Anatomy and Physiology 7th Edition By Patton Thibodeau – Test Bank

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Anatomy Physiology 7th Edition By Patton Thibodeau – Test Bank

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 6: Skin and Its Appendages

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. One of the important functions of the skin is the synthesis of vitamin D.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. Keratin is an important skin pigment that protects against ultraviolet light.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 167         TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. The hypodermis or superficial fascia is a subcutaneous layer rich in fat and areolar tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. The subcutaneous layer is also referred to as the superficial fascia.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. Melanocytes account for approximately 55% of the epidermal cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 167

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. During the life of an individual, epidermal tissue is constantly being replaced.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Turnover time for epidermal tissue can be accelerated by injury.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Prolonged exposure to the sun causes decreased melanin production.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. A primary function of the dermal-epidermal junction is to “glue” together the dermis and the epidermis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 170

TOP:    Dermal-Epidermal Junction

 

  1. The epidermis is referred to as the true skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 170

TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. Normally about 10% to 12% of all cells in the stratum basale enter mitosis each day.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Both the epidermis and the dermis continually undergo shedding and regeneration.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 168         TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Sensory receptors are found in the epidermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 169 ( Table 6-1)

TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. Goose pimples, elevation of the testes, and erection of the nipples result from the contraction of muscles in the dermis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 171         TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. The dermis contains both voluntary and involuntary muscle fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 171         TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. Malignant melanoma has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past 20 years.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 185         TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

  1. The basic ingredient in the skin that determines skin color is melanin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Vitiligo is an acquired condition that results in loss of pigment in certain areas of the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 167 (Box 6-1)                            TOP:    Vitiligo

 

  1. An increase in the enzyme tyrosinase will lead to the destruction of pigment and result in albinism.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 172 | Page 173

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Darkening of the skin may be caused by a decrease in the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 173         TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Lanugo is the technical term used for adult body hair.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Terminal hair is the coarse pubic and axillary hair that develops at puberty.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. One way to stimulate hair growth is to cut it or shave it.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. One of the factors associated with the common type of baldness is the presence of testosterone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 180         TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Growth of nails is the result of mitosis in the stratum germinativum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. The gland that produces the waxy secretion in the external ear canal is a sebaceous gland.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Ceruminous Glands

 

  1. An increase in sebum secretion in children may lead to increased susceptibility to ringworm.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Apocrine sweat glands are the most numerous and widespread sweat glands in the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 181         TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. There is a more than fivefold increase in the rate of sebum secretion between 10 and 19 years of age.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 182 (Box 6-6)                            TOP:    Acne

 

  1. A person with a body temperature of 38° C would need to be treated for hypothermia.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. When heat must be conserved to maintain a constant body temperature, the dermal blood vessels increase their diameter.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Heat Loss

 

  1. Shivering is a good example of the body’s attempt to produce more heat.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Heat Production

 

  1. A person who is shivering would normally have dilated surface blood vessels in the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Heat Loss

 

  1. Heat loss by the skin is controlled by a positive feedback loop.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. The body’s temperature control center is located in the hypothalamus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. The normal body temperature set point is 37° C.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Besides changing the rates of metabolism, the primary means of controlling body temperature is through changes in the size of blood vessels in the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Skin thermal receptors provide important information to the heat-regulating centers in the brain, resulting in autonomic regulation of body temperature.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Heat loss by the skin is controlled by a negative feedback loop.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Blisters, severe pain, generalized swelling, and edema are characteristic of third-degree burns.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 186 | Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. The rule of palms and the rule of tens are two methods used in estimating the extent of body surface area burned.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. Third-degree burns are less severe than first-degree burns and therefore are not as painful.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. The thickest part of the skin is slightly more than 3 cm thick.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Integument and integumentary system are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Integumentary system and skin are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. A large amount of fat can be stored in the hypodermis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. Thick skin and thin skin refer to the dermis and the epidermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 166

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. Hair is usually not found on thick skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 166

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. In thin skin, some of the strata of the skin may be absent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 166

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. The cells at the surface of the skin are dead.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. An abnormal thickening of the stratum corneum is called hyperkeratosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. The stratum lucidum and stratum basale are sometimes referred to as the stratum germinativum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. Blisters can be the result of damage to the desmosomes in a layer of skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 170 (Box 6-2)                            TOP:    Blisters

 

  1. The average turnover time for skin cells to go from the stratum basale to the surface of the epidermis is about 35 days.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Continual abrasion to the skin surface tends to lengthen the turnover time of the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. A group of active basal cells, together with its vertical column of migrating keratinocytes, is called a dermal proliferating unit, or DPU.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 169

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. The papillary layer of the dermis lies just below the dermal-epidermal junction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 170

TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. The reticular layer of the dermis serves as an attachment point for both smooth and skeletal muscles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 170 | Page 171                           TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. Surgical incisions that are made perpendicular to cleavage lines tend to heal with less of a scar.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Light-skinned people have fewer melanocytes in their skin than do dark-skinned people.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. The ability of melanocytes to darken the skin is dependent on the functioning of the enzyme tyrosinase.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 172 | Page 173                           TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. The vitamins that can be absorbed by the skin are all fat-soluble vitamins.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 175

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The protective function of the skin is limited to the protection of the underlying tissue from abrasion and mechanical injury.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 175

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The shedding of epithelial elements from the skin surface is called desquamation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 175

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The surface film that aids in the protective function of the skin is remarkably consistent from one part of the skin to another.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 175

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. Because sweat can contain ammonia, urea, and other waste products, it plays a major role in the excretion of body wastes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The skin has the ability to convert cholecalciferol to vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Hormone (Vitamin D) Production

 

  1. Because vitamin D is a compound that influences several important chemical reactions, it can also be classified as an enzyme.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Hormone (Vitamin D) Production

 

  1. Maintaining a constant body temperature is important because the hormones of the body can function efficiently only in a very narrow temperature range.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Homeostasis of Body Temperature

 

