Administration And Management In Criminal Justice 2nd Edition By Jennifer M. – Test Bank

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Administration And Management In Criminal Justice 2nd Edition By Jennifer M. – Test Bank

Chapter 6

Motivation

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice (25)

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered a process theory of motivation?
  2. Expectancy theory
  3. Equity theory
  4. Procedural justice theory

*d. Maslow’s needs theory (hierarchy)

Answer location: (Content/Needs Theories) p. 179

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The scholar most closely associated with the hierarchy of needs is _________________.

*a. Maslow

  1. Alderfer
  2. Herzberg
  3. McClelland

Answer location: (Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy) p. 180

Question Type: MC

 

  1. According to Maslow, the most basic human needs (the lower order needs) fall into which category?

*a. Physiological needs

  1. Safety needs
  2. Belonging needs
  3. Esteem needs

Answer location:  (Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy) p. 180

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police officer is motivated to perform her job effectively each day, in part, by her desire to earn praise from supervisors and maintain her reputation among coworkers. Her status in the minds of others is a prime motivator.  She seems to be motivated by _______________ needs.
  2. Physiological needs
  3. Belonging needs

*c. Esteem needs

  1. Self-actualization needs

Answer location: (Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy) p. 180

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Alderfer’s growth needs were similar to a part of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Which part of Maslow’s hierarchy is included in Alderfer’s conception of growth needs?
  2. Physiological needs
  3. Belonging needs
  4. Safety needs

*d. Self-actualization needs

Answer location: (Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) Theory) p. 181

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Smith wants to offer motivators rather than tend to hygiene factors in order to improve the performance of her subordinates. According to Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory, which of the following is best considered a motivator?

*a. Personal growth

  1. Job security
  2. Pay
  3. Company policies

Answer location: (Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory) p. 182-183

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A probation officer has a strong achievement need consistent with McClelland’s theory about achievement. Which of the following is not consistent with this theory?
  2. The officer wants to solve problems through his/her own efforts
  3. The officer establishes goals that are not too easy and not too difficult

*c. The officer wants to establish personal power

  1. The officer desires feedback in order to learn about their performance

Answer location: (McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs) p. 187

Question Type: MC

 

  1. An elected prosecutor is motivated by the desire to obtain power in order to boost his status. He wants power because it is a symbol and he enjoys it for its own sake.  He is not interested in crime reduction.  The prosecutor is motivated by _________________ power.

*a. Personalized

  1. Socialized
  2. Experienced
  3. Referent

Answer location: (McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs) p. 187

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which scholar’s theory expanded on earlier works by considering needs learned through experiences rather than just innate or inherent needs?

*a. McClelland

  1. Herzberg
  2. Alderfer
  3. Maslow

Answer location: (McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs) p. 187-188

Question Type: MC

 

  1. In expectancy theory, the desirability that a worker assigns to any anticipated outcome is referred to as its _________________________.

*a. Valence

  1. Instrumentality
  2. Expectancy
  3. Power

Answer location: (Expectancy Theory) p. 190

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A probation officer is deficient in preparing presentence reports because he does not know how to fill them out. He lacks the ability to achieve the desired level of performance.  His lack of motivation stems from which factor associated with expectancy theory?
  2. Valence
  3. Instrumentality

*c. Expectancy

  1. Power

Answer location: (Expectancy Theory) p. 190-191

Question Type: MC

 

  1. In a study of DUI arrest rates in Pennsylvania, researchers found that the ___________ component of expectancy theory had the greatest influence on officer behavior.
  2. Valence
  3. Instrumentality

*c. Expectancy (capability/opportunity)

  1. All of the above

Answer location:  (Expectancy Theory) p. 192

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Workers are likely to be motivated when they perceive that the processes of assessing their performance, disputes, and grievances are fair. This statement best describes ___________ theory.
  2. Expectancy
  3. Motivator-hygiene

*c. Procedural justice

  1. Reinforcement

Answer location: (Procedural Justice Theory) p. 194

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Officer Watson is motivated to perform exceptionally well in order to get to leave the graveyard shift (one that he views as very undesirable) for another shift.
  2. Positive reinforcement

