Anatomy & Physiology 8th Edition by Kevin T. Patton, Gary A. Thibodeau –  Test Bank

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Anatomy & Physiology 8th Edition by Kevin T. Patton, Gary A. Thibodeau –  Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 07-A: Skin and its Appendages

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. One of the important functions of the skin is the synthesis of vitamin D.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. Keratin is an important skin pigment that protects against ultraviolet light.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 173         TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. The hypodermis is a subcutaneous layer rich in adipose and loose fibrous connective tissue.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Hypodermis

 

  1. The subcutaneous layer is also referred to as the superficial fascia.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Hypodermis

 

  1. Melanocytes account for approximately 55% of the epidermal cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. During the life of an individual, epidermal tissue is constantly being replaced.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Turnover time for epidermal tissue can be accelerated by injury.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Prolonged exposure to the sun causes decreased melanin production.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. A primary function of the dermal-epidermal junction is to “glue” together the dermis and the epidermis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Dermoepidermal Junction

 

  1. The epidermis is referred to as the true skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. Normally about 10% to 12% of all cells in the stratum basale enter mitosis each day.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Both the epidermis and the dermis continually undergo shedding and regeneration.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 174         TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Sensory receptors are found in the epidermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 176         TOP:    Dermis

 

  1. Goose pimples, elevation of the testes, and erection of the nipples result from the contraction of muscles in the dermis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. The dermis contains both voluntary and involuntary muscle fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 177         TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. Malignant melanoma has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past 20 years.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 190         TOP:    Skin Cancer

 

  1. The basic ingredient in the skin that determines skin color is melanin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Vitiligo is an acquired condition that results in loss of pigment in certain areas of the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 173 (Box 7-1)                            TOP:    Vitiligo

 

  1. An increase in the enzyme tyrosinase will lead to the destruction of pigment and result in albinism.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 179         TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Darkening of the skin may be caused by a decrease in the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 179         TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Lanugo is the technical term used for adult body hair.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Terminal hair is the coarse pubic and axillary hair that develops at puberty.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. One way to stimulate hair growth is to cut it or shave it.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. One of the factors associated with the common type of baldness is the presence of testosterone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 186         TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Growth of nails is the result of mitosis in the stratum basale.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. The gland that produces the waxy secretion in the external ear canal is a sebaceous gland.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 188

TOP:    Ceruminous Glands

 

  1. An increase in sebum secretion in children may lead to increased susceptibility to ringworm.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 188|Page 189

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Apocrine sweat glands are the most numerous and widespread sweat glands in the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 187         TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. There is a more than fivefold increase in the rate of sebum secretion between 10 and 19 years of age.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 188 (Box 7-7)                            TOP:    Acne

 

  1. A person with a body temperature of 38° C would need to be treated for hypothermia.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 192

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. When heat must be conserved to maintain a constant body temperature, the dermal blood vessels increase their diameter.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 183         TOP:    Heat Loss

 

  1. Shivering is a good example of the body’s attempt to produce more heat.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 183         TOP:    Heat Production

 

  1. A person who is shivering would normally have dilated surface blood vessels in the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 183         TOP:    Heat Loss

 

  1. Heat loss by the skin is controlled by a positive feedback loop.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. The body’s temperature control center is located in the hypothalamus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. The normal body temperature set point is 37° C.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Besides changing the rates of metabolism, the primary means of controlling body temperature is through changes in the size of blood vessels in the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Skin thermal receptors provide important information to the heat-regulating centers in the brain, resulting in autonomic regulation of body temperature.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Heat loss by the skin is controlled by a negative feedback loop.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Homeostatic Regulation of Heat Loss

 

  1. Blisters, severe pain, generalized swelling, and edema are characteristic of third-degree burns.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 192

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. The rule of palms and the rule of tens are two methods used in estimating the extent of body surface area burned.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 192

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. Third-degree burns are less severe than first-degree burns and therefore are not as painful.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 192

TOP:    Estimating Body Surface Area

 

  1. The thickest part of the skin is slightly more than 3 cm thick.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Integument and integumentary system are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Integumentary system and skin are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. A large amount of fat can be stored in the hypodermis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Hypodermis

 

  1. Thick skin and thin skin refer to the dermis and the epidermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Thin and Thick Skin

 

  1. Hair is usually not found on thick skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Thin and Thick Skin

 

  1. In thin skin, some of the strata of the skin may be absent.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Thin and Thick Skin

 

  1. The cells at the surface of the skin are dead.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. An abnormal thickening of the stratum corneum is called hyperkeratosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. The stratum lucidum and stratum basale are sometimes referred to as the stratum germinativum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Blisters can be the result of damage to the desmosomes in a layer of skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 176 (Box 7-2)                            TOP:    Blisters

 

  1. The average turnover time for skin cells to go from the stratum basale to the surface of the epidermis is about 35 days.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Continual abrasion to the skin surface tends to lengthen the turnover time of the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. A group of active basal cells, together with its vertical column of migrating keratinocytes, is called a dermal proliferating unit, or DPU.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 175

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. The papillary layer of the dermis lies just below the dermal-epidermal junction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Papillary Layer

 

  1. The reticular layer of the dermis serves as an attachment point for both smooth and skeletal muscles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. Surgical incisions that are made perpendicular to cleavage lines tend to heal with less of a scar.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Light-skinned people have fewer melanocytes in their skin than do dark-skinned people.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. The ability of melanocytes to darken the skin is dependent on the functioning of the enzyme tyrosinase.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Convection is responsible for most of the heat loss of the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Convection

 

  1. The protective function of the skin is limited to the protection of the underlying tissue from abrasion and mechanical injury.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The shedding of epithelial elements from the skin surface is called desquamation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The surface film that aids in the protective function of the skin is remarkably consistent from one part of the skin to another.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 181

TOP:    Surface Film

 

  1. Because sweat can contain ammonia, urea, and other waste products, it plays a major role in the excretion of body wastes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Functions of the Skin

 

  1. The skin has the ability to convert cholecalciferol to vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Hormone (Vitamin D) Production

 

  1. Because vitamin D is a compound that influences several important chemical reactions, it can also be classified as an enzyme.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Hormone (Vitamin D) Production

 

  1. Radiation can account for both heat loss and heat gain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 183

TOP:    Radiation

 

  1. Heat production occurs in two ways: metabolism of food and absorption of heat from the environment.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 183

TOP:    Homeostasis of Body Temperature

 

  1. Sweat that drips off you does very little to cool your body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 183         TOP:    Evaporation

 

  1. In a cool environment, conduction accounts for most of the heat loss of the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 184

TOP:    Conduction

 

  1. In using the rule of nines to determine the area of the body involved, the body is divided into 9 areas of 11% each.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 192

TOP:    Burns

 

  1. Lanugo is usually found on a fetus or newborn.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. The cells of the germinal matrix are responsible for forming hair.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. The hair itself is composed of three layers: the shaft, the cortex, and the cuticle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Fingernails are composed of heavily keratinized epidermal cells.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. Apocrine and eccrine glands are the two types of sebaceous glands.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Eccrine glands are the more numerous of the sweat glands.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Although the ducts of the eccrine sweat glands come through the epidermis, the actual secretory portion is located in the dermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Apocrine sweat glands begin functioning shortly after birth.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 187

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Because sebaceous glands produce a substance rich in triglycerides and fatty acids, it provides a good growth medium for fungi.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 188

TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Malignant hyperthermia occurs as a result of exposure to certain types of anesthetic agents or muscle relaxants.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 191

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. The skin surface area can be as large as 20 square feet in the average adult.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The skin is a thin and relatively flat organ and is an example of a serous membrane.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Structure of the Skin

 

  1. Fingerprints are an example of the friction ridges of the skin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Thin and Thick Skin

 

  1. The keratinocytes of the skin are examples of antigen-presenting cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. The stratum lucidum is superficial to the stratum basale.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 174         TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. An abnormally thick region of the stratum basale is called a callus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Cleavage lines and Langer lines refer to the same thing.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Langer lines is the more correct name for stretch marks.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. Albinism is the inability of the body to form melanin.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Melanin

 

  1. Jaundice can occur because of a very high concentration of vitamin A in the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. A high level of melanin in the skin assists in the formation of vitamin D.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 182

TOP:    Hormone (Vitamin D) Production

 

  1. Dendritic cells develop in the dermis of the skin but migrate to the epidermis of the skin to function.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. Cells in the stratum spinosum layer are rich in RNA to make protein synthesis more efficient.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Keratohyalin is a protein in the stratum lucidum that will eventually be transformed into keratin in the cells of the epidermis.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. Cells in the stratum lucidum do not have a high metabolic rate because they usually do not have a nucleus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. High levels of lysosomal enzymes are found in the cells of the stratum granulosum layer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. One end of the arrector pili muscle is attached to a hair follicle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. A scar is a dense mass of keratinocytes that forms when a wound to the skin heals.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. People who have mostly pheomelanin in their skin tend to have darker skin than people who have mostly eumelanin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. Melanosomes help prevent DNA mutations when the cell is exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 179         TOP:    Skin Color

 

  1. You turn red when you blush because the color of blood is red.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 180         TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. The presence of hemosiderin and bile pigments in the skin can cause the skin to appear cyanotic.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 180         TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. Both the root and the lunula of the nail are covered by the cuticle and therefore cannot be seen externally.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Nails

 

  1. If a person were in a totally bacteria-free environment, any sweat produced would have no odor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 187         TOP:    Sweat Glands

 

  1. Chemicals that cause the body to develop a fever are called pyrogens.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 191

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. Fever is always detrimental to the body, so the body temperature should be reduced to normal as soon as possible.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 191

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. Malignant hyperthermia, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke are increasingly dangerous consequences of exposure to high environmental temperatures.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 191

TOP:    Abnormal Body Temperature

 

  1. The skin is the largest and thinnest organ.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 171

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The hypodermis is the deepest layer of skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 178

TOP:    Hypodermis

 

  1. Most of the body is covered by protective thick skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 172

TOP:    Thin and Thick Skin

 

  1. Keratinocytes are sometimes called corneocytes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. Melanocytes are sometimes called Langerhans cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 173

TOP:    Cell Types

 

  1. The stratum granulosum is sometimes called the barrier layer of the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Cell Layers

 

  1. In order for proper growth and repair of the skin to occur, both insulin-like growth factor and vitamin D must be present in the correct amounts.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 174

TOP:    Epidermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. The main function of the dermoepidermal junction is to act as a barrier to harmful chemicals and bacteria.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 176

TOP:    Dermoepidermal Junction

 

  1. Hair follicles and skin glands, made up of epithelial tissue, extend from the epidermis into the reticular layer.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Reticular Layer

 

  1. In the healing of a wound, fibroblasts in the dermis quickly reproduce and begin forming a dense mass of new connective tissue fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 177

