Basics of Biopsychology, by John P. J. Pinel – Test Bank

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Basics of Biopsychology, by John P. J. Pinel – Test Bank

 

 

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Contents
Chapter 1
Chapter 2

Introduction to Biopsychology: How Biopsychologists Think
About Behavior

1

The Anatomy of the Brain: The Systems, Structures, and Cells that
Make Up Your Nervous System

30

Chapter 3

Neural Activity and How to Study It

67

Chapter 4

The Visual System: How We See

105

Chapter 5

Mechanisms of Perception: Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste, and
Attention: How You Know the World

142

Chapter 6

The Sensorimotor System: How You Do What You Do

178

Chapter 7

Development of the Nervous System: From Fertilized Egg to You

207

Chapter 8

Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity: Can the Brain Recover
from Damage?

238

Chapter 9

Learning, Memory, and Amnesia: How Your Brain Stores
Information

285

Chapter 10

Hunger, Eating, and Health: Why Do Many People Eat Too
Much?

323

Chapter 11

Hormones and Sex: What’s Wrong with the Mamawawa?

361

Chapter 12

Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythms: How Much Do You
Need to Sleep?

401

Chapter 13

Health Psychology: Addiction, Emotion, and Stress: Impact of
Psychological Factors on Heath

446

Lateralization, Language, and the Split Brain: The Left Brain and
Right Brain of Language

490

Behavioral Neuroscience of Psychiatric Disorders: The Brain
Unhinged

534

Chapter 14
Chapter 15

Chapter 1 Introduction to Biopsychology:
How Biopsychologists Think about Behavior
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The human brain weighs about
A) 0.3 kilograms (0.7 pounds).
B) 0.8 kilograms (1.8 pounds).
C) 1.0 kilograms (2.2 pounds).
D) 1.3 kilograms (2.9 pounds).
E) 2.3 kilograms (5.1 pounds).
Answer: D
Page Ref: 5
Diff: 2
Topic: Chapter 1 Introduction
2) The human brain is composed of various cells, including about 100 billion specialized to
receive and transmit electrochemical signals. These specialized cells are called
A) glial cells.
B) axons.
C) neurons.
D) oligodendroglia.
E) sulci.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 5
Diff: 1
Topic: Chapter 1 Introduction
3) The study of the nervous system is called
A) neuroscience.
B) psychology.
C) biopsychology.
D) neurochemistry.
E) neurophysiology.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 5
Diff: 1
Topic: Chapter 1 Introduction

1

4) Jimmie G., the man frozen in time, had a severe problem with his
A) memory.
B) temperature regulation.
C) IQ.
D) attention.
E) ability to tell time.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 6
Diff: 1
Topic: Chapter 1 Introduction
5) Which of the following is a major theme of your text?
A) thinking about biopsychology
B) clinical implications
C) the evolutionary perspective
D) cognitive neuroscience
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 6
Diff: 1
Topic: Chapter 1 Introduction
6) Biopsychology is the scientific study of the
A) biology of behavior.
B) brain.
C) chemistry of the brain.
D) biology of the brain.
E) biology of cognition.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
7) Psychology is often defined as the scientific study of
A) psychophysics.
B) behavior.
C) biopsychology.
D) the brain.
E) conditioning.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?

2

8) Psychobiology, behavioral biology, and behavioral neuroscience are all approximate synonyms
for
A) cognitive behavior.
B) behavioral psychology.
C) biopsychology.
D) neurophysiology.
E) neuroscience.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
9) The man who played a key role in the emergence of biopsychology as a discipline by writing
The Organization of Behavior is
A) Sperry.

B) Hebb.

C) Lashley.

D) Milner.

E) Pellis.

Answer: B
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
10) According to the textbook, biopsychology as it is practiced today emerged as a discipline in
about
A) 1549.

B) 1649.

C) 1749.

Answer: E
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
11) Which of the following is the youngest scientific discipline?
A) physics
B) astrology
C) biology
D) biopsychology
E) chemistry
Answer: D
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?

3

D) 1849.

E) 1949.

12) Biopsychology is a branch or division of
A) neuropsychology.
B) psychophysiology.
C) neuroscience.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: C
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
13) What distinguishes biopsychology from the other subdisciplines of neuroscience?
A) its focus on the study of behavior
B) its focus on animal subjects
C) its focus on psychiatric disorders
D) its focus on psychoactive drugs
E) both C and D
Answer: A
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
14) Which subdiscipline of neuroscience focuses on the study of nervous system disorders?
A) ethoexperimental psychology
B) biopsychology
C) developmental neurobiology
D) neuropathology
E) neuroendocrinology
Answer: D
Page Ref: 8
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
15) Structure is to function as
A) biopsychology is to psychology.
B) neuroanatomy is to neurophysiology.
C) neuropathology is to clinical psychology.
D) neuroscience is to biopsychology.
E) biopsychology is to neuroscience.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 8
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?

4

16) All behavior is the product of
A) an organism’s genetic endowment.
B) an organism’s experience.
C) an organism’s perception of the current situation.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 8
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
17) The single most influential theory in the biological sciences is the theory of
A) D. O. Hebb.
B) Charles Darwin.
C) evolution.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 9
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
18) Darwin’s theory of evolution was published in
A) 1312.

B) 1562.

C) 1859.

D) 1920.

E) 1943.

Answer: C
Page Ref: 9
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
19) Darwin was not the first to suggest that species evolve, but he was the first to suggest
A) how evolution occurs.
B) that cultures evolve.
C) that evolution occurs by genetics.
D) that mammals evolve.
E) that sex is an important component of evolution.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 10
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

5

20) Darwin suggested a mechanism for evolution:
A) genes.
B) natural selection.
C) sex.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 10
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
21) Horse breeders have created faster horses through programs of
A) natural selection.
B) gene splicing.
C) selective breeding.
D) domestication.
E) euthanasia.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 10
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
22) Fitness in the Darwinian sense refers to an organism’s ability to
A) survive and contribute large numbers of fertile offspring to the next generation.
B) remain healthy.
C) win fights.
D) survive.
E) avoid predation.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 10
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
23) Social dominance is an important factor in evolution because dominant males often
A) kill their mates.
B) become seriously injured.
C) produce more offspring than nondominant males.
D) establish hierarchies.
E) are much larger.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 11
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

6

24) Courtship displays are important evolutionary phenomena because they
A) promote the evolution of new species.
B) promote extinction.
C) facilitate aggression.
D) encourage social dominance.
E) eliminate copulation.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 11
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
25) Courtship displays promote the evolution of new species when they serve as a barrier to
A) sexual behavior between males.
B) sexual behavior between females.
C) subpopulations of conspecifics.
D) different species.
E) species that do not normally interbreed.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
26) The conspecific of a vole is a
A) rat.

