Atmosphere The An Introduction to Meteorology 12Th Ed By Frederick K. Lutgens – Test Bank

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Atmosphere The An Introduction to Meteorology 12Th Ed By Frederick K. Lutgens – Test Bank

The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12e (Lutgens/Tarbuck/Tasa)

Chapter 6   Air Pressure and Winds

 

1) The best explanation for the cause of atmospheric pressure is:

  1. A) weight of the air above.
  2. B) air temperature.
  3. C) air compression.
  4. D) wind force.
  5. E) air density.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 162

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

2) The National Weather Service measures air pressure in the unit of a millibar, which is equivalent to:

  1. A) 10 Newtons per square meter.
  2. B) 100 Newtons per square meter.
  3. C) 500 Newtons per square meter.
  4. D) 1000 Newtons per square meter.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 163

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

3) If the National Weather Service converted to the metric system, they would most likely report air pressure in which units?

  1. A) pascals
  2. B) kilopascals
  3. C) millibars
  4. D) inches of mercury

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 163

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

4) Who invented the mercury barometer?

  1. A) Galileo
  2. B) Bergeron
  3. C) Toricelli
  4. D) Celsius

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 163

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

5) The maximum pressure range of the atmosphere is between:

  1. A) 660-1335 millibars.
  2. B) 720-1335 millibars.
  3. C) 870-1085 millibars.
  4. D) 975-1035 millibars.
  5. E) 0-1000 millibars.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 163

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

6) What units of pressure are used when air pressure is reported to the public in the United States?

  1. A) millibars
  2. B) inches of mercury
  3. C) kilopascals
  4. D) Newtons

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 164

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

7) What is the average sea level pressure in the United States?

  1. A) 29.92 mb
  2. B) 766 mb
  3. C) 1000 mb
  4. D) 1013 mb

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 164

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

8) If air pressure is reduced by one-half for every five-kilometer increase in altitude, what would be the air pressure at a height of 25 kilometers as a fraction of sea-level air pressure?

  1. A) 1/32
  2. B) 1/8
  3. C) 1/64
  4. D) 1/4
  5. E) 1/16

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 165

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

9) Which of the following would involve the greatest change in atmospheric pressure?

  1. A) horizontal airplane flight of 200 miles
  2. B) balloon ascent from sea level to 3 miles
  3. C) travel from center of a low pressure system to center of a high pressure system
  4. D) difference between the highest and lowest recorded pressure at any one weather station

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 165

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

10) The addition of water vapor will cause the density of air to:

  1. A) decrease.
  2. B) increase.
  3. C) stay the same.
  4. D) vary widely in a horizontal direction.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 166

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

11) Air pressure drops ________ with altitude in a column of cold (dense) air than in a column of warm (less dense) air.

  1. A) equally
  2. B) more slowly
  3. C) less significantly
  4. D) more rapidly

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 166

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12) Divergence in the atmosphere is best defined as:

  1. A) air moving out of an area.
  2. B) air piling up in one area.
  3. C) warm air moving away from cold air.
  4. D) clouds separating and dissipating.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 167

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

13) Which of the following has the smallest impact on winds?

  1. A) pressure gradient force
  2. B) Coriolis effect
  3. C) humidity
  4. D) friction

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 167

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

14) An altimeter is an adaptation of the:

  1. A) aneroid barometer.
  2. B) millibar.
  3. C) mercurial barometer.
  4. D) anemometer.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 167

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

15) What is a limitation of an altimeter that pilots must account for?

  1. A) It has a low battery life at high altitudes.
  2. B) Its readings may be too low or too high if the temperature varies from the expected.
  3. C) Corrections are not as accurate at low levels as they are at higher levels.
  4. D) They can’t ever be used to determine altitude — only pressure.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 167

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16) The primary force which causes all winds is:

  1. A) centrifugal force.
  2. B) Coriolis effect.
  3. C) inertia force.
  4. D) geostrophic force.
  5. E) pressure gradient force.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

17) Neglecting friction, the speed and direction of the horizontal wind are determined by:

  1. A) temperature and humidity.
  2. B) viscosity and turbulence.
  3. C) pressure gradient and Coriolis.
  4. D) gravity and humidity.
  5. E) only gravity.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

18) If the earth were not rotating,

  1. A) all winds would cease.
  2. B) Earth would lose its atmosphere.
  3. C) air would move directly from high to low pressure.
  4. D) atmospheric pressure would decrease.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

19) The term pressure gradient refers to:

  1. A) change in pressure at a weather station over 3 hours time.
  2. B) change in pressure from the tropopause to sea level.
  3. C) change in pressure along a horizontal surface.
  4. D) highest and lowest pressures at a station.
  5. E) change in wind speed at the same station.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

20) It the Earth were not rotating:

  1. A) all air would move in one direction only.
  2. B) friction would be eliminated.
  3. C) the Earth would lose its atmosphere.
  4. D) air would move directly from high pressure to low pressure.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

21) The pressure gradient force is directed from higher to lower pressure:

  1. A) only in the Northern Hemisphere.
  2. B) only at the poles.
  3. C) everywhere except the equator.
  4. D) only at the equator.
  5. E) everywhere.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

22) The force that generates wind is:

  1. A) pressure gradient force.
  2. B) friction.
  3. C) gravity.
  4. D) Coriolis force.
  5. E) centrifugal force.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

23) Meteorologists convert all atmospheric pressure data to the equivalent sea-level air pressure in order to:

  1. A) make sure all of the data is measured in millibars.
  2. B) correct for the effects of the Coriolis force.
  3. C) remove the effects of elevation.
  4. D) unify the pressure gradient force at all locations.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

24) A steep pressure gradient:

  1. A) produces light winds.
  2. B) produces strong winds.
  3. C) is only possible in the tropics.
  4. D) would be depicted by widely spaced isobars.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 168

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25) What do isobars represent on a map?