*b. Escape or avoidance reinforcement

  1. Repeated non-reinforcement
  2. Punishment

Answer location: (Reinforcement Theory) p. 195

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Reinforcement theory was proposed by ___________________.
  2. Maslow

*b. Skinner

  1. McClelland
  2. Vroom

Correct Answer: (Reinforcement Theory) p. 195

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following examples is most consistent with the concept of vertical job loading?
  2. Narrow the task performed by a correctional officer but pay more wages for higher productivity in completing that task
  3. Expand the tasks assigned to a detective to include not only violent crime investigation but property crime investigation as well
  4. Offer incentives for early retirement

*d. Allow a community police officer to make his/her own schedule to fit the needs of their work, a task formerly reserved for supervisors

Answer location: (Job Enrichment) p. 199

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A patrol officer rarely gets to see a case through from beginning to end. He/she conducts an initial investigation and then turns the case over to a detective who works to clear the case.  This example suggests that the patrol officer’s work lacks ________________.
  2. Skill variety

*b. Task identity

  1. Task significance
  2. Autonomy

Correct Answer: (Job Characteristics Model) p. 200

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The extent to which a job provides a worker the liberty to schedule work and decide the procedure to complete it is _______________.
  2. Skill variety
  3. Task identity
  4. Task significance

*d. Autonomy

Answer location: (Job Characteristics Model) p. 200

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The job characteristics model proposed by Hackman and Oldham is comprised of ___________ core job dimensions.
  2. Four

*b. Five

  1. Six
  2. Seven

Answer location: (Job Characteristics Model) p. 200

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following best illustrates a formal performance appraisal?
  2. After a domestic violence call, a sergeant offers suggestions to a young patrol officer about his performance
  3. A police officer is told by a supervisor one morning to shine his shoes

*c. A correctional officer sits down for his annual review which involves a sergeant completing a worksheet

  1. A prosecutor tells a coworker that she is doing a great job

Answer location: (Formal versus informal appraisals) p. 207

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Some factors in employee assessments are criticized for their inability to predict what a person does on the job and for being discriminatory. These factors generally fall into the category of _________.

*a. Traits

  1. Behaviors
  2. Results
  3. All of the above

Answer location: (Factors to be evaluated) p. 208

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police chief institutes a quota where officers must write 15 traffic citations each month. They will be evaluated each month on their performance.  This type of appraisal is best considered a ___________ approach.
  2. Trait
  3. Behavior

*c. Results

  1. Opportunistic

Answer location: (Factors to be evaluated) p. 208

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A drug treatment counselor is evaluated each year on the number of clients who stay drug-free for at least six months. This approach to evaluation best fits into the category of ___________.
  2. Traits
  3. Behaviors

*c. Results

  1. None of the above

Answer location: (Factors to be evaluated) p. 208

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is most likely viewed as a subjective measure of performance?
  2. For a drug treatment counselor: increase the number of clients served by 25
  3. For a police officer: attend two community meetings per month
  4. For a juvenile probation officer: make one face-to-face and one additional contact with probationers each month

*d. For a prosecutor:  ensure justice is served in each case

Answer location: (Factors to be evaluated) p. 209

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A corrections department is asking inmates to evaluate the performance of correctional officers. This form of evaluation may be described as a ____________________.

*a. Customer/client appraisal

  1. Peer appraisal
  2. Subordinate appraisal
  3. Self-appraisal

Answer location: (Factors to be evaluated) p. 211

Question Type: MC

 

True/False (15)

 

  1. Pay is best considered an intrinsic need that leads to motivation.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: False (Motivation) p. 178

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Motivation theories that address how to enhance an individual’s motivation are referred to as need or content theories.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Content/Needs Theories) p. 179

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Once individuals self-actualize, they require less of this type of motivation.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy) p. 180

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Research has found little evidence that Maslow’s theory follows a satisfaction-progression process as depicted in his hierarchy.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy) p. 181

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Officer Howard was motivated in his work to secure the support of his family. The support never came so Officer Johnson’s primary motivator shifted to existence needs, an example of the frustration-regression process.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) Theory) p. 182