B) monkey.

C) human.

D) mouse.

Answer: E
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
27) Complex multicellular, water-dwelling organisms first appeared on earth
A) in the early 1920s.
B) 600 million years ago.
C) 200 million years ago.
D) 4 million years ago.
E) 2 million years ago.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

7

E) vole.

28) Animals with dorsal nerve cords are called
A) phyla.
B) chordates.
C) vertebrates.
D) mammals.
E) amphibians.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
29) Which of the following are chordates?
A) humans
B) vertebrates
C) Florida walking catfish
D) mammals
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
30) Which of the following is not true?
A) All mammals are chordates.
B) All chordates are vertebrates.
C) All reptiles are vertebrates.
D) All mammals are vertebrates.
E) All vertebrates are chordates.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
31) Birds and reptiles are
A) amphibians.
B) chordates.
C) vertebrates.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

8

32) The first animals to venture out of the water were
A) reptiles.
B) bony fishes.
C) amphibians.
D) Florida walking catfish.
E) both B and C
Answer: B
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
33) Frogs, toads, and salamanders are
A) vertebrates.
B) chordates.
C) amphibians.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
34) Lizards, snakes, and turtles are
A) reptiles.
B) amphibians.
C) vertebrates.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
35) Reptiles evolved directly from
A) amphibians.
B) fish.
C) bony fish.
D) prosimians.
E) snakes.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

9

36) Reptiles were the first animals to
A) have back bones.
B) lay shell-covered eggs.
C) be covered by dry scales.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
37) Mammals evolved directly from
A) reptiles.
B) fish.
C) amphibians.
D) prosimians.
E) primates.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
38) One remaining mammalian species that lays eggs is the
A) duck-billed platypus.
B) hominid.
C) prosimian.
D) Florida walking catfish.
E) orangutan.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 13
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
39) Prosimians, hominids, and apes are all
A) old-world monkeys.
B) new-world monkeys.
C) langurs.
D) primates.
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 13
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

10

40) Unlike old-world monkeys, apes
A) do not have tails.
B) have opposable thumbs.
C) do not have opposable thumbs.
D) cannot walk upright for short distances.
E) have tails.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 13
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
41) The first hominids are thought to have evolved about
A) 200 million years ago.
B) 100 million years ago.
C) 50 million years ago.
D) 6 million years ago.
E) 1 million years ago.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 14
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
42) Australopithecines are thought to have evolved about __________ years ago.
A) 100 million
B) 150 million
C) 90 million
D) 6 million
E) 100 thousand
Answer: D
Page Ref: 14
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
43) The hominid line is composed of two different genera:
A) Australopithecus and Homo.
B) apes and Homo sapiens.
C) apes and humans.
D) old-world monkeys and new-world monkeys.
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 14
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

11

44) In 1978, well preserved 3.6-million-year-old footprints of 1.3-meter tall, small-brained
__________ were discovered in African volcanic ash.
A) apes.
B) Homo sapiens
C) Neanderthals
D) Australopithecines
E) archaeologists
Answer: D
Page Ref: 14
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
45) The last remaining hominid species is
A) Australopithecus.
B) Homo sapiens.
C) prosimians.
D) lemurs.
E) tree shrews.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 15
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
46) About 200 thousand years ago, early hominids were gradually replaced in the fossil record by
A) old-world monkeys.
B) accountants.
C) Homo sapiens.
D) Cro-Magnons.
E) Australopithecus.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 15
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
47) The first modern humans ( Homo sapiens ) evolved about
A) 200 million years ago.
B) 150 million years ago.
C) 200 thousand years ago.
D) 20 thousand years ago.
E) 5 thousand years ago.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 15
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

12

48) Metaphorically, evolution is a
A) scale.
B) ladder.
C) tree.
D) bush.
E) soap dish.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 15
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
49) Approximately what proportion of all species that ever existed on earth are still in existence?
A) about 61%
B) about 31%
C) about 4.5%
D) less than 1%
E) about 9%
Answer: D
Page Ref: 15
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
50) Convergent evolution produces structures that are
A) convergent.
B) analogous.
C) homologous.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: B
Page Ref: 15
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
51) A bird’s wing and a bee’s wing are
A) convolutions.
B) cerebral.
C) convergent.
D) homologous.
E) analogous.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 16
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

13

52) Early research on the evolution of the brain focused on
A) its size.
B) the brain stem.
C) the thalamus.
D) the uvula.
E) its chemistry.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 16
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
53) Which species has a brain larger than the human brain?
A) whale
B) elephant
C) chimpanzee
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 16
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
54) Modern adult human brains vary in size from about
A) 1,000 to 2,000 grams.
B) 10 to 20 grams.
C) 1,400 to 1,500 grams.
D) 1,300 to 1,400 grams.
E) 1,350 to 1,360 grams.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 17
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
55) In terms of which of the following measure of brain development are humans surpassed by
shrews?
A) brain weight
B) brain volume
C) neocortex volume
D) cerebellum volume
E) brain weight expressed as a percentage of total body weight
Answer: E
Page Ref: 17
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

14

56) In general, the brain stem regulates
A) thinking.
B) memory.
C) emotion.
D) reflex activities critical for survival.
E) vision.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 17
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
57) During the course of evolution, there has been a general increase in the
A) size of the brain.
B) number of cortical convolutions.
C) size of the cortex.
D) size of the cerebrum.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 17
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
58) Which of the following animals are the most common subjects of biopsychological research?
A) monkeys
B) chimpanzees
C) dogs
D) rats
E) cats
Answer: D
Page Ref: 18
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
59) The advantage of humans over other primates as subjects in biopsychological research is that
they
A) are often cheaper.
B) can report their subjective experiences.
C) can follow verbal directions.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 18
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