  1. A) lines connecting points of equal air pressure
  2. B) the lowest pressures on the map
  3. C) the highest pressures on the map
  4. D) areas of convergence in the upper atmosphere

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  1: Maps and Other Geographic Representations

 

26) The Coriolis effect occurs because of this characteristic of the earth:

  1. A) its magnetic field.
  2. B) its atmosphere.
  3. C) its rotation.
  4. D) its dense core.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 169

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

27) Horizontal variations in air pressure cause a force which makes the wind blow. These pressure variations are caused by:

  1. A) warm temperatures in the stratosphere.
  2. B) greenhouse effect.
  3. C) non-circular shape of Earth.
  4. D) Earth’s rotation.
  5. E) uneven heating of the earth’s surface.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 169

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28) Circulations in the earth’s atmosphere are fundamentally caused by:

  1. A) heating of the ozone layer.
  2. B) frontal storm systems.
  3. C) ocean currents.
  4. D) gravity.
  5. E) temperature contrasts between different locations.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 169

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29) The overall strength of a circulation system is determined by:

  1. A) the latitude.
  2. B) no one factor is more important than the others.
  3. C) friction between the ground and the air.
  4. D) its pressure gradient.
  5. E) air temperature.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 169

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30) A plane takes off from City A headed for City B, located directly to the north. The pilot flies directly north, but arrives at a city some distance to the west of City B. What can be said of the airplane?

  1. A) It probably has a broken compass.
  2. B) It was blown off course by upper atmospheric winds.
  3. C) It was flying in the Northern Hemisphere.
  4. D) It was flying in the Southern Hemisphere.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 170

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

 

 

31) Refer to the map above. The black lines on the map are called ________ and they represent lines of equal ________.

  1. A) isobars; pressure
  2. B) isotherms; temperature
  3. C) isotherms; pressure
  4. D) isodrosotherms; humidity

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 170

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  1: Maps and Other Geographic Representations

32) Refer to the map above. Which of the following areas has the highest pressure gradient?

  1. A) Southwestern Texas
  2. B) Southern California
  3. C) Southern Florida
  4. D) Lake Michigan/Southeastern Wisconsin

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 170

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  1: Maps and Other Geographic Representations

 

 

33) Refer to the map above. Which of the following areas is most likely to be experiencing rain or other significant weather?

  1. A) the Great Lakes region
  2. B) the Southwest
  3. C) Western Canada
  4. D) the Pacific Northeast

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 178

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  1: Maps and Other Geographic Representations

 

34) Refer to the map above. What best explains the high wind speeds found immediately around the low pressure center (L)?

  1. A) the dramatically lower temperatures in the area
  2. B) increased friction
  3. C) the comparatively high pressure gradient in the area
  4. D) the higher humidity associated with low pressures

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 168

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

35) Which of these factors influence the magnitude of the Coriolis force?

  1. A) wind direction
  2. B) latitude
  3. C) wind speed
  4. D) both wind speed and latitude

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 171

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

36) As seen by an observer on Earth, the Coriolis effect is an illusion; no deflection can actually be measured.

  1. A) false
  2. B) false, but only near the poles
  3. C) true, but only near the poles
  4. D) true

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 171

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37) The Coriolis effect is important only for motions that:

  1. A) do not involve a pressure gradient.
  2. B) cover short distances.
  3. C) are slow.
  4. D) are near the earth’s surface.
  5. E) cover long distances.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 171

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38) The Coriolis effect influences the wind by:

  1. A) decreasing the wind speed.
  2. B) changing the direction of the wind.
  3. C) increasing the wind speed.
  4. D) starting the air motion.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 171

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39) With respect to the Coriolis force, which association is NOT correct?

  1. A) Northern Hemisphere — deflection to the right of the wind’s original direction
  2. B) North Pole — strongest deflection
  3. C) Low wind speeds — strongest deflection
  4. D) deflection — always at a 90 degree angle to the direction of air flow

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 171

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40) Upper air winds:

  1. A) are greatly influenced by friction.
  2. B) are generally faster than surface winds.
  3. C) are unaffected by the Coriolis force.
  4. D) do not influence surface weather.

Answer:  B

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41) The wind speed normally increases with height in the layer of air next to the ground. This illustrates the fact that:

  1. A) friction is present only close to the ground.
  2. B) the lowest part of the atmosphere is turbulent.
  3. C) temperature decreases with height.
  4. D) pressure decreases with height.
  5. E) density decreases with height.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 172

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42) The geostrophic wind concept is most like the real atmospheric winds:

  1. A) in an anticyclone.
  2. B) near the surface.
  3. C) near the equator.
  4. D) in a cyclone.
  5. E) at high altitudes.

Answer:  E

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43) When geostrophic conditions exist in the atmosphere, the net force on the moving air is:

  1. A) called a centrifugal force.
  2. B) zero.
  3. C) large when the wind speed is slow.
  4. D) called a centripetal force.
  5. E) large since the wind speed is fast.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 173

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44) The geostrophic wind describes a situation where the air moves:

  1. A) very fast.
  2. B) upward.
  3. C) from pole to equator.
  4. D) very slowly.
  5. E) parallel to the isobars.

Answer:  E

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45) What does Buys Ballot’s Law state?

