BASIC BIOMECHANICS 7th EDITION by Susan J Hall -Test Bank

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BASIC BIOMECHANICS SEVENTH EDITION by Susan J Hall -Test Bank

Chapter 06

The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Muscle

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following is a behavioral property of muscle tissue?
    A.ability to develop tension
    B. extensibility
    C. irritability
    D. all of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is a unique behavioral property of muscle tissue?
    A.ability to develop tension
    B. extensibility
    C. irritability
    D. all of the above

 

  1. Where is the series elastic component (SEC) of a muscle found?
    A.tendons
    B. ligaments
    C. muscle membrane
    D. all of the above

 

  1. The elasticity of human skeletal muscle tissue is believed to be due primarily to which of the following?
    A.the parallel elastic component
    B. the series elastic component
    C. the continuous elastic component
    D. the active elastic component

 

 

  1. Which of the following most accurately describes a motor unit?
    A.a single muscle fiber and a single motor neuron
    B. a single motor neuron and all muscle fibers it innervates
    C. a single muscle fiber and several motor neurons
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following statements is/are true?
    A.Pennate muscles are capable of producing more tension per unit of cross-sectional area than parallel muscles.
    B. Parallel muscles are capable of producing more range of motion than pennate muscles.
    C. Both A and B are true.
    D. Neither A nor B is true.

 

  1. Which of the following does not characterize a pennate muscle?
    A.relatively strong
    B. fibers parallel to long axis of muscle
    C. relatively low range of motion
    D. all of the above are true

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
    A.When movement is slow, slow twitch fibers are recruited first.
    B. When movement is fast, fast twitch fibers are recruited first.
    C. Both A and B are true.
    D. None of the above are true.

 

  1. What type of muscle contraction is employed by the elbow flexors when slowly lowering your backpack to your desk?
    A.concentric
    B. eccentric
    C. isometric
    D. isokinetic

 

 

  1. During the kicking and follow-through phases of a punt, the quads are experiencing what type of contraction?
    A.concentric
    B. eccentric
    C. isometric
    D. isokinetic

 

  1. A contraction in which there is not a change in length is called what?
    A.dynamic
    B. isometric
    C. concentric
    D. isokinetic

 

  1. A muscle directly involved in causing a segment to move is called what?
    A.agonist
    B. antagonist
    C. neutralizer
    D. stabilizer

 

  1. During the down phase of a knee extension exercise, what role does the hamstring group play?
    A.agonist
    B. antagonist
    C. stabilizer
    D. neutralizer

 

 

  1. When flexing the elbow, the biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and brachialis are the three major agonists recruited to perform this movement because all cause flexion at the elbow. However, the biceps also cause supination, an undesired movement. Therefore another muscle acting as a ________, causing ________ must be recruited to prevent the undesired motion.
    A.stabilizer; extension
    B. neutralizer; extension
    C. stabilizer; pronation
    D. neutralizer; pronation

 

  1. Which of the following types of muscle tension is commonly used as a braking mechanism to slow limb movement?
    A.eccentric
    B. isotonic
    C. concentric
    D. isometric

 

  1. In which of the following activities do the biceps brachii function as antagonists?
    A.straightening the elbow during a push-up
    B. straightening the elbow during a pull-up
    C. curling a barbell from the floor to waist height
    D. both A and B

 

  1. Which type of muscle could serve as an antagonist of a flexor?
    A.abductor
    B. adductor
    C. extensor
    D. rotator

 

 

  1. Which of the following types of strength training is particularly associated with subsequent muscular soreness?
    A.concentric
    B. eccentric
    C. isometric
    D. all of the above

 

  1. Which of the following time periods is termed electromechanical delay?
    A.the time required for conduction of the nerve impulse to the neuromuscular junction
    B. the time required for the nerve impulse to cross the neuromuscular junction
    C. the time required for the muscle to initiate the development of tension after receipt of the nerve impulse
    D. the time required for a muscle to reach peak tension after the development of tension is initiated

 