15

60) The main difference between human brains and the brains of their mammalian relatives is that
human brains tend to be bigger and
A) are white.
B) are gray.
C) have more cortex.
D) have two hemispheres.
E) both C and D
Answer: C
Page Ref: 18
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
61) Human brains differ substantially from the brains of other mammals in that human brains
have
A) one hemisphere.
B) two hemispheres.
C) three hemispheres.
D) a cortex.
E) much more cortical tissue.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 18
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
62) The comparison of brain-behavior relations in different species is called
A) the comparative approach.
B) ethology.
C) biopsychology.
D) evolutionary biology.
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 18
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution

16

63) An advantage of biopsychological research on nonhuman animals as opposed to humans is
that
A) the brains of nonhumans are simpler.
B) there are fewer ethical constraints in studying nonhumans.
C) research in several species makes it possible to use the comparative approach.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 18
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
64) Mendel
A) studied dichotomous pea-plant traits.
B) began his experiments by crossing the offspring of true-breeding lines.
C) collaborated with Darwin.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 19
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
65) Mendel’s early experiments challenged the central premise upon which previous ideas about
inheritance had rested. This was the premise that
A) there is only one gene for each trait.
B) there are two genes for each trait.
C) offspring can inherit only those traits that are displayed by their parents.
D) white seeds are dominant.
E) some traits are dominant and some are recessive.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 20
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
66) An organism’s observable traits are referred to as its
A) genotype.
B) phenotype.
C) dominant traits.
D) recessive traits.
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics

17

67) The two genes_one on each chromosome of a pair_that control the same trait are called
A) dominants.
B) phenotypes.
C) genotypes.
D) gametes.
E) alleles.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
68) Individuals who possess two identical genes for a particular trait
A) are homozygous for that trait.
B) are heterozygous for that trait.
C) cannot have offspring of the same phenotype for that trait.
D) cannot have offspring of the same genotype for that trait.
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
69) If an individual has a recessive phenotype for a particular trait, it can be concluded with
absolute certainty that
A) both parents also had a recessive phenotype for that trait.
B) at least one parent had a recessive phenotype for that trait.
C) both parents were not homozygous for the recessive gene for that trait.
D) both parents were not homozygous for the dominant gene for that trait.
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 21
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
70) In each cell of the human body, there are normally
A) 21 chromosomes.
B) 21 pairs of chromosomes.
C) 23 genes.
D) 23 chromosomes.
E) 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics

18

71) Gametes are produced by
A) mitosis.
B) mitotic cell division.
C) meiosis.
D) copulation
E) fertilization.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
72) Just prior to mitotic cell division, the number of chromosomes in the cell
A) doubles.
B) is reduced by half.
C) doubles twice.
D) stays the same.
E) is increased by 50%.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
73) Female mammals have
A) only one X chromosome.
B) only one Y chromosome.
C) two X chromosomes.
D) two Y chromosomes.
E) both A and B
Answer: C
Page Ref: 22
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
74) Sex-linked traits that are dominant appear more frequently in
A) females.
B) males.
C) neural disorders.
D) XY individuals.
E) both B and D
Answer: A
Page Ref: 23
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics

19

75) Color blindness occurs more frequently in males than in females because it is
A) dominant.
B) sex-linked.
C) quite common.
D) a recessive sex-linked trait.
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 23
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
76) The “letters” of the genetic code are
A) deoxyribose bases.
B) phosphates.
C) nucleotide bases.
D) amino acids.
E) peptides.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 23
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
77) How many nucleotide bases are there in DNA?
A) l
B) 2
C) 4
D) 5
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 23
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
78) On the DNA molecule, cytosine binds to
A) guanine.

B) adenine.

C) thymine.

Answer: A
Page Ref: 23
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics

20

D) thiamine.

E) uracil.

79) In Down syndrome, there is
A) no guanine.
B) no adenine.
C) no thymine.
D) no cytosine.
E) an extra chromosome in each cell.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 23
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
80) Accidental alteration in individual genes during replication is called
A) crossing over.
B) translation.
C) linkage.
D) mutation.
E) self-duplication.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 23
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
81) Which of the following is a short segment of DNA that determines whether or not a strand of
messenger RNA will be transcribed from a particular structural gene?
A) ribosome
B) operator gene
C) codon
D) nucleotide
E) codon segment
Answer: B
Page Ref: 24
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
82) DNA is to RNA as
A) guanine is to uracil.
B) thymine is to cytosine.
C) uracil is to thymine.
D) thymine is to uracil.
E) uracil is to guanine.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 24
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics

21

83) Each codon
A) comprises three consecutive bases on the messenger RNA molecule.
B) instructs the ribosome to add one amino acid from the cytoplasm to the growing protein
chain.
C) contains all of the information necessary to synthesize a complete protein.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 24
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
84) Which of the following contains all of the base sequences necessary for the synthesis of a single
protein?
A) ribosome
B) operator gene
C) structural gene
D) chromosome
E) nucleotide
Answer: C
Page Ref: 24
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
85) Each amino acid is carried to the ribosome by
A) transfer RNA.
B) a codon.
C) messenger RNA.
D) operator genes.
E) proteins.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 25
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
86) Construction of a detailed physical map of human chromosomes
A) began in earnest in 1990.
B) was a massive collaborative effort.
C) is now complete.
D) was an attempt to locate the 3 billion base letters that compose human chromosomes.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 26
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics

22

87) Arguably, the most ambitious scientific project of all time began in 1990: the
A) American space program.
B) cognitive neuroscience project.
C) human genome project.
D) decade of the brain.
E) theory of evolution.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 26
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
88) Many people overestimate the degree to which the human genome project will contribute to
the understanding of human development because they fail to appreciate that
A) the human genome project is decades from completion.
B) it will still be necessary to determine how the genes interact.
C) it will still be necessary to determine how each gene is affected by experience.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 26
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
89) How many structural genes are there in the human genome?
A) about 34,000
B) 3 times more than in the chimpanzee genome.
C) 8 times more than in the mouse genome.
D) 35 times more than in the fruit fly genome.
E) about 34 billion.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 26
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
90) The idea that the human brain and human mind are separate entities was formalized in the
1600s by
A) Hebb.
B) Locke.
C) Plato.
D) Descartes.
E) Pinel.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 27
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