TOP:    Dermal Growth and Repair

 

  1. The death of melanocytes in the hair follicle of older people cause the hair to turn gray.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 179

TOP:    Melanin

 

  1. Permanent tattoos are made by injecting pigments into the epidermis of the skin and because of the regeneration of the epidermis, they become less distinct with age.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 180

TOP:    Other Pigments

 

  1. The germinal matrix is a small mound of dermis that supplies blood to the hair follicle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. The hair follicle servers as a primary location of adult stem cells for skin cells like melanocytes.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 185

TOP:    Hair

 

  1. Toenails and fingernails grow at the rate of about 0.5 mm a week, but they grow faster in the winter than they do in the summer.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 186

TOP:    Nails

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 08-B: Skeletal Tissues

 

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A fracture in the shaft of a bone is a break in the:
a. epiphysis.
b. periosteum.
c. diaphysis.
d. articular cartilage.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Endosteum can be found:
a. lining the medullary cavity.
b. covering bones.
c. at articular surfaces.
d. lining the epiphysis.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Muscle tendon fibers attach to bone by interlacing with:
a. compact bone.
b. ligaments.
c. periosteum.
d. endosteum.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. The organic matrix of bone consists of:
a. collagenous fibers.
b. protein.
c. polysaccharides.
d. all of the above.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. In bone formation, the cells that produce the organic matrix are the:
a. osteoblasts.
b. osteocytes.
c. osteoclasts.
d. chondrocytes.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 206

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. The cells responsible for active erosion of bone minerals are called:
a. osteocytes.
b. osteoclasts.
c. osteoblasts.
d. osteomorphytes.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 207

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the primary functions performed by bones?
a. Mineral storage
b. Protection
c. Hormonal production
d. Hematopoiesis

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. The cell organelles that synthesize organic matrix substances in bone formation are:
a. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus.
b. ribosomes and Golgi apparatus.
c. endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes.
d. endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 209

TOP:    Intramembranous Ossification

 

  1. The osteon, or haversian, system:
a. delivers nutrients to and removes waste products from bone cells.
b. produces yellow marrow.
c. resists stress.
d. erodes bone.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. In intramembranous ossification, the process of appositional growth refers to the:
a. development of a core layer of spongy bone.
b. development of compact bone in long bones.
c. addition of an outside layer of osseous tissue on flat bones.
d. lengthening of long bone.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 209

TOP:    Intramembranous Ossification

 

  1. Hematopoiesis is carried out in the:
a. osteoclasts.
b. osteocytes.
c. yellow bone marrow.
d. red bone marrow.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. The primary ossification center of a long bone is located:
a. in the diaphysis.
b. in the epiphysis.
c. in the medullary cavity.
d. at the epiphyseal cartilage.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 210

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. The major purpose of the epiphyseal plate is:
a. mending of fractures.
b. enlarging of epiphyses.
c. providing strength in long bones.
d. lengthening long bones.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 210

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. The first step in healing a fracture is:
a. the formation of specialized callus.
b. the formation of a fracture hematoma.
c. proper alignment of the fracture.
d. the formation of a collar of normal bone covering the broken ends.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 214

TOP:    Repair of Bone Fractures

 

  1. Normally, bone loss will begin to exceed bone gain between the ages of _____ years.
a. 20 and 25
b. 25 and 30
c. 30 and 35
d. 35 and 40

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 213

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. In bone growth, the medullary cavity is enlarged because of the activity of:
a. osteoclasts.
b. osteocytes.
c. osteoblasts.
d. chondrocytes.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 212

TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. The most abundant type of cartilage is:
a. hyaline.
b. elastic.
c. fibrocartilage.
d. All of the above are present in approximately equal amounts.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 214

TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. The form of the external ear is composed of:
a. fibrocartilage.
b. elastic cartilage.
c. osseous tissue.
d. hyaline cartilage.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 215

TOP:    Elastic Cartilage

 

  1. In young children, vitamin A and protein deficiency will:
a. cause an increase in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones.
b. cause a decrease in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones.
c. produce the same alterations of the epiphyseal plate as does vitamin D deficiency.
d. have no effect on the epiphyseal plate but will cause an increase in bone marrow production.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 217 (Box 8-2)                            TOP:    Cartilage and Nutritional Deficiencies

 

  1. Which of the following substances is not part of the inorganic matrix of bone?
a. Magnesium
b. Collagen
c. Sodium
d. Fluoride

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 203|Page 204                             TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. As the activity of osteoblasts increases, the:
a. level of calcium in the blood increases.
b. amount of calcium in bone increases.
c. level of calcium in the blood decreases.
d. Both B and C occur.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels

 

  1. As the activity of osteoclasts increases, the:
a. level of calcium in the blood increases.
b. amount of calcium in the bone increases.
c. level of calcium in the blood decreases.
d. Both B and C occur.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels

 

  1. Sesamoid bones are classified as _____ bones.
a. long
b. short
c. irregular
d. flat

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the diaphysis?
a. Provides a bulbous shape for attachment of muscle
b. Hollow
c. Composed of compact bone
d. All of the above are characteristics of the diaphysis.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the epiphyses?
a. Made of spongy bone
b. Cylindrical in shape
c. Contain red bone marrow
d. All of the above are characteristics of the epiphyses.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Which of the following is not dependent on the proper amount of calcium ions in the blood?
a. Blood clotting
b. Transmission of nerve impulses
c. Contraction of cardiac muscle
d. All of the above are dependent on the proper amount of calcium ions in the blood.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Regulation of Blood Calcium Levels

 

  1. The parathyroid hormone causes all of the following except:
a. increase of the absorption of calcium by the kidney.
b. stimulation of the activity of osteoblasts.
c. stimulation of the activity of osteoclasts.
d. stimulation of vitamin D synthesis.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Parathyroid Hormones

 

  1. Which of the following is true of bone but not of cartilage?
a. It is classified as a connective tissue.
b. It has collagen fibers in its matrix.
c. Canals link blood vessels and cells.
d. Cells lie in lacunae.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 214         TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

  1. Which of the following is not made of hyaline cartilage?
a. External ear
b. Cartilage rings in the trachea
c. Cartilage connecting the ribs and sternum
d. Cartilage in the tip of the nose

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 215         TOP:    Hyaline Cartilage

 

  1. Which of the following is not made of elastic cartilage?
a. External ear
b. Tip of the nose
c. Epiglottis
d. Eustachian tubes

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 215         TOP:    Elastic Cartilage

 

  1. Which type of bone consists only of compact bone?
a. Long
b. Short
c. Irregular
d. All types of bones are composed of both compact and spongy bone.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Cancellous bone is another term for a(n) _____ bone.
a. irregular
b. spongy
c. short
d. compact

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The humerus is an example of a(n) _____ bone.
a. long
b. short
c. flat
d. irregular

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. A vertebral bone is an example of a(n) _____ bone.
a. long
b. short
c. flat
d. irregular

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The tarsal bones are examples of _____ bones.
a. long
b. short
c. flat
d. irregular

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The scapula is an example of a(n) _____ bone.
a. long
b. short
c. flat
d. irregular

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The matrix of bone consists of:
a. mostly organic material with a lesser amount of inorganic salts.
b. almost equal amounts of organic material and inorganic salts.
c. mostly inorganic salts with a lesser amount of organic material.
d. greatly varying proportions of organic and inorganic material depending on the location and function of the bone.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. Hydroxyapatite crystals constitute about how much of the total inorganic matrix?
a. 65%
b. 75%
c. 85%
d. 95%

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. What condition results in vitamin D deficiency in children?
a. Rickets
b. Osteomalacia
c. Osteoporosis
d. Both A and B

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 217

TOP:    Metabolic Bone Disease

 

  1. Lengthwise-running central canals are connected to each other by transverse-running:
a. haversian canals.
b. Volkmann canals.
c. canaliculi.
d. lacunae.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. As the amount of calcitonin in the blood increases, the amount of calcium:
a. in the blood increases.
b. released from the bone increases.
c. in the blood decreases.
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 208         TOP:    Calcitonin

 

  1. A person with a diet rich in calcium would probably have a:
a. low level of calcitonin.
b. low level of parathyroid hormone.
c. high level of calcitonin.
d. Both B and C are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 208

TOP:    Mechanisms of Calcium Homeostasis

 

  1. Which type of bone is found in a tendon?
a. Irregular bone
b. Long bones
c. Sesamoid bones
d. Short bones

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. The concentric, cylinder-shaped layers of calcified bone matrix are called:
a. lacunae.
b. canaliculi.
c. central canal.
d. lamellae.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. The small spaces in the matrix that contain the bone cells are called:
a. lacunae.
b. canaliculi.
c. central canal.
d. lamellae.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Diploë can be found:
a. in the diaphysis of a compact bone.
b. in the middle of spongy bone.
c. in the epiphysis of compact bone.
d. connecting parallel osteons in spongy bone.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 205

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. In the epiphyseal plate, the proliferating zone is in the _____ layer.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 210

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. In the epiphyseal plate, the zone of hypertrophy is in the _____ layer.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 210

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. Bones act as a reservoir for which of the following minerals?
a. Iron
b. Calcium
c. Phosphorous
d. Both A and B

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200

TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. The small tubes in the osteon that bring nutrients, and oxygen to the osteocytes are called:
a. canaliculi.
b. lacunae.
c. lamellae.
d. diploë.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

MATCHING

 

Match each bone structure with its corresponding description.

a. Periosteum
b. Endosteum
c. Epiphyses
d. Diaphysis
e. Medullary cavity
f. Articular cartilage

 

 

  1. thin membrane that lines a large cavity in long bones

 

  1. covers joint surfaces

 

  1. part of long bone to which tendons attach

 

  1. location of spongy bone in a long bone

 

  1. tubelike hollow space in long bones

 

  1. central shaft of long bones

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 202

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

Match each microscopic bone structure with its corresponding description.

a. Lacunae
b. Central canal
c. Canaliculi
d. Trabeculae
e. Lamellae
f. Transverse canal

 

 

  1. little canals that connect areas of bone cells

 

  1. concentric rings of compact bone

 

  1. cavities in which bone cells are found

 

  1. contains blood vessels in living bone

 

  1. bone cells are found here in cancellous bone

 

  1. canals that connect parallel central canals

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 206

TOP:    Cancellous Bone

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204

TOP:    Compact Bone

 

Match each bone type with its corresponding description.

a. Irregular bones
b. Flat bones
c. Sesamoid bones
d. Short bones
e. Long bones

 

 

  1. often described as cube-shaped or box-shaped

 

  1. bones that are found in tendons; the patella is an example

 

  1. often clustered in groups and come in various sizes and shapes; vertebrae are an example

 

  1. easily identified by their extended longitudinal axis; the femur is an example

 

  1. generally broad and thin with a flattened or curved surface; ribs are an example

