Basic Nutrition And Diet Therapy 14th Edition By Williams – Test Bank

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Basic Nutrition And Diet Therapy 14th Edition By Williams – Test Bank

Chapter 6: Energy Balance

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A nutrient that does not provide energy for the body is
a. carbohydrate.
b. protein.
c. vitamin.
d. fat.

 

 

ANS:  C

The energy nutrients are carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   81                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Energy is lost from the body as
a. heat.
b. urine.
c. sweat.
d. fat.

 

 

ANS:  A

Energy is lost from the body as heat when the internal energy cycle changes stored energy into body fuels, which the body uses for various functions. As the cycle continues water is excreted, carbon dioxide is exhaled, and heat is radiated, returning the end products to the external environment.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   82                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The unit of measurement used to refer to the amount of energy in food is the
a. watt.
b. kilogram.
c. milligram.
d. kilocalorie.

 

 

ANS:  D

The kilocalorie is the unit of measure used to measure the amount of energy in food and is the amount of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of water 1° C.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   81-82             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The total number of kilocalories in a snack that contains 10 g carbohydrate, 2 g protein, and 5 g fat is _____ kcal.
a. 17
b. 68
c. 93
d. 153

 

 

ANS:  C

10 g carbohydrate ´ 4 kcal/g = 40 kcal.

2 g protein ´ 4 kcal/g = 8 kcal.

5 g fat ´ 9 kcal/g = 45 kcal.

Total calories = 40 kcal + 8 kcal + 45 kcal = 93 kcal.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   82                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Which of the following represents an external energy cycle?
a. the moon
b. growing plants
c. crystals
d. metabolism

 

 

ANS:  B

The external energy cycle includes plants, which transform energy from the sun into stored chemical energy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   82                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. After foods are eaten, they are converted into which of the following body fuels?
a. amino acids and fatty acids
b. fatty acids and glucose
c. glucose and triglycerides
d. glycogen and glucose

 

 

ANS:  B

After foods are eaten, they are converted into fatty acids and glucose, both of which are used as fuel for the body.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   82                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Metabolic rate would increase with a body temperature of
a. 97.4° F.
b. 98.4° F.
c. 98.6° F.
d. 101.2° F.

 

 

ANS:  D

Fever increases basal metabolic rate by approximately 7% for each 1° F rise in temperature. Normal body temperature is 98.4° F or 98.6° F; 101.2° F would be high enough to cause a significant increase in metabolic rate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   86                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The amount of energy the body needs to maintain life while at digestive, physical, and emotional rest is called the
a. basal metabolic rate.
b. indirect calorimetry.
c. respiratory quotient.
d. nitrogen balance.

 

 

ANS:  A

Basal metabolic rate is measured when an individual is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   83                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Metabolically active tissues in the body include
a. the heart, muscles, and intestine.
b. the brain, nerves, and hair.
c. the liver, kidney, and fingernails and toenails.
d. all body tissues.

 

 

ANS:  A

The majority of energy is used by small but highly active tissues, including the liver, brain, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. These organs account for less than 5% of the total body weight but 60% to 75% of basal metabolic needs.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   83                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Indirect calorimetry is used to measure which of the following?
a. basal or resting energy expenditure
b. weight
c. physical activity
d. body mass index

 

 

ANS:  A

Indirect calorimetry measures the amount of energy a person uses while at rest. A portable metabolic cart allows the person to breathe into an attached mouthpiece or ventilated hood system while lying in bed and the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is measured. The metabolic rate can be determined from the rate of oxygen utilization.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   83-84             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The term for the effect of food intake on metabolic rate is
a. thermic effect of food.
b. resting metabolic rate.
c. total energy requirement.
d. indirect calorimetry.

 

 

ANS:  A

Once food is eaten, it stimulates metabolism and requires extra energy for digestion, absorption, and transport of the nutrients to the cells. This stimulation is referred to as the thermic effect of food.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   88                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The sum of basal metabolism, energy expended in physical activity, and thermic effect of food is known as
a. metabolic rate.
b. energy intake.
c. basal energy needs.
d. total energy requirement.

 

 

ANS:  D

Together, basal metabolism, physical activities, and the thermic effect of food make up the total energy requirement.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   88                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, the result can be
a. anorexia.
b. malnutrition.
c. weight gain.
d. hyperactivity.