23

91) Descartes’s philosophy was called
A) monism.
B) behaviorism.
C) ethology.
D) mentalism.
E) dualism.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 27
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
92) Asomatognosia is a
A) form of Korsakoff’s syndrome.
B) dualistic philosophy.
C) learned response.
D) consequence of hypothalamic damage.
E) deficiency in the awareness of parts of one’s own body.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 28
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
93) Asomatognosia typically
A) results from damage to the right parietal lobe.
B) affects the left side of the body.
C) affects both sides of the body.
D) affects the right side of the body.
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 28
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
94) Nature is to nurture as
A) learning is to genetics.
B) behaviorism is to ethology.
C) genetics is to experience.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: C
Page Ref: 29
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

24

95) European ethologists focused on the study of
A) invertebrates.
B) instinctive behaviors.
C) learning.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: B
Page Ref: 29
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
96) Identical twins are
A) monozygotic.
B) dizygotic.
C) fraternal.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Page Ref: 31
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
97) Identical is to fraternal as
A) dizygotic is to monozygotic.
B) polyzygotic is to monozygotic.
C) two is to one.
D) culture is to experience.
E) monozygotic is to dizygotic.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 31
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
98) The most extensive study of twins reared apart is the
A) British study.
B) Canadian study.
C) New York study.
D) Minnesota study.
E) North African study.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 31
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

25

99) In the Minnesota study, the heritability estimate for IQ was 70%. This means that IQ is
A) 70% genetic.
B) about 30% environmental.
C) about 70% genetic.
D) both B and C
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 32
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
100) A heritability estimate is
A) an estimate of the proportion of a trait that is attributable to genetics.
B) an estimate of the proportion of between-subject variability occurring in a particular trait
in a particular study that resulted from genetic differences among the subjects.
C) likely to be higher in studies with little environmental variation.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 33
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
101) In the study of heritability estimates, increasing the genetic diversity of the subjects would
likely
A) decrease the heritability estimate.
B) confound the experiment.
C) have no effect on the heritability estimate.
D) reduce the accuracy of the heritability estimate.
E) increase the heritability of estimate.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 33
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
1) According to the text, __________ played a key role in the emergence of the field of
biopsychology by writing a book published in 1949.
Answer: Hebb
Page Ref: 7
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?

26

2) The study of nervous system disorders is called __________.
Answer: neuropathology
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 8
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
3) Modern biology began in 1859 with the publication of On the __________ by Darwin.
Answer: Origin of Species
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 9
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
4) Social dominance plays a role in evolution because dominant animals produce more
__________.
Answer: offspring
Page Ref: 11
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
5) Mammals evolved from a line of small __________.
Answer: reptiles
Page Ref: 12
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
6) The first Homo species is thought to have evolved from a species of __________ about 2 million
years ago.
Answer: Australopithecus
Page Ref: 14
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
7) Similarities between __________ structures result from convergent evolution.
Answer: analogous
Page Ref: 15
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
8) All body cells of a human normally contain __________ pairs of chromosomes.
Answer: 23
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
9) The two genes that control the same trait are called __________.
Answer: alleles
Page Ref: 21
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics

27

10) The nucleotide base __________ is found in DNA but not in RNA.
Answer: thymine
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 24
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
11) __________ RNA carries the genetic code from DNA in the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm
of the cell body.
Answer: Messenger
Page Ref: 25
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
12) Proteins are long chains of __________.
Answer: amino acids
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 25
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
13) Asomatognosia is typically produced by lesions to the right __________.
Answer: parietal lobe
Page Ref: 28
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
14) In the early 20th century, the nature side of the nature-nurture debate was championed by
European __________.
Answer: ethologists
Page Ref: 29
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
15) Monozygotic twins are more commonly called __________ twins.
Answer: identical
Page Ref: 31
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

Essay Questions
1) Discuss biopsychology and its special role as a field of neuroscience.
Diff: 1
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?
2) Describe the model of the biology of behavior that has been adopted by most biopsychologists.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.1 What Is Biopsychology?

28

3) Briefly summarize the main stages of human evolution beginning 410 million years ago with
the evolution of amphibians.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
4) Describe and discuss four often-misunderstood points about evolution.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.2 Human Evolution
5) Describe how structural genes are expressed, that is, translated into proteins.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
6) Discuss the human genome project. How much does it contribute to our knowledge of brain
function? What is left to be done?
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.3 Fundamental Genetics
7) Discuss the mind-brain dichotomy.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
8) Discuss the interaction of genetic factors and experience in behavioral development.
Diff: 2
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior
9) Compare the behavioral genetics of individual differences. Be sure to explain and discuss
heritability estimates in your answer.
Diff: 3
Topic: 1.4 Thinking about the Biology of Behavior

29

Chapter 2 The Anatomy of the Brain:
The Systems, Structures, and Cells
that Make up Your Nervous System.
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The two major divisions of the nervous system are the
A) ANS and the CNS.
B) SNS and the CNS.
C) PNS and the CNS.
D) ANS and the PNS.
E) brain and the spinal cord.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) The CNS is composed of two major divisions: the
A) ANS and PNS.
B) brain and brain stem.
C) SNS and ANS.
D) spinal cord and brain stem.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
3) The ANS is part of the
A) sympathetic nervous system.
B) parasympathetic nervous system.
C) brain.
D) CNS.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

30

4) The somatic nervous system
A) is part of the PNS.
B) participates in sensory and motor interactions with the external environment.
C) is part of the ANS.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
5) In general, afferent nerves carry sensory information
A) to the CNS.
B) to the PNS.
C) from the CNS.
D) from the cortex.
E) from the brain.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
6) Neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are part of the
A) somatic nervous system.
B) basal ganglia.
C) ANS.
D) peripheral nervous system.
E) both C and D
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
7) The autonomic nervous system is part of the
A) brain.
B) spinal cord.
C) peripheral nervous system.
D) limbic system.
E) somatic nervous system.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

31

8) Which of the following generally acts to conserve the body’s energy?
A) CNS
B) PNS
C) sympathetic nervous system
D) parasympathetic nervous system
E) somatic nervous system
Answer: D
Page Ref: 38
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
9) Heart rate is increased by excitatory signals from the
A) somatic nervous system.
B) sympathetic nervous system.
C) parasympathetic nervous system.
D) afferent arm of the parasympathetic nervous system.
E) afferent arm of the sympathetic nervous system.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 38
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
10) The sympathetic nervous system is part of the
A) somatic nervous system.
B) ANS.
C) PNS.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 38
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
11) Which part of the PNS projects from only the cranial and sacral portions of the CNS?
A) parasympathetic nervous system
B) sympathetic nervous system
C) somatic nervous system
D) cranial nerves
E) autonomic nervous system
Answer: A
Page Ref: 38
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