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201

TOP:    Types of Bones

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. List the six structures of long bones that are visible to the naked eye.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 201|Page 203

TOP:    Parts of a Long Bone

 

  1. Describe the two chemical components of the extracellular bone matrix.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 203|Page 204

TOP:    Composition of Bone Matrix

 

  1. Compare and contrast osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 206|Page 207

TOP:    Types of Bone Cells

 

  1. Describe the varying degrees of bone formation (ossification) and bone destruction (resorption) that occurs from childhood to adulthood.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 212|Page 213                             TOP:    Bone Remodeling

 

  1. Name the types of bone found in the body and give an example of each type.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 201         TOP:    Types of Bones

 

  1. Name and describe the parts of the osteon.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 204         TOP:    Compact Bone

 

  1. Name and describe the functions of bone.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 200         TOP:    Functions of Bone

 

  1. Explain all the ways parathyroid hormone helps to increase blood calcium levels.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 208         TOP:    Parathyroid Hormones

 

  1. Where is the epiphyseal plate located? What is the function of the epiphyseal plate? Describe the layers that make up the epiphyseal plate.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 210|Page 212

TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. Explain the steps in the healing of a bone fracture.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 213|Page 214

TOP:    Repair of Bone Fractures

 

  1. Name, describe, and give the location of the different types of cartilage found in the body.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 214|Page 215                             TOP:    Types of Cartilage

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Dr. Haney, an orthopedic surgeon, called the admissions office of a hospital and advised that he would be admitting a patient with an epiphyseal fracture. Without any other information, the patient was assigned to the pediatric floor. What prompted this assignment?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 210         TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

 

  1. Emma, an elderly white woman, noticed that she was half an inch shorter than she was at her last doctor’s visit. Her doctor suggested that she begin a regimen of dietary supplements of calcium and vitamin D. What bone disease did the doctor suspect? What would the prescribed treatment do for this condition?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 216|Page 217

TOP:    Metabolic Bone Disease

 

  1. Explain how the body regulates the calcium level in the blood. Discuss the activities of both hormones involved and where each is made. What problems might occur in the body if the calcium level were too low?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 208         TOP:    Mechanisms of Calcium Homeostasis

 

  1. Growth hormone can be given to people to increase their height. This requires rapid bone growth. If a young adult wants to be given growth hormone, x-ray films will be taken of his or her skeleton. What is the physician looking for and how would it affect the decision to give or withhold growth hormone?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 210         TOP:    Endochondral Ossification

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 11-A: Anatomy of the Muscular System

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The epimysium, endomysium, and perimysium may all be continuous with ligaments.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. Tendons are often continuous with the endosteum of bone tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. There are more than 600 muscles in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Anatomy of the Muscular System Introduction

 

  1. When a muscle contracts, the bone moved is the bone of insertion.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 305

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles

 

  1. The insertion is that point of attachment that does not move when the muscle contracts.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 305

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles

 

  1. Tendons are continuous with the layer of connective tissue called the epimysium.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. The direction of the fibers composing a muscle is not significant to its function.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. Tipping the head back on its atlas is an example of a third-class lever.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 307         TOP:    Lever Systems

 

  1. Convergent muscles are said to be “featherlike” in appearance.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. Muscles usually act singly as a prime mover.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 305         TOP:    Muscle Actions

 

  1. In a lever system, the fixed pivot around which the rod moves is called the fulcrum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Lever Systems

 

  1. A set of scales and a pair of scissors are both examples of second-class levers.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 307

TOP:    Second-Class Levers

 

  1. The gluteus muscles are examples of muscles that are named by location.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 308

TOP:    How Muscles Are Named

 

  1. In muscle terminology, the term rectus means straight.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 309

TOP:    How Muscles Are Named

 

  1. Muscles usually originate distal to the point of insertion.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 311

TOP:    Hints on How to Deduce Muscle Actions

 

  1. The muscles of facial expression are unique in that at least one of their points of attachment is to the deep layers of skin over the face or neck.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 312

TOP:    Muscles of Facial Expression

 

  1. Contraction of the internal intercostal muscles elevates the ribs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 315

TOP:    Muscles of the Thorax

 

  1. The deltoid is an example of a multifunction muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 325

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Arm

 

  1. Intrinsic foot muscles are responsible for movement of the ankle and foot.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 340

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Ankle and Foot

 

  1. The Achilles tendon is common to both the gastrocnemius and the soleus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 340

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Ankle and Foot

 

  1. The soleus muscle is responsible for plantar flexion.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 340

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Ankle and Foot

 

  1. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles act as antagonists.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 340

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Ankle and Foot

 

  1. The maintenance of body posture depends only on skeletal muscles and bones.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 341|Page 342

TOP:    How Posture Is Maintained

 

  1. Muscles maintain posture by the property of tonicity.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 342

TOP:    How Posture Is Maintained

 

  1. The circulatory system is responsible for muscle tone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 342

TOP:    How Posture Is Maintained

 

  1. Poor posture puts abnormal strain on bones and may eventually produce deformities.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 342

TOP:    How Posture Is Maintained

 

  1. With aging, connective tissue replaces some muscle fibers, causing decreased muscle strength.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 342

TOP:    Cycle of Life: Muscular System

 

  1. The respiratory, digestive, circulatory, excretory, and endocrine systems all contribute to the ability of muscles to maintain posture.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 342

TOP:    How Posture Is Maintained

 

  1. Just as individual bones are the organs of the skeletal system, individual muscles are the organs of the muscular system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Skeletal Muscle Structure

 

  1. Muscle cells and muscle fibers are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. Groups of muscle cells held together by the perimysium are called fascia.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. Tendons and aponeuroses are both fibrous tissue extending from a muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. Fascia is another term for epimysium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. Fascia is a general term for the fibrous connective tissue found under the skin and around muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. The skeletal muscles are unique because they are the only organs made up of one kind of tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. Most muscles span a joint.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 305

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles

 

  1. Muscle can have only one origin attachment and one insertion attachment.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 305

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles

 

  1. That which is considered the origin and insertion of a muscle may change under certain circumstances.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 305

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles

 

  1. Agonists and prime movers are interchangeable terms.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Muscle Actions

 

  1. Antagonist muscles oppose the movement of the agonist muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Muscle Actions

 

  1. First- and second-class levers are not as common in the body as third-class levers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 307

TOP:    Lever Systems

 

  1. The two parts of the epicranium are connected by an aponeurosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 312

TOP:    Muscles of Facial Expression

 

  1. No muscles are both muscles of facial expression and muscles of mastication.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 312|Page 313

TOP:    Muscles of Facial Expression | Muscles of Mastication

 

  1. If one of the sternocleidomastoid muscles contracts, it causes a different movement than if both of them contract.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 314

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Head

 

  1. The two muscle layers of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall have fibers running in different directions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 316

TOP:    Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

 

  1. To give stability to the shoulder, both the clavicle and scapula have very limited movement.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 322

TOP:    Muscles Acting on the Shoulder Girdle

 

  1. Both the pectoralis minor and the serratus anterior help hold or “fix” the scapula in place.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 322

TOP:    Muscles Acting on the Shoulder Girdle

 

  1. Lumbrical muscles are examples of intrinsic muscles of the hand.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 331

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers

 

  1. Movement is one of the most distinctive and easily observed “characteristics of life.”

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The fascia found on the surface of the muscle is called the superficial fascia.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. Tendons anchor muscles to bone by attaching to the periosteum of the bone.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. The difference between a tendon and an aponeurosis is that a tendon is made of connective tissue and an aponeurosis is made of muscle tissue.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. If a muscle causes the knee to bend, the insertion point is above the knee and the origin point is below the knee.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 305

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles

 

  1. If a muscle causes the knee to bend, the origin point is above the knee and the insertion point is below the knee.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 305

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles

 

  1. Fixator muscles would most likely be found at the origin points of muscles rather than at the insertion points of muscles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 305|Page 306

TOP:    Attachment of Muscles/Muscle Actions

 

  1. In a first-class lever, the fulcrum lies between the pull and the load.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Lever Systems

 

  1. In a second-class lever, the pull is exerted between the fulcrum and the load.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 307

TOP:    Lever Systems

 

  1. There are more than twice as many muscles as there are bones in the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 302         TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Circular muscles are sometimes called sphincter muscles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. The rectus abdominis is an example of a bipennate muscle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. The deltoid muscle is an example of a multipennate muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. The latissimus dorsi muscle is an example of a fusiform muscle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. The epimysium is deep to the perimysium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. A fixator muscle can be seen as another type of synergist muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Muscle Actions

 

  1. The deltoid is an example of a muscle named by its shape.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 309

TOP:    How Muscles Are Named

 

  1. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is an example of a muscle named by the number of heads.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 309

TOP:    How Muscles Are Named

 

  1. Muscles make up about 30% to 40% of our body weight.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. A group of skeletal muscle fibers are called fascicles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. Tendon sheaths that surround certain tendons have a lining of slick epithelial membrane that reduces friction.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 302

TOP:    Connective Tissue Components

 

  1. The pectoralis major is an example of a convergent muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. The sartorius is an example of a unipennate muscle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 304

TOP:    Size, Shape, and Fiber Arrangement

 

  1. To stabilize a joint, the antagonist must contract while the prime mover contracts.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Muscle Actions

 

  1. A synergist muscle can be defined as a muscle that facilitates or compliments the prime mover.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Muscle Actions

 

  1. When a muscle contracts, the part of the body that moves is directly under the belly of the muscle.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Lever Systems

 

  1. When a muscle contracts, the part of the body that moves is usually distal to the belly of the muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 306

TOP:    Lever Systems

 

  1. Muscles are sometimes named to reflect their function.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 309

TOP:    How Muscles Are Named

 

  1. The occipitofrontalis muscle is actually three muscles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 312

TOP:    Muscles of Facial Expression

 

  1. The orbicularis oris surrounds the eye and allows you to blink.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 313

TOP:    Muscles of Facial Expression

 

  1. The masseter and temporalis muscle are muscles of mastication that have opposite functions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 313

TOP:    Muscles of Mastication

 

  1. The muscles that move the head are paired muscles on opposite sides of the body.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 314

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Head

 

  1. During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and flattens, which increases the size of the thoracic cavity allowing air to enter the lungs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 315

TOP:    Muscles of the Thorax

 

  1. The internal oblique muscle is the deepest muscle in the abdominal wall.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 316

TOP:    Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

 

  1. The linea alba is a band of connective tissue that runs over the rectus abdominis from the xiphoid process to the pubis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 317

TOP:    Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

 

  1. Both the interspinales and the multifundus groups are muscles of the back.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 319

TOP:    Muscles of the Back

 

  1. The two levator ani and coccygeus muscles form most of the pelvic floor.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 320

TOP:    Muscles of the Pelvic Floor

 