Question Type: TF

 

  1. According to Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory, the best motivator is higher wages.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory) p. 182

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A police officer motivated by an achievement need is likely to set easy goals in order to guarantee that they are reached.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs) p. 187

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Research on police officers (conducted by Barnes et al.) found that officers tend to be more frustrated when the public view of the police is unfavorable.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs) p. 187

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The motivations for entering the field of law enforcement differ significantly for men and women.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Main Message of the Content Theories) p. 189

Question Type: TF

 

  1. According to expectancy theory, an instrumentality of score 0 means that a certain performance will not result in obtaining the desired outcome.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Expectancy Theory) p. 190

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Expectancy theory states that only one factor needs to be high in score for motivation to be high.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Expectancy Theory) p. 191

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Distributive fairness refers to being treated fairly in the way workloads are assigned and rewards are distributed.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Equity Theory) p. 192-193

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Giving workers some of the responsibility that would normally be reserved for their supervisor, or vertical job loading, results in significant increases in worker motivation.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Job Enrichment) p. 199

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The job characteristics model is based on the worker’s perception of the core job dimensions.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Job Characteristics Model) p. 199

Question Type: TF

 

  1. According to the goal setting approach to workplace design, more difficult jobs are likely to produce less effort on the part of workers.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Goal Setting) p. 201

Question Type: TF

 

Short Answer (5)

 

  1. Maslow’s needs hierarchy is supposed to operate according to a satisfaction-progression process. What is meant by the term satisfaction-progression process?

Lower level needs are the primary motivators.  Once met, the next level need becomes the primary motivator.  The hierarchy represents a sequence that a person progresses through in order as needs are met.

Answer location: (Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy) p. 181

Question Type: SA

 

  1. What is the difference between underpayment and overpayment inequity?

Overpayment inequity occurs when a person feels that they have received more favorable outcomes given inputs.  Underpayment inequity occurs when a person feels that they have received less favorable outcomes than someone else given inputs.

Answer location: (Equity Theory) p. 193

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Procedural justice theory focuses on the process rather than the outcomes. Assume that you are a police chief tasked with determining pay raises.  Explain how procedural justice theory would shape the motivation of workers in this situation.

Varies, but the actual pay raises will not be important.  What is important is that the criteria are clear, the chief explains decisions, and is courteous and honest with employees.

Answer location: (Procedural Justice Theory) p. 194

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Some jobs are intrinsically motivating, others are extrinsically motivating, and still others are both. What is the difference between intrinsically and extrinsically motivating work?

Intrinsically motivating jobs are motivating in and of themselves.  The accomplishment of the task is satisfying and motivating.  Extrinsically motivating jobs are motivating because of the workers hopes to receive some type of materialistic reward or avoid punishments upon completion of the task. Answer location: (Motivation and Performance) p. 196-197

Question Type: SA

 

  1. A police chief is instituting a 360 degree appraisal system in the police department. What does this mean?  What data sources could potentially be used to evaluate patrol officers?

Varies.  Multiple sources are used to evaluate workers and data are aggregated.  Evaluations may come from supervisors, victims/witnesses who have come in contact with the officer, co-workers, the officer himself/herself, etc.

Answer location: (Factors to be evaluated) p. 211

Question Type: SA

 

Essay (3)

 

  1. Compare and contrast Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) theory to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. What are some of the similarities and differences in how needs are grouped and how individuals progress as needs are satisfied or frustrated?

Varies, but Maslow used five categories (physiological, safety/security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization) compared to Alderfer’s three (existence, relatedness, growth).  These categories did, however, overlap.  Both saw a satisfaction-progression process but Alderfer also believed individuals could regress if their needs were not satisfied.

Answer location: (Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and Alderfer’s Existence-Relatedness-Growth (ERG) Theory) p. 180-182

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Two police officers are up for a promotion. Both have been on the force for five years.  One has four years of military experience while the other has a four-year college degree.  The officer with the college degree receives the promotion causing the motivation level of the other officer to suffer.  Using equity theory, explain why the level of motivation changed for the officer with military experience.