 

 

ANS:  C

When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, weight gain may result. Excess intake without expenditure results in excess storage of energy as body fat.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   88                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An activity that results in increased energy expenditure is
a. cleaning house.
b. balancing a checkbook.
c. experiencing emotional stress.
d. playing video games.

 

 

ANS:  A

Different kilocalorie expenditures occur with different types of activities. In this case, cleaning house requires muscular work and so uses more energy than the other activities. Mental exertion has no effect on energy needs.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   88-90             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The thermic effect of food refers to the fact that
a. all nutrients contain calories.
b. certain foods are more stimulating than others to the gastrointestinal tract.
c. the presence of food in the stomach starts the process of digestion.
d. the process of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food requires energy.

 

 

ANS:  D

Once food is eaten, it stimulates metabolism and requires extra energy for digestion, absorption, and transport of the nutrients to the cells. This stimulation is referred to as the thermic effect of food.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   88                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The body’s sources of stored energy include
a. glucose.
b. adipose tissue.
c. undigested food.
d. bone.

 

 

ANS:  B

Adipose tissue stores energy until required by the body.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   83                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Basal metabolic rate is controlled by the hormone
a. cortisol.
b. growth hormone.
c. thyroxine.
d. insulin.

 

 

ANS:  C

The hormone thyroxine controls the metabolic rate in the body. The thyroid function test can assess metabolism by measuring the activity of the gland and the blood levels of its hormone, thyroxine.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   84                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The first source of stored energy to be used during a period of fasting is
a. amino acids.
b. glycogen.
c. adipose tissue.
d. glucose.

 

 

ANS:  B

A 12- to 48-hour reserve of glycogen exists in the liver and muscle and is quickly depleted if not replenished by daily food intake. Adipose tissue is used for energy after glycogen stores are used, followed by the breakdown of muscle mass in extreme cases of fasting or starvation.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   83                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Which of the following foods has the greatest caloric density?
a. banana
b. bread
c. nuts
d. milk

 

 

ANS:  C

Nuts have the greatest caloric density of choices given because they have the highest concentration of energy for the same quantity of food. Nuts are composed of a higher percentage of fat (the highest-energy nutrient) compared with bread, milk, or a banana, which are low in fat.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   82

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Nutrient density means the
a. total weight of the nutrients in a food.
b. digestibility of the nutrients in a food.
c. concentration of energy in a given amount of food.
d. concentration of nutrients in a given amount of food.

 

 

ANS:  D

Nutrient density is the concentration of nutrients in a given amount of food.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   82                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The liver and muscles store enough glycogen to last _____ hours.
a. 4 to 6
b. 6 to 24
c. 12 to 48
d. 24 to 72

 

 

ANS:  C

A 12- to 48-hour reserve of glycogen exists in the liver and muscles and is quickly depleted if not replenished by daily food intake.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   83                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. In cases of extreme starvation, the energy substrate most likely to be used as a last resort would be
a. glycogen.
b. muscle mass.
c. adipose tissue.
d. amino acids.

 

 

ANS:  B

Energy stored as protein exists in limited amounts in muscle mass and is only used once glycogen and fat stores have been exhausted.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   83                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Fever increases basal metabolic rate approximately _____ for each _____ rise.
a. 1%, 1° F
b. 1%, 1° C
c. 1%, 7° F
d. 7%, 1° F

 

 

ANS:  D

Fever increases basal metabolic rate approximately 7% for each 1° F rise in temperature.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   86                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Energy expenditure is increased by
a. physical exercise.
b. mental work.
c. stress.
d. fatigue.

 

 

ANS:  A

Physical exercise increases energy expenditure because it involves muscular work.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   86-87             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Energy needs per pound of body weight
a. increase with age.
b. increase throughout childhood.
c. decrease with age.
d. are greater in women than in men.

 

 

ANS:  C

Energy needs per pound of body weight generally decrease during the aging process, with a gradual decline in basal metabolic rate and physical activity that decreases the total energy requirement.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   90                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A 65-year-old man’s energy intake should focus on meals
a. high in calories with nutrient-dense foods.
b. low in calories and high in fiber and meat.
c. with a lower caloric density and increased nutrient density.
d. high calorie level for middle age with lowered nutrient density.