  1. Four muscles, the deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and the teres minor, make up what is called the rotator cuff around the shoulder.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 319

TOP:    Muscles of the Back

 

  1. Muscles that move the forearm are found proximal to the elbow.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 326

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Forearm

 

  1. Extrinsic muscles of the hand originate in the wrist.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 329

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers

 

  1. Muscles that move the thigh and lower leg can be divided into two groups, muscles that come from the hips and those that come from the gluteal muscles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 333

TOP:    Muscles that Move the Thigh and Leg

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 15: Peripheral Nervous System

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Each optic nerve contains fibers from both retinas.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 474         TOP:    Optic Nerve (II)

 

  1. Conduction by the sixth cranial nerve results in sensations of hearing.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 477

TOP:    Abducens Nerve (VI)

 

  1. The vagus nerve contains both sensory and motor fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. Injury to the sixth cranial nerve causes the eye to turn in because of paralysis of the abducting muscle of the eye.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 478 (Box 15-5)                          TOP:    Cranial Nerve Damage

 

  1. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, all of which consist of both motor and sensory fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. A herpes zoster (shingles) outbreak usually affects more than one dermatome pattern on the skin.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)                          TOP:    Herpes Zoster

 

  1. Trigeminal neuralgia, or tic douloureux, is characterized by stabbing pain radiating from the eyes.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 476 (Box 15-4)                          TOP:    Trigeminal Neuralgia

 

  1. The ventral rami of all spinal nerves subdivide to form complex networks called plexuses.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Each spinal nerve attaches to the spinal cord by means of two short roots—a ventral root and a dorsal root.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The phrenic nerve exits from the brachial plexus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Cervical Plexus

 

  1. Any disease or injury that damages the spinal cord between the first and fifth cervical segments also paralyzes the phrenic nerve and, therefore, the diaphragm.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 468 (Box 15-2)                          TOP:    Phrenic Nerves

 

  1. A dermatome is the skin surface area supplied by a single spinal nerve.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 471

TOP:    Dermatomes and Myotomes

 

  1. Approximately 3% of the population will suffer from shingles at some time in their lives.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)                          TOP:    Herpes Zoster

 

  1. Somatic reflexes are contractions of smooth muscles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. At all stages of development, a positive Babinski reflex always means destruction of pyramidal tract fibers.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 483

TOP:    Somatic Reflexes of Clinical Importance

 

  1. Each spinal nerve branches into three rami: a ventral branch, a dorsal branch, and an autonomic or visceral branch.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The spinal root that possesses a swelling is the dorsal root.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The dorsal root ganglion contains motor neuron cell bodies.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The lower end of the spinal cord bears the name lumbosacral plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Sacral Plexus and Coccygeal Plexus

 

  1. There are 62 spinal nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Herpes zoster is a unique viral infection that almost always affects the skin of a single dermatome.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)                          TOP:    Herpes Zoster

 

  1. Myotome is a term referring to a skeletal muscle group innervated by motor neuron axons from a given spinal nerve.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)                          TOP:    Dermatomes and Myotomes

 

  1. The sacral plexus is found deep within the shoulder.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Sacral Plexus and Coccygeal Plexus

 

  1. Skeletal muscles are somatic effectors.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Basic Principles of Somatic Motor Pathways

 

  1. The Babinski reflex is evoked via stimulation of the outer sole of the foot and will cause a normal infant to extend the great toe.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 483         TOP:    Plantar Reflex

 

  1. Amines are the neurotransmitter in a somatic motor pathway.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Basic Principles of Somatic Motor Pathways

 

  1. The sympathetic chain and sympathetic rami refer to the same structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The peripheral nervous system includes cranial nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The peripheral nervous system consists of 43 pairs of nerves and their branches.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 464         TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The peripheral nervous system contains only efferent nerves.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Even though there are only seven cervical vertebra, that region generates eight cranial nerves.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The nerves emerging from the lower lumbar and sacral regions branch from a structure called the cauda equina, not the spinal cord itself.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The spinal ganglion is located only on the ventral nerve root.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Branches of the dorsal ramus innervate the skin and muscles of the posterior surface of the head, neck, and trunk.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Nerve plexuses of the thoracic region innervate the abdominal organs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Nerve Plexuses

 

  1. The brachial plexus is the only plexus that contains a thoracic spinal nerve.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 466|Page 468                             TOP:    Nerve Plexuses | Brachial Plexus

 

  1. There is almost no overlap in the dermatomes of the body.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 471

TOP:    Dermatomes and Myotomes

 

  1. Based on the numbering system of the cranial nerves, cranial nerve XI would be more anterior than cranial nerve III.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 473

TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. Most “motor” cranial nerves carry proprioceptive sensory fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 473

TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. The cochlear nerve is composed of axons that originate in the organ of Corti.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 478 (Box 15-5)                          TOP:    Vestibulocochlear Nerve

 

  1. The vestibulocochlear nerve is sometimes called the acoustic nerve.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 478 (Box 15-5)                          TOP:    Vestibulocochlear Nerve

 

  1. The glossopharyngeal nerve supplies fibers to the carotid sinus, which has a role in the control of blood pressure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Glossopharyngeal Nerve

 

  1. Because the vagus nerve sends many fibers to the abdominal organs, it was given the name vagus, which means visceral.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Vagus Nerve (X)

 

  1. The accessory nerve is unique among the cranial nerves because none of its fibers originate in the brain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 480

TOP:    Accessory Nerve (XI)

 

  1. Reflexes are always unconscious or involuntary.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. A reflex always includes a muscle contraction or a gland secretion.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. The final efferent organ of the knee jerk reflex is the quadriceps femoris muscle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 482

TOP:    Somatic Reflexes of Clinical Importance

 

  1. If a reflex causes cardiac muscle to contract, it can be either a somatic or an autonomic reflex.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. The plantar reflex consists of a curling under of all the toes, plus a slight turning in and flexion of the anterior part of the foot.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 482|Page 483                             TOP:    Somatic Reflexes of Clinical Importance

 

  1. The plantar reflex and Babinski reflex are brought about by the same stimulus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 482|Page 483

TOP:    Somatic Reflexes of Clinical Importance

 

  1. The most common cause of peripheral neuropathy in the United States is diabetes mellitus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 464 (Box 15-1)                          TOP:    Peripheral Neuropathy

 

  1. If you have never had chickenpox, it is unlikely that you will get shingles.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)

TOP:    Herpes Zoster

 

  1. There is one more thoracic spinal nerve than there are thoracic vertebrae.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. When referring to a spinal nerve, the terms dorsal root and dorsal ramus refer to the same structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The term plexus comes from the Latin word meaning braid.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Nerve Plexuses

 

  1. Thoracic spinal nerves are the only segment of spinal nerves that do not participate in a plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Brachial Plexus

 

  1. The last spinal nerve is Cx 1 (from the coccyx), which joins with sacral spinal nerves to form the coccygeal plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Sacral Plexus and Coccygeal Plexus

 

  1. Only spinal nerves from the sacrum form the sacral plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Sacral Plexus and Coccygeal Plexus

 

  1. Because the distribution of nerves to skeletal muscle is arranged into specific myotomes, a skeletal muscle can be innervated by axons from only one spinal nerve.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)                          TOP:    Dermatomes and Myotomes

 

  1. It would be normal to find a functioning Babinski reflex in an infant as young as 4 months old.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 483

TOP:    Plantar Reflex

 

  1. The corneal reflex refers to the eye reducing the size of the pupil in response to bright light.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 483

TOP:    Corneal Reflex

 

  1. Efferent neurons carry information away from the central nervous system; afferent neurons carry information towards the central nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The nerves from the cervical plexus innervate the lower part of the shoulder and the entire arm.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Brachial Plexus

 

  1. The largest nerve of the body, the sciatic nerve, has its source in the sacral plexus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Sacral Plexus and Coccygeal Plexus

 

  1. The olfactory nerve, the optic nerve, and the oculomotor nerve are the only cranial nerves that do not come from the brainstem.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. All reflexes have their interneurons in the spinal cord.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. The somatic motor pathway has two neurons between the central nervous system and the effector organs, just as the autonomic system does.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 480

TOP:    Basic Principles of Somatic Motor Pathways

 

  1. The optic tract contains fibers from both retinas.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Optic Nerve (II)

 

  1. The two optic nerves join at the optic chiasma.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Optic Nerve (II)

 

  1. Most of the optic nerve fibers terminate in the cerebellum.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Optic Nerve (II)

 

  1. All of the cervical nerves contribute to the cervical plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Cervical Plexus

 

  1. Two cranial nerves, the hypoglossal and the vagus, receive branches from the cervical plexus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Cervical Plexus

 

  1. The first four lumbar nerves contribute to the lumbar plexus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Lumbar Plexus

 

  1. The femoral nerve, a major nerve in the lower extremity, exits from the lumbar plexus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Lumbar Plexus

 

  1. The olfactory nerve has dendrites in the inferior turbinates of the nose.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Olfactory Nerve

 

  1. The axons of the olfactory nerve form about 20 small bundles that pierce the cribriform plate to enter the brain.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Olfactory Nerve

 

  1. The oculomotor nerve contains fibers from the autonomic nervous system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 477

TOP:    Oculomotor Nerve

 

  1. The trochlear nerve stimulates movement of the eye.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Trochlear Nerve

 

  1. The trigeminal nerve gives rise to the ophthalmic nerve, the maxillary nerve, and the zygomatic nerve.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 476 (Box 15-4)                          TOP:    Trigeminal Nerve

 

  1. The abducens nerve fibers originate in the medulla oblongata.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 477

TOP:    Abducens Nerve (VI)

 

  1. The abducens nerve abducts the upper arm.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 477

TOP:    Abducens Nerve (VI)

 

  1. The facial nerve contains efferent fibers to the tear glands and afferent fibers from the taste buds.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 477

TOP:    Facial Nerve

 

  1. The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains autonomic fibers.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Glossopharyngeal Nerve

 

  1. The vagus nerve originates in the pons.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Vagus Nerve (X)

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. All of the following cranial nerves have a functional classification of motor except:
a. oculomotor.
b. trochlear.
c. vestibulocochlear.
d. accessory.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 473 (Table 15-2) TOP:               Cranial Nerves

 

  1. Tic douloureux is a painful neuralgia of the _____ nerve.
a. trigeminal
b. vagus
c. abducens
d. olfactory

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 476 (Box 15-4)                          TOP:    Trigeminal Neuralgia

 

  1. The nerve commonly called the vagus nerve is the _____ cranial.
a. ninth
b. tenth
c. eleventh
d. twelfth

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Vagus Nerve (X)

 

  1. Which of the following cranial nerves is responsible for movements of the tongue?
a. Olfactory
b. Trigeminal
c. Trochlear
d. Hypoglossal