  1. Heat production occurs in two ways: metabolism of food and absorption of heat from the environment.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Homeostasis of Body Temperature

 

  1. Sweat that drips off you does very little to cool your body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Homeostasis of Body Temperature

 

  1. In a cool environment, conduction accounts for most of the heat loss of the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Homeostasis of Body Temperature

 

  1. In using the “rule of nines” to determine the area of the body, the body is divided into 9 areas of 11% each.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 186 | Page 187                           TOP:    Burns

 

  1. Lanugo is usually found on a fetus or newborn.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. The cells of the germinal matrix are responsible for forming hair.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. The hair itself is composed of three layers: the shaft, the cortex, and the cuticle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Fingernails are composed of heavily keratinized epidermal cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. Apocrine and eccrine glands are the two types of sebaceous glands.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Eccrine glands are the more numerous of the sweat glands.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Although the ducts of the eccrine sweat glands come through the epidermis, the actual secretory portion is located in the dermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Apocrine sweat glands begin functioning shortly after birth.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Because sebaceous glands produce a substance rich in triglycerides and fatty acids, it provides a good growth medium for fungi.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Malignant hyperthermia occurs as a result of exposure to certain types of anesthetic agents or muscle relaxants.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. The skin surface area can be as large as 20 square feet in the average adult.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The skin is a thin and relatively flat organ and is an example of a serous membrane.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. Fingerprints are an example of the friction ridges of the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 166

TOP:    Thin and Thick Skin

 

  1. The keratinocytes of the skin are examples of antigen-presenting cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 167

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. The stratum lucidum is superficial to the stratum basale.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 168         TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. An abnormally thick region of the stratum basale is called a callus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Cleavage lines and Langer lines refer to the same thing.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Langer lines is the more correct name for stretch marks.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Albinism is the inability of the body to form melanin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Melanin

 

  1. Jaundice can occur because of a very high concentration of vitamin A in the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. A high level of melanin in the skin assists in the formation of vitamin D.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Hormone (Vitamin D) Production

 

  1. Dendritic cells develop in the dermis of the skin but migrate to the epidermis of the skin to function.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 167

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. Cells in the stratum spinosum layer are rich in RNA to make protein synthesis more efficient.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Keratohyalin is a protein that will eventually be transformed into keratin in the cells of the epidermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Cells in the stratum lucidum do not have a high metabolic rate because they usually do not have a nucleus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. High levels of lysosomal enzymes are found in the cells of stratum granulosum layer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. One of the attachments of the arrector pili muscle is to a hair follicle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. A scar is a dense mass of keratinocytes that forms when a wound to the skin heals.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. People who have mostly pheomelanin in their skin tend to have darker skin than people who have mostly eumelanin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Melanosomes help prevent DNA mutations when the cell is exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 172 | Page 173

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. You turn red when you blush because the color of blood is red.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 174         TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. The presence of hemosiderin and bile pigments in the skin can cause the skin to appear cyanotic.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 174         TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. Both the root and the lunula of the nail are covered by the cuticle and therefore cannot be seen externally.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. If a person were in a totally bacteria-free environment, any sweat produced would have no odor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 181         TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Chemicals that cause the body to develop a fever are called pyrogens.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. Fever is always detrimental to the body, so the body temperature should be reduced to normal as soon as possible.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. Malignant hyperthermia, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke are increasingly dangerous consequences of exposure to high environmental temperatures.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following vitamins is/are absorbed through the skin?
A. Vitamin A
B. Vitamin D
C. Vitamin K
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 175

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. Which of the following is not a function of the skin?
A. Defense against disease organisms
B. Synthesis of vitamin E
C. Regulation of body temperature
D. Excretion of water and salts

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 175 | Page 176

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The superficial outer layer of the epidermis is the stratum:
A. basale.
B. lucidum.
C. corneum.
D. granulosum.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Of the five epidermal cell layers, the only one that can undergo mitosis is the stratum:
A. basale.
B. lucidum.
C. corneum.
D. granulosum.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. The area referred to as true skin is the:
A. stratum corneum.
B. subcutaneous layer.
C. dermis.
D. hypodermis.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 170

TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. The hypodermis:
A. connects the dermis to underlying tissues.
B. is the layer of skin in which hair is produced.
C. connects the dermis and the epidermis.
D. is the layer of skin in which the nails are produced.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. In what area of the body would you expect to find an especially thick stratum corneum?
A. Back of the hand
B. Thigh
C. Abdomen
D. Sole of the foot

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 166

TOP:    Thin and Thick Skin

 

  1. The papillary layer of the dermis:
A. is responsible for cleavage or tension lines in the skin.
B. does not contain blood vessels.
C. produces the ridges that make fingerprints.
D. contains large deposits of fat.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 170

TOP:    Papillary Layer

 

  1. Smooth muscles that produce goose pimples when they contract are the:
A. papillary muscles.
B. cuticle muscles.
C. medullary muscles.
D. arrector pili muscles.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. The most common type of skin cancer is:
A. squamous cell carcinoma.
B. basal cell carcinoma.
C. Kaposi sarcoma.
D. malignant melanoma.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

  1. The type of cancer associated with changes in a mole is:
A. squamous cell carcinoma.
B. malignant melanoma.
C. basal cell carcinoma.
D. columnar cell carcinoma.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 185         TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

  1. Prolonged exposure to the sun causes melanocytes to:
A. increase in number.
B. rupture and release their contents.
C. increase melanin production.
D. decrease melanin production.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. The hair follicle is found in the:
A. epidermis.
B. dermis.
C. hypodermis.
D. subcutaneous layer.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 179         TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Fingernail growth is the result of the mitosis of the cells in the stratum:
A. germinativum.
B. granulosum.
C. corneum.
D. lucidum.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. Apocrine sweat glands can be found in all of the following areas except the:
A. soles of the feet.
B. armpits.
C. areolae of the breasts.
D. pigmented skin areas around the anus.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 181         TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. The type of gland associated with blackheads is:
A. eccrine.
B. apocrine.
C. sebaceous.
D. ceruminous.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Sebaceous Glands