 

 

ANS:  C

As the aging process continues, there is a gradual decline in basal metabolic rate and physical activity, resulting in a decrease in the total energy requirement. Food choices should reflect a decline in caloric density and a greater emphasis on nutrient density.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   90                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Maintenance

 

  1. Resting energy expenditure is
a. the same as basal energy expenditure.
b. slightly higher than basal energy expenditure.
c. slightly lower than basal energy expenditure.
d. more accurate for predicting energy needs than is basal energy expenditure.

 

 

ANS:  B

Resting energy expenditure is slightly higher than basal energy expenditure. Basal metabolism is measured when an individual is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest. It differs from resting energy expenditure, which is slightly higher because of the sum of all internal working activities of the body, some of which may not be at complete rest.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   83                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Mr. Jones normally has a basal metabolic rate of 1500 kcal. He develops a fever of 100.6° F. His rate would now be approximately _____ kcal.
a. 1550
b. 1600
c. 1710
d. 1830

 

 

ANS:  C

Fever increases basal metabolic rate approximately 7% for each 1° F rise in temperature. In this case, Mr. Jones has a temperature above normal of 2° F (normal = 98.6° F). The resultant increase in calories is 1500 kcal ´ (0.07 ´ 2) = 210 additional kcal. 210 kcal + 1500 kcal = 1710 kcal (approximate new rate).

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   86

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The person requiring the highest energy needs per unit of body weight is a
a. 15-year-old boy.
b. 45-year-old man.
c. 75-year-old grandmother.
d. 7-year-old girl.

 

 

ANS:  A

During periods of growth, the growth hormone stimulates cell metabolism and raises basal metabolic rate. Growth is highest during infancy and adolescence.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   90

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The estimated daily basal metabolic rate for a man who weighs 150 lb is _____ kcal.
a. 1500
b. 1575
c. 1636
d. 1686

 

 

ANS:  C

To calculate the basal metabolic rate (BMR), use the general formula:

Men = 1.0 kcal/kg/hour; 1 kg = 2.2 lb.

Convert weight (lb) to kg:

150 lb/2.2 lb/kg = 68 kg.

Multiply by formula:

BMR (kcal) = 1.0 kcal/kg/hour ´ 68 kg ´ 24 hours in a day = 1636 kcal.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   84-85

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

 

Chapter 7: Vitamins

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. For a compound to be classified as a vitamin, it must
a. be synthesized by the body.
b. be required in large quantities.
c. perform a vital function.
d. be water soluble.

 

 

ANS:  C

For a compound to be defined as a vitamin, it must be a vital, organic, dietary substance that is not a carbohydrate, fat, protein, or mineral and is necessary in only very small amounts to perform a specific metabolic function or prevent an associated deficiency. It also cannot be manufactured by the body in sufficient amounts to sustain life and must be supplemented by the body.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   95                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A vitamin that behaves more like a hormone than a vitamin is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

 

 

ANS:  B

Vitamin D is a prohormone made in the skin by sunlight.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The provitamin form of vitamin A that is found in plant pigments is
a. beta-carotene.
b. chlorophyll.
c. beta-xanthophyll.
d. calciferol.

 

 

ANS:  A

Beta-carotene is the provitamin form of vitamin A found in plant pigments. The body converts it to vitamin A, making it a primary source of the vitamin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes are good sources of
a. beta-carotene.
b. vitamin A.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

 

 

ANS:  A

Carotene is a group name of three red and yellow pigments (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-carotene) found in dark green and yellow vegetables and some fruits. The body converts beta-carotene to vitamin A.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   98-99             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Liver is a rich source of
a. vitamin A (retinol).
b. vitamin C.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

 

 

ANS:  A

Liver is a rich source of preformed, natural vitamin A. Other sources include fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter, and cream.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   98                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An important function of vitamin A is to
a. be incorporated into the bile.
b. help with blood clotting.
c. act as an antioxidant.
d. help form rhodopsin in the eye.

 

 

ANS:  D

Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A deficiency of vitamin A may result in
a. osteoporosis.
b. bile obstruction.
c. breakdown of cell membranes.
d. night blindness.

 

 

ANS:  D

Night blindness results from a deficiency of vitamin A. Vitamin A helps form the visual pigment rhodopsin in the eye. Retinol, the name given to vitamin A, is an essential part of rhodopsin, commonly known as visual purple. This light-sensitive substance enables the eye to adjust to the different amounts of available light.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Fish liver oils are a good source of
a. vitamin D.
b. vitamin E.
c. protein.
d. iron.