32

12) The sympathetic nervous system differs from the parasympathetic nervous system in that the
sympathetic nervous system has
A) no first-stage neurons.
B) no second-stage neurons.
C) first-stage neurons that synapse at a substantial distance from the target organ.
D) first-stage neurons that synapse close to the target organ.
E) both B and C
Answer: C
Page Ref: 38
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
13) The first pair of cranial nerves are
A) sensory.
B) the optic and auditory nerves.
C) the facial and auditory nerves.
D) motor.
E) the vagus and trigeminal nerves.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
14) The vagus nerve is
A) part of the parasympathetic nervous system.
B) the tenth cranial nerve.
C) the longest cranial nerve.
D) both sensory and motor.
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 39
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
15) The dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater are
A) neurons.
B) neuroglia.
C) parts of the autonomic nervous system.
D) meninges.
E) myelin.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

33

16) From outside to inside, the three meninges are the
A) Nina, Pinta, and Santa-Maria.
B) arachnoid, dura, and pia.
C) dura, pia, and arachnoid.
D) dura, meninx, and pia.
E) dura, arachnoid, and pia.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
17) How many ventricles are there in the brain?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 2
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
18) The CSF circulates through the
A) central canal.
B) lateral ventricles.
C) subarachnoid space.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
19) The cerebral aqueduct connects the
A) lateral ventricles.
B) third and fourth ventricles.
C) fourth ventricle and the central canal.
D) circus maximus and the forum.
E) left and right hemispheres.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 40
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System

34

20) The blood brain barrier is
A) a spongy bone.
B) the arachnoid space and pia mater.
C) an electrochemical organ.
D) absent in cases of hydrocephalus.
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 40
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
21) The blood brain barrier impedes the passage into brain neurons of
A) proteins and other large molecules.
B) some hormones.
C) glucose.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 40
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
22) Neurons are specialized to receive, conduct, and transmit
A) action potentials.
B) axons.
C) synapses.
D) electrochemical signals.
E) pizzas.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 40
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
23) The neuron membrane includes
A) a lipid bilayer.
B) channel proteins.
C) signal proteins.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 43
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System

35

24) Communications among mammalian neurons usually occur
A) at points where their cell bodies contact one another.
B) across dendrites.
C) across synapses.
D) at points where their axons contact one another.
E) at points where dendrites contact one another.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 41
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
25) Interactions between neurons commonly occur across junctions called
A) synapses.

B) buttons.

C) somas.

D) vesicles.

Answer: A
Page Ref: 41
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
26) Many neurons have a single long process emanating from the cell body. This is
A) an axon.
B) a dendrite.
C) a button.
D) a protein.
E) a micrograph.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 41
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
27) Presynaptic neurons stimulate postsynaptic neurons by releasing
A) a foul odor.
B) an electrical signal.
C) an axon.
D) a neurotoxin.
E) a neurotransmitter.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 42
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System

36

E) pits.

28) Most of a neuron’s DNA is in its
A) nucleus.
B) buttons.
C) synaptic vesicles.
D) axon.
E) axon hillock.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 42
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
29) Synaptic vesicles are most prevalent in the
A) nucleus.
B) nodes of Ranvier.
C) postsynaptic membranes.
D) synaptic clefts.
E) buttons.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 42
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
30) All neurons with an axon and several dendrites emanating from the soma are
A) motor.
B) interneurons.
C) multipolar.
D) bipolar.
E) unipolar.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 43
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
31) Interneurons
A) integrate the activity within a single brain structure.
B) have two short axons.
C) have one long axon and one short dendrite.
D) have several axons and no dendrites.
E) have bipolar axons.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System

37

32) Clusters of neural cell bodies in the CNS are called
A) neurons.

B) ganglia.

C) nerves.

Answer: D
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
33) Tracts are to nuclei as nerves are to
A) nuclei.
B) ganglia.
C) ganglion.
D) nucleus.
E) cell bodies.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
34) What part of a neuron is sometimes myelinated?
A) dendrites
B) axon
C) cell body
D) buttons
E) both A and B
Answer: B
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
35) CNS is to PNS as oligodendrocytes are to
A) astrocytes.
B) oligodendroglia.
C) glial cells.
D) Schwann cells.
E) microglia.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System

38

D) nuclei.

E) buttons.

36) In the CNS, axons are myelinated by
A) vesicles.
B) oligodrendrocytes.
C) unipolar cells.
D) astrocytes.
E) Schwann cells.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
37) Myelination
A) causes cancer.
B) penetrates the blood brain barrier.
C) occurs only on Schwann cells.
D) increases the speed of axonal conduction.
E) increases the speed of synaptic transmission.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
38) PNS is to CNS as Schwann cells are to
A) multiple sclerosis.
B) oligodendrocytes.
C) astrocytes.
D) neuroglia.
E) satellite cells.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
39) The largest glial cells are
A) astrocytes.
B) Schwann cells.
C) microglia.
D) magnoglia.
E) oligodendrocytes.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 45
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System

39

40) Glial cells that engulf cellular debris and trigger inflammation are
A) microglia
B) Schwann cells.
C) astrocytes.
D) oligodendrocytes.
E) oligodendroglia.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 45
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
41) The Golgi stain colors neurons
A) violet.

B) black.

C) blue.

D) red.

E) yellow.

Answer: B
Page Ref: 46
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
42) The best thing about the Golgi stain is that it
A) is opaque.
B) reveals the inner structure of the neuron.
C) does not stain many neurons.
D) stains only Golgi neurons.
E) was developed by a Nobel prize winner.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 46
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
43) The discovery of the Golgi stain
A) was accidental.
B) was one of the major early breakthroughs in the study of the nervous system.
C) occurred in 1985.
D) all of the above
E) both A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 46
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

40

44) The first neural stain, which revealed the silhouette of a few neurons on a slide, is
A) the Golgi stain.
B) red.
C) the Nissl stain.
D) both A and B
E) both B and C
Answer: A
Page Ref: 46
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
45) The first neural stain that permitted neuroanatomists to view some aspects of the inner
structure of a neuron was the
A) Nissl stain.
B) Golgi stain.
C) Weigert stain.
D) amino acid autoradiography stain.
E) electron microscope stain.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 47
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
46) The cresyl violet stain is used to
A) study the fine details of axonal structure.
B) determine the general distribution of cell bodies in the nervous system.
C) study the dismal fog.
D) identify axosomatic synapses.
E) study the responses of Nissl bodies.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 47
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
47) The fine inner details of neuron structure can be studied best
A) with a Nissl stain.
B) by electron microscopy.
C) with cresyl violet.
D) with a Golgi stain.
E) with a microelectrode.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 47
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

41

48) The main advantage of the scanning electron microscope over the conventional electron
microscope is that it
A) operates in light.
B) is capable of higher magnification than the ordinary electron microscope.
C) produces three-dimensional electron micrographs.
D) uses more protons than electrons.
E) requires fewer beams of electrons.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 47
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
49) The back of your head is
A) posterior.

