An Introduction To Community Health 7th Edition By James F. – Robert R. – Test Bank

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An Introduction To Community Health 7th Edition By James F. – Robert R. – Test Bank

Chapter: Chapter06

 

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Schools have immeasurable potential for affecting the health of children, their families, and the health of the community.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  146

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Coordinated School Health Programs are implemented the same way in each school district in the United States.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  147

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The coordination of the various components of the Coordinated School Health Program is the primary role of the school nurse.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  147

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The ideal school health council would include representation from a wide variety of school personnel, community members, and community health agencies.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  148

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? On an average day, teachers spend more waking hours with school-aged children than do the parents of many children.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  148

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? School health policies include laws, mandates, regulations, standards, resolutions, and guidelines to provide a foundation for school district practices and procedures.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  152

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? All school districts are required to have at least one full-time school nurse.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  148

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Health and success in school are interrelated.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  149

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The School Health Policies and Practices Study is a national survey conducted by a division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  155

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? School districts in the United States are required to have a school health coordinator.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  155

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? School health services are those provided by the school health workers to appraise, protect, and promote the health of students.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  156

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The portion of the school environment that encompasses attitudes, feelings, and values of students and staff is the physical environment.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  158

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Things like indoor air quality, lighting, playgrounds, and school bus safety are part of the school’s psychosocial environment.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  157

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The written plan for school health education is referred to as the health sequence.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  159

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Controversial topics are a leading challenge to the implementation of a school health curriculum.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  163

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 

  1. Components of the Coordinated School Health Program include
  2. A) physical education
  3. B) nutrition services
  4. C) health promotion for staff
  5. D) all of the above

 

Ans:  D

Page:  147

 

 

 

 

  1. The group whose primary role is to provide coordination of the various components of the Coordinated School Health Program is the
  2. A) school health council
  3. B) health teachers
  4. C) school nurses
  5. D) school health coordinators

 

Ans:  A

Page:  147

 

 

 

 

  1. Providing direct health care to students and staff, providing screening and referral for health conditions, and promoting health are all responsibilities of the
  2. A) health teachers
  3. B) school nurses
  4. C) school health council
  5. D) school health coordinators

 

Ans:  B

Page:  148

 

 

 

 

  1. Numerous resources became available to help schools develop policies because of the requirements of
  2. A) action for Healthy Kids
  3. B) the National School Health Coordinator Leadership Institute
  4. C) the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004
  5. D) the American Academy of Pediatrics

 

Ans:  C

Page:  153

 

 

 

 

  1. The part of the health curriculum that outlines what will be taught is the
  2. A) Scope
  3. B) Sequence
  4. C) Policy
  5. D) Coordinated School Health Program

 

Ans:  A

Page:  159

 

 

 

 

  1. Priority health content for a school health curriculum includes
  2. A) healthy eating
  3. B) diabetes management
  4. C) autoimmune disorders
  5. D) body systems’ function

 

Ans:  A

Page:  159

 

 

 

 

  1. Priority health content for a school health curriculum includes
  2. A) mental and emotional health
  3. B) tobacco
  4. C) personal health and wellness
  5. D) all of the above

 

Ans:  D

Page:  159

 

 

 

 

  1. Barriers to school health education include
  2. A) over-enforcement by state and local education policymakers
  3. B) excessive support from administration
  4. C) lack of time in the school year/day
  5. D) none of the above

 

Ans:  C

Page:  165

 

 

 

 

  1. The primary responsibility for the health of school-aged children lies with
  2. A) their parents/guardians
  3. B) the school teachers
  4. C) the community
  5. D) the school board

 

Ans:  A

Page:  146

 

 

 

 

  1. Which individuals are most often selected as the coordinator of the school health council?
  2. A) counseling personnel and social workers
  3. B) physical education teachers
  4. C) parents or outside community leaders
  5. D) school nurses and health educators

 

Ans:  D

Page:  148

 

 

 

 

  1. The majority of school-based health centers are found in
  2. A) a building adjacent to the school
  3. B) the school building
  4. C) a central community location
  5. D) in the administrative offices of the school district

 

Ans:  B

Page:  165

 

 

 

 

  1. Most school-based health centers operating today are in
  2. A) rural areas
  3. B) urban areas
  4. C) elementary schools
  5. D) mobile health center units

 

Ans:  B

Page:  165

 