 

 

ANS:  A

Fish liver oils are a natural source of vitamin D. Some other foods are fortified with vitamin D. Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with this vitamin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The active hormonal form of vitamin D is
a. cholecalciferol.
b. calciferol.
c. calcitriol.
d. calcitonin.

 

 

ANS:  C

The active form of vitamin D is calcitriol. Vitamin D is made in the body with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99                  TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Two foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are
a. cereals and macaroni products.
b. milk and margarine.
c. flour and salt.
d. vegetable oils and shortenings.

 

 

ANS:  B

Because milk is a common food and already contains calcium and phosphorus, it is the most practical to fortify with vitamin D. Butter substitutes, such as margarines, are also fortified.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Synthesis of the active hormonal form of vitamin D is the result of the combined action of the
a. skin, liver, and kidney.
b. pancreas, thyroid, and liver.
c. skin, skeleton, and liver.
d. kidney, skeleton, and liver.

 

 

ANS:  A

Vitamin D production begins in the skin with the help of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. The compound made in the skin by sunlight is a prohormone. This irradiated compound, cholecalciferol (calciferol), is in its inactive form. It is then activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99-100           TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The last organ involved in the production of the physiologically active form of vitamin D is the
a. liver.
b. kidney.
c. intestine.
d. skin.

 

 

ANS:  B

Cholecalciferol (inactive form found in skin) is activated by two successive enzymes, first in the liver and then in the kidney, to become the active form, calcitriol.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   99-100           TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate the absorption and metabolism of the minerals
a. sodium and potassium.
b. iron and phosphorus.
c. calcium and phosphorus.
d. sodium and calcium.

 

 

ANS:  C

The primary function of vitamin D is the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin. In balance with these two hormones, vitamin D hormone stimulates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   100                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A vitamin D deficiency in growing children that results in the malformation of skeletal tissue, especially the long bones, is referred to as
a. rickets.
b. scurvy.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

 

 

ANS:  A

Rickets is a disease associated with vitamin D deficiency. It is characterized by malformation of skeletal tissue in growing children in which long bones are soft and often bend under the weight of the child.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because
a. exposure to sunlight varies.
b. it is present in so many foods.
c. the body stores such large amounts.
d. the amount in food varies with the season.

 

 

ANS:  A

Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because of its unique hormone-like nature, difference in exposure to sun (affected by time spent outside and climate), and limited food sources.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   100                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A toxic level of vitamin D is most likely to result in
a. liver damage.
b. hyperpigmentation.
c. blindness.
d. calcification of soft tissues.

 

 

ANS:  D

A toxic level of vitamin D can result in calcification of soft tissues such as kidneys and lungs as well as fragile bones.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   101                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Sunflower oil is a rich source of
a. vitamin A.
b. vitamin B.
c. vitamin D.
d. vitamin E.

 

 

ANS:  D

The richest sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils. Other food sources include nuts, fortified cereals, and avocado.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   103                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The requirement for vitamin E varies by the amount of an individual’s
a. sun exposure.
b. dietary selenium.
c. animal fat intake.
d. polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

 

 

ANS:  D

The requirement for vitamin E varies with the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   102                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Vitamin E protects membranes because it acts as a(n)
a. barrier.
b. peroxide.
c. antioxidant.
d. clotting factor.

 

 

ANS:  C

Vitamin E protects membranes by acting as nature’s most potent fat-soluble antioxidant. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in lipid membranes are easy for oxygen to break down, and vitamin E can interrupt this oxidation and protect the fatty acids of the cell membrane from damage.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   102                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The fat-soluble vitamin responsible for the synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver is vitamin
a. A.
b. D.
c. E.
d. K.

 

 

ANS:  D

The basic function of vitamin K is in the blood-clotting process. The most known vitamin K–dependent blood factor is prothrombin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   103                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A good food source of vitamin K is
a. spinach.
b. sunflower oil.
c. pork.
d. oranges.

 

 

ANS:  A

Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables, which provide 50 to 800 mcg of phylloquinone per 100 g of food. Smaller amounts are found in milk and other dairy, meats, fortified cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   105                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. In the past, vitamin A content was listed in International Units (IU); it is now listed in
a. milligrams.
b. micrograms.
c. beta-carotene equivalents.
d. retinol equivalents.

