Biological Psychology 12th Edition by James W. Kalat – Test Bank

$24.99

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Biological Psychology 12th Edition by James W. Kalat – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

True / False

 

1. Johannes Müller held that whatever excites a particular nerve establishes a special kind of energy unique to that nerve.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

2. The coding of visual information in your brain results in an exact duplicate of the object’s shape on the surface of the cortex.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

3. The cornea is an adjustable structure in the eye that focuses light.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

4. Amacrine cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

5. Shapes are more easily identified with peripheral vision than foveal vision.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

6. Photopigments are stable in the dark.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

7. According to the trichromatic theory, we can perceive only three colors.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

8. The retinex theory accounts for the principle of color constancy.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

9. An object’s location, color, and movement are all processed in the same part of the visual cortex.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

10. Lateral inhibition is the reduction of activity in one neuron by activity in neighboring neurons.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

11. Parvocellular cells respond strongly to moving stimuli and large overall patterns.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

12. The ventral stream of visual processing is important for identifying movement.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

13. Simple cells are found exclusively in the primary visual cortex.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

14. A complex cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

15. Infants are born with the ability to control their visual attention.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. The law of specific nerve energies states that ____.​

a. ​perception of a repeated stimulus fades
b. ​every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light
c. ​the speed of action potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus
d. ​any stimulation above the threshold produces an action potential

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

17. According to the law of specific nerve energies, the brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by ____.​

a. ​which neurotransmitter is released
b. ​which neurons are active
c. ​the velocity of the action potentials
d. ​the amplitude of the action potentials

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   General Principles of Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.01 – Remember that we see because light strikes the retina, sending a message to the brain.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

18. In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____.​

a. ​retina cells
b. ​bipolar cells
c. ​ganglion cells
d. ​spiny cells

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

19. Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the ____. ​

a. ​retina
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​macula

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

20. Bipolar cells send their messages to ____, which are located close to the center of the eye.​

a. ​spiny cells
b. ​cornea cells
c. ​bipolar cells
d. ​ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

21. Light from the right half of the world strikes which part of the retina?​

a. ​the left half
b. ​the right half
c. ​the whole retina equally
d. ​It depends of the wavelength.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

22. In what order does visual information pass through the retina?​

a. ​receptor cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells
b. ​ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptor cells
c. ​receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
d. ​bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

23. Various types of ____ cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features.​

a. ​receptors
b. ​geniculate cells
c. ​amacrine cells
d. ​optic nerves

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

24. The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?​

a. ​rods and cones
b. ​bipolar cells
c. ​horizontal cells
d. ​ganglion cells

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

25. The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the retina is called the ____.​

a. ​blind spot
b. ​fovea
c. ​optic chiasm
d. ​ganglion

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

26. Which statement characterizes the fovea?​

a. ​It has the greatest perception of detail.
b. ​It surrounds the point of exit of the optic nerve.
c. ​It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil.
d. ​It has more rods than cones.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

27. If you want to see something in fine detail, you should focus the light on which part of your retina?​

a. ​the optic nerve
b. ​the fovea
c. ​an area containing mostly rods
d. ​the cornea

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

28. The retinas of predatory birds such as hawks ____.​

a. ​have no discernible fovea
b. ​have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the top half of the retina
c. ​have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the bottom half of the retina
d. ​are virtually indistinguishable from the retinas of humans

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

29. In vertebrate retinas, receptors send their messages ____.​

a. ​straight to the brain
b. ​immediately to ganglion cells within the retina
c. ​to bipolar cells within the retina
d. ​to the periphery of the retina first, ganglion cells next, and bipolar cells last

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

30. Why does the fovea provide the clearest, most detailed visual information?​

a. ​It is closest to the pupil.
b. ​It surrounds the optic nerve.
c. ​It has tightly packed receptors.
d. ​It contains many blood vessels for supplying energy.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

31. Which statement is TRUE with regard to peripheral vision?​

a. ​It is very sensitive to detail.
b. ​It is easier to recognize single objects in the periphery that are not surrounded by other objects.
c. ​It is not very sensitive to light.
d. ​It is most sensitive to color, which helps to differentiate multiple objects clearly.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

32. In comparison to the rods, cones are more ____.​

a. ​common toward the periphery of the retina
b. ​sensitive to detail
c. ​sensitive to dim light
d. ​common in rodents and other nocturnal animals

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

33. ____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light.​

a. ​Phototransmitters
b. ​Photosins
c. ​Photopigments
d. ​Photoions

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

34. Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal to ____.​

a. ​opsins
b. ​unstable proteins
c. ​all-trans-retinal
d. ​sodium

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

35. Chemicals that release energy when struck by light are called ____.​

a. ​photo-optics
b. ​photopigments
c. ​opsins
d. ​kestrels

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

36. In comparison to cones, rods ____.​

a. ​are more common toward the center of the retina
b. ​are more sensitive to detail
c. ​are more sensitive to dim light
d. ​reach their peak firing levels slowly

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

37. Rods are to ____ as cones are to ____.​

a. ​the periphery; the fovea
b. ​red; blue
c. ​vertebrates; invertebrates
d. ​reading text; reading road signs

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

38. ____ modify the ____ sensitivity to different wavelengths of light.​

a. ​Retinol; photopigments
b. ​Opsins; retinol
c. ​Photopigments; opsins
d. ​Opsins; photopigments

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

39. Peripheral vision mainly depends upon ____.​

a. ​the fovea
b. ​cones
c. ​rods
d. ​just a few receptors

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

40. Night-active species are more likely than day-active species to have ____.​

a. ​better peripheral vision
b. ​larger blind spots
c. ​a greater rod to cone ratio
d. ​a greater cone to rod ratio

