American Corrections 10th Edition by Todd R. Clear – Test Bank

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American Corrections 10th Edition by Todd R. Clear – Test Bank

CHAPTER 6

The Correctional Client

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. ________ of those convicted receive a community sentence such as a fine or probation.
a. two thirds
b. one half
c. one third
d. one quarter

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   127                OBJ:   1

 

  1. Older prisoners are more likely to:
a. break prison rules.
b. prefer solitude.
c. seek gang membership for protection.
d. be less stable.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   148                OBJ:   3

 

  1. The __________ offender is most likely to be the object of exploitation and practical jokes while incarcerated.
a. situational
b. career
c. mentally handicapped
d. alcohol

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   144                OBJ:   3

 

  1. When we talk about characteristics associated with criminal offenders, we can conclude that:
a. there is much diversity with respect to the backgrounds of prisoners.
b. on the whole, while unique differences do exist, there are still many similarities among prisoners.
c. it is difficult (if not impossible) to make any general statements about criminal offenders.
d. most offenders are very violent and dangerous, and as a result, deserve some form of incarceration.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   152                OBJ:   1, 5

 

  1. According to your text, situational offenders pose many problems for the correctional system. Which of the following has been identified as a problem with this offender?
a. They will generally repeat the offense in the future.
b. They are extremely difficult to rehabilitate.
c. Their crimes are usually less serious than most crimes committed by other offenders.
d. They are the most problematic and violent prisoners in the inmate social system.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   130                OBJ:   3

  1. Half of those entering state prisons are ________years old.
a. between 25 and 32
b. younger than 18
c. between 18 and 27
d. older than 35

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   126                OBJ:   1, 2, 3

 

  1. A person who has committed a sexual act prohibited by law is known as a:
a. child molester.
b. rapist.
c. a social deviant.
d. sex offender.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   133                OBJ:   3

 

  1. Correctional clients, as a group, seem to ________ the general population?
a. differ markedly from
b. be markedly similar to
c. vastly like
d. be indistinguishable from

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   126                OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. The drug abuser presents ______________problems for corrections
a. indistinct and hardly any
b. classification and organizational
c. very few significant
d. both treatment and management]

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   138                OBJ:   3, 4, 5

 

  1. The treatment program that has consistently proven to be successful for the alcohol abuser in general population but less successful for those in the correctional population is:
a. psychotherapy.
b. milieu therapy.
c. group counseling.
d. Alcoholics Anonymous.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   139                OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. A sex offender through legislation is commonly recognized as which of the following?
a.  Rapist
b. prostitutes
c. child molesters
d. all these

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   133                OBJ:   3

 

  1. The decision to _______is a factor influencing the filtering process:
a. pigeonhole
b. grant bail
c. violate the law
d. acquit

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   126                OBJ:   1

 

  1. In a typical group of thirty or so young adults it is likely that __________ has been locked up.
a. at least five
b. at least one
c. at least half
d. no one

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   125                OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. Every offender assigned to corrections is:
a. guilty.
b. violent.
c. Unique.
d. drug addicted.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   129                OBJ:   3, 4, 5

 

  1. The most slippery concept in the classification of offenders is that of the:
a. career criminal.
b. violent.
c. sex offender.
d. mentally ill.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   132                OBJ:   2, 4, 5

 

  1. Most sexual offenses do not involve:
a. Violence.
b. coercion.
c. acquaintances.
d. the police.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   133                OBJ:   2

 

  1. In classifying offenders, correctional administrators put them into groups based on:
a. their needs for treatment.
b. risk.
c. security issues they pose to the prison.
d. all of these.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   153                OBJ:   4, 5

 

  1. One key method shown to prevent AIDS transmission is through:
a. education.
b. passing out condoms.
c. prohibiting homosexual behavior.
d. legalizing drugs.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   145                OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. Correctional treatment programs have proven to be most effective with:
a. compulsive and habitual drug abusers.
b. pedophiles.
c. career criminals.
d. none of these.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   138                OBJ:   2, 5

 

