high.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.1-110

Page Ref: 257

Topic: Suicidal Ambivalence

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Suicide rates in both Catholic and Islamic countries are low.

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

7.2-1. Two types of mood disorders are __________ and bipolar depressive disorders

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.2-1

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: unipolar

 

7.2-2. The diagnosis of __________ occurs when symptoms are similar to a manic episode but are milder.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.2-2

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: hypomanic episode

 

7.2-3. A major depressive episode is considered to be __________ when the symptoms do not remit for over 2 years.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.2-3

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: chronic

 

7.2-4. The hormone __________ has been found to be elevated in most patients hospitalized with major depressive disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.2-4

Page Ref: 223

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: cortisol

 

7.2-5. A different kind of depression related to the total amount of light a person receives is often called __________ .

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.2-5

Page Ref: 226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: seasonal affective disorder

 

Short Answer Questions

 

7.3-1. What are the four phases of the grieving process?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.3-1

Page Ref: 215

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders

Skill: Factual

Answer: The normal response to the loss of spouse or close family member begins with a numbing and disbelief. This is followed by a yearning for the person that may possibly last for months. Eventually, despair is seen and then, finally, some adaptation and reorganization such that life can continue without the departed loved one.

 

7.3-2. What is anaclitic depression?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-2

Page Ref: 219

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Factual

Answer: Anaclitic depression or despair is a form of depression seen in infants separated from their attachment figure for a prolonged period of time. There is some debate, however, as to whether the behavior displayed is merely a normal reaction to loss.

 

7.3-3. What type of psychotic symptoms might be seen in someone suffering from major depression?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-3

Page Ref: 220

Topic: Unipolar Mood Disorders/Major Depressive Disorder

Skill: Applied

Answer: The presence of psychotic symptoms indicate that a break with reality has occurred and involves the presence of hallucinations and/or delusions. The psychotic symptoms seen in depression are mood-congruent, they are symptoms that are consistent with being depressed. The depressed individual, for example, might believe that their friends and family want them dead.

 

7.3-4. What changes in sleep are seen in depression?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-4

Page Ref: 225-226

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Biological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: Over half of depressed patients experience some form of insomnia. In addition to having problems getting to sleep or staying asleep, the sleep of the depressed is not normal. More time is spent in REM sleep and REM sleep is entered more quickly, leading to a reduction in the amount of time spent in other forms of deep sleep. The observed alterations in sleep suggest a general disturbance in biological rhythms.

 

7.3-5. What are independent and dependent life events? What is their importance?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-5

Page Ref: 227

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Factual

Answer: Independent – stressful events that are not a result of a person’s behavior or

character, dependent – are a result of those things, at least partly. Dependent events are

especially important in the onset of major depression.

 

7.3-6. Describe the hopelessness theory of depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-6

Page Ref: 232

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal

Factors

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: Having a pessimistic attributional style along with negative life events is not enough to produce depression. A state of hopelessness is needed as well. Hopelessness expectancy is the perception that one has no control over a situation that is about to occur as well as an absolute belief that what is going to happen is going to be bad.

 

7.3-7. What is the difference between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-7

Page Ref: 239-240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar Disorders (I and II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: A diagnosis of bipolar I is made when there has been a manic episode. This diagnosis is made with or without the occurrence of a bout of major depression. In bipolar II, there is at least one episode of major depression and a hypomanic episode. If the individual with bipolar II exhibits a manic episode, a diagnosis of bipolar I is warranted.

 

7.3-8. In what way do the symptoms of depression in Western and non-Western societies differ?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.3-8

Page Ref: 244-245

Topic: Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar

Disorders/Symptoms

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: While the Western constellation of depressive symptoms is primarily psychological, in many cultures the symptoms tend to be more somatic. In those cultures in which there is great stigma associated with mental illness and/or a lack of emotional expressiveness, depression may manifest itself in symptoms such as weight loss, sleep disturbances, and sexual dysfunction. In addition, the feelings of guilt and worthlessness that characterize depression in individualistic cultures may not be seen in more communal cultures.

 

7.3-9. Discuss the risk factors for adolescent suicide.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-9

Page Ref: 254

Topic: The Clinical Picture and Causal Pattern/Suicide in Adolescents and

Young Adults

Skill: Applied

Answer: Mood disorders, conduct disorder and substance abuse all increase the risk of both nonfatal and fatal suicide attempts. If the adolescent has 2 or more of these, the risk for completion of suicide is extremely high. Antidepressant medications slightly increase the risk as well.

 

7.3-10. What are the warning signs of student suicide in college or university?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.3-10

Page Ref: 255

Topic: Suicide/7.3 Warning Signs for Student Suicide

Skill: Factual

Answer: Marked change in mood and behavior, especially withdrawal, decline in self-esteem, not taking care of personal hygiene, uncharacteristically impulsive behaviors, not attending classes. Many students communicate their impulses. Often the behavior is a reaction to the break-up of a romance.

 

 

Essay Questions

 

7.4-1. What are the two main forms of mood disorder? How are these disorders further characterized?

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 7.4-1

Page Ref: 213

Topic: Mood Disorders: An Overview

Skill: Factual

Answer: The two main forms of mood disorder are unipolar, in which a person only experiences depression, and bipolar, in which a person has mood swings that range from hypomania or mania to depression. A person with bipolar disorder, however, may not exhibit any depression. The mood disorders are differentiated in terms of severity — the number of areas of life that are impaired and the degree of impairment, and duration — whether the disorder is acute, chronic, or intermittent. In addition, each type of mood disorder is further divided into multiple subtypes. GRADING RUBRIC – 8 points total – 4 points for correct identification, 2 points each for 2 aspects of how they are classified.

 

7.4-2. Discuss Beck’s cognitive theory of depression.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.4-3

Page Ref: 230

Topic: Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders/Psychological Causal Factors

Skill: Applied

Answer: Beck’s theory is that thinking preceded and caused depression. First, people hold dysfunctional beliefs that predispose them to depression. These are rigid, extreme, and unhelpful beliefs about the world. They create automatic, negative thoughts that center around the cognitive triad – the self, the world, and the future. Negative beliefs and feelings about the triad are maintained by cognitive errors such as all or none reasoning and arbitrary inference. This theory has been well supported as an explanation for many aspects of depression, but evidence confirming it as a cause of depression is mixed. GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points.

 

7.4-3. Distinguish between cyclothymic disorder, bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder. How are these disorders alike and how are they different?

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 7.4-3

Page Ref: 237-240

Topic: Bipolar Disorders/Cyclothymic Disorder/Bipolar Disorders (I & II)

Skill: Factual

Answer: Cyclothymia is best described as a less severe, yet chronic, version of bipolar disorder. While the individual with bipolar I disorder exhibits a full manic state, the individual with cyclothymia exhibits hypomania. People with bipolar II have full major depressive episodes, people with cyclothymia have depressive symptoms but not full episodes. In cyclothymia the lows and the highs do not rise to the level that is needed for a diagnosis of major depressive episode or manic episode, respectively. The disorders differ in that there need not be any depressive symptoms in bipolar I disorder, although this is usually the case as pure mania is rare. Only bipolar I involves manic episodes. GRADING RUBRIC: 10 points – Descriptions of each disorder 2 points each, note the difference in severity 2, note the major differences 2.

 

 

 

 

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