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 480

TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. All of the following cranial nerves are involved in proprioception except the:
a. vagus.
b. hypoglossal.
c. accessory.
d. abducens.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 475|Page 480 (Table 15-3)         TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. Which of the following is not a plexus of the spinal nerves?
a. Cervical
b. Brachial
c. Lumbar
d. Thoracic

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 467 (Table 15-1) TOP:               Nerve Plexuses

 

  1. The cervical plexus:
a. is found deep in the neck.
b. is formed by the ventral rami of the first four cervical nerves and part of C5.
c. includes the phrenic nerve.
d. All of the above are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Cervical Plexus

 

  1. Which plexus contains nerves that innervate the lower part of the shoulder and the entire arm?
a. Brachial
b. Cervical
c. Lumbar
d. Sacral

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Brachial Plexus

 

  1. The sensory cranial nerves include only the:
a. optic, vestibulocochlear, and vagus.
b. olfactory, optic, and facial.
c. olfactory, optic, and vestibulocochlear.
d. optic, facial, and vestibulocochlear.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 473 (Box 15-2)                          TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. The cranial nerve that arises from the spinal cord is the:
a. abducens.
b. accessory.
c. glossopharyngeal.
d. vagus.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 480

TOP:    Accessory Nerve (XI)

 

  1. Nerve impulses over the _____ nerve cause increased peristalsis and decreased heart rate.
a. olfactory
b. trigeminal
c. vagus
d. hypoglossal

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 478 (Table 15-3) TOP:               Cranial Nerves

 

  1. The spinal nerves are connected to the spinal cord and consist of _____ pairs.
a. 12
b. 21
c. 31
d. 41

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Spinal nerves are _____ fibers.
a. only sensory
b. only motor
c. completely autonomic
d. motor and sensory

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. A mixed nerve is one that:
a. goes both to the skin surface and to the viscera.
b. has its pathway mixed with other nerves.
c. carries both sensory and motor fibers.
d. carries large and small motor fibers.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Damage to the _____ nerve could make the diaphragm unable to function.
a. phrenic
b. axillary
c. radial
d. medial cutaneous

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 478 (Box 15-2)                          TOP:    Phrenic Nerves

 

  1. The phrenic nerve is found in the _____ plexus.
a. cervical
b. brachial
c. lumbar
d. sacral

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Cervical Plexus

 

  1. Which is(are) the neurotransmitter(s) in a somatic motor pathway?
a. Acetylcholine
b. Amines
c. Amino acids
d. Neuropeptides

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Basic Principles of Somatic Motor Pathways

 

  1. Nerves that innervate the floor of the pelvic cavity and some of the surrounding areas are found in the _____ plexus.
a. sacral
b. cervical
c. coccygeal
d. lumbar

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Sacral Plexus and Coccygeal Plexus

 

  1. The knee jerk may be classified as a segmental reflex because:
a. the center of the reflex arc lies in the spinal cord gray matter.
b. impulses that mediate it enter and leave the same segment of the cord.
c. the impulses that mediate it come from and go to the same side of the body.
d. of the kind of stimulation used to evoke it.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 481|Page 482                             TOP:    Somatic Reflexes of Clinical Importance

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the knee jerk reflex?
a. It is a flexor reflex.
b. It is an ipsilateral reflex.
c. It is a spinal cord reflex.
d. It does not have to involve the brain.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 481|Page 482                             TOP:    Somatic Reflexes of Clinical Importance

 

  1. Normal infants will show the Babinski reflex up to the age of _____ years.
a. 1
b. 2
c. 2
d. 3

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 483

TOP:    Somatic Reflexes of Clinical Importance

 

  1. Which of the following is a correct statement?
a. There are 7 cervical nerve pairs.
b. There are 11 thoracic nerve pairs.
c. There are 5 lumbar nerve pairs.
d. All of the above are correct statements.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The lumbar plexus gives rise to the _____ nerve.
a. median
b. phrenic
c. femoral
d. None of the above are correct.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Lumbar Plexus

 

  1. The peripheral nervous system includes:
a. only spinal nerves.
b. only spinal nerves and their branches.
c. only cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and their branches.
d. cranial nerves, the spinal cord, spinal nerves, and their branches.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The peripheral nervous system includes _____ nerves.
a. autonomic
b. sensory
c. somatic
d. all of the above

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Which part of the vertebral column has one more pair of nerves coming from it than it has vertebra?
a. Cervical
b. Thoracic
c. Lumbar
d. Both B and C

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Which is not true of the ventral nerve root?
a. It is also called the anterior root.
b. It contains the spinal ganglion.
c. It includes motor neurons.
d. All of the above are true.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Which is not true of the dorsal nerve root?
a. It is also called the posterior root.
b. It includes the spinal ganglion.
c. It includes sensory fibers.
d. All of the above are true.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Which is the only plexus that contains fibers from the thoracic region of the spinal cord?
a. Cervical
b. Brachial
c. Lumbar
d. Sacral

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Nerve Plexuses | Brachial Plexus

 

  1. Which of the following is not associated with the oculomotor nerve?
a. Movement of external eye muscles
b. Closing and opening of the eye (blink reflex)
c. Movement of intrinsic eye muscles
d. Proprioception of eye muscles

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 475 (Table 15-3) TOP:               Oculomotor Nerve

 

  1. Which of the following is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve?
a. Zygomatic nerve
b. Ophthalmic nerve
c. Maxillary nerve
d. Mandibular nerve

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 476

TOP:    Trigeminal Nerve

 

  1. Which of the following cranial nerves is not associated with eye movement?
a. Oculomotor
b. Trochlear
c. Trigeminal
d. Abducens

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 476

TOP:    Trigeminal Nerve

 

  1. Afferent nerves or fibers are found only in the _____ nervous sytem.
a. sensory
b. autonomic
c. central
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. Efferent nerves or fibers are found only in the _____ system.
a. central
b. autonomic
c. somatic
d. Both B and C are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The cauda equine:
a. is part of the cervical plexus.
b. refers to the nerves below the ending of the spinal cord.
c. is part of the brachial plexus.
d. is the term used to describe the groups of cranial nerves leaving the skull.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Which segment of the vertebral column generates more spinal nerve pairs than any other segment?
a. Cervical
b. Thoracic
c. Lumbar
d. Sacral

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. The spinal ganglion can be found on the _____ of the spinal nerve.
a. dorsal nerve root
b. dorsal ramus
c. ventral nerve root
d. ventral ramus

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Small branches from the cervical plexus join which two cranial nerves?
a. Vagus and hypoglossal
b. Vagus and accessory
c. Hypoglossal and accessory
d. Glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Cervical Plexus

 

  1. By age 2 years in a normal infant, the stimulus that once caused the Babinski reflex now causes:
a. the knee jerk reflex.
b. the ankle jerk reflex.
c. the plantar reflex.
d. no reaction at all.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 483

TOP:    Plantar Reflex

 

  1. A gymnast is experiencing problems with balance and equilibrium. Which of the following cranial nerves may be causing this condition?
a. Accessory
b. Glossopharyngeal
c. Hypoglossal
d. Vestibulocochlear

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 478         TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. If a person is having problems with tongue movement, what would you predict as a possible cause and other potential problems?
a. Hypoglossal nerve damage and a decrease in proprioception of the tongue
b. Oculomotor nerve damage and a drooping eye
c. Olfactory nerve damage and a decrease in the ability to smell
d. Vagus nerve damage and a decrease in respiration

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 480         TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. Danielle has sustained an injury that has reduced her ability to complete simple tasks such as lifting a pencil, manipulating eating utensils, and brushing her hair. The injury has affected the _____ motor pathways _____ the CNS.
a. involuntary; outside
b. involuntary; within
c. voluntary; outside
d. voluntary; within

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Basic Principles of Somatic Motor Pathways

 

  1. In a healthy adult, a well-placed tap on the knee will result in a:
a. contraction of the tendon and its muscles, the quadriceps femoris, and thereby stimulation of the muscle spindles.
b. stretch of the blood vessels and decreased blood flow to the lower extremities.
c. stretch of the tendon, the quadriceps femoris, and thereby stimulation of the muscle spindles.
d. stretch of the tendon and its muscles, the rectus femoris, and thereby stimulation of the muscle spindles.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 482         TOP:    Knee Jerk Reflex

 

  1. What is the difference between a somatic reflex and an autonomic reflex?
a. A somatic reflex is caused by contraction of smooth or cardiac muscles, whereas an autonomic reflex consists of skeletal muscle contraction.
b. A somatic reflex is caused by secretion of glands, whereas an autonomic reflex consists of contraction of smooth and skeletal muscles.
c. A somatic reflex is caused by contraction of skeletal muscles, whereas an autonomic reflex consists of contraction of smooth or cardiac muscle or secretions of glands.
d. A somatic reflex is caused by contraction of smooth or cardiac muscles, whereas an autonomic reflex consists of the secretions of glands.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. What would the result be if the phrenic nerve received an impulse from the cervical plexus?
a. The diaphragm would stop contracting.
b. Sensation to the anterior abdominal wall would cease.
c. Motor nerves to the thigh would not be able to get impulses.
d. Motor nerves to the back of the neck would not be able to get impulses.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 468 (Box 15-2)

TOP:    Phrenic Nerves

 

  1. How is herpes zoster (shingles) a result of the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus?
a. Adrenergic receptors of the cranial nerve send impulses to the brain, indicating pain at the nerve site.
b. A cutaneous nerve is affected by the virus causing shingles, which remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglion for years.
c. Alpha receptors of the cranial nerve send impulses to the brain, indicating pain at the nerve site.
d. A cranial nerve is affected by the virus causing shingles, which remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglion for years.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)

TOP:    Herpes Zoster

 

  1. After radiation treatment, Jake experienced a painful eruption of red, swollen plaques that ruptured and later crusted over. Soon after the eruption of the vesicles, Jake complained of burning and itching in the affected dermatome. These symptoms are most likely a result of what condition?
a. Cranial nerve damage
b. Herpes zoster
c. Peripheral neuropathy
d. Trigeminal neuralgia

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 472 (Box 15-3)

TOP:    Herpes Zoster

 

  1. When responding to stimulation of the outer margin of the sole of the foot, a 1-year-old infant extends her great toe without fanning of the other toes. This happens because:
a. the corticospinal fibers have become fully myelinated and the Babinski reflex becomes suppressed.
b. the corticospinal fibers have not yet become fully myelinated and the Babinski reflex is activated.
c. the sensory fibers in the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve are mediated by reflex arcs.
d. a deep reflex is mediated by a two-neuron spinal arc.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 483         TOP:    Plantar Reflex

 

  1. Judy has sustained an injury that has damaged the vestibulocochlear nerve. This injury will have an effect on her ability to:
a. hear.
b. move her jaw.
c. open and close her eyes.
d. maneuver her tongue.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 478