  1. A) If you stand with your back to the wind, there is low pressure on your left and high pressure on the right.
  2. B) If you stand with your back to the wind, there is low pressure on your right and high pressure on your right.
  3. C) If you stand with your back to the wind, there is low pressure directly in front of you.
  4. D) If you stand facing into the wind and you are facing north, the wind is geostrophic.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 173

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46) A cyclone is generally defined by meteorologists as:

  1. A) an area of high pressure.
  2. B) an area of low pressure.
  3. C) an intense, violent storm.
  4. D) a tornado on the ground.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 174

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47) Anticyclonic flow is:

  1. A) associated with low pressure.
  2. B) associated with storms and rainy conditions.
  3. C) associated with air converging at the surface.
  4. D) in the opposite direction of Earth’s rotation.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 174

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48) According to researchers at University of Colorado Denver, what was the most important factor in the high number of home runs at Coors Field?

  1. A) The predominant summer wind direction is in favor of the batter.
  2. B) The thin air allows the ball to fly further.
  3. C) The lower temperatures help athletes not to overheat.
  4. D) The thin air allows the batter to obtain better auditory cues about the pitch.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 175

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

49) The effect of friction on the wind alters its:

  1. A) viscosity.
  2. B) heat content.
  3. C) density.
  4. D) speed and direction.
  5. E) speed only.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 176

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

50) Why do surface winds cross the isobars at an angle toward lower pressure (instead of blowing parallel to the isobars)?

  1. A) Friction reduces the speed so Coriolis is weakened.
  2. B) Pressure gradient becomes stronger near the surface.
  3. C) It results from divergence in the surface wind.
  4. D) Coriolis strengthens by combining with friction.
  5. E) Convergence of upper level winds causes this.

Answer:  A

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51) In the southern hemisphere, anticyclonic winds flow:

  1. A) outward and clockwise.
  2. B) inward and clockwise.
  3. C) outward and counterclockwise.
  4. D) inward and counterclockwise.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 177

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52) In the northern hemisphere, cyclonic winds flow:

  1. A) inward and counterclockwise.
  2. B) inward and clockwise.
  3. C) outward and clockwise.
  4. D) outward and counterclockwise.

Answer:  A

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53) Instead of the air flowing straight out of a high pressure system, it spirals out in a clockwise direction. The cause of the clockwise spiraling motion is:

  1. A) pressure gradient force.
  2. B) centripetal force.
  3. C) Coriolis force.
  4. D) inertia.
  5. E) turbulence.

Answer:  C

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54) Identify the choice above that represents high pressure center in the Southern Hemisphere.

  1. A) graph a
  2. B) graph b
  3. C) graph c
  4. D) both a and b
  5. E) none of these

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 177

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Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

55) Identify the choice above that represents low pressure center.

  1. A) graph a
  2. B) graph b
  3. C) graph c
  4. D) both a and b
  5. E) none of these

Answer:  D

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56) Identify the choice above that represents low pressure center in the Northern Hemisphere.

  1. A) graph a
  2. B) graph b
  3. C) graph c
  4. D) both a and b
  5. E) none of these

Answer:  B

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57) Which option above is generally associated with “fair” weather?

  1. A) graph a
  2. B) graph b
  3. C) graph c
  4. D) both a and b
  5. E) none of these

Answer:  C

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58) You would expect vertical airflow in a cyclone to result in:

  1. A) divergence aloft.
  2. B) convergence aloft.
  3. C) divergence at the surface.
  4. D) no cloud development.

Answer:  A

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59) You would expect vertical airflow in an anticyclone to result in:

  1. A) convergence aloft.
  2. B) divergence aloft.
  3. C) convergence at the surface.
  4. D) clouds.

Answer:  A

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60) High air pressure zones are usually associated with:

  1. A) converging winds.
  2. B) stormy weather.
  3. C) ascending currents.
  4. D) relatively dry conditions.

Answer:  D

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61) If “fair” weather is approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be:

  1. A) falling.
  2. B) steady.
  3. C) rising.
  4. D) Pressure tendency has nothing to do with forecasting good or bad weather.

Answer:  C

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62)

TIME PRESSURE
10:51 1016.2 mb
11:51 1015.5 mb
12:51 1015.0 mb
13:51 1014.2 mb
14:51 1013.9 mb
15:51 1013.3 mb
16:51 1013.0 mb

 

Consider the pressure data recorded at Albany International Airport on September 27, 2011. What statement can you make about the weather Albany is likely to experience soon?

  1. A) Winds at Albany will likely be calming down.
  2. B) Albany is likely to experience rain or storms soon.
  3. C) Albany should have clearing skies.
  4. D) Albany will definitely have a tornado within the hour.

Answer:  B

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63) Weather reports of wind express only the horizontal motion of the air. The vertical component of the air motion is usually:

  1. A) very much slower.
  2. B) much faster.
  3. C) only slightly slower.
  4. D) about the same.
  5. E) No general statement can be made.

Answer:  A

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64) Cyclonic airflow is characterized by:

  1. A) divergence aloft and convergence at the surface.
  2. B) convergence aloft and divergence at the surface.
  3. C) divergence both at the surface and aloft.
  4. D) convergence both at the surface and aloft.

Answer:  A

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65) When air moves from the ocean onto land:

  1. A) curved flow is initiated.
  2. B) converging winds and ascending air result over the land.
  3. C) divergence and subsidence occur over the land.
  4. D) the winds tend to increase their speed.

Answer:  B

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66) Winds from the north are associated with:

  1. A) 0 degrees.
  2. B) 90 degrees.
  3. C) 180 degrees.
  4. D) 235 degrees.

Answer:  A

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67) A wind rose is used to identify:

  1. A) prevailing wind direction.
  2. B) wind direction at a given moment.
  3. C) locations with similar wind directions during a storm.
  4. D) the approximate degree of Coriolis deflection at a specific location.