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

41. Why do humans perceive faint light better in the periphery of the eye?​

a. ​Receptors in the periphery are closer to the pupil.
b. ​The fovea is closer to the retina’s blind spot than peripheral receptors.
c. ​More receptors in the periphery than in the fovea funnel input to each ganglion cell.
d. ​Ganglion cells in the periphery transmit their information to a larger brain area.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Eye and Its Connections to the Brain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

42. Which receptors are responsible for the perception of color?​

a. ​cones only
b. ​rods only
c. ​both rods and cones
d. ​horizontal and amacrine cells

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.02 – List the properties of cones and rods.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

43. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision ____.​

a. ​there are only three rods and three cones in each eye
b. ​there are only three colors of light in the world
c. ​rods are important for perception of light colors
d. ​our perception of color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

44. According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, what is the basis for color vision?​

a. ​a different receptor for each color
b. three kinds of cones
c. ​a single receptor that produces different responses for each color
d. ​the combined influences of rods and cones

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

45. According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, the most important factor in determining the color we see is the ____.​

a. ​velocity of the action potential
b. ​absolute activity of a single cone
c. ​difference between cone and rod activity
d. ​relative activity of short, medium, and long wavelengths

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

46. The fact that all colors on older televisions were created by combining only three different colors of light supports the ____ theory of color vision.​

a. ​CRT
b. ​opponent process
c. ​retinex
d. ​trichromatic

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

47. At the level of rods and cones, the ____ theory seems to fit best, while at the level of the bipolar cells, the ____ theory seems to fit best.​

a. ​opponent process; volley
b. ​volley; trichromatic
c. ​opponent process; trichromatic
d. ​trichromatic; opponent process

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

48. After you stare at a bright green object for a minute and look away, you see red. Which theory attempts to explain this finding?​

a. ​Young-Helmholtz theory
b. ​trichromatic theory
c. ​opponent-process theory
d. ​color-constancy theory

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

49. Which theory of color vision is best able to explain negative color afterimages?​

a. ​retinex theory
b. ​opponent-process theory
c. ​trichromatic theory
d. ​kodak theory

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

50. Color constancy is the ability to ____.​

a. ​perceive all wavelengths as the same color
b. ​see color, even in very faint light
c. ​differentiate among many colors and hues
d. ​recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

51. Color and brightness constancy are best explained by the ____ theory of color vision.​

a. ​trichromatic
b. ​opponent-process
c. ​retinex
d. ​constancy

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

52. According to the retinex theory, we perceive color by ____.​

a. ​the relative activity of three kinds of cones
b. ​contrasting the activity in one area of the visual field with that of the others
c. ​a red vs. green system and a yellow vs. blue system
d. ​detecting the velocity of action potentials from the eye

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

53. Which theory can best explain why people that are wearing yellow-colored glasses can still identify the color of a green apple?​

a. ​trichromatic theory
b. ​retinex theory
c. ​opponent-process theory
d. ​kodak theory

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

54. Difficulty distinguishing between ____ and ____ is the most common form of color vision deficiency.​

a. ​blue; yellow
b. ​green; blue
c. ​red; green
d. ​red; blue

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

55. The ability of some women to detect slightly finer discriminations of color than other women is most likely due to having ____.​

a. ​two types of long-wavelength cones
b. ​more short-wavelength cones
c. ​shorter optic nerves
d. ​a larger cortex

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

56. The most common form of color vision deficiency is due to ____.​

a. ​poor eyesight
b. ​malformation of area V4 in the brain
c. ​complete absence of one of the types of cones
d. ​long- and medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

57. ____ cells axons make up the optic nerve.​

a. ​Horizontal
b. ​Amacrine
c. ​Bipolar
d. ​Ganglion

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

58. In foveal vision, ____.​

a. ​each ganglion cell excited by many receptors
b. ​ganglion cells respond poorly to color vision
c. ​ganglion cells respond well to dim light
d. ​each ganglion cell is excited by a single cone

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

59. The optic nerves from the right and left eye initially meet at the ____.​

a. ​optic chiasm
b. ​lateral geniculate nucleus
c. ​hypothalamus
d. ​cerebral cortex

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

60. Where does the optic nerve send most of its information?​

a. ​directly to the cerebral cortex
b. ​to the lateral geniculate
c. ​to the superior colliculus
d. ​directly to the occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

61. The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the ____.​

a. ​cerebral cortex
b. ​superior colliculus
c. ​inferior colliculus
d. ​thalamus

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

62. Branches of the optic nerve go directly to what areas of the brain?​

a. ​lateral geniculate and cerebral cortex
b. ​superior colliculus and cerebral cortex
c. ​lateral geniculate and superior colliculus
d. ​prefrontal cortex and occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

63. In the visual system, the ____ and ____ constantly feed information back and forth.​

a. ​thalamus; cortex
b. ​thalamus; inferior geniculate
c. ​inferior colliculus; thalamus
d. ​thalamus; lateral colliculus

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

64. Cutting the left optic nerve in front of the optic chiasm would result in blindness in the ____.​

a. ​right eye
b. ​left eye
c. ​peripheral vision of both eyes
d. ​left visual field

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   An Overview of the Mammalian Visual System
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

65. The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is the result of ____.​

a. ​lateral inhibition in the retina
b. ​the diffraction of light from the edge’s surface
c. ​fatigue of the rods and cones
d. ​the color of the object