TOP:    Vestibulocochlear Nerve

 

  1. A patient complains of numbness in the skin of the buttocks and the posterior surface of the thigh and leg. The spinal nerve or peripheral branch most likely involved with this condition is the _____ plexus.
a. brachial
b. cervical
c. coccygeal
d. thoracic

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 467 (Table 15-1)

TOP:    Spinal Nerves and Peripheral Branches

 

MATCHING

 

Match each cranial nerve with its function or description.

a. Olfactory nerve
b. Optic nerve
c. Oculomotor nerve
d. Trochlear nerve
e. Trigeminal nerve
f. Abducens nerve
g. Vestibulocochlear nerve
h. Glossopharyngeal nerve
i. Vagus nerve
j. Hypoglossal nerve

 

 

  1. connects to various external muscles of the eye

 

  1. involved in both hearing and equilibrium

 

  1. fibers are widely distributed in the body; name means “wanderer”

 

  1. dendrites and cell bodies are along the superior conchae

 

  1. supplies muscles of the tongue; name means “under the tongue”

 

  1. branches into three nerves: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves

 

  1. sends fibers to the carotid sinus, which helps regulate blood pressure

 

  1. sends fibers to the occipital lobe and the superior colliculi

 

  1. sends fibers to the superior oblique muscle of the eye

 

  1. abducts the eye

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Oculomotor Nerve

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 478

TOP:    Vestibulocochlear Nerve

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Vagus Nerve (X)

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Olfactory Nerve

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 480

TOP:    Hypoglossal Nerve

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 476

TOP:    Trigeminal Nerve

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 479

TOP:    Glossopharyngeal Nerve

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Optic Nerve (II)

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 474

TOP:    Trochlear Nerve

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 477

TOP:    Abducens Nerve (VI)

 

Match each term with its description or definition.

a. Cauda equine
b. Ventral nerve root
c. Dorsal nerve root
d. Cervical plexus
e. Brachial plexus
f. Lumbar plexus
g. Dermatome
h. Myotome
i. Somatic reflexes
j. Autonomic reflexes

 

 

  1. plexus from which femoral nerve emerges

 

  1. nerve root that carries motor nerves away from the spinal cord

 

  1. skin surface area that is supplied by one spinal nerve

 

  1. reflexes that involve cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands

 

  1. nerve root carries sensory neurons into the spinal cord

 

  1. group or braid of nerves formed from spinal nerves C1 to C4

 

  1. group of skeletal muscles that receive axon from one spinal nerve

 

  1. reflexes that involve skeletal muscles

 

  1. group of nerves that extend from the bottom of the spinal cord

 

  1. group or braid of nerves formed from spinal nerves C5 to T1

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 470

TOP:    Lumbar Plexus

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 471

TOP:    Dermatomes and Myotomes

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 466

TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Cervical Plexus

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 472

TOP:    Dermatomes and Myotomes

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 464

TOP:    Spinal Nerves

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468

TOP:    Brachial Plexus

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. List the names, numbers, and functional classifications of the cranial nerves.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 473 (Table 15-1)

TOP:    Cranial Nerves

 

  1. Briefly describe the structure of the spinal nerves.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 466         TOP:    Structure of Spinal Nerves

 

  1. Why do the right and left phrenic nerves have considerable clinical interest?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 468 (Box 15-2)

TOP:    Phrenic Nerves

 

  1. Outline the neural pathway involved in the patellar (knee jerk) reflex.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 482         TOP:    Knee Jerk Reflex

 

  1. Identify the major nerve plexuses and which spinal nerves join to form each of them.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 466|Page 470                             TOP:    Nerve Plexuses

 

  1. What is a dermatome? What is a myotome?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 471|Page 472

TOP:    Dermatomes and Myotomes

 

  1. Explain the difference between the Babinski reflex and the plantar reflex. What does a positive Babinski reflex in an adult indicate?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 483         TOP:    Plantar Reflex

 

  1. Explain how the nerve plexuses make the nervous system more efficient.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 468         TOP:    Nerve Plexuses

 

  1. Describe the basic principles of somatic motor pathways.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Basic Principles of Somatic Motor Pathways

 

  1. Explain the difference between a spinal reflex and a cranial reflex. Explain the difference in effector organs between somatic reflexes and visceral reflexes.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 481

TOP:    Nature of a Reflex

 

ESSAY

 

  1. A patient has a severe case of the hiccups. The physician injects an anesthetic solution into the neck about an inch above the clavicle. What nerve was injected, and what is the result?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 468 (Box 15-2)                          TOP:    Phrenic Nerves

Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 8th Edition

 

Chapter 21: Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

 

Test Bank

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The internal layer of the tissue in the heart is the epicardium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635

TOP:    Wall of the Heart

 

  1. The heart of the developing human embryo begins to beat regularly early in the fourth week after fertilization.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Introduction

 

  1. A major function of the pericardial sac is protection against friction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Coverings of the Heart

 

  1. The mitral valve has three flaps.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. The tunica media is also called the tunica adventitia.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Outer Layer

 

  1. Anastomoses are important for providing collateral circulation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 640|Page 641                             TOP:    Blood Supply of Heart Tissue

 

  1. The value of an anastomosis is that it allows blood to bypass a blood vessel obstruction.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 641

TOP:    Blood Supply of Heart Tissue

 

  1. Arteries always carry blood away from the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Types of Blood Vessels

 

  1. The tunica intima of arteries provides a smooth lining with valves to ensure one-way flow.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Veins always carry deoxygenated blood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Types of Blood Vessels

 

  1. As the external iliac artery enters the thigh, its name changes to the femoral artery.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 656 (Figure 21-25)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. Precapillary sphincters increase the flow of blood through a tissue when they relax.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Arteries

 

  1. Precapillary sphincters are located in venules.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Arteries

 

  1. Pulmonary circulation is blood flow through the liver.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. Systemic circulation includes blood flow to all parts of the body except the lungs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. The pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. The circle of Willis is an example of an anastomosis.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 651

TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. The ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to bypass the nonfunctioning fetal liver.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 667

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. Umbilical arteries carry blood from the placenta to the fetus.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 666

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. There are two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 666

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. A stenotic valve is a leaky valve.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 669

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. One function of elastic fibers is to help maintain blood pressure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Elastic Fibers

 

  1. Cardiac tamponade is a serious compression of the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 669

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Arteriosclerosis means “chest pain.”

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 671

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The visceral pericardium adheres to the surface of the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Coverings of the Heart

 

  1. The pacemaker of the heart is the SA node.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. The “receiving chambers” of the heart are the atria.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 636

TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. Blood flow from the pulmonary arteries leads to the lungs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. COPD refers to death of ischemic heart muscle cells.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 670

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The SA node resides primarily in the right atrial wall.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. Angina pectoris and myocardial infarction are synonymous terms.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 670

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The thoracic and abdominal aortas comprise the descending aorta.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 651

TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. Smooth muscle is found in all parts of the vascular system except the capillaries.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. The tunica media in veins is thinner than the tunica media in arteries.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. If today is your 23rd birthday, your heart has been beating for more than 23 years.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Introduction

 

  1. The midline of the body divides the heart into equal right and left halves.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Location of the Heart

 

  1. Because the heart is positioned between two bony structures, CPR can be an effective, lifesaving procedure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Location of the Heart

 

  1. The base of the heart is superior to the apex of the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Location of the Heart

 

  1. As a person grows to adulthood, the heart increases in size and becomes a greater percent of the body weight.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Size and Shape of the Heart

 

  1. The pericardium is able to stretch in response to the contraction and relaxation of the heart.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Structure of the Heart Covering

 

  1. The epicardium and the fibrous pericardium are two names for the same structure.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Structure of the Heart Covering

 

  1. The bulk of the heart wall is myocardium.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635

TOP:    Wall of the Heart

 

  1. The mitral valve has fewer flaps than the right atrioventricular valve.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. The general function of both sets of valves in the heart is to prevent blood from flowing back to the chamber it just left.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. The veins in the heart are called “cardiac,” but the arteries in the heart are called “coronary.”

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 640|Page 641                             TOP:    Blood Supply of Heart Tissue

 

  1. The heart is autorhythmic, which means it can generate its own action potential without outside nerve stimulation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. The cardiac plexus contains both parasympathetic fibers and sympathetic fibers.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. When fibers of the vagus nerve stimulate the heart, the heart rate increases.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. Very large arteries are called sinuses.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645

TOP:    Types of Blood Vessels

 

  1. The blood vessels that supply other blood vessels with blood are called the vaso vasorum.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Microcirculation includes only the blood flowing through the capillaries.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Capillaries

 

  1. Capacitance is a characteristic of veins.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645

TOP:    Veins

 

  1. The left ventricle is the driving pump for systemic circulation.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. All blood returns to the heart by way of either the superior vena cava or the inferior vena cava.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. The first part of the aorta is called the aortic arch.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 651

TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. Veins tend to have more anastomoses than do arteries.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 661

TOP:    Systemic Veins

 

  1. A portal system sends blood through two sets of capillaries.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 663

TOP:    Systemic Veins

 

  1. The terms atria and auricle mean the same thing.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 636

TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. Blood passing through a semilunar valve will enter an artery.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Blood passing through a semilunar valve will enter a heart chamber.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Chordae tendineae are cordlike structures that connect semilunar valves to papillary muscles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. One function of the skeleton of the heart is to assist in the conduction of an impulse from the atria to the ventricles.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Skeleton of the Heart

 

  1. Atria receive blood from veins, and ventricles pump blood into arteries.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 636|Page 637                             TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. The right and left coronary arteries are about equally dominant in hearts; 50% of hearts are right artery dominant and 50% of hearts are left artery dominant.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 640

TOP:    Coronary Arteries

 

  1. A drop in blood oxygen levels will stimulate an increase in the heart rate.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. As you might expect, most of the nerves leading to the heart end in the sinoatrial node.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. It is easier for material to pass through a continuous capillary than through a fenestrated capillary.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Capillaries

 

  1. Continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoid are all terms that can describe a type of capillary.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Capillaries

 

  1. The foramen ovale is a hole in the wall between the right and left ventricles in the fetus heart that facilitates blood being shunted away to avoid the nonfunctioning lungs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 666

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. The epicardium and the visceral layer of the serous pericardium are the same structure.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635

TOP:    Epicardium

 

  1. Because the muscle tissue of the heart forms a syncytium, electrical conduction through the heart is more efficient.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635

TOP:    Myocardium

 

  1. To support maximum muscle contraction of the heart muscle, the blood flow to the heart is highest during the strongest contractions.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 640         TOP:    Coronary Arteries

 

  1. Endothelial cells are the only structure found in all parts of the circulatory system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 636         TOP:    Endocardium

 

  1. Both the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus are adaptations of the fetal circulatory system designed to shunt blood away from the nonfunctioning lungs.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 666