  1. The career criminal has several attributes:
a. his occupation
b. inexperienced
c. psychologically abnormal
d. believes he will never be caught

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   132                OBJ:   3

 

  1. References to “types” of offenders means they:
a. are easily stereotyped because their actions are so similar.
b. are fairly predictable for purposes of parole.
c. share important characteristics even though they vary in others.
d. behave very similarly for purposes of prediction.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   129                OBJ:   3

 

  1. Most people would hardly call their own job a _________ if they had been seen at work only three or four times.
a. habit
b. career
c. plan
d. calling

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   133                OBJ:   1, 5

 

  1. To combat ambiguities in classification, correctional administrators have started using:
a. more subjective criteria in an attempt to successfully predict future criminal behavior.
b. expanded criteria to admit all relevant facts and use those facts involved in the case.
c. a limited number of factors pertaining to substance abuse factors.
d. classification systems that recognize similarities and differences between offenders.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   150                OBJ:   2, 4, 5

 

  1. In recent years, America’s prison population has been:
a. getting younger.
b. aging.
c. shrinking.
d. all of these.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   147                OBJ:   2, 3, 4

  1. More prisoners serve __________ sentences in the United States than in any other Western nation.
a. life
b. death
c. short
d. long

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   149                OBJ:   2

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Most women believe rape is a violation emotionally, physically and rationally as well as a degrading act of violence.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   133                OBJ:   3

 

  1. Most sexual offenses occur between strangers.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   133                OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. Deinstitutionalization allows offenders the ability to also use affect treatment strategies in the community.

 

ANS:  T                   REF:   142                OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. It would be safe to say that significant numbers of correctional clients have a history of heavy drinking.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   138                OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. It would be safe to say that classification decisions are not, on the whole, subject to sociopolitical pressures.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   150                OBJ:   4

  1. Generally, mentally ill persons represent a greater risk of committing violent crimes than the population as a whole.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   139                OBJ:   4

 

  1. One correctional policy decision that may influence who becomes a correctional client is that street crimes warrant more attention from police.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   126                OBJ:   3, 4, 5

 

  1. There is widespread recognition that rape is a physical intrusion fueled by a desire for violent coercion rather than being sexually motivated.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   133                OBJ:   5

 

  1. HIV/AIDS is transmitted through blood and saliva.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   144                OBJ:   3

 

  1. A key way to prevent AIDS both inside and outside of a correctional setting is through knowledge of the virus.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   144                OBJ:   3

 

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. ________offenders have been convicted of violent crimes or drug offenses.

 

ANS: long term

REF:   147                OBJ:   3

 

  1. Factors influencing the filtering process through the correctional system include department policy and  _______________.

 

ANS:  bail

REF:   126                OBJ:   1

 

  1. Martin and Yablonsky describe a situational offender as one who made a mistake and paid a debt to ______ for that mistake.

 

ANS:  society

REF:   130                OBJ:   1

 

  1. Prostitution is more an _____________ crime than a sexual crime.

 

ANS:  economic

REF:   135                OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. ___________ produce more disastrous consequences than heroin addicts.

 

ANS:  Alcoholics

REF:   138                OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. We can view the criminal justice system as a ___________, because it operates as a large offender selection bureaucracy.

 

ANS:  filtering process

REF:   126                OBJ:   1

 

  1. One of the most successful alcohol treatment programs having shown effectiveness is ___________________.

 

ANS:  Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)

REF:   139                OBJ:   2, 3

  1. The mentally ill offender is now recognized as an overgeneralization and a _______________.

 

ANS:  social issue

REF:   139                OBJ:   3

 

  1. A person who in a particular set of circumstances has violated the law but is not normally given to criminal behavior and who is unlikely to repeat the offense is the ___________.

 

ANS:  situational offender

REF:   130                OBJ:   2, 3, 4

 

  1. When the justice system brings the more serious cases forward for more severe punishments, it acts as a selective _________.