 

 

 

  1. Because of the low priority given to health in many school districts, much of the health education is provided by
  2. A) individuals other than health education specialists
  3. B) health education specialists
  4. C) nurses and licensed dieticians
  5. D) physicians

 

Ans:  A

Page:  164

 

 

 

 

  1. The general public has become more aware of violence in schools because of
  2. A) the marketing efforts schools have placed on violence prevention
  3. B) the number of high-profile incidents of violence in schools across the country
  4. C) gun control laws
  5. D) the Coordinated School Health Program

 

Ans:  B

Page:  166

 

 

 

 

  1. A common topic of controversy in school health education is
  2. A) nutrition
  3. B) suicide
  4. C) alcohol
  5. D) violence

 

Ans:  B

Page:  163

 

 

 

 

Short Answer

 

 

 

 

  1. Name the steps involved in creating local school health related policies.

Ans:  Identify the policy development team, assess the district’s needs, prioritize needs and develop an action plan, draft a policy, build awareness and support, adopt and implement the policy, maintain, measure, and evaluate.

 

Page:  153

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide at least three ideas for distributing new school health policies to help with policy implementation.

Ans:  Distributing the policies with a memorandum of explanation; placing the policies

in both faculty/staff and student handbooks; presenting them at a gathering of the different

groups (e.g., at staff or parent-teacher organization [PTO] meetings, or an open house); holding a special meeting for the specific purpose of explaining the policies, placing them in the school district newsletter.

 

Page:  153

 

 

 

 

  1. List and describe at least three advantages of having school health services.

Ans:  Equitability-school health services provide a point of entry into the health care system for all children in school; breadth of coverage-many preventive services are provided that are not covered in a majority of health insurance policies; confidentiality; user friendliness-the school is an environment with which students are familiar and in which they feel comfortable; convenience-services are accessible to all students.

 

Page:  156

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide at least three examples of how schools can reduce improper implementation of the school health curriculum.

Ans:  Implement age appropriate curricula; use acceptable teaching methods; gain parent/guardian approval of curricula and teaching methods; develop a school policy that enables parents/guardians to review and to withdraw their children from lessons that go against family or religious beliefs; implement a school policy that provides for the handling of concern by parents/guardians; make sure qualified and interested teachers teach health.

 

Page:  164

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide at least four responsibilities of school nurses.

Ans:  Providing direct health care to students and staff, providing leadership for the provision of health services, providing screening and referral for health conditions, promoting a healthy school environment, promoting health, serving in a leadership role for health policies, serving as a liaison between school personnel, family, community, and health care providers.

 

Page:  148

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain why it is important for administrators to support the school health program.

Ans:  Administrators control resources. Without their leadership and support, it will be an ongoing struggle to provide a quality program.

 

Page:  149

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide five priority health content areas on which a school health curriculum should focus.

Ans:  Alcohol and other drugs, health eating, mental and emotional health, personal health and wellness, physical activity, safety/unintentional injury prevention, sexual health (abstinence and risk avoidance), tobacco, violence prevention.

 

Page:  159

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain what should be outlined in an effective health curriculum.

Ans:  The health curriculum should include the scope and sequence, learning objectives, standards, learning activities, possible instructional resources, and methods for assessment to determine the extent to which the objectives and standards are met.

 

Page:  159

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide three examples of what students will be able to do if National Health Education Standards are met.

Ans:  Comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health; analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology, and other factors on health behaviors; demonstrate the ability to access valid information and products and services to enhance health; demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks; demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health; demonstrate the ability to use goal setting to enhance health; demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors to avoid or reduce health risks; demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

 

Page:  160

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide five examples of characteristics of effective health education curricula.

Ans:  Effective health education curricula focuses on clear health goals and related behavioral outcomes; is research-based and theory-driven; addresses individual values and group norms that support health-enhancing behaviors; focuses on increasing the personal perception of risk and harmfulness of engaging in specific health risk behaviors and reinforcing protective factors; addresses social pressures and influences; builds personal competence, social competence, and self-efficacy by addressing skills; provides functional health knowledge that is basic, accurate, and directly contributes to health-promoting decisions and behaviors; uses strategies designed to personalize information and engage students; provides age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate information, learning strategies, teaching methods, and materials; incorporates learning strategies, teaching methods, and materials that are culturally inclusive; provides adequate time for instruction and learning; provides opportunities to reinforce skills and positive health behaviors; provides opportunities to make positive connections with influential others (e.g., peers, parents or other caregivers, families, and other positive adult role models); includes teacher information and plans for professional development and training that enhances the effectiveness of instruction and student learning.