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

66. In the vertebrate retina, which cells are responsible for lateral inhibition?​

a. ​horizontal cells
b. ​ganglion cells
c. ​bipolar cells
d. ​glial cells

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

67. Horizontal cells receive their input from ____, and they send output to ____.​

a. ​rods and cones; ganglion cells
b. ​rods and cones; bipolar cells
c. ​bipolar cells; ganglion cells
d. ​cones; rods

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

68. Suppose someone has a genetic defect that prevents the formation of horizontal cells in the retina. Which visual phenomenon is most likely to be impaired?​

a. ​lateral inhibition
b. ​movement perception
c. ​dark adaptation
d. ​size constancy

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

69. What is responsible for sharpening contrast at visual borders?​

a. ​receptive fields
b. ​lateral inhibition
c. ​retinal disparity
d. ​the direction in which the light shines

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Processing in the Retina
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.05 – Explain lateral inhibition in terms of the connections among neurons in the retina.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

70. The receptive field of a receptor is the ____.​

a. ​point at which the optic nerve exits the retina
b. ​axon hillock
c. ​point in space from which light strikes the receptor
d. ​point where light shines on, and excites, the visual cortex

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

71. The point in space from which light strikes the receptor is called the ____.​

a. ​stimulus field
b. ​convergence field
c. ​receptive field
d. ​bipolar area

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

72. The ____ of any neuron in the visual system is the area of the visual field that excites or inhibits it.​

a. ​stimulus field
b. ​convergence field
c. ​receptive field
d. ​bipolar field

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

73. The ability to detect movement better than color in our peripheral vision is largely due to ____.​

a. ​magnocellular neurons in the periphery
b. ​parvocellular neurons tightly packed in the periphery
c. ​no cones in the periphery
d. ​the strength of the eye muscles

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

74. Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from ____.​

a. ​magnocellular neurons
b. ​rods
c. ​bipolar cells that receive input from cones
d. ​the periphery of the retina

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

75. Being able to detect fine details of a color painting would depend most on which type of ganglion cells?​

a. ​parvocellular
b. ​magnocellular
c. ​koniocellular
d. ​kodacellular

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

76. Axons from the lateral geniculate extend to which area of the cerebral cortex?​

a. ​precentral gyrus
b. ​postcentral gyrus
c. ​prefrontal cortex
d. ​occipital lobe

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

77. The primary visual cortex sends its information ____.​

a. ​to the lateral geniculate nucleus
b. ​to area V1
c. ​to area V2
d. ​back to the retina

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

78. Cortical area ____ appears to be where conscious visual perception occurs.​

a. ​V4
b. ​V3
c. ​V2
d. ​V1

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

79. The primary visual cortex is also known as the ____.​

a. ​lateral geniculate nucleus
b. ​striate cortex
c. ​area V2
d. ​parvocellular area

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

80. Visual information from the lateral geniculate area goes to the ____.​

a. ​retina
b. ​primary visual cortex
c. ​thalamus
d. ​hypothalamus

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

81. Blindsight refers to ____.​

a. ​the ability to localize visual objects within an apparently blind visual field
b. ​the ability to merge together information from both eyes even though they do not see the exact same picture
c. ​improved hearing and touch in blind people
d. ​the inability to see flashing light

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

82. Once information is sent to the secondary visual cortex, it ____.​

a. ​has reached its final processing destination
b. ​may return to the primary visual cortex
c. ​goes mostly to the primary motor cortex
d. ​is sent back to the retina

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

83. Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a ventral branch sensitive to ____.​

a. ​details of shape
b. ​facial features
c. ​movement
d. ​brightness

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

84. Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a dorsal branch important for ____.​

a. ​details of shape
b. ​color and brightness
c. ​movement
d. ​integrating vision with action

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

85. Once within the cerebral cortex, a mixed pathway of magnocellular and parvocellular cells is important for ____.​

a. ​brightness and color
b. ​integrating vision with action
c. ​details of shape
d. ​distinguishing facial features

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

86. The visual paths in the temporal cortex collectively are referred to as the ____.​

a. ​ventral stream
b. ​dorsal stream
c. ​lateral stream
d. ​magnoparvocellular pathway

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04

 

87. The visual path in the parietal cortex is referred to as the ____.​

a. ​ventral stream
b. ​dorsal stream
c. ​parvocellular pathway
d. ​magnocellular pathway

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

88. Damage to the ventral stream may interfere with ____.​

a. ​the ability to describe the shape or size of an object
b. ​walking toward something seen
c. ​reaching to grasp an object
d. ​perceiving whether the lights are on or off

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

89. Damage to the dorsal stream may interfere with ____.​

a. ​describing what is seen
b. ​perceiving the movement of an object
c. ​remembering something seen at a previous time
d. ​reaching out to grasp an object

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

90. What is the shape of the receptive field to which a simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?​

a. ​circle of a particular radius
b. ​circle with a hole in the middle
c. ​bar in a particular orientation
d. ​bar of a particular length

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

91. What type of cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation anywhere within its large receptive field, regardless of the exact location of the stimulus?​

a. ​simple
b. ​complex
c. ​bipolar
d. ​ganglion

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

92. Which cell responds most strongly to a stimulus moving perpendicular to its axis?​

a. ​simple
b. ​complex
c. ​lateral geniculate
d. ​ganglion

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

93. What is one way to determine whether a given cell in the primary visual cortex is “simple” or “complex”?​

a. ​the shape of its receptive field
b. ​whether its receptive field is monocular or binocular
c. ​whether it can respond equally to lines in more than one location
d. ​whether it is sensitive to the orientation of the stimulus