 

ANS:  filter

REF:   128                OBJ:   1

 

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the phrase or sentence listed below.

a. Apply objective criteria to all prisoners f. Confined for life or until cured
b. IQs of less than 70 g. Classification based on possible future criminal conduct
c. Person who sees criminality as their life h. Classification based on appropriate correctional treatment
d. Mental patient returns to the community i. Classification based on seriousness of crime
e. Susan Smith is one j. person spends more than 10 years incarcerated

 

  1. Deinstitutionalization
  2. Civil commitment
  3. Classification systems
  4. Offense criteria
  5. Risk criteria
  6. Situational offender
  7. career criminal
  8. Mentally handicapped
  9. long term prisoner
  10. Program criteria

 

 

  1. ANS:  D                    REF:   142
  2. ANS:  F                    REF:   136
  3. ANS:  A                    REF:   150
  4. ANS:  I                     REF:   152
  5. ANS:  G                    REF:   152
  6. ANS:  E                    REF:   131
  7. ANS:  C                    REF:   132
  8. ANS:  B                    REF:   143
  9. ANS:  J                     REF:   149
  10. ANS:  H                    REF:   152

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Compare the situational offender to that of a career criminal. What are the main differences and what are their similarities?

 

ANS: Answers will vary      OBJ: 3

 

  1. Long term inmates face three major issues while they are incarcerated. Discuss all three issues and how inmates are affected by them.

 

ANS: Answers will vary      OBJ: 3

 

  1. Discuss and describe the classification process of a correctional facility. Explain the importance for both the inmates and staff regarding this process.

 

ANS: Answers will vary      OBJ: 4

 

  1. Identify the two reasons why the prison population is aging. What consequences does this have for corrections? What distinct advantages and challenges does the elderly inmate present? Should we continue to incarcerate people past a certain age? Why or why not?

 

ANS: Answers will vary      OBJ: 5

 

  1. Discuss the mentally ill offender and the impact they are now making within corrections. Discuss the changes which have occurred over time regarding this type of inmate and the foreseeable changes in the future of corrections classification process.

 

ANS: Answers will vary      OBJ: 3

 

 

CHAPTER 7

Jails: Detention and Short-Term Incarceration

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Overall, jail population sizes tend to be:
a. stable.
b. small.
c. variable
d. constant

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   157                OBJ:   2, 4, 6

 

  1. Which of the following pressures are not experienced by the local jail?
a. The direction of the jail is influenced by local law enforcement officials.
b. Local politics, in particular party patronage, influences the operation of the jail.
c. Local offender assistance programs are usually operated by community self-help volunteers.
d. All of these are experienced by local jails.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   164                OBJ:   6

 

  1. According to the text, the central purpose of the early jail was:
a. the warehousing of the surplus population of immigrants.
b. detention of those sentenced by the court.
c. to make sure those accused of a crime would show up for their trials.
d. to inflict short-term punishment (for example, corporal punishment) on the offender.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   159                OBJ:   1

 

  1. Jails are the _________ the criminal justice system.
a. the most valued part of
b. exitway from
c. barrier to
d. entry point into

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   160                OBJ:   1,2,4,6

 

  1. A system where jail operations are funded by a set amount paid for each prisoner held per day is:
a. a welfare system.
b. a fixed rate system.
c. a fee system.
d. a provider system.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   164                OBJ:   1, 7

 

  1. The nation has just over __________ jails.
a. 1,500
b. 2,800
c. 4,200
d. 1,000

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   160                OBJ:   1, 3, 6

 

  1. According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by:
a. the limited personal space provided in jail facilities.
b. the crisis nature of arrest and detention.
c. emotional instability, which is exacerbated by the jail experience.
d. both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   166                OBJ:   6

 

  1. A common strategy in dealing with offenders with substance dependency problems is:
a. release to an addiction treatment facility.
b. placement in a methadone maintenance program.
c. a steady program of withdrawal within the jail setting.
d. both release to an addiction treatment facility and placement in a methadone maintenance program.

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   168                OBJ:   7

 

  1. By far the most successful pretrial release program is:
a. unsecured bail.
b. percentage bail.
c. forfeit bail.
d. release on recognizance (ROR).