Varies, but the officer with the military experience may have viewed such experience as at least equivalent to the college education.  In other words, inputs were believed to be equal.  However, outcomes were unequal leading to what the military-experienced officer would consider underpayment inequity.

Answer location: (Equity Theory) p. 192-193

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Expectancy theory, equity theory, and procedural justice theory all suggest a place for performance appraisals in producing and sustaining motivation. Describe how performance appraisals fit within each theoretical approach.  In other words, why are evaluations important to each theory?

Varies.  Expectancy theory requires that individuals know that performing a certain way will lead to desired outcomes.  Performance evaluations emphasize desired behaviors.  Workers will not perform if the work is not valued.  Equity theory suggests that workers should receive rewards in proportion to their inputs.  The performance evaluation process allows supervisors to assess the contributions and allocate rewards.  Procedural justice theory requires that evaluation procedures be fair and transparent.

Answer location: (Performance Appraisal) p. 206-207

Question Type: ES

 

Chapter 7

Leadership

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice (25)

 

  1. ____________ approaches to leadership assume that leaders are born rather than made.

*a. Trait

  1. Behavior
  2. Contingency
  3. Transactional

Answer location: (Traits Approach) p. 225

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Trait theories of leadership were most popular in the ________________.
  2. Latter half of the 1800s

*b. First half of the 1900s

  1. Latter half of the 1900s
  2. 2000s

Answer location: (Traits Approach) p. 225

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Studies conducted at ______________ identified the leadership behaviors of consideration and initiating structure.

*a. Ohio State University

  1. Florida State University
  2. UCLA
  3. University of Illinois

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of a “consideration” behavior?
  2. A police sergeant expresses empathy toward subordinates
  3. A chief prosecutor encourages two-way communication between himself and followers

*c. A prison warden sets strict performance standards and goals

  1. A probation supervisor tends to his employees emotional needs

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: MC

 

  1. “There is no one best style of leadership; it depends on the situation” is a statement that sums up ____________ of leadership.
  2. Trait theories
  3. Behavioral theories

*c. Contingency/situational

  1. Transformational

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: MC

 

  1. According to Fielder’s contingency theory, a warden who scores high on the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale will likely behave in which of the following ways?
  2. High in both relationship and task behavior
  3. Low in both relationship and task behavior
  4. High in task behavior but low in relationship behavior

*d. High in relationship but low in task behavior

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Members of a SWAT team accept, trust, and are loyal to their team leader. This suggests that the _________ contingency is favorable for the leader.

*a. Group atmosphere

  1. Task structure
  2. Position power
  3. All of the above

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police sergeant bases his style of leadership on the readiness level of followers. His approach to leadership fits which of the following contingency theories?
  2. Fielder’s contingency theory
  3. Path-goal theory

*c. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency model

  1. Vroom and Yetton’s model

Correct Answer: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police officer is able (has a great record of accomplishment) and willing to perform the job. The sergeant should assume which style of leadership?
  2. Telling
  3. Selling
  4. Participating

*d. Delegating

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police trainer instructs recruits on the law, the tasks they are to complete, and the standards they are to uphold. He then allows them to ask questions in order to clarify expectations and further their understanding of the work.  The trainer is using a __________style of leadership.
  2. Telling

*b. Selling

  1. Participating
  2. Delegating

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A prison warden regularly consults with her staff regarding key policy decisions, soliciting their input and asking them to vote on major changes. This suggests that the warden’s leadership style is, according to path-goal theory, ____________________.
  2. Directive
  3. Supportive

*c. Participative

  1. Achievement-oriented

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 230

Question Type: MC

 

  1. According to path-goal theory, it is appropriate to engage in friendly _____________ behavior with new recruits who may lack confidence.

*a. Supportive

  1. Directive
  2. Participative
  3. Achievement-oriented

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 230

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Vroom and Yetton’s model of leadership is based on the leader’s responsibility to _______________.

*a. Make decisions

  1. Clear paths for employees to achieve personal goals
  2. Provide compensation to subordinates
  3. Discipline and punish

Answer location:  (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 231

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A decision tree is used to determine the appropriate leadership style in what theory?
  2. Path goal theory
  3. Fielder’s contingency theory
  4. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory

*d. Vroom and Yetton’s model

Answer location:  (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 232

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A correctional supervisor informs a correctional officer that she is not meeting expectations when they meet during the annual performance appraisal period. This is an example of __________.