  1. Which of the following statements represents the force-velocity relationship for muscle tissue?
    A.contraction is faster when the load is heavier
    B. contraction is slower when the load is heavier
    C. contraction is slower when the load is lighter
    D. the speed of contraction is not affected by the nature of the load

 

  1. Which of the following terms best describes the rate of torque production at a joint?
    A.mechanical work
    B. muscular power
    C. muscular energy output
    D. muscular strength

 

 

  1. During the execution of a pull-up when the chin is over the bar, which force exerted by the biceps brachii is greatest at the elbow?
    A.the rotary force
    B. the stabilizing force
    C. the dislocating force
    D. the “pinching” force

 

  1. The component force which is parallel to the moving bone and acts to pull the bones together at the joint is called what?
    A.curvilinear force
    B. stabilizing force
    C. rotary force
    D. dislocating force

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the parallel elastic component (PEC) of muscular elasticity?
    A.This component is provided by the muscle membranes.
    B. This component provides resistance when a muscle is passively stretched.
    C. This is the component primarily responsible for the elasticity of muscle.
    D. both A and B
    E. all of the above

 

  1. Which behavioral property of muscle tissue is defined as “the ability to respond to a stimulus”?
    A.elasticity
    B. irritability
    C. extensibility
    D. contractility

 

 

  1. A single muscle cell is called what?
    A.fiber
    B. neuron
    C. unit
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Muscle hypertrophy in humans is primarily due to what?
    A.increase in number of muscle fibers
    B. increase in size of muscle fibers
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is/are characteristic of fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic fibers?
    A.Contraction speed is intermediate (faster than type I but slower than type IIB).
    B. Fatigue rate is intermediate (faster than type I but slower than type IIB).
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. When an opposing torque at a joint is greater than the torque created by a muscle, what type of contraction occurs in that muscle?
    A.isometric
    B. isotonic
    C. concentric
    D. eccentric

 

  1. Which of the following is a potential disadvantage of multijoint muscles?
    A.active insufficiency
    B. passive insufficiency
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

 

  1. When the wrist is flexed, the finger flexors cannot produce as tight a fist as when the wrist is in a neutral position. This is an example of what?
    A.active insufficiency
    B. passive insufficiency
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. The force-velocity relationship implies which of the following?
    A.It is impossible to move a heavy resistance at a fast speed.
    B. It is impossible to move a light load at a slow speed.
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. In human skeletal muscle, force generation capability is highest in which of the following conditions?
    A.muscle is at resting length
    B. muscle is slightly shortened
    C. muscle is slightly lengthened
    D. muscle length is irrelevant to force production

 

  1. Which of the following likely contributes to the stretch-shortening cycle?
    A.the series elastic component
    B. muscle spindle activity
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the stretch-shortening cycle?
    A.When a muscle is stretched just prior to contraction, the resulting contraction is more forceful.
    B. An eccentric contraction is followed by a concentric contraction.
    C. The SSC promotes storage of elastic energy.
    D. both A and B
    E. all of the above

 

 

  1. The amount of torque a muscle group can generate at a joint is used to measure what?
    A.muscular power
    B. muscular endurance
    C. muscular strength
    D. muscular flexibility

 

  1. The torque of a muscle (rotary component) is greatest in what position?
    A.when the moment arm is longest
    B. when the muscle insertion is 90° to the bone
    C. both A and B
    D. position does not affect torque

 

  1. During the first 12 weeks of resistance training, strength gains are due primarily to what?
    A.improved innervation of the muscle
    B. increase in cross-sectional area
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. The opposite of muscular endurance is what?
    A.muscular strength
    B. muscular fatigability
    C. muscular power
    D. muscular flexibility

 

  1. Which of the following is/are characteristic(s) of muscle fatigue?
    A.reduction in muscle force
    B. reduction in shortening velocity
    C. prolonged relaxation of motor units between recruitment
    D. both A and B
    E. all of the above

 

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. A ______________ muscle fiber reaches peak tension relatively slowly.
    slow-twitch

 

  1. The _____________ fiber arrangement is a pattern of fibers within a muscle with short fibers attaching to one or more tendons.
    pinnate

 

  1. A muscle contraction which does not result in a change in length is called ___________________.
    isometric

 

  1. _______________ is a role played by a muscle to stabilize a body part against some other force.
    Stabilizer

 

  1. A pattern of eccentric contraction followed immediately by concentric contraction is called ________________ cycle.
    stretch-shortening

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. Explain the four roles assumed by muscles.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Graphically display the force-velocity relationship including explanation.