 

  1. Which is not a part of a hair?
A. Shaft
B. Root
C. Lanugo
D. Medulla

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 179         TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Hair:
A. alternates between periods of growth and rest.
B. consists of keratinized cells.
C. is formed from cells of the germinal matrix.
D. is all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 179 | Page 180

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. The hair follicle consists of:
A. epidermal tissue.
B. dermal tissue.
C. hypodermal tissue.
D. fibrous connective tissue.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 179         TOP:    Hair

 

  1. The most numerous, important, and widespread sweat glands in the body are:
A. apocrine.
B. eccrine.
C. ceruminous.
D. sebaceous.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Sebum:
A. lubricates hair and skin.
B. is produced by sweat glands.
C. consists of dead cells from hair follicles.
D. is responsible for body odor.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 182         TOP:    Sebaceous Glands

 

  1. The waxy secretion in the external ear canal is:
A. eccrine.
B. apocrine.
C. sebaceous.
D. ceruminous.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Ceruminous Glands

 

  1. The surface film found on the skin has a variety of functions, including:
A. lubrication.
B. buffering of caustic irritants.
C. antibacterial and antifungal activity.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 175         TOP:    Surface Film

 

  1. Although body temperature normally changes very little during the course of a day, it is generally the lowest during:
A. the early morning.
B. mid-afternoon.
C. late afternoon.
D. the evening.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Homeostasis of Body Temperature

 

  1. The conversion of water from a liquid state into a gaseous state happens with which form of body heat loss?
A. Convection
B. Evaporation
C. Radiation
D. Conduction

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Evaporation

 

  1. Which type of body heat loss is characterized by heat transfer from the surface of one object to the surface of another object without actual contact?
A. Convection
B. Evaporation
C. Radiation
D. Conduction

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Radiation

 

  1. The body compensates for the increase in the core body temperature caused by exercise by:
A. decreasing the blood flow to the skin.
B. increasing the blood flow to the core.
C. increasing the blood flow to the skin.
D. vasoconstriction of the blood vessels in the skin.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Heat Loss

 

  1. The same degree of environmental temperature seems hotter in humid climates than it does in dry ones because:
A. evaporation increases in humid climates.
B. evaporation is retarded in humid climates.
C. radiation is increased in humid climates.
D. humid climates alter the temperature receptors in the hypothalamus by mechanisms unknown.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Evaporation

 

  1. A person leaning against a cold cement block wall would lose heat by the process of:
A. convection.
B. evaporation.
C. radiation.
D. conduction.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Conduction

 

  1. The body’s temperature control center is located in the:
A. cerebrum.
B. medulla.
C. thalamus.
D. hypothalamus.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. A second-degree burn is characterized by:
A. destruction of both the epidermis and the dermis.
B. severe pain, generalized swelling, and edema.
C. minor discomfort and some redness.
D. involvement of muscles, fasciae, or bones.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. A major distinction between second- and third-degree burns is that third-degree burns:
A. involve injury to only the deep epidermal layers.
B. involve damage to only hair follicles.
C. involve damage to only the sweat glands.
D. are characterized by insensitivity to pain immediately after injury.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. In the skin, the dermis:
A. and epidermis are both epithelial tissue.
B. and epidermis are both connective tissue.
C. is connective tissue and the epidermis is epithelial tissue.
D. is epithelial tissue and the epidermis is connective tissue.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. The layer beneath the dermis is called the:
A. hypodermis.
B. subcutaneous layer.
C. superficial fascia.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. Which cells originate in the bone marrow and are important in the immune function?
A. Dendritic cells
B. Melanocytes
C. Keratinocytes
D. Fibroblasts

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 167

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. Which skin layer is called the barrier area?
A. Stratum lucidum
B. Stratum basale
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum corneum

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. Which skin layer has cells that look prickly because of the desmosomes that join the cells together?
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum spinosum
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum corneum

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. Which skin layer contains closely packed, clear cells that contain a gel-like substance called eleidin?
A. Stratum lucidum
B. Stratum basale
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum corneum

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. In which skin layer does the process of keratinization begin?
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum corneum
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum spinosum

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermis

 

  1. Normally, which percentage of the cells in the stratum basale enter mitosis each day?
A. 20%-25%
B. 10%-12%
C. 18%-20%
D. 35%-40%

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the dermal-epidermal junction?
A. It is important in blocking bacteria from passing through the skin.
B. It is composed chiefly of basement membrane.
C. Its function is to “glue” the two layers of skin together.
D. All of the above are true.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 170

TOP:    Dermal-Epidermal Junction

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the dermis?
A. It contains a papillary layer.
B. It contains a reticular layer.
C. In general, the dermis is thinner on the dorsal side of the body than on the ventral side.
D. It plays an important role in body temperature regulation.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 170 | Page 171                           TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. “Burns” can be caused by:
A. ultraviolet light.
B. corrosive chemicals.
C. electrical current.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Burns

 

  1. The area of the skin in an average-size adult is about:
A. 12 square feet.
B. 18 square feet.
C. 24 square feet.
D. 31 square feet.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The term used to describe the skin and its appendages is the:
A. epidermis.
B. dermis.
C. integumentary system.
D. integument.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Which cells of the skin are filled with a tough, fibrous protein and account for most of the epidermal cells of the skin?
A. Dermatocytes
B. Langerhans cells
C. Keratinocytes
D. Melanocytes

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 167

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. Which cells of the skin act as a type of antigen-presenting cell in the skin?
A. Dermatocytes
B. Dendritic cells
C. Keratinocytes
D. Melanocytes

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 167

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. The cell layers of skin from the most superficial to the deepest appear in what order?
A. Stratum corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum, and basale
B. Stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, and corneum
C. Stratum basale, granulosum, lucidum, spinosum, and corneum
D. Stratum corneum, granulosum, lucidum, spinosum, and basale