Answer:  A

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68) The country that produces the greatest amount of wind energy is:

  1. A) Germany.
  2. B) the United States.
  3. C) China.
  4. D) Italy.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 182

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

69) An aerovane is commonly used to measure:

  1. A) wind direction only.
  2. B) wind speed only.
  3. C) both wind direction and wind speed.
  4. D) pressure gradient force only.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 183

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

70) Of the various elements of weather and climate, changes in air pressure are probably the most easily perceived by people.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 162

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

71) Air pressure is exerted in all directions.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 162

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

72) Under typical atmospheric conditions, gas molecules behave like very elastic balls.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 162

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

73) The inventor of the mercury barometer was Sir Francis Bacon.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 163

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

74) If the pressure were 1020 millibars, it would be considered higher than average.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 163

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

75) The mercury barometer is larger and less portable than an aneroid barometer.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 163

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

76) Standard sea level atmospheric pressure in the U.S. is approximately 29.92 inches of mercury.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 164

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

77) If you’re cooking pasta for your big romantic date, you’d better allow a few extra minutes for it to cook once it comes to a boil if you’re at a high altitude.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 165

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

78) During times of warmer temperature (summer), the atmospheric pressure is usually less.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 166

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

79) At a given pressure value, the air density will be highest when the temperature is coldest.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 166

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

80) The primary cause of wind is not atmospheric pressure but atmospheric pressure differences.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 168

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

81) If pressure gradient was the only force acting on the air, it would move in a curved path.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 168

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

82) The most important force causing the air’s motion is due to the earth’s rotation.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 168

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

83) The speed of the wind at a place is primarily determined by the barometric pressure at that place.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 168

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

84) A steep pressure gradient indicates strong winds.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 168

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

85) The sea breeze is a simple thermal circulation that does not involve a pressure gradient.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 169

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

86) The most fundamental reason for all atmospheric motions is the non-uniform heating of the earth by the Sun.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 169

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

87) The main cause of the sea breeze is the unequal heating of land and water.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 169

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

88) Vertical air movement is necessary for the creation of a sea breeze.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 169

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

89) The Coriolis effect causes all moving objects to deflect to their right in the northern hemisphere.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

90) The Coriolis effect only applies to atmospheric motions; aircraft, rockets, people, etc. are not influenced.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

91) An isobar is a line connecting points of equal humidity.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  1: Maps and Other Geographic Representations

 

92) The Coriolis effect is strongest at the equator and diminishes in strength poleward.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 171

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

93) Gradient winds follow a curved path.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 173

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

94) Winds flow cyclonically around all areas of low pressure.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 174

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

95) An elongated region of low pressure is called a ridge.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 174

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

96) Friction at the surface results in a stronger Coriolis force.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 176

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

97) Anticyclones characteristically have winds blowing toward their center.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 177

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

98) Low air pressure zones are associated with cloudy skies and stormy weather.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 178

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

99) Stormy weather is more closely associated with anticyclones than with cyclones.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 178

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

100) Horizontal wind motion can help cause vertical air motion.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 178

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

101) Cyclones are characterized by converging surface winds and rising air.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 178

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

102) A southwest wind blows toward the northeast.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 180

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

103) The prevailing wind is defined as the instantaneous direction of the wind at the moment of observation.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 181

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

104) A wind direction of 270 degrees means that the wind is blowing from the southeast.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 181

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

105) The horizontal movement of air is called ________.

Answer:  wind

Page Ref: 162

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

106) The pattern of isobar lines on a map provides a visual indication of ________.

Answer:  the pressure gradient

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

107) When winds blow parallel to the isobars, which is usually the case for winds aloft, it is termed a(n) ________ wind.

Answer:  geostrophic

Page Ref: 173

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

108) The tendency of a particle to travel in a straight line creates an imaginary outward force called ________ acceleration.

Answer:  centrifugal

Page Ref: 176

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

109) Name the three forces that act to cause the air’s motion.

Answer:  Pressure gradient, Coriolis and friction.

Page Ref: 168

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

110) What is the fundamental cause of horizontal pressure differences in the atmosphere?

Answer:  Uneven heating of the earth or horizontal temperature contrasts.

Page Ref: 169

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

111) How does friction act to change the direction of the wind near the earth’s surface?

Answer:  Friction reduces the wind speed and this decreases the Coriolis deflection.

Page Ref: 176

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

112) Why are clouds and precipitation associated with surface low pressure systems?

Answer:  The converging surface wind pattern of a low causes rising motion.

Page Ref: 178

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

113) What is a wind rose?

Answer:  A diagram which indicates the percentage of time the wind blows from various directions.

Page Ref: 181

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  1: Maps and Other Geographic Representations

 

The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology, 12e (Lutgens/Tarbuck/Tasa)

Chapter 7   Circulation of the Atmosphere

 

1) Microscale winds generally last for:

  1. A) a few seconds.
  2. B) 1 to 2 hours.
  3. C) 1 to 2 days.
  4. D) 3 days or longer.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 190

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

2) One type of lake-effect storm that forms over the Great Lakes is characterized by a vortex shape. These vortices can range from 10 km to 100 km across. Based on their size, these storms would be classified as:

  1. A) microscale.
  2. B) mesoscale.
  3. C) synoptic scale.
  4. D) planetary scale.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

3) Planetary scale flow such as trade-winds are best classified as:

  1. A) microscale.
  2. B) mesoscale.
  3. C) synoptic.
  4. D) macroscale.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

4) Which of the following is an example of a mesoscale wind?