B) dorsal.

C) inferior.

D) anterior.

E) ventral.

D) dorsal.

E) posterior.

Answer: A
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
50) The top of a dog’s head is
A) anterior.

B) ventral.

C) caudal.

Answer: D
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
51) The tip of your nose is
A) superior and dorsal.
B) caudal and anterior.
C) medial and anterior.
D) anterior and posterior.
E) ventral and dorsal.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

42

52) The nose of a rat is
A) rostral.
B) ventral.
C) anterior.
D) both A and C
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
53) The spine of a human runs just beneath the
A) ventral surface.
B) anterior surface.
C) dorsal surface.
D) posterior surface.
E) superior surface.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
54) Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is commonly used with reference to the
brains of humans or other primates, but not with reference to the brains of four-legged
creatures?
A) inferior

B) caudal

C) posterior

D) medial

E) lateral

Answer: A
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
55) Which of the following neuroanatomical directions is not commonly used with reference to the
human brain?
A) inferior

B) caudal

C) posterior

Answer: B
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions

43

D) superior

E) dorsal

56) A cut in which of the following planes would sever all of the commissures, the tracts that
connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres?
A) horizontal
B) sagittal
C) midsagittal
D) frontal
E) diagonal
Answer: C
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
57) Gray matter of the spinal cord is largely composed of
A) cell bodies and unmyelinated interneurons.
B) myelin.
C) myelinated axons.
D) meninges.
E) cerebrospinal fluid.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
58) The H-shape of the spinal gray matter is most obvious in a
A) midsagittal section.
B) sagittal section.
C) longitudinal section.
D) lateral section.
E) cross section.
Answer: E
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 49
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
59) The gray matter of the spinal cord is composed of
A) glial cells.
B) cell bodies.
C) unmyelinated interneurons.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord

44

60) White matter is white because
A) it is unmyelinated.
B) cell bodies are white.
C) satellite cells are gray.
D) axon membranes are white.
E) myelin is white.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
61) The spinal gray matter has four arms; among these are the two
A) ventral roots.
B) ventral routes.
C) ventral horns.
D) posterior horns.
E) both B and D
Answer: C
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
62) How many individual dorsal roots are there in the human nervous system?
A) 12

B) 31

C) 62

D) 124

E) none

D) 124

E) none

Answer: C
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
63) How many left ventral roots are there in the human body?
A) 12

B) 31

C) 62

Answer: B
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
64) Neurons of the dorsal root synapse in the
A) cortex.
B) spinal cord.
C) limbic system.
D) PNS.
E) ventral horn.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
45

65) How many sensory ventral roots are there in the human body?
A) 12

B) 31

C) 62

Answer: E
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
66) The neurons of the dorsal roots are
A) sensory.
B) motor.
C) tracts.
D) unipolar.
E) both A and D
Answer: E
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
67) Most neurons of the ventral roots
A) are bipolar.
B) are unipolar.
C) have their cell bodies in white matter.
D) have their cell bodies in the ventral horn.
E) are interneurons.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
68) The ANS neurons of the ventral roots project directly to
A) body organs.
B) ganglia.
C) the sympathetic receptors.
D) the parasympathetic receptors.
E) the heart.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord

46

D) 124

E) none

69) Many neurons of the ventral horn are
A) part of the somatic nervous system.
B) unipolar.
C) part of the autonomic nervous system.
D) all of the above
E) both A and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
70) “Encephalon” means within the
A) forebrain.
B) brain stem.
C) head.
D) hemispheres.
E) nervous system.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
71) “Telencephalon” refers to the
A) cortex.
B) head.
C) cerebral hemispheres.
D) brain.
E) brain stem.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 51
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
72) The large lateral outgrowths that compose the telencephalon are the
A) eyes.
B) temporal lobes.
C) cerebral hemispheres.
D) ventricles.
E) testes.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 51
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain

47

73) The myelencephalon is often called the
A) midbrain.
B) hypothalamus.
C) brain stem.
D) medulla.
E) cortex.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 51
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
74) The caudal part of the forebrain is the
A) telencephalon.
B) diencephalon.
C) myelencephalon.
D) reticular formation.
E) midbrain.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 51
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
75) The myelencephalon is
A) the medulla.
B) part of the hindbrain.
C) part of the brain stem.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 51
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
76) Which of the following is not in the brain stem?
A) myelencephalon
B) mesencephalon
C) metencephalon
D) medulla
E) telencephalon
Answer: E
Page Ref: 51
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain

48

77) The myelencephalon is composed largely of
A) ganglia.

B) tracts.

C) nerves.

D) ventricles.

Answer: B
Page Ref: 51
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
78) Which of the following structures is named after a term that means “little net”?
A) reticular formation
B) mesencephalon
C) medulla
D) cerebellum
E) hippocampus
Answer: A
Page Ref: 52
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
79) The reticular formation is in the core of the
A) mesencephalon.
B) myelencephalon.
C) metencephalon.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 52
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
80) The reticular formation is in the
A) brain stem.
B) cortex.
C) thalamus.
D) olfactory bulb.
E) spinal cord.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 52
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

49

E) colliculi.