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 168         TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. The time required for the completion of mitosis, differentiation, and the movement of new cells from the stratum basale to the surface of the skin is about:
A. 35 hours.
B. 17 days.
C. 22 days.
D. 35 days.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Cells in which epidermal layer are rich in RNA to increase the efficiency of protein synthesis?
A. Stratum corneum
B. Stratum lucidum
C. Stratum spinosum
D. Stratum granulosum

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Cells in which layer are filled with a protein called eleidin?
A. Stratum corneum
B. Stratum lucidum
C. Stratum spinosum
D. Stratum granulosum

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Cells in which layer have a high level of lysosomal enzymes in their cytoplasm?
A. Stratum corneum
B. Stratum lucidum
C. Stratum spinosum
D. Stratum granulosum

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. The darkest of the skin pigments is:
A. beta-carotene.
B. pheomelanin.
C. eumelanin.
D. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Which skin pigment is a light reddish color?
A. Beta-carotene
B. Pheomelanin
C. Eumelanin
D. None of the above

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. When the skin looks cyanotic, it is because:
A. oxygen-poor blood can be seen through the skin.
B. oxygen-rich blood can be seen through the skin.
C. hemosiderin can be seen through the skin.
D. bile pigments can be seen through the skin.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 174         TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. What increase in body temperature would be caused by pyrogens?
A. Heat exhaustion
B. Heat stroke
C. Fever
D. Malignant hyperthermia

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. What increase in body temperature can be caused by anesthetics or muscle relaxants?
A. Heat exhaustion
B. Heat stroke
C. Fever
D. Malignant hyperthermia

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. Hair can become brittle and dry due to the:
A. improper function of the sebaceous glands.
B. malfunction of Meissner’s corpuscle.
C. overproduction of keratin.
D. underproduction of synovial fluid.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 180         TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Many liquid medicines, such as insulin, are administered using a subcutaneous injection. Why is the subcutaneous layer an ideal site for the administration of such medication?
A. The subcutaneous layer is rich in blood supply and nerve networks.
B. The subcutaneous layer has a rich blood supply and loose spongy texture.
C. The subcutaneous layer has a rich blood supply and firm texture.
D. The subcutaneous layer has a rich supply of nerves and loose spongy texture.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Subcutaneous and Intradermal Injections

 

  1. Onycholysis is usually caused by:
A. a cuticle infection.
B. malfunctioning of Meissner’s corpuscle.
C. overproduction of the root of the fingernail.
D. trauma to long fingernails.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 180 | Page 181

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. After several hours of landscaping the yard, Jennifer experienced a body temperature of 105° F, a rapid heart rate, headache, and hot, dry skin. She is taken to a medical facility and treated for what condition?
A. Heat exhaustion
B. Heat stroke
C. Hypothermia
D. Malignant hyperthermia

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. Matt is admitted to the hospital with burns to the deep epidermal layers and injury to the upper layers of the dermis. The physician treats Matt’s condition as a:
A. first-degree burn.
B. hypothermia burn.
C. minor burn.
D. second-degree burn.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. The special network of nerves deep in the dermis that is capable of detecting pressure on the skin surface is called:
A. free nerve endings.
B. Krause’s end bulbs.
C. Meissner’s corpuscle.
D. somatic sensory receptors.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 171 ( Figure 6-6)

TOP:    Skin Receptors

 

  1. Which statement best explains the importance of the dendritic cells?
A. They contribute color to the skin and serve to decrease the amount of ultraviolet light that can penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin.
B. They become filled with a tough, fibrous protein called keratin.
C. They find markers on bacteria and other invaders and present them to other immune system cells for recognition and destruction.
D. They form the attachment of the hair follicle with the arrector pili muscles.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 167         TOP:    Structure of Skin

 

  1. How can the regeneration time required for completion of mitosis, differentiation, and movement of new keratinocytes from the stratum basale to the surface of the epidermis be accelerated?
A. By abrasion of the skin surface
B. By the presence of eleidin
C. By the epidermal proliferating unit
D. By the presence of dermal-epidermal junctions

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 168         TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. The fibers in which layer make it possible for skin to stretch and be elastic?
A. Connective tissue layer
B. Epidermal layer
C. Muscle layer
D. Reticular layer

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 171         TOP:    Reticular Cells

 

  1. After several months of extensive weight training, Nick has noticed pinkish, depressed furrows with jagged edges in his axillary region. These markings are a result of:
A. a decrease in dermal papillae.
B. healing due to tiny tears in the dermis.
C. malfunction of the microvilli.
D. overproduction of the arrector pili muscles.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. If you were looking under the microscope at a slide that contains skin glands, what three kinds of microscopic glands would be present?
A. Sebaceous, eccrine, and ceruminous glands
B. Sweat, eccrine, and ceruminous glands
C. Sweat, eccrine, and sebaceous glands
D. Sweat, sebaceous, and ceruminous glands

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 181 | Page 182

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Yellowish discoloration of the skin and other tissues is a condition known as jaundice. This results from the:
A. gallbladder not being able to eliminate bile from the blood efficiently.
B. liver not being able to eliminate bile from the blood efficiently.
C. liver not being able to eliminate hemoglobin from the blood efficiently.
D. red blood cells not being able to eliminate hemoglobin.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 174 ( Box 6-4)

TOP:    Jaundice

 

  1. Immunity is a function of the skin and occurs by:
A. attacking and destroying pathogens.
B. evaporation and radiation of the pathogens.
C. excretion of chemicals in sweat.
D. receptors that can detect sensations.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 176         TOP:    Immunity

 

  1. The skin of an infant is more easily damaged by penetration or abrasion than that of an adult. Which layer is probably thinner in an infant than in an adult?
A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum corneum
C. Stratum lucidum
D. Stratum spinosum

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 168         TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. A geneticist informs the parents that their newborn infant does not have the enzyme tyrosinase. The lack of this enzyme will result in:
A. albinism.
B. malignant hyperthermia.
C. scleroderma.
D. vitiligo.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 173         TOP:    Skin Color

 

MATCHING

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition.