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   173                OBJ:   4, 7

 

  1. Which statement is not an argument made towards the subject of preventive detention.
a. It may violate the due process provisions of the Constitution.
b. It is typically employed only against property offenders.
c. It is impractical and can be potentially nefarious.
d. It is difficult to identify those individuals for whom this concept would most aptly apply.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   174                OBJ:   4, 7

 

  1. Which statement is not an argument made in favor of pretrial diversion.
a. Many offenders cannot be effectively dealt with by the formal criminal justice system.
b. It is much more humane than traditional criminal justice services.
c. It does not promote a long-term “label” on offenders like most criminal justice activities.
d. It is much cheaper than criminal justice processing.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   174                OBJ:   4, 7

 

  1. According to the authors, which of the following is of particular importance for today’s jails?
a. quality of prisoner food
b. quality of recreational programs for offenders
c. legal liability
d. all of these

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   176                OBJ:   3,4,6,8

 

  1. __________ are direct descendants of 12th century English feudal practices.
a. Prisons
b. Bail processes
c. Probation
d. Jails

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   161                OBJ:   1

 

  1. Almost 60 percent of America’s jails ______ prisoners for at least some of the medical care they receive.
a. punish
b. charge
c. turn away
d. reprimand

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   170                OBJ:   4, 7

 

  1. Violence, rape, and health problems are direct and immediate consequences of:
a. an increase of youthful male offenders.
b. overcrowding.
c. lax correctional supervision.
d. inappropriate sexuality behind bars.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   178                OBJ:   4, 6, 8

 

  1. Jails are administered by:
a. their state’s governor.
b. the federal government.
c. locally-elected officials.
d. the Department of Justice.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   165                OBJ:   1, 3

 

  1. In the 1800s jails began to change in response to:
a. the penitentiary movement.
b. the king’s wishes.
c. capitalism.
d. overcrowding.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   161                OBJ:   1

 

  1. Therapeutic justice is a philosophy of reorienting the jail experience from being mostly punitive to being mostly:
a. rehabilitative
b. reintegrative
c. reinforced
d. shaming

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   181                OBJ:   7, 8

 

  1. The jail rate is highest in the:
a. East and South.
b. West and South.
c. West and North.
d. East and North.

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   161                OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. At least _________ people are detained in a jail at some time during the year.
a. 2 to 3 million
b. 4 to 6 million
c. 7 to 8 million
d. 10 million

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   160                OBJ:   2, 6

 

  1. More than half of all jail occupants are:
a. mentally ill.
b. addicted to drugs.
c. awaiting trial.
d. guilty.

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   171                OBJ:   2, 5

 

  1. Local correctional workers are:
a. overeducated
b. paid above average for the criminal justice system
c. poorly trained
d. mostly doing clerical work

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   177                OBJ:   2,4,6

 

  1. Recently, there has been a major emphasis on programs to __________ offenders awaiting trial.
a. treat
b. convict
c. sentence
d. release

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   171                OBJ:   7,8

 

  1. Who is less likely to be released on their own recognizance?
a. African Americans
b. Women
c. Latinas
d. Whites

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   173                OBJ:   2, 4, 6

  1. Many, if not most, defendants are:
a. indigent.
b. clueless.
c. white.
d. female.

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   172                OBJ:   2

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Most jails in the United States hold fewer than 50 people.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   162                OBJ:   2

 

  1. Jails are an important part of corrections and demonstrate many complexities of the system.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   160                OBJ:   1, 4, 6

 

  1. Many jails in this country have no viable rehabilitative programs, and have very few trained personnel to deal with the mental health needs of most offenders.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   168                OBJ:   4, 6

 

  1. The average delay between arrest and sentencing is more than six months for inmates.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:  171                OBJ:   4

 

  1. One in seven jails in the United States currently operates under a court order, typically related to overcrowding.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   178                OBJ:   3, 4

 

  1. Jails around the nation are pretty much the same.

 

ANS:  F                    REF:   159                OBJ:   2, 3

 

  1. 90% of all jail inmates are considered indigent and cannot afford counsel.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   172                OBJ:   4

 

  1. One of the problems for pretrial detainees is the way they look in court.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   172                OBJ:   2, 5

 

  1. The most pressing medical problem in jails is the problem AIDS and HIV.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   170                OBJ:   4

 

 

  1. Pretrial detainees need access to legal assistance.

 

ANS:  T                    REF:   170                OBJ:   4, 5

 

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. Three quarters of all jails are operated by an elected official known as a ____________.