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

94. The one additional feature that hypercomplex cells have that complex cells do not is that hypercomplex cells ____.​

a. ​respond to their receptive field faster
b. ​have a strong inhibitory area at one end of its receptive field
c. ​have receptive fields that are triangular
d. ​respond to bars of light in more than one orientation

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

95. ____ respond to a particular feature of a stimulus.​

a. ​Hypercomplex cells
b. ​Magnocellular cells
c. ​Feature detectors
d. ​Shape detectors

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

96. V1 neurons would be most strongly activated by viewing ____.​

a. ​the letter T
b. ​a circle
c. ​repeating stripes on a flag
d. ​a single bar of light

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

97. Which structure has the largest receptive fields and the greatest preferential sensitivity to highly complex visual patterns, such as faces?​

a. ​inferior temporal cortex
b. ​superior colliculus
c. ​lateral geniculate
d. ​striate cortex

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

98. Cells in the inferior temporal cortex that are sensitive to a particular shape are also likely to respond to the shape’s ____.​

a. ​figure-ground reversal
b. ​color
c. ​motion
d. ​mirror-reversal

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Primary Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.06 – Define and give examples of receptive fields.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

99. An inability to recognize objects despite otherwise satisfactory vision is called ____.​

a. ​visual agnosia
b. ​blindsight
c. ​prosopagnosia
d. ​hemianopsia

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

100. To what does “shape constancy” refer?​

a. ​All neurons within a single column have the same shape of dendritic tree.
b. ​We can recognize objects even at different orientations.
c. ​Objects described from memory appear more symmetrical than in reality.
d. ​We see certain shapes the same way throughout our lives regardless of age.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

101. A person with visual agnosia is unable to ____.​

a. ​perceive colors
b. ​point to objects
c. ​recognize visual objects
d. ​see

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

102. Someone with prosopagnosia has difficulty with ____.​

a. ​focusing on colored objects
b. ​seeing items located in the left visual field
c. ​recognizing faces
d. ​processing information from more than one sensory modality at a time

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

103. In addition to having difficulty recognizing faces, people with prosopagnosia may have difficulty____.​

a. ​reading
b. ​with all types of memory
c. ​recognizing colors
d. ​recognizing different kinds of plants and animals

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

104. Area ____ is particularly important for color constancy.​

a. ​V1
b. ​V2
c. ​V3
d. ​V4

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Color Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

105. When cells in the middle temporal cortex respond to visual stimuli, their response depends mostly on the ____.​

a. ​speed and direction of movement
b. ​exact shape of the object
c. ​color and brightness of the object
d. ​exact location of the object in visual space

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Motion Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

106. Damage to the magnocellular pathway would most likely lead to the loss of ____.​

a. ​color vision
b. ​shape perception
c. ​color constancy
d. ​motion perception

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Motion Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

107. Which of the following would be easiest for someone who is motion blind?​

a. ​dressing themselves
b. ​driving a car
c. ​taking the dog for a walk
d. ​filling a pitcher with water

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Motion Perception
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

108. Human newborns come into the world predisposed to pay more attention to ____ than any other stationary displays.​

a. ​toys
b. ​balloons
c. ​faces
d. ​dogs

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

109. Cortical neurons in the visual cortex of a kitten or a cat will lose the ability to respond to stimuli in one eye if the eye is sutured shut for ____.​

a. ​the first week after birth
b. ​the first month of life
c. ​any two month period in adult life
d. ​the third and fourth months of life

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

110. Stereoscopic depth perception requires the brain to detect ____.​

a. ​amblyopia
b. ​retinal disparity
c. ​strabismus
d. ​contrasting imagery

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

111. In depth perception, different views are received by each eye, depending on the distance of the object being viewed. What is this called?​

a. ​retinal disparity
b. ​amblyopic differential
c. ​astigmatic contrast
d. ​contrasting imagery

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

112. What is strabismus?​

a. ​a failure of the two eyes to focus on the same thing at the same time
b. ​a blurring of vision caused by asymmetrical curvature of the eye
c. ​stereoscopic depth perception
d. ​the ability to perceive a flashing light as if it were a moving object

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

113. Astigmatism refers to the ____.​

a. ​sensitive period for development of vision
b. ​ability to see horizontal and vertical lines
c. ​asymmetric curvature of eyes
d. ​inability to detect motion

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

114. Infants with cataracts need to have surgical repair ____.​

a. ​as early as possible
b. ​before they begin school
c. ​if it does not fix itself
d. ​when they are old enough to recover from surgery

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

115. What would be the likely outcome of a person who was blind at birth, and had vision restored later in life by the removal of cataracts (clouded lenses)?​

a. ​quick development of normal vision
b. ​trouble describing the shapes of objects
c. ​trouble identifying the location of light
d. ​inability to use touch and sound cues to maneuver around in a building

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Development of the Visual Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.07 – Describe research on how experiences alter development of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

Essay

 

116. Describe the trichromatic, opponent-process, and retinex theories of color vision.​

ANSWER:   Trichromatic: We have three different kinds of cones, each maximally sensitive to different wavelengths of light (corresponding to colors that we see as red, green, and blue) Opponent process: Bipolar cells are excited or inhibited by each member of a pair of complementary colors (yellow-blue, red-green, white-black)
Retinex: The cortex compares information from various parts of the retina to determine brightness and color perception for each area.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Color Vision
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