A. albinism
B. lunula
C. decubitus ulcer
D. warts
E. hypothermia
F. melanoma
G. Kaposi sarcoma
H. subcutaneous
I. eccrine

 

 

  1. caused by papillomaviruses

 

  1. low body temperature

 

  1. beneath the skin

 

  1. deficiency or complete lack of skin pigment

 

  1. frequently referred to as a bed sore

 

  1. a cancerous tumor that develops from pigmented moles

 

  1. the most prevalent sweat gland

 

  1. crescent-shaped white area at the base of the nail

 

  1. a form of skin cancer that appears in many cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Skin Disorders

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Skin Disorders

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Skin Disorders

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 185         TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

Match each term with its corresponding definition.

A. first-degree burn
B. second-degree burn
C. third-degree burn
D. partial-thickness burn
E. full-thickness burn

 

 

  1. full-thickness burn

 

  1. involves only the epidermis

 

  1. another name for first- or second-degree burns

 

  1. damage to epidermis and dermis, with blisters

 

  1. destroys both epidermis and all of dermis; may include underlying tissue; also called a third-degree burn

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

Match each layer of the epidermis with its corresponding characteristics.

A. stratum corneum
B. stratum lucidum
C. stratum granulosum
D. stratum spinosum
E. stratum basale

 

 

  1. a single layer of columnar cells that undergo mitosis

 

  1. the most superficial layer of the epidermis; composed of very thin squamous cells

 

  1. layer in which the process of keratinization begins; the cells are filled with keratohyalin

 

  1. contains cells rich in ribonucleic acid and has prominent intercellular bridges or desmosomes

 

  1. layer that is absent in thin skin; cells are filled with a gel-like substance called eleidin

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 168

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What is the common name for the cutaneous membrane?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 165

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. Name and describe what is occurring in the cells in each of the layers of the epidermis.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 168         TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Explain how the involvement of desmosomes in a blister is a good example of the relationship between structure and function at the chemical level of organization.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 170 (Box 6-2)                            TOP:    Blisters

 

  1. What is a practical use of epidermal ridges? Explain why they can be used for this purpose.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 170         TOP:    Papillary Layer

 

  1. Which layer of tissue in the skin contains a rich blood supply?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 172 (Box 6-3)

TOP:    Subcutaneous Injection

 

  1. Identify the ABCD rule of self-examination of moles.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 185         TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

  1. Name and describe the pigments in the skin. Which pigment is more protective against ultraviolet radiation?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 172 | Page 173                           TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Describe the mechanism that causes the occurrence of common acne.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 182 (Box 6-6)                            TOP:    Acne

 

  1. What system produces heat during exercise, causing a person to feel warm?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178 (Box 6-5)

TOP:    Exercise and the Skin

 

  1. Differentiate among first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree burns.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 187         TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. Describe the two layers of the dermis.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 170 | Page 171                           TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. Explain the role of the blood vessels in the skin in the homeostatic regulation of heat loss in the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 178         TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Name and explain the methods of heat loss discussed in Chapter 6.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Heat Loss

 

  1. Explain the protection function of the skin, and include the role of the surface film.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 175

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. Describe the formation of hair and describe the parts of a hair follicle.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Development of Hair

 

  1. Describe the structure of fingernails and describe how they grow and their rate of growth.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180         TOP:    Nails

 

  1. Name the two types of sweat glands. Explain the difference in their location in the body and the substance they produce.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181         TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Where are the sebaceous glands located? What do they produce and what are the properties or functions of the secretion?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 182         TOP:    Sebaceous Glands

 

  1. Describe and give the cause of one type of skin infection discussed in Chapter 6.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 183 | Page 184

TOP:    Skin Infections

 

  1. Explain the two ways in which body surface area can be estimated.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Rebecca noticed a change in the mole on the back of her arm. It appeared to be larger than she remembered, and the border was lopsided and irregular. She made an appointment with her dermatologist because these warning signs could indicate what condition?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 185         TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

  1. Challenge: The process of digesting food requires work from the body. Why would you expect the body temperature to rise slightly after eating a big meal?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Heat Production

 

  1. Challenge: In hospitals, frequently a sensor is put over the fingernail to determine whether the blood is properly oxygenated. Explain why this can be done.

 

ANS:

Answers will very.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 180         TOP:    Nails

 

Patton and Thibodeau: Anatomy & Physiology, 7th Edition

 

Chapter 7: Skeletal Tissues

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The epiphyses consist mostly of compact bone, usually with yellow marrow in the center.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Bone tissue is an osseous tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Bone tissue consists mostly of cells dispersed in a limited amount of matrix.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 197         TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. The periosteum is a dense, white, fibrous membrane that covers bone except at joint surfaces.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Flat bones differ from short bones in that flat bones have an inner portion of cancellous bone covered on the outside with compact bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 195         TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Hydroxyapatite consists of highly specialized chemical crystals of calcium and phosphate.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 197         TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. The tensile strength of bone is nearly equal to that of cast iron, but much lighter.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. The hardness of bone is related to its two major mineral components—calcium and iron.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 197         TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. Haversian systems are found only in compact bone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. The strength of bone is increased by the arrangement of trabeculae.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 200         TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. Haversian systems are found only in cancellous bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. Osteoclasts are nondividing osteoblasts that have become surrounded by matrix and lie within lacunae.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. In an infant’s or child’s body, virtually all of the bones contain yellow marrow.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201         TOP:    Bone Marrow

 

  1. Osteogenesis involves the combined action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Development of Bone

 

  1. The homeostasis of blood calcium is maintained by its moving into and out of bone tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels

 

  1. Red marrow is found only in long bones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201         TOP:    Bone Marrow

 

  1. Most bones of the body are formed from cartilage models.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. During childhood and adolescence, ossification and bone resorption occur at equal rates.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. Variations in the amount of ossification and resorption of bone tissue are age dependent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 205         TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. Throughout life, ossification and resorption continue to occur concurrently.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. Walking, jogging, and other forms of exercise can weaken bones because of the pull muscles exert on bones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 206 (Box 7-1)