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. Arteriovenous shunts can redirect blood through the skin to help regulate heat loss.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 648

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. The cardiovascular system is sometimes called the circulatory system.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and blood vessels.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Introduction

 

  1. The base of the heart lies on the diaphragm.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Location of the Heart

 

  1. The lower part of the heart forms a blunt point known as the base.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Location of the Heart

 

  1. The skeleton of the heart is made of cartilage rather than bone.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Skeleton of the Heart

 

  1. The trabeculae carneae are structures of the heart that help add force to the contraction of the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 636

TOP:    Endocardium

 

  1. Ventricles are the pumping chambers of the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 637

TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. The right ventricle has the thickest wall of any of the heart chambers.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 637

TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. Blood passing through the mitral valve has just left the right atrium.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. Blood passing through the aortic semilunar valves has just left the left ventricle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. Blood leaving the right ventricle passes through the right atrioventricular valve.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. Blood in the left atria has just come from the lungs.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. Blood in both atria must pass through a semilunar valve to get to the next structure in the heart.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. The most abundant blood supply in the heart goes to the left ventricle.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 640

TOP:    Coronary Arteries

 

  1. Most of the blood vessels of the heart return to the heart via the coronary sinus.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 641

TOP:    Cardiac Veins

 

  1. The aorta is an example of a muscular artery.

 

ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 643

TOP:    Arteries

 

  1. All veins carry blood back to the heart.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645

TOP:    Veins

 

  1. Collagen fibers function to keep the lumen of the blood vessel open.

 

ANS:   T                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Collagen Fibers

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The saclike structure around the heart is the:
a. epicardium.
b. myocardium.
c. endocardium.
d. pericardium.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Coverings of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following is another name for the visceral layer of the pericardium?
a. Endocardium
b. Epicardium
c. Fibrous pericardium
d. Myocardium

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Coverings of the Heart

 

  1. The thickest layer of tissue in the heart wall is the:
a. epicardium.
b. pericardium.
c. myocardium.
d. endocardium.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635

TOP:    Structure of the Heart

 

  1. The muscular layer of the heart wall is the:
a. epicardium.
b. pericardium.
c. myocardium.
d. endocardium.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635

TOP:    Structure of the Heart

 

  1. The internal layer of tissue in the heart is the:
a. epicardium.
b. pericardium.
c. myocardium.
d. endocardium.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 636

TOP:    Structure of the Heart

 

  1. The right atrioventricular valve is also called the:
a. bicuspid.
b. tricuspid.
c. mitral.
d. aortic.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 368

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following is not an atrioventricular valve?
a. Aortic
b. Mitral
c. Bicuspid
d. Tricuspid

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. The cavity of the heart that normally has the thickest wall is the:
a. right atrium.
b. left atrium.
c. right ventricle.
d. left ventricle.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 637

TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. The valve that guards the left atrioventricular orifice is called the _____ valve.
a. bicuspid
b. mitral
c. tricuspid
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following is a semilunar valve?
a. Aortic
b. Mitral
c. Tricuspid
d. Bicuspid

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. All of the following are true statements except:
a. the right coronary artery is dominant in about 50% of all hearts.
b. both atria receive their blood supply from branches of the right and left coronary arteries.
c. the more abundant blood supply goes to the myocardium of the left ventricle rather than the right ventricle.
d. only a few connections, or anastomoses, exist between the larger branches of the coronary arteries.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 640|Page 641

TOP:    Blood Supply of Heart Tissue

 

  1. The structure referred to as the pacemaker of the heart is(are) the:
a. AV node.
b. SA node.
c. cardiac plexuses.
d. Both A and B are correct.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following vessels do not have the ability to constrict and dilate?
a. Arterioles
b. Arteries
c. Capillaries
d. Veins

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Synthesis        REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Both the tunica media and the tunica adventitia are absent in:
a. arteries.
b. veins.
c. capillaries.
d. both B and C.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. The tissue layers of blood vessels from exterior to interior are:
a. tunica media, tunica intima, and tunica adventitia.
b. tunica adventitia, tunica media, and tunica intima.
c. tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica adventitia.
d. tunica media, tunica adventitia, and tunica intima.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 646|Page 647                             TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Smooth muscle in blood vessels is located in the tunica:
a. adventitia.
b. intima.
c. media.
d. All of the above are correct.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Which of the following act as blood reservoirs?
a. Arteries
b. Arterioles
c. Capillaries
d. Veins

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645

TOP:    Veins

 

  1. The structural components of the circulatory system include the:
a. heart and lungs.
b. heart and lymph nodes.
c. heart and blood vessels.
d. heart, vessels, and lymph nodes.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Introduction

 

  1. In fetal circulation, the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale:
a. take blood from the fetus to the placenta.
b. connect the pulmonary artery with the aorta.
c. bypass the lungs.
d. shunt blood from the right atrium into the left atrium.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 666|Page 667                             TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. After birth, the umbilical vessels remaining in the infant’s body:
a. become fibrous cords that remain throughout life.
b. are shed in about 6 weeks.
c. shrink to eventually become capillaries.
d. remain as possible shunts for use later in life.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 668

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. The order of blood flow through the vessels is:
a. arterioles, venules, capillaries, arteries, and veins.
b. arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.
c. veins, venules, capillaries, arterioles, and arteries.
d. arterioles, arteries, capillaries, veins, and venules.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Major Blood Vessels

 

  1. Which of the following vessels carries blood from the lungs to the heart?
a. Aorta
b. Pulmonary artery
c. Pulmonary vein
d. Inferior vena cava

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Major Blood Vessels

 

  1. All arteries of the systemic circulation branch from the:
a. superior vena cava.
b. pulmonary artery.
c. innominate artery.
d. aorta.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 651

TOP:    Systemic Circulation

 

  1. As the external iliac artery enters the thigh, its name changes to the _____ artery.
a. subclavian
b. brachial
c. femoral
d. popliteal

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 656 (Figure 21-25)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. A vein that returns blood from the head is the:
a. carotid.
b. innominate.
c. azygos.
d. jugular.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 661

TOP:    Systemic Veins

 

  1. Which of the following is a superficial vein in the lower arm?
a. Great saphenous
b. Cephalic
c. Brachial
d. Axillary

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 661

TOP:    Systemic Veins

 

  1. Blood from the stomach and intestines goes to the liver through the:
a. hepatic portal vein.
b. hepatic vein.
c. renal vein.
d. inferior vena cava.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 662

TOP:    Systemic Veins

 

  1. Regarding fetal circulation, the small vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending thoracic aorta is called the:
a. ductus arteriosus.
b. foramen ovale.
c. ductus venosus.
d. umbilical artery.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 667

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. In fetal circulation, the ductus venosus:
a. takes blood from the fetus to the placenta.
b. connects the pulmonary artery with the aorta.
c. bypasses the liver.
d. shunts blood from the right atrium into the left atrium.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 666

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the deposition of lipids in the tunica:
a. intima.
b. adventitia.
c. media.
d. All of the above are correct.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 670

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Which of the following is a stretching of the artery walls?
a. Varicose veins
b. Anastomosis
c. Phlebitis
d. Aneurysm

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 672

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. The correct order of the layers of the heart from deep to superficial are:
a. myocardium, pericardium, and endocardium.
b. epicardium, myocardium, and pericardium.
c. epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.
d. endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 635|Page 636                             TOP:    Structure of the Heart

 

  1. The pulmonary and aortic valves are also called _____ valves.
a. cuspid
b. semilunar
c. aortic
d. pulmonary

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Respectively, the right and left atrioventricular valves are also known as:
a. tricuspid, mitral.
b. bicuspid, tricuspid.
c. mitral, bicuspid.
d. bicuspid, mitral.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Atrioventricular valves prevent backflow of blood into the:
a. atria.
b. lungs.
c. vena cava.
d. ventricles.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. The ventricle of the heart that ejects blood toward the lungs is the:
a. right atrium.
b. right ventricle.
c. left atrium.
d. left ventricle.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Structure of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following is a cuspid valve?
a. Aortic
b. Pulmonary
c. Mitral
d. Both A and B

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Chordae tendineae are associated with which structure(s)?
a. Aortic valve
b. Mitral valve
c. Tricuspid valve
d. Both B and C

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. The pulmonary arteries carry blood to the:
a. lungs.
b. left atrium.
c. right atrium.
d. None of the above are correct.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. The pulmonary arteries empty blood into the:
a. right atrium.
b. right ventricle.
c. left atrium.
d. left ventricle.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the myocardium?
a. Cells are joined by intercalated disks.
b. The muscle cells are autorhythmic.
c. The muscle cells can quickly summate contractions to produce tetanus.
d. It is made of electrically coupled functional units called syncytia.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635

TOP:    Wall of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of the atria?
a. They have thinner myocardial walls than do ventricles.
b. They are the same structure as the auricle.
c. They are called receiving chambers of the heart.
d. All of the above are true of the atria.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 636

TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of ventricles?
a. They are the pumping chambers of the heart.
b. The myocardium of the ventricles is thicker than that of the atria.
c. The myocardium of the left ventricle is thicker than that of the right ventricle.
d. All of the above are true of the ventricles.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 637

TOP:    Chambers of the Heart

 

  1. If damaged, which valve could allow blood to leak back into the left ventricle?
a. Bicuspid
b. Tricuspid
c. Aortic semilunar
d. Pulmonary semilunar

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. If damaged, which valve could allow blood to leak back into the right atrium?
a. Bicuspid
b. Tricuspid
c. Aortic semilunar
d. Pulmonary semilunar

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true about the nerve supply to the heart?
a. The heart is autorhythmic.
b. The heart receives both sympathetic and parasympathetic impulses.
c. The vagus nerve serves as an inhibitory nerve.
d. All of the above are true about the nerve supply to the heart.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Nerve Supply of the Heart

 

  1. Which statement is true of arteries?
a. They always carry oxygenated blood.
b. They always carry blood away from the heart.
c. They are the capacitance vessels of the body.
d. Both A and B are true of arteries.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Types of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Which statement is true of veins?
a. They always carry non-oxygenated blood.
b. They can be either muscular or elastic.
c. They always carry blood back to the heart.
d. All of the above are true of veins.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645

TOP:    Types of Blood Vessels

 

  1. The most important blood vessels in the cardiovascular system are the:
a. capillaries.
b. arteries.
c. veins.
d. arterioles.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Capillaries

 

  1. The blood vessel connecting the two capillary beds in the hepatic portal system is called a(n):
a. artery, because it is carrying blood to a capillary bed.
b. arteriole, because it has a precapillary sphincter muscle.
c. vein, because it is draining blood from a capillary bed.
d. portal vessel, because it is not easily classified as an artery or vein.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 664         TOP:    Systemic Veins

 

  1. The heart begins beating in the fetus at about what stage of development?
a. Fourth month
b. Second month
c. After about 4 weeks
d. After about 2 weeks

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Introduction

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of the location of the heart?
a. It lies in the mediastinum.
b. It lies to the right of the midline of the body.
c. It lies behind the body of the sternum.
d. All of the above are true about the location of the heart.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Location of the Heart

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of the heart?
a. The heart of an adult is proportionally larger than the heart of an infant.
b. The heart reaches its adult size between puberty and 25 years of age.
c. The average weight of the heart is about 85 grams more in the male than in the female.
d. The heart tends to take on the shape of the chest of the individual.