*a. Passive management by exception

  1. Active management by exception
  2. Overt management by exception
  3. Implicit management by exception

Answer location: (Transactional Leadership Theory) p. 233

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following theories is not part of the group collectively known as “outstanding leadership theories”?
  2. Transformational leadership
  3. Visionary leadership

*c. Transactional leadership

  1. Charismatic leadership

Answer location:  (New Wave of Change Leadership Theories) p. 234

Question Type: MC

 

  1. William Bratton, former head of both the New York City and Los Angeles Police Departments, had personality characteristics that allowed him to transform both organizations. His leadership, if driven by these characteristics, fits into which of the following approaches?
  2. Transactional leadership

*b. Charismatic leadership

  1. Visionary leadership
  2. Generational leadership

Answer location:  (Charismatic leadership theory) p. 234

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Transformational leadership can be considered an extension of __________________ of leadership.
  2. Trait theories
  3. Behavioral theories
  4. Contingency theories

*d. Transactional theories

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 234-235

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police chief likes to view himself as a transformational leadership. He works to follow a high moral code and model appropriate behaviors for his force to emulate.  He is trying to develop _________.

*a. Idealized influence

  1. Intellectual stimulation
  2. Inspirational motivation
  3. Individualized consideration

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 235

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A prison warden, upset with the warehousing of drug offenders, encourages subordinates to question the status quo and ask questions about current policies. He is trying to generate ____________.
  2. Idealized influence

*b. Intellectual stimulation

  1. Inspirational motivation
  2. Individualized consideration

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) pg. 235

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A leader scores high on both the concern for results and concern for people dimensions of the managerial grid. His/her leadership style would be classified as ________________.

*a. Contribute and commit

  1. Control and dominate
  2. Yield and comply
  3. Evade and elude

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) p. 244

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The public defender tries to run a friendly office. He works to build relationships with all employees and is attentive to their needs.  His leadership style, according to the managerial grid, may be described as ________________.
  2. Contribute and commit
  3. Control and dominate

*c. Yield and comply

  1. Evade and elude

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) p. 245

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Supportive communication and other effective interpersonal skills can be grouped under the skill area of __________________.

*a. Clan skills

  1. Adhocracy skills
  2. Hierarchy skills
  3. Market skills

Answer location: (Leadership as a Skill) p. 245

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The knowledge and ability necessary to complete a task are referred to as ____________.

*a. Technical skills

  1. Human resource management skills
  2. Conceptual skills
  3. External positioning skills

Answer location:  (Leadership as a Skill) p. 247

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Compared to most other public organizations, police and correctional organizations tend to be characterized by ___________ forms of leadership.
  2. Participative
  3. Democratic
  4. People-oriented

*d. Authoritarian

Answer location: (Leadership and the Criminal Justice System) p. 253

Question Type: MC

 

True/False (15)

 

  1. Scholars have reached a consensus and produced a consistent definition of the term “leadership.”
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Leadership Versus Management) p. 223

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Informal leaders can be easily identified by looking at an organizational chart.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Leadership Versus Management) p. 224

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A prison warden believes in trait theories of leadership. As a result, he should focus on developing new prison leaders through training.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Traits Approach) p. 225

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Behavioral theories suggest that selecting leaders is as simple as finding individuals with the desirable traits.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 225

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A person is said to have position power if they have earned their position and they have the ability to offer rewards such as desirable assignments and punishments such as demotions.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory states that the best leadership style is based on the readiness level of the leader.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory does not consider the various situations/tasks that the leader might encounter.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A directive leadership style is characterized by a leader who tells subordinates what to do, when to do it, and how to do it.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 230

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A SWAT team leader is forced to make a decision in a matter of minutes. Due to the short amount of time available, Vroom and Yetton’s model of leadership would predict that the leader should use a style that involves little subordinate participation.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: True (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 232