Answers will vary

 

  1. List and describe four common muscle injuries.

Answers will vary

 

  1. List and explain the behavioral characteristics of the musculotendinous unit, including similarities and differences to other tissue.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Explain muscular strength. How is it measured? How does it change at different points during range of motion?

Answers will vary

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. There is good evidence that regular, lifelong, high-intensity exercise can reduce the loss of motor units typically associated with aging.
    TRUE

 

  1. Delayed onset muscle soreness is associated more with isometric training than with concentric or eccentric training.
    FALSE

 

  1. Hamstring strains are slow to heal and have a high incidence of reoccurrence.
    TRUE

 

  1. Although muscle fibers are typically categorized by three types, there is actually a continuum of fiber characteristics.
    TRUE

 

  1. Electrochemical delay in children is longer than in adults.
    TRUE

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions
56. Passive elastic property of muscle derived from the tendons

Having the ability to stretch or shorten over time

A single motor neuron and all fibers in innervates

State of muscle producing sustained maximal tension resulting from repetitive stimulation

A fiber that reaches peak tension relatively quickly

Pattern of fibers within a muscle with short fibers attaching to one or more tendons

A contraction involving lengthening of a muscle

Role played by a muscle acting to cause a movement

Role played by a muscle acting to eliminate an unwanted action produced by an agonist

Inability of a two-joint muscle to stretch to the extent required to allow full range of motion at all joints

 

 

  1. Active insufficiency
    B. Agonist
    C. Antagonist
    D. Concentric
    E. Contractile component
    F. Eccentric
    G. Electromechanical delay
    H. Fast-twitch fiber
    I. Isometric
    J. Motor unit
    K. Neutralizer
    L. Parallel elastic component
    M. Parallel fiber arrangement
    N. Passive insufficiency
    O. Pennate fiber arrangement
    P. Series elastic component
    Q. Slow-twitch fiber
    R. Stabilizer
    S. Stretch-shortening cycle
    T. Summation
    U. Tetanus
    V. Viscoelastic

Chapter 07

The Biomechanics of The Human Upper Extremity

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Scapulohumeral rhythm involves ____ of the scapula and ____ of the humerus.
    A.downward rotation; extension
    B. downward rotation; abduction
    C. upward rotation; abduction
    D. abduction; adduction

 

  1. What is/are the purpose(s) of the scapula muscles?
    A.stabilize the scapula
    B. move the scapula
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following is not a rotator cuff muscle?
    A.teres major
    B. infraspinatus
    C. supraspinatus
    D. subscapularis
    E. all of the above are rotator cuff muscles

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the rotator cuff muscles?
    A.they work together with the deltoid for extension
    B. they work together to hold the head of humerus in glenoid fossa
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following secretes synovial fluid to lessen friction between soft tissues around joints?
    A.menisci
    B. articular cartilage
    C. bursae
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Glenohumeral dislocations usually occur when the humerus is in which of the following positions?
    A.abducted
    B. externally rotated
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Which scapula muscles perform as stabilizers during crutch walking?
    A.elevators
    B. depressors
    C. adductors
    D. abductors

 

  1. Which scapula muscles perform as stabilizers during pushups?
    A.elevators
    B. depressors
    C. adductors
    D. abductors

 

  1. Which of the following activities may promote the development of rotator cuff impingement syndrome?
    A.throwing
    B. swimming
    C. serving in tennis
    D. all of the above

 

 

  1. The biceps brachii is strongest and most effective as an elbow flexor when the forearm is in what position?
    A.neutral
    B. supinated
    C. pronated
    D. does not matter

 

  1. The brachialis is strongest and most effective as an elbow flexor when the forearm is in what position?
    A.neutral
    B. supinated
    C. pronated
    D. does not matter