117. What is prosopagnosia?​

ANSWER:   People with severe problems, either because of brain damage or because they developed fewer connections, may have prosopagnosia, meaning an impaired ability to recognize faces. People with prosopagnosia can read, so visual acuity is not the problem. They recognize people’s voices, so
their problem is not memory (Farah, Wilson, Dain, & Tanaka, 1998). Furthermore, if they feel clay models of faces, they are worse than other people at determining whether two clay models are the same or different (Kilgour, de Gelder, & Lederman, 2004). Their problem is not vision in
general, but something that relates specifically to faces.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Detailed Analysis of Shape
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.08 – Discuss specific deficits, such as impaired facial recognition or impaired motion perception, that can occur after damage to parts of the visual cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

118. Describe the functional and anatomic differences between rods and cones.​

ANSWER:   Rods, abundant in the periphery of the human retina, respond to faint light but are not useful in daylight because bright light bleaches them. Cones, abundant in and near the fovea, are less active in dim light, more useful in bright light, and essential for color vision. Because of the distribution of rods and cones, you have good color vision in the fovea but not in the periphery.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Visual Receptors: Rods and Cones
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.03 – Explain the main features of color vision.
TOPICS:   5.1 Visual Coding

 

119. ​Describe the difference between parvocellular and magnocellular neurons and pathways.

ANSWER:   The parvocellular neurons, with small cell bodies and small receptive fields, are mostly in or near the fovea. (Parvocellular means “small celled,” from the Latin root parv, meaning “small.”) The magnocellular neurons, with larger cell bodies and receptive fields, are distributed evenly
throughout the retina. (Magnocellular means “large celled,” from the Latin root magn, meaning “large.” The same root appears in magnify.)​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Further Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.2 How the Brain Processes Visual Information

 

120. Describe the key functions of the major pathways in the visual cortex.​

ANSWER:   The primary visual cortex (V1) sends information to the secondary visual cortex (area V2), which processes the information further and transmits it to additional areas. The connections in the visual cortex are reciprocal. For example, V1 sends information to V2, and V2 returns information to V1.
From V2, the information branches out in several directions for specialized processing. Researchers distinguish between the ventral stream and the dorsal stream. They call the ventral stream through the temporal cortex the “what” pathway, because it is specialized for identifying and recognizing objects. The dorsal stream through the parietal cortex, once called the “where” pathway, is now called the “how” pathway, because of its importance for visually guided movements.Although the distinction between ventral and dorsal pathways is useful, we should not overstate it.
Normal behavior makes use of both pathways in collaboration (Farivar, 2009), and although
damage to either pathway impairs some tasks more than others, it affects all tasks to some degree.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Ventral and Dorsal Paths
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.05.04 – Trace the route of visual information from the retina to the cerebral cortex.
TOPICS:   5.3 Parallel Processing in the Visual Cortex

 

True / False

 

1. A striated muscle controls movement of the body in relation to the environment.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

2. In skeletal muscles, every axon releases dopamine.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

3. Taking a drug that blocks acetylcholine receptors would be helpful for a person with myasthenia gravis.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

4. Activation of the Golgi tendon organs results in contraction of the muscle.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movements
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

5. Infants have several reflexes not seen in adults.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

6. Most types of movement can be clearly classified as voluntary or involuntary.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

7. ​Central pattern generators are most likely to be found in the spinal cord.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

8. ​A fixed sequence of movements is called a motor program.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

9. ​The motor cortex can become active when imagining movement.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

10. ​People with severe spinal cord injury continue to produce normal activity in the motor cortex when they want to move.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

11. ​The prefrontal cortex plans movements according to their probable outcomes.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

12. ​The supplementary motor cortex is mainly active when preparing for an organized sequence of movements.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

13. ​Mirror neurons are active both during preparation for a movement and while watching someone else perform the same or a similar movement.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

14. ​Brain transplants for Parkinson’s patients have generally been very successful.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

15. ​In Huntington’s disease, earlier onset is associated with slower deterioration over time.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. ​What type of muscle controls movements of the heart?

a. ​smooth
b. striated​
c. cardiac​
d. antagonistic​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

17. ​What type of muscle controls movements of internal organs?

a. ​smooth
b. ​striated
c. ​cardiac
d. ​antagonistic

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

18. ​What type of muscle is responsible for the movement of your body through the environment?

a. ​smooth
b. striated​
c. cardiac​
d. syncarpous​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

19. What is the relationship between the motor neuron axons and muscle fibers?​

a. ​Each axon innervates only one muscle fiber.
b. ​The more muscle fibers a single axon innervates, the more precise the movements.
c. ​The more axons which innervate a single muscle fiber, the more precise the movements.
d. ​The fewer muscle fibers a single axon innervates, the more precise the movements.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

20. ​The eye muscles can be moved with greater precision than the biceps muscles because ____.

a. ​biceps have only slow-twitch muscles
b. biceps have only fast-twitch muscles​
c. biceps are opposed by an antagonistic muscle; the eye muscles are not​
d. eye muscles have a lower ratio of muscle fibers to axons​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

21. ​What is the name given to the synapse where a motor neuron’s axon meets a muscle fiber?

a. ​neuromuscular junction
b. ​polar junction
c. ​muscle spindle
d. ​neurofiber synapse

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

22. ​Moving a leg or arm back and forth requires opposing sets of muscles called ____.

a. ​extensor muscles
b. flexor muscles​
c. cardiac muscles​
d. antagonistic muscles​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

23. ​The absence of acetylcholine will cause a muscle to ____.