  1. A) a traveling anticyclone
  2. B) waves in the westerlies
  3. C) a sea breeze
  4. D) hurricane

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

5) Synoptic scale circulations are of what size, approximately?

  1. A) under 1 km
  2. B) between 1 and 100 km
  3. C) between 100 and 5000 km
  4. D) between 1000 and 40,000 km

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

6) Land-sea breezes and ________ are mesoscale winds.

  1. A) Santa Ana winds
  2. B) tornadoes
  3. C) hurricanes
  4. D) cold fronts
  5. E) occluded fronts

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

7) Chinook winds, land-sea breezes and Santa Ana winds are examples of ________ circulations.

  1. A) microscale
  2. B) vortex
  3. C) synoptic
  4. D) macroscale
  5. E) mesoscale

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

8) The cyclones and anticyclones of the midlatitudes are part of the ________ circulation.

  1. A) microscale
  2. B) trade wind
  3. C) mesoscale
  4. D) synoptic or macroscale
  5. E) Hadley

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

9) Dust devils:

  1. A) can last for days.
  2. B) are most common in the tropics.
  3. C) are associated with convective clouds.
  4. D) form from the bottom up.
  5. E) do not occur over vegetated surfaces.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 192

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

10) Winds are usually named for:

  1. A) the direction or place to which they are heading.
  2. B) the direction or place from which they are blowing.
  3. C) the approximate latitude of their origin.
  4. D) the altitude where they are strongest.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 193

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

11) Which of the following associations is NOT correct?

  1. A) sea breeze — day time
  2. B) land breeze — blows from the sea onto the land
  3. C) mountain breeze — night time
  4. D) chinooks — leeward side of mountains

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 193

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

12) Which of these winds is not influenced very much by the Coriolis effect?

  1. A) Northeast trades
  2. B) mid latitude westerlies
  3. C) sea breeze
  4. D) jet stream

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 193

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

13) Which mesoscale circulation affects Chicago?

  1. A) land-sea breeze
  2. B) katabatic wind
  3. C) anabatic wind
  4. D) mountain-valley breeze
  5. E) cold fronts

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 193

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

14) A Santa Ana (or Chinook or Foehn) wind is a:

  1. A) wind that is peculiar to the China mainland.
  2. B) wind associated with a blizzard.
  3. C) cold, damp wind blowing off snow fields.
  4. D) very dry, warm wind coming down a mountain slope.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 194

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

15) The Native American term chinook means:

  1. A) mountain wind.
  2. B) big storm.
  3. C) cold sun.
  4. D) snow eater.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 194

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

16) Chinook and foehn winds are warm because:

  1. A) they are warmed adiabatically as they sink downslope.
  2. B) they blow out of areas experiencing intense solar heating.
  3. C) they occur primarily in deserts.
  4. D) they only occur in the tropics.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 194

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

17) Urban heat islands induce ________.

  1. A) foehn winds
  2. B) mistral winds
  3. C) country breezes
  4. D) city breezes

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

18) Haboobs:

  1. A) never occur outside of Northern Africa.
  2. B) do not occur more than once or twice a year.
  3. C) are usually only a few meters high.
  4. D) are dust storms triggered by intense thunderstorms.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

19) According to Hadley, the most important factor causing circulation patterns in the atmosphere was:

  1. A) high-low pressure distribution.
  2. B) subsidence.
  3. C) convection.
  4. D) equator-pole temperature contrast.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

20) G. Hadley’s ideas about atmospheric circulations were concerned with the

  1. A) macroscale.
  2. B) synoptic scale.
  3. C) microscale.
  4. D) mesoscale.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

21) Summertime wildfires in California are fanned by:

  1. A) the westerlies.
  2. B) katabatic winds.
  3. C) the Santa Ana winds.
  4. D) Hadley circulations.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 196

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

22) What changes have increased the risk associated with the Santa Ana winds in southern California?

  1. A) Commonly used landscape trees are more flammable than naturally occurring vegetation.
  2. B) Climate change has increased the local rainfall, leading to mudslides.
  3. C) Very little flammable material exists anymore in the landscape, so houses burn more easily.
  4. D) There hasn’t been an increased risk — people have started building outside of fire zones now.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 196

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  14: Human Actions Modify the Physical Environment

 

23) Why do westerly winds prevail at upper altitudes?

  1. A) rotation of the earth
  2. B) lower air density
  3. C) absence of friction
  4. D) rotation of the earth and equator to pole temperature contrast
  5. E) equator to pole temperature contrast

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

24) Which of the following factors contributes to the general subsidence in the latitude zone 20 degrees to 35 degrees?

  1. A) both the Coriolis force and radiation cooling
  2. B) the Coriolis force
  3. C) radiation cooling of the air
  4. D) release of latent heat

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

25) Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?

  1. A) doldrums
  2. B) trade winds
  3. C) westerlies
  4. D) subpolar easterlies
  5. E) northerlies

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

26) The doldrums are associated with what latitude(s)?