 

  1. To best isolate the brachialis (reduce the effectiveness of the other flexors), perform arm curls with the forearm in what position?
    A.neutral
    B. supinated
    C. pronated
    D. does not matter

 

  1. Carpometacarpal joint 1 is what type of joint?
    A.hinge
    B. condyloid
    C. saddle
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Carpometacarpal joints 2 – 5 are what type joints?
    A.hinge
    B. condyloid
    C. saddle
    D. none of the above

 

 

  1. The interphalangeal joints are what type joints?
    A.hinge
    B. condyloid
    C. saddle
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Metacarpophalangeal joints 2 – 5 are what type joints?
    A.hinge
    B. condyloid
    C. saddle
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Overuse of the wrist extensors can cause what?
    A.tennis elbow
    B. lateral epicondylitis
    C. tendinitis
    D. all of the above

 

  1. What muscles are most often associated with little leaguer’s elbow?
    A.elbow extensors
    B. elbow flexors
    C. wrist extensors
    D. wrist flexors

 

  1. The humeroulnar, humeroradial, and proximal radioulnar joints are the three articulations present at which joint?
    A.wrist
    B. elbow
    C. shoulder
    D. none of the above

 

 

  1. Muscles on the anterior side of the arm produce flexion at which of the following?
    A.the shoulder
    B. the elbow
    C. the wrist
    D. all of the above

 

  1. Which of the following factors provides stability at the elbow?
    A.the articulating bones
    B. ligaments
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Pronation and supination of the forearm occur at which of the following joints?
    A.proximal radioulnar joint
    B. distal radioulnar joint
    C. both A and B
    D. none of the above

 

  1. Which type of movement is permitted at the radiocarpal joint?
    A.sagittal plane motion
    B. circumduction
    C. frontal plane motion
    D. all of the above

 

  1. Movement of the hand at the wrist toward the thumb side of the arm (frontal plane) is known as which of the following?
    A.radial deviation
    B. ulnar deviation
    C. abduction
    D. adduction

 

 

  1. The large range of movement of the thumb compared to that of the fingers is derived from the structure of which of the following?
    A.the thumb’s carpometacarpal joint
    B. the thumb’s intermetacarpal joint
    C. the thumb’s metacarpophalangeal joint
    D. all of the above

 

  1. Which joint in the body has the most range of motion?
    A.sternoclavicular
    B. acromioclavicular
    C. glenohumeral
    D. humeroulnar

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding ball and socket joints?
    A.They allow motion in all three planes
    B. They are triaxial.
    C. The glenohumeral joint is an example.
    D. both A and B
    E. all of the above

 

  1. Which of the following muscles does not attach the scapula to the spine?
    A.levator scapula
    B. rhomboids
    C. trapezius
    D. deltoid
    E. pectoralis minor

 

  1. The acromion process is a landmark on which bone?
    A.scapula
    B. humerus
    C. clavicle
    D. sternum

 

 

  1. Which of these muscles is not a mover of the humerus?
    A.biceps brachii
    B. coracobrachialis
    C. deltoid
    D. trapezius

 

  1. Which of the following originates on the scapula?
    A.anterior deltoid
    B. pectoralis major
    C. biceps brachii
    D. latissimus dorsi

 

  1. Muscles located where will cause flexion of the humerus?
    A.anterior to the longitudinal axis of the glenohumeral joint
    B. anterior to the mediolateral (frontal) axis of the glenohumeral joint
    C. superior to the anteroposterior axis of the glenohumeral joint
    D. anterior to the mediolateral (frontal) axis of the humeroulnar joint

 

  1. Which of the following muscles is not an elbow flexor?
    A.biceps
    B. triceps
    C. brachioradialis
    D. brachialis

 

  1. Where do the wrist flexors originate?
    A.medial epicondyle
    B. lateral epicondyle
    C. both A and B
    D. depends on which one

 

 

  1. Which of the following acts on more than 1 digit?
    A.abductor pollicis longus
    B. extensor indicis
    C. flexor digitorum profundus
    D. extensor digiti minimi