a. ​relax
b. ​contract
c. ​fatigue
d. ​stretch

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

24. ​Which muscle is “antagonistic” to a flexor muscle in the right arm?

a. ​a flexor muscle in the right arm
b. an extensor muscle in the left arm​
c. an extensor muscle in the right arm​
d. another flexor muscle in the right arm​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

25. ​The eye muscles have a ratio of about ____ axon(s) per ____ muscle fiber(s).

a. ​two; three
b. ​one; three
c. ​three; two
d. ​three; one

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

26. ​The biceps muscles of the arm have a ratio of ____ to more than a hundred fibers.

a. ​four
b. three​
c. one​
d. two​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

27. ​In movement, the ____ muscle straightens the arm.

a. ​flexor
b. ​striated
c. ​extensor
d. ​skeletal

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

28. ​A fish will adjust to lower water temperatures by ____.

a. ​activating more action potentials
b. increasing the amplitude of its action potentials​
c. recruiting different muscle fibers​
d. returning to its basal metabolic rate​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

29. ​Which muscles are especially important when running up a flight of stairs at full speed?

fast-twitch muscles

a.
b. slow-twitch muscles​
c. smooth muscles​
d. ​intermediate muscles

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

30. If a new species were found with legs composed almost completely of fast-twitch muscles, what could we infer about its behavior?

a. ​It could chase prey over long distances.
b. It could chase prey only over short distances.​
c. It probably travels constantly.​
d. It probably moves slowly and grazes on vegetation.​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

31. ​During aerobic exercises such as dancing, as glucose is used by the muscles, ____.

a. ​fast-twitch fibers absorb more glucose
b. ​slow-twitch muscles produce glucose anaerobically
c. ​glucose use increases
d. ​glucose use decreases

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

32. ​Exercising at a high altitude where there is less oxygen is most likely to affect ____.

a. ​intermediate fibers
b. anaerobic contraction​
c. fast-twitch fibers​
d. slow-twitch fibers​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

33. ​Vigorous use of fast-twitch fibers results in fatigue because the process is ____.

a. ​aerobic
b. anaerobic​
c. anabolic​
d. abolic​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

34. ​A proprioceptor is sensitive to the ____.

a. ​degree of relaxation or contraction of smooth muscle tissue
b. position and movement of a part of the body​
c. percentage of fibers that are contracting within a muscle bundle​
d. degree of fatigue in a muscle​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

35. ​The stretch reflex ____.

a. ​results in a stretch
b. is caused by a stretch​
c. inhibits motor neurons​
d. sends a message for a muscle to relax​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

36. ​A boxer’s ability to sense the position of his arm and hand before planning a punch is dependent on the sense of ____.

a. ​proprioception
b. somatosensation​
c. pain​
d. vision​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

37. ​A muscle spindle responds to the ____.

a. ​oxygen level in the muscle
b. acetylcholine concentration at the nerve-muscle junction​
c. fatigue of the muscle​
d. stretch of the muscle​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

38. ​A sudden stretch of a muscle excites a feedback system that opposes the stretch. This message starts in the ____.

a. ​dorsal root ganglion
b. cerebellum​
c. Pacinian corpuscles​
d. muscle spindles​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

39. ​A Golgi tendon organ responds to ____.

a. ​increases in muscle tension
b. decreases in muscle tension​
c. increases in muscle spindles​
d. decreases in muscle spindles​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

40. ​The role of the Golgi tendon organs is to ____.

a. ​prevent extreme muscle contractions
b. guard against fatigue of muscles​
c. produce rapid repetitive movements such as finger tapping​
d. regulate blood flow to the tendons and muscles​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

41. ​Muscle spindles respond to changes in muscle ____; Golgi tendon organs respond to changes in muscle ____.

a. ​tension; fatigue
b. fatigue; tension​
c. stretch; tension​
d. tension; stretch​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

42. ​Activity of a muscle spindle is to ____ as activity of the Golgi tendon organ is to ____.

a. ​contraction; inhibition of contraction
b. inhibition of contraction; contraction​
c. inhibition of contraction; inhibition of contraction​
d. contraction; contraction​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

43. ​What experience is similar to losing proprioception?

a. ​losing your sense of equilibrium
b. walking on a leg that has “fallen asleep”​
c. having a phantom limb​
d. teeth chattering in the cold​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

44. ​A physician who asks you to cross your legs and then taps just below the knee is testing your ____ reflexes.

a. ​constriction
b. slow​
c. stretch ​
d. fast​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Muscles and Their Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

45. ​A ballistic movement ____.

a. ​is a rhythmic alternation between two movements
b. is guided by feedback during the course of the movement​
c. proceeds automatically once it has been triggered​
d. tends to overcorrect itself​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

46. ​Central pattern generators ____.

a. ​contribute to rhythmic patterns of movement
b. generate movement which is unresponsive to environmental stimulation​
c. constrict the pupils in response to bright light​
d. control all reflexes in adult humans​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

47. ​A motor program is a ____.

a. ​mechanism that guides movement on the basis of sensory feedback
b. mechanism that produces an alternation between two movements​
c. plan for training a brain-damaged person to walk​
d. movement that, once triggered, continues automatically until its completion​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

48. ​Which action is an example of a motor program in chickens with featherless wings?

a. ​flapping wings if suddenly dropped
b. learning to fly​
c. stretching its wings but not flapping them​
d. flapping its wings while eating​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

49. ​Which behavior is most likely to result from the activity of central pattern generators?

a. ​a dog shaking itself to dry off
b. a child catching a baseball​
c. a child playing the piano​
d. an adult yawning​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