 

 

ANS:  D

Vitamin A is listed in retinol equivalents. One IU of vitamin A equals 0.3 mcg retinol or 0.6 mcg beta-carotene.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   97-98             TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The hormones that participate in calcium metabolism are
a. estrogen and oxytocin.
b. cortisone and epinephrine.
c. aldosterone and thyroxine.
d. parathyroid and calcitriol.

 

 

ANS:  D

The hormone form calcitriol acts with two other hormones: parathyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone calcitonin to stimulate the absorption of calcium in the small intestine.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   100                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. There is a metabolic partnership between vitamin E and
a. zinc.
b. chromium.
c. selenium.
d. iron.

 

 

ANS:  C

Selenium is a trace mineral that works with vitamin E as an antioxidant. A selenium-containing enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, is the second line of defense in preventing oxidative damage to cell membranes. Selenium spares vitamin E by reducing its requirement, the same as vitamin E does for selenium.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   102                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An athlete who increases his or her intake of pasta will also increase his or her need for
a. folic acid.
b. thiamin.
c. pyridoxine.
d. vitamin C.

 

 

ANS:  B

The starch in the pasta would be digested and absorbed as glucose. Thiamin acts a coenzyme factor related to the production of energy from glucose and the storage of energy as fat, making energy available to support normal growth.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   108                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. An alcoholic is most likely to be deficient in
a. biotin.
b. folic acid.
c. thiamin.
d. pyridoxine.

 

 

ANS:  C

Alcohol inhibits the absorption of thiamin. Alcohol-induced thiamin deficiency causes Wernicke’s encephalopathy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   108                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The three body systems that can be affected by a thiamin deficiency are the _____ systems.
a. nervous, respiratory, and urinary
b. nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal
c. gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine
d. lymphatic, cardiovascular, and endocrine

 

 

ANS:  B

The nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal tract can all be affected by thiamin deficiency. The central nervous system depends on glucose for energy; if thiamin is not present in adequate amounts, sufficient energy cannot be made for the nerves to perform their functions. The heart muscle depends on thiamin as well. Without adequate thiamin, the heart muscle weakens and heart failure results. Thiamin also is necessary for the gastrointestinal tract to function properly. The cells of smooth muscle and secretory glands must have energy to perform their work, and thiamin is a necessary agent for producing that energy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   108                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The vitamin that is destroyed by light is
a. vitamin C.
b. niacin.
c. riboflavin.
d. biotin.

 

 

ANS:  C

Riboflavin is easily destroyed by light. Milk, a major source of riboflavin, is sold and stored in plastic or cardboard containers to protect it from light exposure.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The most important source of riboflavin is
a. milk.
b. lean meats.
c. enriched grains.
d. green leafy vegetables.

 

 

ANS:  A

Milk is the major source of riboflavin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The function of all B-complex vitamins is to
a. regulate fluid balance.
b. function as body structures.
c. function as coenzymes.
d. provide calories for energy.

 

 

ANS:  C

The B-complex vitamins function as coenzymes that are necessary agents to break down compounds, but are not consumed in the process.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   119-124         TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The disease associated with niacin deficiency is
a. anemia.
b. cheilosis.
c. pellagra.
d. beriberi.

 

 

ANS:  C

Pellagra is a disease caused by the lack of niacin. It is characterized by skin lesions along with gastrointestinal, mucosal, neurologic, and mental symptoms. The four Ds associated with pellagra are dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The amino acid that can be converted to niacin in the body is
a. leucine.
b. phenylalanine.
c. tryptophan.
d. valine.

 

 

ANS:  C

Some of the niacin the body requires can be made from the essential amino acid tryptophan. The total requirement in the body for niacin is stated in terms of niacin equivalents to account for both sources.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   110                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

 

  1. A good food source of niacin is
a. a banana.
b. a tomato.
c. beef.
d. oatmeal.

 

 

ANS:  C

Meat is a major source of niacin. The greatest intake of niacin in the United States comes from mixed dishes high in meat, poultry, or fish.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   111                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. The vitamin most closely associated with protein metabolism is
a. thiamin.
b. pyridoxine.
c. folic acid.
d. choline.