  1. A) the Tropic of Cancer
  2. B) the equator
  3. C) the midlatitudes
  4. D) the poles

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

27) The prevailing winds that blow from the horse latitudes toward the doldrums are called:

  1. A) subtropical northerlies.
  2. B) westerlies.
  3. C) trade winds.
  4. D) polar easterlies.
  5. E) southerlies.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

28) The term “Hadley cell” applies to:

  1. A) 0 degrees to 30 degrees latitude.
  2. B) the whole atmosphere.
  3. C) 30 degrees to 60 degrees latitude.
  4. D) 60 degrees to 90 degrees latitude.
  5. E) the poles and the equator.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

29) Taken as a whole, the large scale or general circulation patterns of the atmosphere exist:

  1. A) as nature’s method of balancing heat energy differences.
  2. B) as a result of Earth’s motion through space.
  3. C) because of the earth’s rotation.
  4. D) as a cause of temperature contrasts.
  5. E) as a result of the different landforms on Earth’s surface.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

30) The divergence near the ground that is associated with the subtropical high pressure zone can be cited as the origin of:

  1. A) polar easterlies.
  2. B) jet streams.
  3. C) cyclogenesis.
  4. D) sea breeze.
  5. E) trade winds.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

31) Another name for the subtropical high is:

  1. A) horse latitudes.
  2. B) doldrums.
  3. C) trades.
  4. D) prevailing westerlies.
  5. E) subpolar calm.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

32) The Sahara and Australian deserts (among others) are associated with which pressure belt?

  1. A) subtropical high
  2. B) subpolar low
  3. C) equatorial low
  4. D) polar high

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

33) The subpolar low (polar front) is:

  1. A) a zone where the polar easterlies and the westerlies converge.
  2. B) a zone where the trade winds of the two hemispheres meet.
  3. C) the boundary between frozen and liquid ocean.
  4. D) the forward edge of the antarctic ice cap.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 198

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

34) Concerning rainfall patterns, areas of persistent high pressure tend to cause

  1. A) desert regions.
  2. B) pronounced wet and dry seasons.
  3. C) severe flooding.
  4. D) moderate rainfall.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 198

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

35) Surface high pressure zones are usually associated with:

  1. A) ascending air.
  2. B) clear or nearly clear weather.
  3. C) converging winds.
  4. D) stormy weather.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 198

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

36) The region where the northeast trades meet the southeast trades is known as the:

  1. A) ITCZ.
  2. B) hot zone.
  3. C) high latitudes.
  4. D) subtropics.
  5. E) rainforest.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 198

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

37) The C in ITCZ stands for convergence. What does the convergence refer to?

  1. A) surface winds along the equator
  2. B) winds aloft near the poles
  3. C) surface winds in the mid latitudes
  4. D) surface winds in a monsoon

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 198

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

38) The prevailing winds that tend to influence cities such as Chicago and New York City are

  1. A) westerlies.
  2. B) polar easterlies.
  3. C) doldrums.
  4. D) trade winds.
  5. E) southerlies.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 199

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

39) Although the idealized version of Earth features continuous pressure belts that continue zonally around the planet, the real Earth has broken-up pressure cells that vary seasonally. What explains this?

  1. A) The effects of the Coriolis force vary seasonally.
  2. B) Large landmasses heat differently than oceans and interrupt the pressure pattern.
  3. C) The oceans experience drastic temperature changes from season to season.
  4. D) The intensity of incoming solar radiation varies radically along the same line of latitude.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 199

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

40) During the summer season, the subtropical high found in the North Atlantic is also called the:

  1. A) Azores high.
  2. B) Atlantic high.
  3. C) Bermuda high.
  4. D) Carolina high.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

41) The definition of the word monsoon means:

  1. A) rainy season.
  2. B) torrential rainfall.
  3. C) seasonal wind shift.
  4. D) moisture-laden air.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

42) The large rainfall totals associated with the Indian monsoon occur when:

  1. A) the winds shift to the north, blowing off of the Eurasian subcontinent.
  2. B) the ITCZ shifts to the north, near the Himalaya Mountains.
  3. C) high pressure develops over the Indian subcontinent.
  4. D) the ITCZ shifts south towards the Tropic of Capricorn.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

43) Large scale wind circulation systems that reverse with the seasons are called:

  1. A) meridional cells.
  2. B) typhoons.
  3. C) tropical cyclones.
  4. D) monsoons.
  5. E) tropical anticyclones.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

44) Every year, the clockwise circulation around the subtropical high helps to:

  1. A) transport 40 million tons of dust from the Sahara Desert to the Amazon rainforest.
  2. B) lead hurricanes eastward across the Atlantic.
  3. C) deliver 20 million tons of carbon dioxide generated in Africa into the air above North America.
  4. D) speed ozone depletion by lifting CFCs into the stratosphere.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 202

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

45) A primary factor causing monsoon circulations is:

  1. A) mountain ranges.
  2. B) greater temperature changes over continents compared to oceans.
  3. C) waves in the westerlies.
  4. D) ocean currents.
  5. E) Coriolis effect.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 203

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

46) The intense rain of India’s monsoon season is attributed to:

  1. A) increased moisture advection from the north.
  2. B) the arrival of the subtropical high.
  3. C) the northward migration of the ITCZ.
  4. D) the cooler winter temperatures, which make it easier for water vapor to condense.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 203

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

47) City X experiences very dry conditions in the winter, along with a prevailing northerly wind. In the summer, the prevailing winds shift to southerly and the rainfall at City X increases by a factor of 10. What can you say about the general climate regime of City X?

  1. A) It must be located under the ITCZ for most of the year.
  2. B) It must be located deep in the interior of a large continent.
  3. C) It is probably at a high latitude.
  4. D) It has a monsoon climate.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 203

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

48) Which of the following statements about airflow in the middle and upper troposphere is true?

  1. A) The flow is west-to-east throughout the midlatitudes.
  2. B) The predominant flow is easterly in the midlatitudes and westerly in the tropics.
  3. C) The flow is predominantly from the poles toward the equator.
  4. D) The predominant flow is from the equator poleward.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 204

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

49) Jet streams:

  1. A) are usually about ten miles wide.
  2. B) occur at 25,000 to 40,000 feet in middle latitudes.
  3. C) were first detected by George Hadley.
  4. D) reverse direction 180 degrees in summer.
  5. E) do not go below 50 degrees latitude.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 205

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

50) Jet streams are associated with fronts because of the:

  1. A) higher pressure behind the front.
  2. B) reduced friction above the front.
  3. C) large temperature gradient.
  4. D) clouds forming there.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 206

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

51) When are upper air winds fastest?