TOP:    Exercise and Bone Density

 

  1. Callus tissue binds the broken ends of a fractured bone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 206

TOP:    Repair of Bone Fractures

 

  1. Both cartilage and bone contain living cells and are vascular tissues.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 207         TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. A major difference between bone tissue and cartilage is the makeup of the matrix.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 207         TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. The type of cartilage growth most prevalent in childhood and early adolescence is interstitial or endogenous growth.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Growth of Cartilage

 

  1. Appositional growth of cartilage occurs when chondrocytes in the deep layer of the perichondrium begin to divide and secrete additional matrix.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Growth of Cartilage

 

  1. The occurrence of osteoporosis seems to be related to age, gender, race, and sex hormones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 209

TOP:    Metabolic Bone Disease

 

  1. Osteoporosis occurs more often in elderly white women than in males or black women.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 209

TOP:    Metabolic Bone Disease

 

  1. Interstitial growth of cartilage most often occurs during adulthood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Growth of Cartilage

 

  1. In young children, vitamin A deficiency can cause a decrease in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 210 (Box 7-2)                            TOP:    Cartilage and Nutritional Deficiencies

 

  1. Myeloid tissue is another name for bone marrow.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Bone Marrow

 

  1. Bones are the organs of the skeletal system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 194

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Another name for compact bone is cancellous bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Because each bone has a specific function, it is made of either all compact or all spongy bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. To diagnose leukemia, a physician may take a sample of yellow bone marrow to check for an abnormal number of cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. The region between the epiphyses and the diaphysis in a mature bone is called the metaphysis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Articular cartilage can be defined as a layer of elastic cartilage that covers the joint surface.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. The endosteum usually surrounds yellow marrow in an adult.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. The endosteum is a connective tissue membrane that lines the medullary cavity.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Part of the bone matrix is made of inorganic substances.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. A regular x-ray examination will detect osteoporosis, but only after more than 50% of the bone matrix is lost.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 209

TOP:    Measuring Bone Mineral Density

 

  1. Estrogen and calcitonin are treatments for osteoporosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 209

TOP:    Measuring Bone Mineral Density

 

  1. An important part of the bone matrix is an amorphous mixture of protein and polysaccharide called ground substance.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. Chondroitin sulfate is an important compound in ground substance.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 198

TOP:    Organic Matrix

 

  1. The components of the inorganic matrix add both strength and resilience to bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 198

TOP:    Organic Matrix

 

  1. The terms haversian system and osteon are interchangeable.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Lamellae and lacunae are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Transverse canals are located in the center of the osteon.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Both compact and spongy, or cancellous, bone have canaliculi.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 199 | Page 200                           TOP:    Compact Bone | Cancellous Bone

 

  1. The layer of cancellous bone between two layers of compact bone is called dipole.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. Without the canaliculi, the bone cells in compact bone would die of starvation and lack of oxygen.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 199         TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Osteoblasts secrete the inorganic salts that make up the structure of bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. Osteoclasts are large, multinucleate cells that erode bone minerals.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. Mature, nondividing osteoclasts that are surrounded in bone matrix are now called osteocytes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. In an adult who is anemic or has been exposed to radiation or toxic chemicals, yellow bone marrow can become red bone marrow again.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Bone Marrow

 

  1. Parathyroid hormone is released when blood calcium levels are too high.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Parathyroid Hormone

 

  1. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin are of equal importance in regulating the calcium level of the blood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Calcitonin

 

  1. Calcitonin is released when the blood calcium levels are too high.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Calcitonin

 

  1. Because of repeated wear and tear, athletes and dancers tend to have less dense bones than people who exercise less often.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 206 (Box 7-1)                            TOP:    Development of Bone

 

  1. Both membrane and endochondral bone grow by interior expansion.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Intramembranous Ossification

 

  1. Initially, endochondral bone grows from the epiphyses toward the diaphysis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 202 | Page 203                           TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. Because bone is connective tissue, a fractured bone will never heal and be as strong as before the fracture.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 206

TOP:    Repair of Bone Fractures

 

  1. Short bones are made up of only spongy bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Aspiration and examination of bone marrow can help physicians diagnose leukemia.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The inorganic salts that make up the bone matrix are equally divided between hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. Chondroitin is an amino sugar that is important in cartilage formation.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 198

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. The term woven bone is used to describe new bone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. The type of cartilage that occurs in the pubic symphysis and intervertebral disks is fibrocartilage.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 207

TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. Sesamoid bones develop in tendons near a joint.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The patella or kneecap is the only sesamoid bone ever found in the human body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 195         TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Because they have no medullary cavity, spongy bone does not have an endosteum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of the Long Bone

 

  1. Most of the matrix in bone is composed of inorganic rather than organic material.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Bone Tissue

 

  1. There are more than 200 bones in the human body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The compact bone that is superficial to the diploe in the skull is called the external table.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Parts of a Flat Bone

 

  1. The internal table is the term used to describe the spongy bone on the interior of the skull.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Parts of a Flat Bone

 

  1. All the lamellae in compact bone are found as part of the osteon.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. The inner circumferential lamellae can be found directly under the periosteum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. The body contains more spongy bone than it does compact bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. When cancellous bone is put under mechanical stress, it responds by remodeling its trabecula in a different direction and by increasing their diameter.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. When a compact bone is put under mechanical stress, it responds by forming wider osteons to help better distribute the stress.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. One function of bone is to provide a place to make blood cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 194

TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. One function of bone is to store calcium and phosphorous for the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 194

TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. Parathyroid hormone affects not only bone cells, but also cells of the kidney.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Parathyroid Hormone

 

  1. Calcitonin is a protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland that helps regulate blood calcium levels.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Calcitonin

 

  1. The epiphyseal plate is composed of three layers of cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 203 | Page 204                           TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. After birth, the amount of cartilage in the body increases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 207

TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. The type of cartilage found in the symphysis pubis is fibrocartilage.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 207

TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. The cartilage rings in the trachea and the tip of the nose are elastic cartilage.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 207

TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A fracture in the shaft of a bone is a break in the:
A. epiphysis.
B. periosteum.
C. diaphysis.
D. articular cartilage.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Endosteum can be found:
A. lining the medullary cavity.
B. covering bones.
C. at articular surfaces.
D. lining the epiphysis.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Muscle tendon fibers attach to bone by interlacing with:
A. compact bone.
B. ligaments.
C. periosteum.
D. endosteum.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. The organic matrix of bone consists of:
A. collagenous fibers.
B. protein.
C. polysaccharides.
D. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 197 | Page 198                           TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. In bone formation, the cells that produce the organic matrix are the:
A. osteoblasts.
B. osteocytes.
C. osteoclasts.
D. chondrocytes.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. The cells responsible for active erosion of bone minerals are called:
A. osteocytes.
B. osteoclasts.
C. osteoblasts.
D. osteomorphytes.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the primary functions performed by bones?
A. Mineral storage
B. Protection
C. Hormonal production
D. Hematopoiesis

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 194

TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. The cell organelles that synthesize organic matrix substances in bone formation are:
A. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus.
B. ribosomes and Golgi apparatus.
C. endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes.
D. endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Intramembranous Ossification

 

  1. The osteon, or haversian, system:
A. delivers nutrients to and removes waste products from bone cells.
B. produces yellow marrow.
C. resists stress.
D. erodes bone.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. In intramembranous ossification, the process of appositional growth refers to the:
A. development of a core layer of spongy bone.
B. development of compact bone in long bones.
C. addition of an outside layer of osseous tissue on flat bones.
D. lengthening of long bone.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Intramembranous Ossification

 

  1. Hematopoiesis is carried out in the:
A. osteoclasts.
B. osteocytes.
C. yellow bone marrow.
D. red bone marrow.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 194

TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. The primary ossification center of a long bone is located:
A. at the midpoint of the diaphysis.
B. in the epiphysis.
C. in the medullary cavity.
D. at the epiphyseal cartilage.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 203 | Page 204

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. The major purpose of the epiphyseal plate is:
A. mending of fractures.
B. enlarging of epiphyses.
C. providing strength in long bones.
D. lengthening long bones.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. The first step in healing a fracture is:
A. the formation of specialized callus.
B. the formation of a fracture hematoma.
C. proper alignment of the fracture.
D. the formation of a collar of normal bone covering the broken ends.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 206

TOP:    Repair of Bone Fractures

 

  1. Normally, bone loss will begin to exceed bone gain between the ages of:
A. 20 and 25 years.
B. 25 and 30 years.
C. 30 and 35 years.
D. 35 and 40 years.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. In bone growth, the medullary cavity is enlarged because of the activity of:
A. osteoclasts.
B. osteocytes.
C. osteoblasts.
D. chondrocytes.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. The most abundant type of cartilage is:
A. hyaline.
B. elastic.
C. fibrocartilage.
D. all three types are present in approximately equal amounts.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 207

TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. The form of the external ear is composed of:
A. fibrocartilage.
B. elastic cartilage.
C. osseous tissue.
D. hyaline cartilage.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 207

TOP:    Elastic Cartilage

 

  1. In young children, vitamin A deficiency will:
A. cause an increase in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones.
B. cause a decrease in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones.
C. produce the same alterations of the epiphyseal plate as does vitamin D deficiency.
D. have no effect on the epiphyseal plate but will cause an increase in bone marrow production.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 210 (Box 7-2)                            TOP:    Cartilage and Nutritional Deficiencies

 

  1. Which of these substances is not part of the inorganic matrix of bone?
A. Magnesium
B. Collagen
C. Sodium
D. Fluoride

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. As the activity of osteoblasts increases:
A. the level of calcium in the blood increases.
B. the amount of calcium in bone increases.
C. the level of calcium in the blood decreases.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels

 

  1. As the activity of osteoclasts increases:
A. the level of calcium in the blood increases.
B. the amount of calcium in the bone increases.
C. the level of calcium in the blood decreases.
D. both B and C occur.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels

 

  1. Sesamoid bones are classified as:
A. long bones.
B. short bones.
C. irregular bones.
D. flat bones.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the diaphysis?
A. Provides a bulbous shape for attachment of muscle
B. Hollow
C. Composed of compact bone
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the epiphyses?
A. Made of spongy bone
B. Cylindrical in shape
C. Contain red bone marrow
D. All of the above are characteristics of the epiphyses.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Which of the following is not dependent on the proper amount of calcium ions in the blood?
A. Blood clotting
B. Transmission of nerve impulses
C. Contraction of cardiac muscle
D. All of the above

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels

 

  1. The parathyroid hormone causes all of the following except:
A. increase of the absorption of calcium by the kidney.
B. stimulation of the activity of osteoblasts.
C. stimulation of the activity of osteoclasts.
D. stimulation of vitamin D synthesis.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Parathyroid Hormone

 

  1. Which of the following is true of bone but not of cartilage?
A. It is classified as a connective tissue.
B. It has collagen fibers in its matrix.
C. Canals link blood vessels and cells.
D. Cells lie in lacunae.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 207         TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. Which of the following is not made of hyaline cartilage?
A. External ear
B. Cartilage rings in the trachea
C. Cartilage connecting the ribs and sternum
D. Cartilage in the tip of the nose

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 207         TOP:    Hyaline Cartilage

 

  1. Which of the following is not made of elastic cartilage?
A. External ear
B. Tip of the nose
C. Epiglottis
D. Eustachian tubes

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 207         TOP:    Elastic Cartilage

 