 

  1. Throwing injuries to the elbow usually fall into which category?
    A.acute
    B. chronic
    C. both A and B equally
    D. throwing does not cause injury to the elbow

 

  1. Which muscles originate distal to the wrist and insert distal to the wrist?
    A.intrinsics
    B. extrensics
    C. elbow flexors
    D. elbow extensors

 

  1. Which of the following groups are vulnerable to carpal tunnel syndrome?
    A.jobs requiring repeated forceful wrist flexion
    B. jobs requiring habitual resting of the arms on the palmar sides of the wrist
    C. skateboarders
    D. both A and B
    E. all of the above

 

  1. Opposition can occur where?
    A.CM 1
    B. CM 5
    C. MP 1
    D. both A and B
    E. all of the above

 

 

  1. Right-handed golfers will likely incur epicondylitis where?
    A.lateral epicondylitis on the left side
    B. lateral epicondylitis on the right side
    C. medial epicondylitis on the left side
    D. occurs with equal frequency on both sides of both arms

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. The rim of soft tissue located on the periphery of the glenoid fossa that adds stability to the glenohumeral joint is called the glenoid __________________.
    labrum

 

  1. The anatomical name for the elbow joint is the _______________ joint.
    humeroulnar

 

  1. Muscles with one attachment proximal to the wrist and the other attachment distal to the wrist are called _______________ muscles.
    extrinsic

 

  1. Concurrent movement of the scapula and the humerus is called ________________________________.
    scapulohumeral rhythm

 

  1. The most commonly dislocated joint in the human body is the _______________ joint.
    glenohumeral or shoulder

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. Describe the two types of epicondylitis, including common names, involved muscles, symptoms and probable causes.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Describe carpal tunnel syndrome, including affected area, symptoms and probable causes.

Answers will vary

 

  1. Describe rotator cuff impingement syndrome, including involved muscle(s), symptoms and probable causes.

Answers will vary

 

  1. List and describe the primary flexors of the elbow and explain the roles during three different types of arm curls (preacher curls, hammer curls, reverse curls).

Answers will vary

 

  1. Explain the relationship between range of motion and stability at a joint, including examples of joints with different number of axes.

Answers will vary

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Workers who use vibrating tools are particularly susceptible to carpal tunnel syndrome.
    TRUE

 

  1. Abnormal motion of the scapula may contribute to shoulder impingement syndrome.
    TRUE

 

  1. Proper pitching mechanics in youth pitchers can help prevent elbow injuries by reducing the valgus load on the elbow.
    TRUE

 

  1. Shoulder girdle and shoulder joint are interchangeable terms meaning the same thing.
    FALSE

 

  1. The rotator cuff muscle which is located between the scapula and the thorax is the supraspinatus.
    FALSE

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions
56. Irregular joint between the acromion process of the scapula and the distal clavicle

Rim of soft tissue located on the periphery of the glenoid fossa that adds stability to the glenohumeral joint

Band of tendons of the subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor, which attach to the humeral head

Sacs secreting synovial fluid internally that lessen friction between soft tissues around joints

A regular pattern of scapular rotation that accompanies and facilitates humeral abduction

Gliding joint in which the capitellum of humerus articulates with the proximal end of the radius

Pivots joints at both the proximal and distal ends

Inflammation and sometimes microrupturing of the collagenous tissues on either the lateral or medial side of the distal humerus

Fibrous bands of fascia

Muscles with the proximal attachments located proximal to the wrist and distal attachments located distal to the wrist

 

 

  1. Acromioclavicular joint
    B. Bursae
    C. Coracoclavicular joint
    D. Rpicondylitis
    E. Extrinsic muscles
    F. Glenohumeral joint
    G. Glenoid labrum
    H. Humeroradial joint
    I. Humeroulnar joint
    J. Intrinsic muscles
    K. Radiocarpal joints
    L. Radioulnar joint
    M. Retinacula
    N. Rotator cuff
    O. Scapulohumeral rhythm
    P. Sternoclavicular joint