  1. A) anytime surface temperature gradients are weak
  2. B) in summer
  3. C) in winter
  4. D) These winds maintain about the same speed throughout the year.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 206

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

52) The greater strength of jet stream winds during winter is due to:

  1. A) warmer temperatures at high altitudes.
  2. B) lower humidity.
  3. C) stronger Coriolis effect.
  4. D) greater horizontal temperature contrasts.
  5. E) greater air density.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 206

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

53) The wave-like or meandering pattern of the upper level winds in middle latitudes is of major importance for:

  1. A) reducing wind speeds in the tropics.
  2. B) transporting heat between equator and poles.
  3. C) reducing the Coriolis effect.
  4. D) causing westerly winds.
  5. E) causing jet streams.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 207

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

54) The primary force causing ocean currents is:

  1. A) the major winds.
  2. B) temperature differences between cold water below and warm water above.
  3. C) the earth’s rotation about its axis.
  4. D) the earth’s elliptical orbit around the Sun.
  5. E) the Coriolis effect.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 208

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

55) The Gulf Stream is the name given to:

  1. A) the circulation of water in the Gulf of Mexico.
  2. B) a warm current carrying water from the equator along the East Coast of the United States.
  3. C) the current carrying cold water from the North Pole along the West Coast of the United States.
  4. D) a counter-clockwise surface current in the Gulf of California.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 208

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

56) Which of the following is a characteristic of deserts located near cold ocean currents?

  1. A) They are often cool and shrouded in fog.
  2. B) They often have unstable atmospheric conditions.
  3. C) They tend to be warmer than inland deserts.
  4. D) They receive more rain than other deserts.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 209

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

57) El Niño events are characterized by:

  1. A) strengthening of the NE trade winds.
  2. B) a very strong cold current flowing along the eastern edge of South America.
  3. C) warm water piling up near Indonesia.
  4. D) pooling of unusually warm water in the eastern tropical Pacific.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 210

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

58) The process that brings cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface along the coasts of Peru and Ecuador is called:

  1. A) thermocline suppression.
  2. B) El Niño.
  3. C) upwelling.
  4. D) the Southern Oscillation.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 210

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

59) All of the following can result from a strong El Niño event EXCEPT:

  1. A) the suppression of the Southern Oscillation.
  2. B) depletion of fish populations as upwelling is suppressed along the western coast of South America.
  3. C) weakening or reversing of the Pacific tradewinds.
  4. D) abnormally high air pressure over Indonesia.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 211

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

60) The Southern Oscillation:

  1. A) is a cycle of strengthening and reversing trade winds in the equatorial Pacific.
  2. B) is another name for a La Niña event.
  3. C) does not have the ability to drastically alter climate, and is of little concern.
  4. D) is more important to weather in the United States than anywhere else in the world.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 212

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

61) Two of the strongest El Niño events on record began in what years?

  1. A) 1984 and 1999.
  2. B) 1976 and 2003.
  3. C) 1983 and 1997.
  4. D) 2004 and 2007.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 212

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

62) The areas of abundant rainfall on the earth tend to be:

  1. A) in midlatitudes.
  2. B) in polar regions.
  3. C) near the equator and in midlatitudes.
  4. D) near the equator.
  5. E) over oceans.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 213

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

63) The amount of precipitation received at a given location is primarily controlled by:

  1. A) overnight temperatures.
  2. B) annual temperature range.
  3. C) the solar energy budget.
  4. D) the humidity of the air at that place.
  5. E) circulation patterns in the atmosphere.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 213

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

64) The major features of precipitation distribution patterns are determined by:

  1. A) general circulation and pressure patterns.
  2. B) solar radiation available.
  3. C) temperature lapse rates.
  4. D) ocean water temperature.
  5. E) annual temperature range.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 213

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

65) What option below best characterizes the rainfall distribution at a station located south of the Sahara desert at about 20 degrees N latitude?

  1. A) adequate precipitation all year around
  2. B) dry all year around
  3. C) winter dry season
  4. D) summer dry season

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 214

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

66) What option below best characterizes the rainfall distribution at a station located on an island in the Arctic Ocean at about 80 degrees N latitude?

  1. A) winter dry season
  2. B) adequate precipitation all year around
  3. C) dry all year around
  4. D) summer dry season

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 214

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

67) What option below best characterizes the rainfall distribution at a station located along the equator?

  1. A) summer dry season
  2. B) adequate precipitation all year around
  3. C) dry all year around
  4. D) winter dry season

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 214

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

68) What option below best characterizes the rainfall distribution at a non-desert station located immediately to the north of the Sahara desert?

  1. A) winter dry season
  2. B) adequate precipitation all year around
  3. C) dry all year around
  4. D) summer dry season

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 214

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

69) What option below best characterizes the rainfall distribution at a station, such as New York City, located at about 40 degrees N latitude?