50. ​Which activity is an example of a motor program in a human?

a. ​yawning
b. making a list​
c. taking your first steps​
d. learning how to drive​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Units of Movement
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.01 – List the types of muscles and the proprioceptors that control them.
TOPICS:   7.1 The Control of Movement

 

51. ​In order to elicit movement, the motor cortex ____.

a. ​has direct connections to the muscles
b. sends axons to the brainstem and spinal cord​
c. controls isolated movement in a single muscle​
d. relies on feedback from individual muscle fibers​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

52. ​The posterior parietal cortex ____.

a. ​is the main area for touch and other body information
b. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world​
c. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself​
d. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

53. ​People with posterior parietal damage ____.

a. ​can see an object, but are unable to describe it
b. have good hand-eye coordination only if they close one eye​
c. have difficulty accurately locating and approaching a sound​
d. will not step over an obstacle, although they can accurately describe it​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

54. ​People with posterior parietal damage ____.

a. ​cannot walk toward something they hear
b. have trouble converting vision into action​
c. can walk toward something they see but cannot reach out to grasp it​
d. cannot accurately describe what they see.​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

55. ​The prefrontal cortex ____.

a. ​is the main area for touch and other body information
b. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world​
c. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself​
d. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement.​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

56. ​The premotor cortex ____.

a. ​is the main area for touch and other body information
b. keeps track of the position of the body relative to the world​
c. is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself​
d. responds to lights, noises, and other signals for a movement ​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

57. ​Damage to the prefrontal cortex is most likely to result in ____.

a. ​an inability to move
b. the loss of somatosensory experiences​
c. poorly planned movements​
d. no effect on movement​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

58. ​The part of the cortex that is most active during preparations for a movement and less active during the movement itself is the ____.

a. ​premotor cortex
b. somatosensory cortex​
c. inferior temporal cortex​
d. tabes dorsalis​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

59. ​In contrast to people with posterior parietal damage, people with damage to certain parts of the occipital cortex outside the primary visual cortex ____.

a. ​cannot locate the source of sounds
b. lose their ability to see everything​
c. can accurately describe what they see but cannot reach out to grasp it​
d. cannot accurately describe what they see but can reach out to grasp it​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

60. ​When are the cells in the premotor cortex (in contrast to the primary motor cortex) most active?

a. ​in preparation for movements
b. during movements​
c. at or after the end of movements​
d. during inhibition of movements​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

61. ​The part of the cortex that responds mostly to the sensory signals that lead to a movement is the ____.

a. ​premotor cortex
b. prefrontal cortex​
c. supplementary motor cortex​
d. tabes dorsalis​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

62. ​Cells in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and ____ prepare for a movement, sending messages to the primary motor cortex.

a. ​posterior parietal cortex
b. secondary motor cortex​
c. somatosensory cortex ​
d. supplementary motor cortex​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

63. ​The supplementary motor cortex becomes active ____.

a. ​during the second or two after a movement
b. during the second or two prior to a movement ​
c. only during a movement​
d. only after a movement ​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

64. ​Damage to the ____ impairs the ability to organize smooth sequences of activities.

a. ​premotor cortex
b. prefrontal cortex​
c. supplementary motor cortex​
d. tabes dorsalis​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

65. ​Just thinking about the intention to put your arm around your attractive date would activate which motor areas?

a. ​posterior parietal lobe
b. primary motor cortex​
c. premotor cortex​
d. supplementary motor cortex​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

66. ​Watching another person shoot a basketball is most likely to activate ____ neurons in the brain of the person who is watching.

a. ​primary motor cortex
b. spinal cord​
c. mirror​
d. observational​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

67. ​Mirror neurons are active when ____.

a. ​viewing mirror images
b. watching others perform movements​
c. identifying ourselves in the mirror​
d. playing the piano​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

68. ​The motor cortex produces a kind of activity called a(n) ____ before any voluntary movement.

a. ​readiness potential
b. action potential​
c. evoked potential​
d. motor potential​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

69. ​Studies on conscious decisions regarding voluntary movements suggest that ____.

a. ​we are conscious of our decision before brain activity is generated for movement
b. voluntary movements are the result of free will​
c. brain activity for the movement begins before we are conscious of our decision​
d. we are unable to judge when we make conscious decisions​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.05 – Evaluate the evidence regarding the role of consciousness in planning a movement.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

70. ​People with damage to the parietal cortex appear to lack ____ related to voluntary movements. a feelings of intention

a. ​feelings of intention
b. the ability to make conscious decisions​
c. a sense of timing​
d. muscle strength​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

71. ​Paths from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord are called the ____.

a. ​pyramidalspinal tracts
b. horizontalspinal tracts​
c. dorsospinal tracts​
d. corticospinal tracts ​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

72. ​Axons of the lateral corticospinal tract extend to what area?

a. ​cerebellum
b. cerebral cortex​
c. spinal cord​
d. thalamus​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

73. ​The lateral tract cross over point is in the ____.

a. ​pyramids of the medulla
b. spinal cord​
c. reticular formation​
d. vestibular nucleus​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

74. ​Lateral tract axons are responsible for movements in the ____.

a. ​arms, hands, and toes
b. trunk​
c. face and head​
d. internal organs​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

75. ​Most of the axons of the medial tract go to which side of the body?

a. ​contralateral
b. ipsilateral​
c. bilateral​
d. dorsolateral​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

76. ​Movements near the midline of the body, such as bending and turning of the trunk, are controlled by which motor system?