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The department’s police commissioner is leading subordinates by supporting them, offering them ways to achieve their goals, providing them with structure and direction, and administering appropriate awards. According to transactional leadership theory, the commissioner is managing by exception.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Transactional Leadership Theory) pg. 233

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A transformational leader deals with followers as a group, tending to avoid any type of individualized consideration.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 234

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Autocratic leaders have great confidence in the abilities of their followers to get the job done.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) pg. 242

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The managerial grid only took into account the positive motivating effects of leadership.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) p. 243-244

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A police sergeant is rated as having strong human resource management skills. This means that he can effectively work with other people.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Leadership as a Skill) p. 247

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A growing amount of research conducted from the 1980s to the present suggests that law enforcement officers prefer authoritative leadership styles.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Leadership and the Criminal Justice System) p. 253

Question Type: TF

 

 

Short Answer (5)

 

  1. While it has been difficult for researchers to identify a single, consistent definition of the term “leadership”, most scholars have agreed that leadership involves two characteristics. What are those two characteristics?

Influencing members of a group and directing their efforts toward the achievement of organizational goals.

Answer location: (Leadership Versus Management) p. 223

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Researchers suggested that the behaviors of consideration and initiating structure were complementary and independent. What is meant by these terms with respect to leadership behaviors?

Leaders may engage in both types of behaviors (complementary) and can engage in one without being at the expense of the other (independent).

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Fielder uses a scale called the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale to determine a person’s leadership behavior. What is the LPC and how does it indicate leadership behavior?

The LPC scale asks individuals to describe the coworker with whom they had the most difficult time working.  Those who describe the person in more favorable terms are said to be relationship-oriented (high LPC).  Those who describe the person in less favorable terms are said to be task-oriented (low LPC).

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: SA

 

  1. For each of the situations below, describe which leadership style would be most appropriate according to Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory.
    1. You are the lieutenant: A police sergeant has just been promoted to his new position and does not quite understand his new role.  In addition, he tends to avoid work and blames others for any mistakes rather than take responsibility himself.  What leadership style should you assume?
    2. You are a chief prosecutor: A deputy prosecutor has tremendous trial skills and knowledge of the law.  He would be an asset to your team on a particularly difficult case but she lacks confidence.  What leadership style should you assume?

 

  1. (telling) since the worker is unable (lacks skills) and unwilling (blames others). B. (participating) since the deputy prosecutor is able but lacks confidence. She needs some support but does not need to be told what to do.

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Identify and briefly describe four separate skills that research indicates are required to become an effective leader?

Varies, but may include human resource manager skills, clan skills, technical skills, conceptual skills, hierarchy skills, market skills, and/or adhocracy skills.

Answer location: (Leadership as a Skill) p. 245-247

Question Type: SA

 

Essay (3)

 

  1. Describe the evolution of leadership theories from trait to behavioral to contingency theory. Specifically, address how each new approach advanced limitations of the previous approach.

Varies.  Trait theories addressed what were largely inborn characteristics that could not be taught or developed through training.  Leaders were born.  Thus, some people were leaders and others were not.  Behavioral theories advanced the study of leadership by suggesting that it was how leaders behaved rather than what they were that mattered.  Yet, there was still the limitation that behavior was perhaps shaped by situational criteria.  This led to contingency theories which argued that the best leadership behavior depended upon certain contingency variables.

Answer location: (Traits Approach and Behavioral Approach and Contingency Theories of Leadership) p. 225-233

Question Type: ES

 

  1. What are the three contingency variables relevant in Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership? Under what circumstances would a leader adopt a task-oriented approach?

Variables include group atmosphere (relationship), task structure (clarity of task), and position power.  Leaders should adopt a task-oriented approach when the three factors are either all favorable (positive relations, clear task, a lot of position power) or unfavorable (poor relationships, unclear task, and little position power).

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227-228

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Transformational leaders are said to use a variety of methods to inspire subordinates to perform at higher levels. According to this approach, what can leaders do to inspire workers?

Leaders can make subordinates see that the work is important, that they (the workers) have growth and development needs, and that these needs can be satisfied and the worker can be a part of the success of the organization.

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 234-236

Question Type: ES

 

 

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