  1. A) adequate precipitation all year around
  2. B) summer dry season
  3. C) winter dry season
  4. D) dry all year around

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 215

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

70) Most of the earth’s deserts are located in the:

  1. A) boundary between liquid and frozen oceans.
  2. B) tradewind belt.
  3. C) subsidence areas of subtropical highs.
  4. D) areas along the polar front.
  5. E) doldrum belt.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 216

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

71) Trade winds are a smaller macroscale wind phenomenon than a cyclone.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 191

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

72) Dust devils and tornadoes form under similar conditions; tornadoes are just much stronger.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 192

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

73) A sea breeze is usually best developed early in the morning.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 193

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

74) Sea breezes are more likely at night, while land breezes are more likely during the day.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 193

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

75) Katabatic winds have a cooling effect, and chinook winds have a warming effect.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 194

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

76) The chinook wind has been known to cause rapid increases in temperature in the Denver, CO area.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 194

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

77) Country breezes occur partly because concrete and asphalt are low albedo surfaces.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

78) The ‘bora’ is an example of a katabatic wind that blows toward the Adriatic Sea.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

79) The bora and mistral are local names given to chinook winds.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

80) The northeast trades are found between 60 degrees and 30 degrees North.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

81) George Hadley correctly described the general circulation of the atmosphere.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

82) The region where the trade winds meet is sometimes called the doldrums.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 197

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

83) The only true zonal distribution of pressure exists in the region of the subpolar low in the Southern Hemisphere.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 199

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

84) Seasonal changes in pressure are greater over continents than over the oceans.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

85) For much of South and Southeast Asia, winter is a period characterized by relatively dry conditions.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

86) The strong Siberian high becomes well developed in the summer.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

87) The United States does not experience a monsoon.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 203

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

88) The United States is completely unaffected by monsoons.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 203

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

89) The slopes of the Indian Himalayas can be some of the rainiest in the world.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 203

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

90) Westerly flow aloft is unrelated to the earth’s rotation.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 204

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

91) The temperature difference between the poles and the equator drive the westerlies.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 204

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

92) Since the equator-to-pole pressure gradient increases with altitude, one would expect the westerlies to decrease in speed with increasing altitude.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 204

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

93) Jet stream winds are completely distinct from the midlatitude westerlies.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 205

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

94) Typically, four to six Rossby waves encompass the earth.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 205

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

95) The existence of jet streams was first determined by Ben Franklin as the result of his kite experiments.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 205

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

96) The polar jet stream usually slows down in winter.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 206

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

97) Strong surface low-pressure systems occur in conjunction with wave-like flow aloft.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 206

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

98) Strong pressure gradients are associated with uniformly cold temperatures.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 206

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

99) When reading maps showing the distribution of pressure aloft, high contour readings indicate low pressure and low contour readings indicate high pressure.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 206

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

100) Zonal refers to the east-west direction while meridional refers to the north-south direction.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 207

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

101) Changes in the polar jet stream help maintain the earth’s heat budget.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 207

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

102) The jet stream is best able to accomplish a transfer of heat from south to north when it has meridional flow.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 207

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

103) The equatorial currents in the ocean are the principle driving force for the other ocean currents.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 208

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

104) During an El Niño event, the water temperatures in the eastern Pacific rise.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 210

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

105) El Niño has no measurable impacts on weather in the United States.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 211

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

106) You examine sea surface temperature data collected off the coast of Peru and find that temperatures are 1.5°C below average. From this, you can reasonably conclude that a La Nia event may be in progress.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 212

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Apply

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

107) The Southern Oscillation refers to a change in surface pressure over the south Atlantic Ocean.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 212

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

108) Continents have no significant influence on global precipitation patterns.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 213

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

109) Phytoplankton populations off the coast of South America bloom when upwelling is present.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 214

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

110) For large landmasses, the interiors always receive more precipitation than any of the coasts.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 217

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

 

111) Describe the surface wind direction and the winds aloft direction for the northern hemisphere on a non-rotating Earth. Assume a smooth, uniform Earth.

Answer:  Surface winds would be from the north while winds aloft would be from the south.

Page Ref: 195

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

112) The southeast and northeast trades converge at the ________.

Answer:  Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

Page Ref: 198

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

113) Name the four major pressure zones that occur in each hemisphere.

Answer:  Equatorial low, subtropical high, subpolar low and polar high.

Page Ref: 198

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

114) Name two examples of semi-permanent low-pressure centers.

Answer:  Aleutian low, Siberian high, Azores high, Bermuda high, Icelandic low,

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

115) The intensity of the atmosphere’s large-scale circulation patterns is weaker in summer compared to the winter. Why does this occur?

Answer:  The equator-to-pole temperature contrast is much smaller for the summer season. It decreases to about one half its winter value. This causes a corresponding reduction in the pressure gradient force.

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

116) The winter season is associated with strong centers of ________ pressure over the continents while centers of ________ pressure intensify over the oceans.

Answer:  high, low

Page Ref: 201

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

117) The direction of the prevailing winds at mid- and upper levels in the troposphere is from the west. List the two factors that cause this westerly direction to prevail.

Answer:  Equator to pole temperature contrast and Earth’s rotation.

Page Ref: 204

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

118) What feature of the earth’s heat budget leads to the transfer of heat from the equator to the poles by winds and ocean currents?

Answer:  The annual surplus of energy near the equator and the annual deficit of energy in the polar regions.

Page Ref: 207

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

119) Cold water rising from deep in the ocean to replace warmer water at the surface is called ________.

Answer:  upwelling

Page Ref: 209

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

 

120) Name the two latitude zones where precipitation is most abundant.

Answer:  Equatorial zone and the midlatitudes.

Page Ref: 213

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Remember

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth

121) How do mountain ranges alter precipitation patterns?

Answer:  If the prevailing wind direction is against the mountain range, there will be an area of relatively abundant rainfall on the windward slopes where the air is forced to rise. A rain shadow, or arid region, will be found on the lee side.

Page Ref: 215

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Understand

Nat. Geog. Stand:  7: Physical Processes that Shape Earth