  1. Which type of bone consists only of compact bone?
A. Long bones
B. Short bones
C. Irregular bones
D. All types of bones are composed of both compact and spongy bone.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Cancellous bone is another term for a(n):
A. irregular bone.
B. spongy bone.
C. short bone.
D. compact bone.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The humerus is an example of a(n):
A. long bone.
B. short bone.
C. flat bone.
D. irregular bone.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. A vertebral bone is an example of a(n):
A. long bone.
B. short bone.
C. flat bone.
D. irregular bone.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The tarsal bones are examples of:
A. long bones.
B. short bones.
C. flat bones.
D. irregular bones.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The scapula is an example of a(n):
A. long bone.
B. short bone.
C. flat bone.
D. irregular bone.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The matrix of bone consists of:
A. mostly organic material with a lesser amount of inorganic salts.
B. almost equal amounts of organic material and inorganic salts.
C. mostly inorganic salts with a lesser amount of organic material.
D. greatly varying proportions of organic and inorganic material depending on the location and function of the bone.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. Hydroxyapatite crystals constitute about how much of the total inorganic matrix?
A. 65%
B. 75%
C. 85%
D. 95%

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. Which of the following is not a method of measuring bone density?
A. Bone biopsy
B. DXA
C. RA
D. All of the above are methods of measuring bone density.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 209

TOP:    Metabolic Bone Disease

 

  1. Lengthwise-running central canals are connected to each other by transverse-running:
A. haversian canals.
B. Volkmann canals.
C. canaliculi.
D. lacunae.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. As the amount of calcitonin in the blood increases, the amount of calcium:
A. in the blood increases.
B. released from the bone increases.
C. in the blood decreases.
D. both A and B.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201         TOP:    Calcitonin

 

  1. A person with a diet rich in calcium would have a:
A. low level of calcitonin.
B. low level of parathyroid hormone.
C. high level of calcitonin.
D. both B and C.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Mechanisms of Calcium Homeostasis

 

  1. Which type of bone is usually found in a tendon?
A. Irregular bone
B. Long bones
C. Sesamoid bones
D. Short bones

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The concentric, cylinder-shaped layers of calcified bone matrix are called:
A. lacunae.
B. canaliculi.
C. central canal.
D. lamellae.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. The small spaces in the matrix that contain the bone cells are called:
A. lacunae.
B. canaliculi.
C. central canal.
D. lamellae.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Diploe can be found:
A. in the diaphysis of a compact bone.
B. in the middle of spongy bone.
C. in the epiphysis of compact bone.
D. connecting parallel osteons in spongy bone.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. In the epiphyseal plate, the proliferating zone is in the:
A. first layer.
B. second layer.
C. third layer.
D. fourth layer.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. In the epiphyseal plate, the zone of hypertrophy is in the:
A. first layer.
B. second layer.
C. third layer.
D. fourth layer.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

MATCHING

 

Match each bone structure with its corresponding description.

A. periosteum
B. endosteum
C. epiphyses
D. diaphysis
E. medullary cavity
F. articular cartilage

 

 

  1. thin membrane that lines a large cavity in long bones

 

  1. covers joint surfaces

 

  1. part of long bone to which tendons attach

 

  1. location of spongy bone

 

  1. tubelike hollow space in long bones

 

  1. central shaft of long bones

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

Match each microscopic bone structure with its corresponding description.

A. lacunae
B. central canal
C. canaliculi
D. trabeculae
E. lamellae
F. transverse canal

 

 

  1. little canals that connect areas of bone cells

 

  1. concentric rings of compact bone

 

  1. cavities in which bone cells are found

 

  1. contains blood vessels in living bone

 

  1. spicules of cancellous bone

 

  1. canals that connect parallel central canals

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

Match each bone type with its corresponding description.

A. irregular bones
B. flat bones
C. sesamoid bones
D. short bones
E. long bones

 

 

  1. often described as cube-shaped or box-shaped

 

  1. bones that are found in tendons; the patella is an example

 

  1. often clustered in groups and come in various sizes and shapes; vertebrae are an example

 

  1. easily identified by their extended longitudinal axis; the femur is an example

 

  1. generally broad and thin with a flattened or curved surface; ribs are an example

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 195

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. List the six structures of long bones that are visible to the naked eye.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 196

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Describe the two chemical components of the extracellular bone matrix.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 197 | Page 198

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. Compare and contrast osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 200         TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. Describe the varying degrees of bone formation (ossification) and bone destruction (resorption) that occurs from childhood to adulthood.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 205         TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. Name the types of bone found in the body and give an example of each type.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 195         TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Name and describe the parts of the osteon.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 199         TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Name and describe the functions of bone.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 194         TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. Explain all the ways parathyroid hormone helps to increase blood calcium levels.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201         TOP:    Parathyroid Hormone

 

  1. Where is the epiphyseal plate located? What is the function of the epiphyseal plate? Describe the layers that make up the epiphyseal plate.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 203 | Page 204

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. Explain the steps in the healing of a bone fracture.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 206

TOP:    Repair of Bone Fractures

 

  1. Name, describe, and give the location of the different types of cartilage found in the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 207         TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

OTHER

 

  1. Challenge: Dr. Haney, an orthopedic surgeon, called the admissions office of a hospital and advised that he would be admitting a patient with an epiphyseal fracture. Without any other information, the patient was assigned to the pediatric floor. What prompted this assignment?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 203 | Page 204

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. Challenge: Emma, an elderly white woman, noticed that she was half an inch shorter than she was at her last doctor’s visit. Her doctor suggested that she begin a regimen of dietary supplements of calcium, vitamin D, and a prescription for sex hormone therapy. What bone disease did the doctor suspect? What would the prescribed treatment do for this condition?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 209         TOP:    Measuring Bone Mineral Density

 

  1. Challenge: Explain how the body regulates the calcium level in the blood. Discuss the activities of both hormones involved and where each is made. What problems might occur in the body if the calcium level were too low?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 201         TOP:    Mechanisms of Calcium Homeostasis

 

  1. Challenge: Growth hormone can be given to people to increase their height. This requires rapid bone growth. If a young adult wants to be given growth hormone, x-ray films will be taken of his or her skeleton. What is the physician looking for and how would it affect the decision to give or withhold growth hormone?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 203 | Page 204

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

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