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 630

TOP:    Size and Shape of the Heart

 

  1. Pericardial fluid can be found between the:
a. myocardium and the epicardium.
b. myocardium and the endocardium.
c. pericardium and the ribs.
d. epicardium and the pericardium.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Coverings of the Heart

 

  1. Cuspid valves open into:
a. the aorta.
b. the pulmonary artery.
c. ventricles of the heart.
d. both A and B.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Semilunar valves open into:
a. the aorta.
b. the pulmonary artery.
c. ventricles of the heart.
d. both A and B.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Valves of the Heart

 

  1. Blood from the superior vena cava enters which part of the heart?
a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. If the chordae tendineae in the right side of the heart were damaged, it might cause blood to leak into the:
a. pulmonary artery during heart contraction.
b. right ventricle during heart contraction.
c. right atrium during heart contraction.
d. right ventricle during heart relaxation.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Atrioventricular Valves

 

  1. Which of these blood vessels are called resistance vessels?
a. Venules
b. Muscular arteries
c. Arterioles
d. Metarterioles

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 643

TOP:    Arteries

 

  1. Which of these blood vessels contain precapillary sphincters?
a. Venules
b. Muscular arteries
c. Arterioles
d. Metarterioles

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Arteries

 

  1. After birth, the ductus venosus closes and:
a. allows blood to flow to the lungs.
b. allows blood to flow to the liver.
c. prevents blood from moving from the right to the left atrium.
d. stops blood flow to the placenta.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 668         TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. What is the functional significance of large areas of cardiac muscle being electrically coupled to form a single functional syncytium?
a. Because they form a syncytium, cardiac muscles can contract on their own.
b. Because they form a syncytium, muscle cells can pass an action potential along a large area of the heart wall, stimulating contraction in each muscle fiber of the syncytium.
c. Because they form a syncytium, muscle cells cannot summate contraction to produce tetanus and thus not fatigue.
d. Because they form a syncytium, cardiac muscle cells can pass an action potential by way of internodal bundles contracting both atrial chambers.

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 635         TOP:    Myocardium

 

  1. Christopher, a 2-month-old infant, has a bluish tinge to his skin. Upon listening to the infant’s chest, the physician became concerned about a leakage of blood between the right and left atria. What might have caused this problem and what is the treatment?
a. The ductus venosus may not have closed at birth, and immediate surgical repair may be needed.
b. The ductus arteriosus may not have closed at birth, and immediate surgical repair may be needed.
c. The foramen ovale may not be closed, causing backflow of blood into the lungs. The physician will reexamine the infant frequently because the foramen ovale may take as long as 9 months to heal.
d. The foramen ovale may be closed, causing backflow of blood into the lungs. The physician will reexamine the infant frequently because the foramen ovale may take as long as 9 months to open.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 668

TOP:    Changes in Circulation at Birth

 

  1. The blood entering the aorta has just left which heart chamber?
a. Right atrium
b. Right ventricle
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Blood Flow Through the Heart

 

  1. What is the correct explanation for how cardiac tamponade can affect the heart?
a. It causes a prolapsed mitral valve, one whose flaps extend back into the left atrium, causing incompetence (leaking) of the valve.
b. It causes blood to not only eject forward into the aorta but also regurgitate back into the left ventricle because of a leaky aortic semilunar valve.
c. It is a compression of the heart that impairs the pumping action of the heart and needs immediate pericardial drainage.
d. It is a delayed inflammatory response to streptococcal infection that results in stenosis or other deformities of the valves, chordae tendineae, or myocardium.

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 669

TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. How would relocating a vein for the purpose of bypassing a partial blockage in the coronary arteries support a better functioning heart?
a. It would reduce the infection near the heart.
b. It would reduce the size of an enlarged heart by removing venous blood from the damaged area, thus making the heart a better pump.
c. It would increase the cardiac contraction ability of the heart muscle by removing venous blood from the damaged area.
d. It would construct detours around blocked coronary arteries and return oxygen-rich blood flow to the coronary arteries.

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 651

TOP:    General Principles About Arteries

 

MATCHING

 

Match each artery to its correct anatomical location.

a. Axillary
b. Carotid
c. Coronary
d. Femoral
e. Gastric
f. Hepatic
g. Radial
h. Renal
i. Suprarenal
j. Tibial

 

 

  1. upper leg

 

  1. lower leg

 

  1. kidney

 

  1. liver

 

  1. heart

 

  1. forearm

 

  1. stomach

 

  1. upper arm

 

  1. brain

 

  1. adrenal gland

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization

REF:    Page 649 (Figure 21-18)                     TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

Match each term with its corresponding description.

a. Arteries
b. Capillaries
c. Pulmonary circulation
d. Systemic circulation
e. Tunica adventitia
f. Tunica intima
g. Tunica media
h. Veins

 

 

  1. blood flow from the heart to the body (not the lungs) and back to the heart

 

  1. vessels that carry blood away from the heart

 

  1. vessel in which exchange occurs between the blood and tissue fluid

 

  1. innermost layer of a blood vessel, consisting of endothelium

 

  1. middle layer of blood vessel, containing smooth muscle

 

  1. outer connective tissue layer of a blood vessel

 

  1. vessels that carry blood toward the heart

 

  1. blood flow from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 642

TOP:    Types of Blood Vessels

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 644

TOP:    Capillaries

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645

TOP:    Types of Blood Vessels

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

Match each term related to heart circulation with its corresponding location or description.

a. Right ventricle
b. Right atrium
c. Left atrium
d. Left ventricle
e. Right atrioventricular valve
f. Left atrioventricular valve
g. Aortic semilunar valve
h. Pulmonary semilunar valve
i. Superior vena cava
j. Aorta
k. Pulmonary vein
l. Pulmonary artery

 

 

  1. heart chamber that receives blood from the pulmonary vein

 

  1. heart chamber that pushes blood through the right atrioventricular valve when it contracts

 

  1. valve through which the left ventricle pumps blood

 

  1. blood vessel that empties into the right atrium

 

  1. blood vessel into which the right ventricle pumps blood through a semilunar valve

 

  1. blood vessel that carries blood from the lungs to the heart

 

  1. blood vessel into which the left ventricle pumps blood through a semilunar valve

 

  1. valve that opens into the left ventricle

 

  1. valve through which the right ventricle pumps blood

 

  1. heart chamber that pumps blood through the aortic semilunar valve

 

  1. valve that opens into the right ventricle

 

  1. heart chamber that receives blood that has just passed through the right atrioventricular valve

 

  1. ANS:   C                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   B                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   G                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   I                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   L                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   K                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   J                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   F                      DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   H                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   D                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   E                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

  1. ANS:   A                     DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the anatomical positioning of the heart.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 630         TOP:    Location of the Heart

 

  1. Which chamber of the heart normally has the thickest wall? Why is this thick wall helpful in accomplishing its function?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 630         TOP:    Structure of the Heart

 

  1. Select one heart valve. Give its name, location, and function.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 630         TOP:    Structure of the Heart

 

  1. Trace a drop of blood from the right atrium to the aorta. List the specific chambers, valves, blood vessels, and lungs in proper sequence.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 647         TOP:    Systemic Circulation

 

  1. What function does the foramen ovale serve in fetal circulation?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 666|Page 667

TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. Define cardiac tamponade, and explain how it can affect the heart.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 669         TOP:    Mechanisms of Disease

 

  1. Describe the anatomy of the circle of Willis. Why is this an advantageous anatomical configuration?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 651         TOP:    Systemic Arteries

 

  1. Describe the fetal circulation. Also, describe the changes in circulation at birth.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 665|Page 668                             TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. Name, describe, and give the function of the heart coverings.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 634

TOP:    Coverings of the Heart

 

  1. Name and describe the three layers of the heart wall.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635|Page 636

TOP:    Structure of the Heart Wall

 

  1. What is the skeleton of the heart? What is its function and what is its impact on the conduction of an electrical impulse through the heart?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 638

TOP:    Skeleton of the Heart

 

  1. Name and describe the types of arteries from largest to smallest. What is the function of each?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 643|Page 644

TOP:    Arteries

 

  1. Describe the various types of capillaries and the differences in the structure of their walls. Explain why capillaries are the most important of all the blood vessels.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 644         TOP:    Capillaries

 

  1. Describe the structure and function of a vein. Explain the term capacitance vessel. What is a venous sinus?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645         TOP:    Veins

 

  1. Name and describe the type of cells or fibers that make up the structure of a blood vessel.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 645|Page 646

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Name the three layers of tissue that make up a blood vessel.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 646|Page 647

TOP:    Structure of Blood Vessels

 

  1. Name and explain the two exceptions to the typical “artery-capillary-vein” type of circulation found in the circulatory system.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 647

TOP:    Circulatory Routes

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Martha, a 63-year-old heavyset woman, was brought to the emergency room with chest pain and severe anxiety. After running some blood work, medical personnel noted that her cardiac enzyme levels were elevated. Why would this test be useful in diagnosing Martha’s condition, and what is her condition?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 635 (Box 21-1)

TOP:    Cardiac Marker Studies

 

  1. Christopher, a 2-month-old infant, has a bluish tinge to his skin. After listening to the infant’s chest, the physician becomes concerned about a leakage of blood between the right and left atria. What might have caused this problem, and what is the treatment?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 666|Page 667                             TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. Explain the differences between fetal and postnatal circulation. How do these differences make the circulation of the fetus more efficient?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Synthesis         REF:    Page 665|Page 668                             TOP:    Fetal Circulation

 

  1. Explain why the capillaries are the most important blood vessels in the circulatory system. Explain how their structure assists them in accomplishing their functions.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Application     REF:    Page 644         TOP:    Function of the Capillaries

 

OTHER

 

  1. Place the following structures in the order in which a drop of blood will pass through them as it goes through the heart.
  2. Right atrium
  3. Lung
  4. Left atrium
  5. Right ventricle
  6. Left ventricle
  7. Pulmonary artery
  8. Pulmonary semilunar valve
  9. Mitral valve
  10. Pulmonary vein
  11. Aortic semilunar valve
  12. Tricuspid valve

 

ANS:

A, K, D, G, I, B, F, C, H, E, J

 

DIF:    Memorization                                     REF:    Page 639

TOP:    Flow of Blood Through the Heart

 

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