81) Which of the following is visible on the dorsal surface of the human brain stem?
A) pituitary
B) cerebellum
C) optic chiasm
D) hypothalamus
E) mammillary bodies
Answer: B
Page Ref: 52
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
82) The midbrain is
A) part of the mesencephalon.
B) part of the metencephalon.
C) the mesencephalon.
D) part of the brain stem.
E) both C and D
Answer: E
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
83) The inferior and superior colliculi compose the
A) thalamus.
B) hypothalamus.
C) tectum.
D) hippocampus.
E) cerebellum.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
84) The four colliculi compose the
A) tectum.
B) tegmentum.
C) pons.
D) brain stem.
E) cerebellum.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

50

85) The tectum is the roof of the
A) metencephalon.
B) mesencephalon.
C) myelencephalon.
D) telencephalon.
E) diencephalon.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
86) Which structure is not part of the tegmentum?
A) superior colliculus
B) periaqueductal gray
C) substantia nigra
D) red nucleus
E) cerebral aqueduct
Answer: A
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
87) The neural structure situated nearest the duct connecting the third and fourth ventricles is the
A) substantia nigra.
B) periaqueductal gray.
C) red nucleus.
D) superior colliculi.
E) cerebral aqueduct.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
88) Three major structures in the __________ of the brain are named after a color.
A) medulla
B) mesencephalon
C) tectum
D) tegmentum
E) thalamus
Answer: D
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

51

89) The lateral geniculate, medial geniculate, and ventral posterior nuclei are all nuclei of the
A) midbrain.
B) spinal cord.
C) cortex.
D) medulla.
E) thalamus.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
90) Most sensory nuclei of the thalamus project to the
A) cortex.
B) reticular formation.
C) cerebellum.
D) substantia nigra.
E) caudate.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
91) Which of the following thalamic nuclei relays visual information?
A) pons
B) red nucleus
C) lateral geniculate
D) substantia nigra
E) caudate
Answer: C
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
92) Which of the following part of the diencephalon connects the two lobes of the thalamus?
A) massa intermedia
B) hypothalamus
C) cerebral aqueduct
D) corpus callosum
E) hippocampal commissure
Answer: A
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

52

93) The lateral geniculate nuclei are
A) diencephalic nuclei.
B) thalamic nuclei.
C) sensory relay nuclei.
D) all of the above
E) both B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
94) The hypothalamus and thalamus compose the
A) brain stem.
B) diencephalon.
C) mesencephalon.
D) medulla.
E) pituitary.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
95) Which part of the diencephalon controls the pituitary?
A) snot gland
B) hypothalamus
C) medial geniculate
D) cerebellum
E) nasal mucosa
Answer: B
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
96) Which of the following is an X-shaped structure?
A) spinal white matter
B) reticular formation
C) structure that dangles from the diencephalon
D) optic chiasm
E) substantia nigra
Answer: D
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

53

97) If a midsagittal cut were made through the human brain, all of the uncut axons running from
the eyes to the brain would be
A) on the right side.
B) ipsilateral.
C) contralateral.
D) decussating.
E) bilateral.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
98) The mammillary nuclei are
A) bumps visible on the dorsal surface of the medulla.
B) visible on the inferior surface of the diencephalon.
C) sometimes considered to be nuclei of the hypothalamus.
D) found only in females.
E) both B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
99) Which of the following is a point of decussation?
A) optic chiasm
B) hippocampus
C) temporal lobe
D) substantia nigra
E) superior colliculus
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
100) The pituitary gland is situated just inferior to the
A) nose.
B) hippocampus.
C) cerebellum.
D) thalamus.
E) hypothalamus.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

54

101) Most mammals with lissencephalic brains are
A) accountants.
B) flexible.
C) small.
D) clever.
E) old.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
102) The ridges between fissures are called
A) sulci.
B) sulcuses.
C) gyri.
D) commissures.
E) lobes.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
103) Big is to small as fissures are to
A) gyri.
B) sulcus.
C) commissures.
D) gyrus.
E) sulci.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 54
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
104) The largest cerebral commissure is the
A) corpus callosum.
B) massa commissura.
C) massa intermedia.
D) humungus commissura.
E) longitudinal commissure.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

55

105) The corpus callosum is the human brain’s largest
A) neuron.
B) nucleus.
C) fissure.
D) commissure.
E) hemisphere.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
106) Precentral is to postcentral as
A) somatosensory is to motor.
B) auditory is to motor.
C) somatosensory is to auditory.
D) motor is to somatosensory.
E) auditory is to somatosensory.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
107) The functions of the occipital cortex are
A) motor.
B) visual.
C) auditory.
D) somatosensory.
E) olfactory.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
108) The most posterior lobe of the cerebral hemispheres is the
A) occipital lobe.
B) temporal lobe.
C) parietal lobe.
D) frontal lobe.
E) ear lobe.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

56

109) About what proportion of human cerebral cortex is neocortex?
A) 10 %

B) 25 %

C) 40 %

D) 60 %

E) 90 %

Answer: E
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
110) Which of the following are multipolar cortical neurons with long axons, apical dendrites, and
triangular cell bodies?
A) stellate cells
B) chandelier cells
C) pyramidal cells
D) granule cells
E) fusiform cells
Answer: C
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
111) The longitudinal fissure separates the two hemispheres. Which lobe does not border it?
A) temporal lobe
B) frontal lobe
C) parietal lobe
D) prefrontal lobe
E) occipital lobe
Answer: A
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
112) Between the frontal and parietal lobes is the
A) central fissure.
B) lateral fissure.
C) corpus callosum.
D) temporal lobe.
E) longitudinal fissure.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

57

113) The lobe at the back of the brain, which serves a visual function, is the
A) frontal lobe.
B) occipital lobe.
C) temporal lobe.
D) prefrontal lobe.
E) parietal lobe.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
114) The hippocampus is
A) a neocortical structure.
B) in the frontal lobes.
C) six-layered.
D) shaped like a sea horse in cross section.
E) in the diencephalon.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
115) A neural circuit that includes the septum, cingulate cortex, fornix, amygdala, hippocampus,
hypothalamus, and thalamus is thought to be involved in the regulation of motivated
behaviors. This circuit is called the
A) basal ganglia.
B) paleocortex.
C) limbic system.
D) cranial nerves.
E) somatosensory system.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
116) The limbic system and basal ganglia are, for the most part, in the
A) telencephalon.
B) diencephalon.
C) mesencephalon.
D) myelencephalon.
E) metencephalon.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

58

117) Which of the following structures is not part of the limbic system?
A) hippocampus
B) septum
C) cerebellum
D) fornix
E) hypothalamus
Answer: C
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
118) A major limbic system tract is the
A) corpus callosum.
B) reticular formation.
C) cingulate.
D) fornix.
E) septum.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
119) Two parts of the limbic system are cortical structures. These two structures are the
A) septum and the frontal cortex.
B) hippocampus and the cingulate.
C) frontal cortex and the basal ganglia.
D) hippocampus and the amygdala.
E) frontal cortex and the olfactory bulbs.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
120) The structure that is considered to be part of both the limbic system and the basal ganglia
motor system is the
A) amygdala.
B) frenulum.
C) cingulate cortex.
D) hypothalamus.
E) substantia nigra.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 57
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