 

Page:  161

 

 

Chapter: Chapter07

 

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The mortality rates of children have gone down significantly in the past couple of decades.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  178

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Teenage women who give birth are less likely than women age 20 and older to have that birth outside of marriage.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  182

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? A teenage mother is at greater risk for pregnancy complications than a mother older than 20.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  182

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Approximately one-half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  183

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Unintended pregnancy is more likely than intended pregnancy to result in early prenatal care.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  183

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The “gag rule” regulations on discussing abortion in family planning clinics has been stable and unchanged since its enactment in 1984.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  185

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Maternal mortality rates are the most severe measure of ill health for pregnant women.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  189

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? A medical doctor who specializes in the care of newborn children up to two months of age is a neurologist.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  192

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Babies born prior to 37 weeks of gestation are referred to as premature, or preterm births.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  193

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that babies be breast-fed for the first year of life.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  195

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Sleeping on the side or back rather than the stomach greatly increases the risk of SIDS among healthy full-term infants.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  197

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of mortality in children.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  199

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? Title V is the only federal legislation dedicated to promoting and improving the health of our nation’s mothers and children.

 

Ans:  True

Page:  204

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? FMLA provides paid family leave for women and men after the birth of a child.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  208

 

 

 

 

  1. True or False? The majority of individuals enrolled in the WIC program are infants.

 

Ans:  False

Page:  206

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

 

  1. The primary unit in which infants and children are nurtured and supported regarding their healthy development is the
  2. A) WIC program
  3. B) Family
  4. C) Children’s Defense Fund
  5. D) Maternal and Child Health Bureau

 

Ans:  B

Page:  181

 

 

 

 

  1. Teenagers who become pregnant and have a child are more likely than their peers who are not mothers to
  2. A) stay in school
  3. B) not get married or have a marriage end in divorce
  4. C) be financially stable
  5. D) none of the above

 

Ans:  B

Page:  182

 

 

 

 

  1. Approximately how many teenage girls in the United States get pregnant at least once before the age of 20?
  2. A) one-third
  3. B) one-half
  4. C) 5%
  5. D) 65%

 

Ans:  A

Page:  183

 

 

 

 

  1. Groups at higher risk of unintended pregnancy are
  2. A) older women
  3. B) those with advanced education
  4. C) those living in poverty
  5. D) those in a long-standing marriage

 

Ans:  C

Page:  183

 

 

 

 

  1. The process of determining the preferred number and spacing of children in one’s family and choosing the appropriate means to achieve this preference defines
  2. A) prenatal care
  3. B) family planning
  4. C) maternal health
  5. D) infant morbidity

 

Ans:  B

Page:  184

 

 

 

 

  1. Title X was signed into law to provide
  2. A) Family planning services and help to all who wanted them but could not afford them
  3. B) Free abortions to all who wanted them but could not afford them
  4. C) WIC services to women who were pregnant and could not afford healthy food
  5. D) Well-baby care

 

Ans:  A

Page:  184

 

 

 

 

  1. Those served by family planning clinics funded by Title X are predominantly
  2. A) middle aged
  3. B) poor
  4. C) insured
  5. D) those with more than one child

 

Ans:  B

Page:  185

 

 

 

 

  1. The overwhelming majority of all abortions are performed on
  2. A) unmarried mothers
  3. B) black mothers
  4. C) those ages 25-34
  5. D) those over the age of 45

 

Ans:  A

Page:  187

 

 

 

 

  1. Risk assessment, treatment for medical conditions or risk reduction, and education are the major components of
  2. A) prenatal health care
  3. B) the WIC program
  4. C) family planning clinics
  5. D) neonatal care

 

Ans:  A

Page:  190

 

 

 

 

  1. A low-birth-weight infant is one that weight less than
  2. A) 6 pounds at birth
  3. B) 5 pounds at birth
  4. C) 5 pounds at birth
  5. D) 8 pounds at birth

 

Ans:  C

Page:  191

 

 

 

 