 

 

ANS:  B

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) has an essential role in protein metabolism and functions in many cell reactions involving amino acids.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   112                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Which of the following diets can help ensure adequate and balanced vitamin intake?
a. a high-calorie diet composed of mainly fruits and vegetables
b. a high-protein diet concentrating on red meat and fish
c. a varied diet composed of all food groups eaten in controlled portions
d. a varied diet with a higher emphasis on grains and fish

 

 

ANS:  C

Eating a well-balanced, varied diet can help ensure adequate and balanced intake by supplying needed nutrients from all the food groups in proper portion sizes.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   124

TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness

 

  1. The person most at risk for vitamin D deficiency is a
a. 12-year-old girl who plays soccer at the local playground twice a week.
b. 28-year-old mother who breastfeeds her 5-month-old infant and takes a daily stroll in the neighborhood.
c. 62-year-old woman who lives in a cold climate and rarely goes outdoors.
d. 42-year-old man who plays golf once a week.

 

 

ANS:  C

Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin with exposure to sunlight. People who do not go outdoors may be at higher risk for developing a vitamin D deficiency.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   101

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The best food source of folic acid is
a. grapefruit.
b. chicken.
c. cheese.
d. broccoli.

 

 

ANS:  D

Rich sources of folate are found in liver, green leafy vegetables, yeast, and legumes. Broccoli would be a high source of folate among the choices.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   114                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A folic acid deficiency induces a form of anemia called _____ anemia.
a. microcytic
b. megaloblastic
c. pernicious
d. aplastic

 

 

ANS:  B

Megaloblastic anemia can be caused by a lack of folate.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   113                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. The B vitamin predominantly found in foods of animal origin is
a. pantothenic acid.
b. niacin.
c. thiamin.
d. cobalamin.

 

 

ANS:  D

Because cobalamin occurs as a protein complex in foods, its sources are mostly of animal origin.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   116                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Vitamin C deficiency is associated with
a. scurvy.
b. beriberi.
c. pernicious anemia.
d. megaloblastic anemia.

 

 

ANS:  A

Extreme vitamin C deficiency is associated with scurvy.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   107                TOP:   Nursing Process: Diagnosis

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. A 62-year-old woman who smokes one pack of cigarettes a day and whose food intake records reveal a minimal intake of vitamin C foods may be at risk for
a. easy bruising and pinpoint hemorrhages.
b. cracked and bleeding lips.
c. fevers and infections.
d. neurologic disorders.

 

 

ANS:  A

Signs of vitamin C deficiency are tissue bleeding, including easy bruising and pinpoint skin hemorrhages. Smokers deplete their supply of vitamin C more rapidly than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoke is a source of environmental free radicals, and vitamin C is needed to break down toxic compounds in cigarette smoke.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis               REF:   107

TOP:   Nursing Process: Assessment

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Reduction of Risk Potential

 

  1. An example of a meal high in vitamin C is
a. bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich and strawberries.
b. hamburger, french fries, and salad.
c. pasta salad, whole-grain roll, and apple.
d. nachos with refried beans and salsa.

 

 

ANS:  A

The best sources of vitamin C are citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage and other leafy green vegetables, berries, melons, peppers, broccoli, potatoes, and yellow vegetables.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   107                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Phytochemicals act as
a. vitamins and minerals.
b. cofactors and enzymes.
c. antioxidants and hormones.
d. antibiotics and antifungals.

 

 

ANS:  C

Phytochemicals act as antioxidants and hormones. The beneficial effects of phytochemicals are believed to result from synergistic actions of multiple nutrients as opposed to acting as an isolated compound.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   120                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. Foods rich in phytochemicals include
a. mushrooms and algae.
b. fruits and vegetables.
c. yogurt and goat’s milk.
d. soy milk and tofu.

 

 

ANS:  B

Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of phytochemicals. The term phytochemical comes from the Greek word phyton, meaning “plant.”

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   120                TOP:   Nursing Process: Planning

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation

 

  1. A young woman who is interested in becoming pregnant should be counseled on healthy eating choices, especially regarding folate-containing foods, which may help prevent
a. neural tube defects.
b. osteomalacia.
c. pernicious anemia.
d. aplastic anemia.

 

 

ANS:  A

Adequate folate intake before and during pregnancy greatly reduces the risk of neural tube defects in infants.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   121

TOP:   Nursing Process: Implementation

MSC:  NCLEX: Physiological Integrity: Physiological Adaptation, Health Promotion and Wellness