59

121) The caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus compose the
A) diencephalon.
B) limbic system.
C) somatosensory system.
D) basal ganglia.
E) thalamus.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 57
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
122) The caudate and the putamen compose the
A) limbic system.
B) globus pallidus.
C) striatum.
D) amygdala.
E) uvula.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 72
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
123) Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is found in most cases
of
A) Korsakoff’s syndrome.
B) Parkinson’s disease.
C) autism.
D) Asti Spumante.
E) multiple sclerosis.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 72
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
1) The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system.
Answer: central nervous
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) The arachnoid, pia mater, and dura mater are the three __________.
Answer: meninges
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
60

3) Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain.
Answer: ventricles
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
4) Between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________.
Answer: axon hillock
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
5) Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________.
Answer: tracts
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
6) Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________.
Answer: astrocytes
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 45
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
7) The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice.
Answer: Golgi
Page Ref: 46
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
8) The opposite of dorsal is __________.
Answer: ventral
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 48
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
9) It is __________ coating of many axons that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy
white sheen.
Answer: myelin
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
10) Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.
Answer: dorsal
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord

61

11) The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________.
Answer: pons
Page Ref: 52
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
12) The large, two-lobed structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________.
Answer: thalamus
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
13) The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus.
Answer: pituitary
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
14) The cerebral hemispheres are joined by tracts called cerebral __________.
Answer: commissures
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
15) The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure.
Answer: lateral
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
16) Pyramidal cells have large __________ dendrites.
Answer: apical
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 55
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
17) The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: hippocampus
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
18) __________ is a neuroanatomical term that means “ring.”
Answer: Limbic
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain

62

19) The almond-shaped limbic nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: amygdala
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
20) The putamen and __________ compose the striatum, an important structure of the basal
ganglia.
Answer: caudate
Page Ref: 57
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
21) The brain and spinal cord compose the __________ system.
Answer: central nervous
Page Ref: 37
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
22) The arachnoid, pia mater, and dura mater are the three __________.
Answer: meninges
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
23) Cerebrospinal fluid fills the four __________ of the brain.
Answer: ventricles
Page Ref: 39
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
24) Between the cell body and axon of a multipolar neuron is the __________.
Answer: axon hillock
Diff: 1
Page Ref: 41
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
25) Bundles of axons in the CNS are called __________.
Answer: tracts
Page Ref: 44
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System
26) Large, star-shaped glial cells are __________.
Answer: astrocytes
Page Ref: 45
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System

63

27) The __________ stain colors entirely black a few neurons in each brain slice.
Answer: Golgi
Page Ref: 46
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
28) The opposite of dorsal is __________.
Answer: ventral
Page Ref: 48
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
29) It is __________ coating of many axons that gives white matter in the nervous system its glossy
white sheen.
Answer: myelin
Page Ref: 49
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
30) Sensory signals enter the spinal cord via the __________ roots.
Answer: dorsal
Page Ref: 50
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.4 The Spinal Cord
31) The bulge on the ventral surface of the metencephalon is the __________.
Answer: pons
Page Ref: 52
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
32) The large, two-lobed structure that sits atop the brain stem is the __________.
Answer: thalamus
Page Ref: 53
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
33) The __________ dangles from the hypothalamus.
Answer: pituitary
Diff: 2
Page Ref: 54
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
34) The cerebral hemispheres are joined by tracts called cerebral __________.
Answer: commissures
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 1
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain

64

35) The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal lobe by the __________ fissure.
Answer: lateral
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
36) Pyramidal cells have large __________ dendrites.
Answer: apical
Page Ref: 55
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
37) The three-layered cortical structure of the medial temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: hippocampus
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
38) __________ is a neuroanatomical term that means “ring.”
Answer: Limbic
Page Ref: 56
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
39) The almond-shaped limbic nucleus of the anterior temporal lobe is the __________.
Answer: amygdala
Diff: 3
Page Ref: 56
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
40) The putamen and __________ compose the striatum, an important structure of the basal
ganglia.
Answer: caudate
Page Ref: 57
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain

Essay Questions
1) Describe the overall layout of the divisions and systems of the mammalian nervous system.
Include a diagram or table in your answer. (Hint: “The mammalian nervous system is a system
of twos.” )
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.1 General Layout of the Nervous System
2) There are several kinds of glial cells in the nervous system. Describe them and their functions.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.2 Cells of the Nervous System

65

3) Compare two different neuroanatomical stains, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of
each.
Diff: 2
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
4) With the use of diagrams, describe all of directions in the vertebrate nervous system.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.3 Neuroanatomical Techniques and Directions
5) Draw a side view of the human brain. Label 6 structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.5 The Five Divisions of the Brain
6) Draw a midsagittal section of the human brain and label 10 structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain
7) Describe the structure of the human telencephalon. Include descriptions of its major parts and
structures.
Diff: 3
Topic: 2.6 Major Structures of the Brain

66

Chapter 3 Neural Activity and How to Study It
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) “Reptilian stare” is sometimes used to describe the widely opened, unblinking eyes and
motionless face of
A) Parkinson’s disease.
B) multiple sclerosis.
C) old age.
D) infancy.
E) Alzheimer’s disease.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 65
Diff: 1
Topic: Chapter 3 Introduction
2) Dopamine is not an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease because
A) dopaminergic neurons are restricted to the PNS.
B) Parkinson’s disease is a cholinergic dysfunction.
C) Parkinson’s disease is a noradrenergic dysfunction.
D) d’Orta is the treatment of choice.
E) dopamine does not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 65
Diff: 1
Topic: Chapter 3 Introduction
3) One treatment for Parkinson’s disease is
A) dopamine.
B) serotonin.
C) acetylcholine.
D) norepinephrine.
E) L-DOPA.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 65
Diff: 1
Topic: Chapter 3 Introduction

67

4) A membrane potential is the difference in electrical charge between
A) neuron membranes.
B) synapses and cell bodies.
C) the inside and outside of a cell.
D) nuclei and tracts.
E