 

ANS: sheriff

REF:   165                OBJ:   1, 2

 

  1. A majority of inmates are under 35 years old, white, low income and _______________.

 

ANS:  uneducated

REF:   161                OBJ: 2

 

  1. Half of all people placed in jail were under the influence of ___________ and _____________ at the time of arrest.

 

ANS:  alcohol and drugs

REF:   168                OBJ:   2, 4

 

  1. _________ defendants often have higher appearance rates than those freed through bail.

 

ANS:  ROR

REF:   173                OBJ:   5

 

  1. The primary personnel problem facing jail administrators is probably a combination of ________ and poor working conditions.

 

ANS:  low pay;

REF:   177                OBJ:   6

 

  1. When a program increases the scope of corrections, it is said to be ___________.

 

ANS:  widening the net

REF:   174                OBJ:   2, 4

 

  1. 80% of the jails in the United States have a ______________ jurisdiction.

 

ANS:  county-level

REF:   162                OBJ:   3

 

  1. Detaining the accused in jail to protect the community from possible future crimes by the accused pending trial is known as ________________.

 

ANS:  preventive detention

REF:   174                OBJ:   5

 

  1. Over half of the occupants in U.S. jails are ___________.

 

ANS:  pretrial detainees

REF:   160                OBJ:   2,4

 

  1.             The period ___________ after arrest and detention is when most inmates commit suicide.

 

ANS:  immediately

REF:   166                OBJ:   4,6

 

 

MATCHING

 

Match each item to the phrase or sentence listed below.

a. staff has direct contact with offenders f. person who provides bail money for a fee
b. Prosecutor makes deal with defendant to steer clear of incapacitation g. rehabilitative jail experience
c. protection to the community by incarcerating an offender h. pretrial and probation violators report daily
d. supervision under home confinement i. Funded per prisoner per day
e. holding tanks for up to 48 hours j. Fee specified by a judge as a condition for pretrial release

 

 

  1. Bondsman
  2. Day reporting center
  3. Fee system
  4. Bail
  5. Direct supervision
  6. Electronic monitoring
  7. Lockup
  8. Prevention detention
  9. Therapeutic justice
  10. Pretrial diversion

 

 

  1. ANS:  F                    REF:   172
  2. ANS:  H                    REF:   173
  3. ANS:  I                     REF:   164
  4. ANS:  J                     REF:   172
  5. ANS:  A                    REF:   181
  6. ANS:  D                    REF:   173
  7. ANS:  E                    REF:   162
  8. ANS:  C                    REF:   174
  9. ANS:  G                    REF:   181
  10. ANS:  B                    REF:   174

 

 

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the concept of preventive detention. Why would your state practice this method and what are the benefits to this concept? What are the possible effects should a state opt not to incorporate preventive detention? Do you see any negative aspects to it and what types of offenders do you believe should fall under this concept?

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 4

 

  1. Discuss the differences between day reporting centers and electronic monitoring. What types of offenders should be assigned to these facilities versus electronic monitoring, and what are the positive/negative aspects of these types of monitoring?

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 7

 

  1. What is bail? Is this a reliable and effective system toward achieving the supposed aims associated with bail? Why or why not? What might you use?

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 5

 

  1. Explain the ideas that gave rise to pretrial diversion. Discuss at least three main reasons advanced in support of pretrial diversion. . What do critics counter? Discuss the successes and failures associated with this correctional practice.

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 5

 

  1. Discuss the various types of issues within jail management as discussed throughout your book. Address a viable solution to each individual issue with your answer and discuss how it can be both effective as well as ineffective. Where do you see the future of the correctional system with these recurring issues?

 

ANS: Answers will vary          OBJ: 4

 

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