  1. An infant death is the death of a child younger than
  2. A) two months
  3. B) six months
  4. C) one year
  5. D) two years

 

Ans:  C

Page:  192

 

 

 

 

  1. The neonatal mortality period is death that occurs up to
  2. A) 7 days after birth
  3. B) 28 days after birth
  4. C) 6 months after birth
  5. D) one year after birth

 

Ans:  B

Page:  192

 

 

 

 

  1. The leading modifiable cause of low-birth-weight during pregnancy is
  2. A) alcohol use
  3. B) obesity
  4. C) folic acid intake
  5. D) cigarette smoking

 

Ans:  D

Page:  194

 

 

 

 

  1. Child health is assessed for those ages
  2. A) birth to 14 years
  3. B) 1 to 14 years
  4. C) 5 to 18 years
  5. D) 5 to 12 years

 

Ans:  B

Page:  197

 

 

 

 

  1. The majority of unintentional deaths in children are the result of
  2. A) Falls
  3. B) Drownings
  4. C) SIDS
  5. D) Motor vehicle crashes

 

Ans:  D

Page:  199

 

 

 

 

Short Answer

 

 

 

 

  1. What does maternal, infant, and child health encompass?

Ans:  Maternal, infant, and child health encompasses the health of women of childbearing age from pre-pregnancy, through pregnancy, labor, and delivery, and the postpartum period and the health of the child prior to birth through adolescence.

 

Page:  176

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide five examples of prevention measures for reducing maternal and infant mortality.

Ans:  Before conception:  screen women for health risks and preexisting chronic conditions; counsel women about the benefits of good nutrition and encourage folic acid supplements; advise women about the value of regular physical exercise; advise women to avoid alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. During pregnancy: monitor and treat preexisting conditions; vaccinate women against influenza; continue healthy lifestyle counseling; educate women about the early signs of pregnancy-related problems. During the postpartum period: vaccinate newborns at age-appropriate times; provide information about well-baby care and the benefits of breastfeeding; warn parents about exposing infants to secondhand smoke.

 

Page:  190

 

 

 

 

  1. Provide three factors that can affect an infant’s health.

Ans:  An infant’s health can be affected by the mother’s health and her health behavior prior to and during pregnancy, her level of prenatal care, the quality of her delivery, and the infant’s environment after birth.

 

Page:  191

 

 

 

 

  1. What does child maltreatment include?

Ans:  Child maltreatment includes physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, abandonment, exploitation, and threats to harm the child.

 

Page:  200

 

 

 

 

  1. Name at least three of the strategies that are a part of the U.S. government’s Childhood Immunization Act.

Ans:  Improving immunization services for needy families; reducing vaccine costs for lower-income and uninsured families; building community networks to reach out to families and ensure that young children are vaccinated as needed; improving systems for monitoring diseases and vaccinations; improving vaccines and vaccine use.

 

Page:  203

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe how at least four maternal and child health programs help the Maternal and Child Health Bureau accomplish its mission.

Ans:  Ensuring access to quality care, especially for those with low incomes or limited availability of care; reducing infant mortality; providing and ensuring access to comprehensive prenatal and postnatal care, especially for low-income and at-risk women; increasing the number of children receiving health assessments and follow-up diagnostic treatment services; providing and ensuring access to preventive and child care services, as well as rehabilitative services for certain children; implementing family-centered, community-based systems of coordinated care for children with special health care needs; providing assistance in applying for services to pregnant women with infants and children who are eligible for Medicaid.

 

Page:  204

 

 

 

 

  1. Name at least four services offered by many family planning clinics.

Ans:  Nutrition counseling, immunizations, postpartum care, well-baby care, WIC program, prenatal care, contraception, infertility counseling.

 

Page:  185

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the general purpose of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).

Ans:  The FMLA grants 12 weeks of unpaid job-protected leave to men or women after the birth of a child, and adoption, or in the event of illness in the immediate family.

 

Page:  208

 

 

 

 

  1. Name at least three groups that advocate for children’s health and welfare.

Ans:  The Children’s Defense Fund (CDF), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

 

Page:  209

 

 

 

 

  1. Name four things pregnant women should do to reduce their chances of a low-birth-weight baby.

Ans:  Get early, regular prenatal care; eat a balanced diet, including adequate amounts of folic acid; gain enough weight; avoid smoking and drinking alcohol.

 

Page:  194

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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