a. ​dorsolateral tract
b. medial tract​
c. supplementary​
d. hippocampal​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

77. ​What is the relationship between the lateral tract and the medial tract?

a. ​Most movements are controlled by one or the other, but not both.
b. Most movements rely on both, which work in a cooperative fashion.​
c. Most movements that are initiated by one are terminated by the other.​
d. One is excitatory while the other is inhibitory.​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.03 – Contrast the anatomy and functions of the lateral and medial corticospinal tracts.
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

78. ​If you have trouble with rapid, ballistic movement sequences that require accurate timing, you probably have suffered damage to the ____.

a. ​reticular formation
b. cerebellum​
c. hippocampus​
d. hypothalamus​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Moveme

 

79. ​Speaking, piano playing, athletic skills, and other rapid movements would be most impaired by damage to which structure?

a. ​reticular formation
b. cerebellum​
c. ventromedial hypothalamus​
d. parasympathetic nervous system​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

80. ​Damage to the cerebellum is most likely to interfere with ____.

a. ​lifting weights
b. the ability to remember a series of events​
c. rapid movements that require timing​
d. chewing and swallowing​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

81. ​What is the name of the rapid eye movement occurring when a person moves his or her eyes from one focus point to another?

a. ​gyration
b. sclerosis​
c. slide​
d. saccade​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

82. ​A saccade is initiated by impulses from the ____.

a. ​spinal cord
b. hypothalamus​
c. cerebellum​
d. hippocampus​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

83. ​After damage to the cerebellar cortex, an individual has trouble with which part of the finger-to-nose test?

a. ​The initial rapid movement to the nose
b. The second step involving the hold function​
c. The third step which involves the finger moving to the nose by a slow movement​
d. Both the second and third steps​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   8.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

84. ​The nuclei of the cerebellum (as opposed to the cerebellar cortex) are most important in ____.

a. ​moving a finger rapidly toward a target
b. holding a finger in a steady position​
c. using the hands to lift heavy weights​
d. coordinating the left hand with the right hand​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

85. The cerebellum is most important for any process that requires ____.​

a. ​precise timing
b. control of muscle strength​
c. comparison between the left and right hemispheres​
d. detecting the intensity of a stimulus​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

86. ​Purkinje cells are ____.

a. ​proprioceptors
b. flat cells in sequential planes​
c. nuclei in the central cerebellum​
d. axons parallel to one another​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

87. ​How do parallel fibers in the cerebellum control the duration of a response?

a. ​By determining the number of Purkinje cells that fire in sequence
b. By altering the velocity of action potentials from Purkinje cells​
c. By determining which one of all the available Purkinje cells becomes active​
d. By passing information back and forth between one Purkinje cell and another​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

88. ​Which widely branching cells are responsible for all of the output from the cerebellar cortex to the nuclei of the cerebellum?

a. ​parallel fibers
b. Purkinje cells​
c. putamen cells​
d. saccade cells​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

89. ​The greater the number of Purkinje cells activated, the ____.

a. ​less the collective duration of the response
b. greater the collective duration of the response​
c. greater the strength of the response​
d. less the strength of the response​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

90. ​The structure composed of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus is the ____.

a. ​basal ganglia
b. limbic system​
c. cerebellum​
d. sympathetic nervous system​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

91. ​Most of the output from the globus pallidus to the thalamus releases ____.

a. ​glutamate
b. ACh.​
c. dopamine​
d. GABA​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

92. ​Which basal ganglia structure(s) is/are important for receiving input from sensory areas of the thalamus and the cerebral cortex?

a. ​globus pallidus and putamen
b. globus pallidus and caudate nucleus​
c. caudate nucleus and putamen​
d. globus pallidus​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

93. ​The basal ganglia are most critical for learning ____.

a. ​motor habits that are difficult to describe in words
b. repetitive motor behaviors like cutting with a knife​
c. motor skills that include an element of balance​
d. fine motor skills such as sewing​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Brain Areas and Motor learning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

94. ​Cerebellum is to ____ as basal ganglia are to ____.

a. ​clumsy; paralysis
b. initiation; stopping​
c. gross muscle function; fine motor coordination​
d. timing; voluntary movements​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Basal Ganglia
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

95. ​What is one of the main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?

a. ​rapid fatigue of the muscles
b. loss of saccadic eye movements​
c. difficulty initiating movements​
d. inability to coordinate speech with movements​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

96. ​Parkinson’s disease is caused by degeneration of a pathway of neurons that releases which neurotransmitter?

a. ​acetylcholine
b. substance P​
c. serotonin​
d. dopamine​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

97. ​In Parkinson’s disease, which pathway in the brain degenerates?

a. ​basal ganglia to cerebellum
b. substantia nigra to caudate nucleus and putamen
c. cerebellum to spinal cord​
d. cerebral cortex to spinal cord​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

98. ​The role of heredity in late-onset Parkinson’s disease ____.

a. ​equals that of early onset Parkinson’s disease
b. is probably not as great as with early onset Parkinson’s disease​
c. is greater for DZ twins that MZ twins​
d. is greater for females than males​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

99. ​Genetic factors have their greatest impact on Parkinson’s disease in cases that involve ____.

a. ​early onset of the disease
b. late onset of the disease​
c. first-born children​
d. children with older brothers and sisters​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

100. ​What is the effect of MPTP?

a. ​It kills the neurons that release dopamine.
b. It suppresses activity of the immune system.​
c. It is converted in the brain to dopamine.​
d. It inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

101. ​It is believed that exposure to herbicides and pesticides is ____.

a. ​the primary cause of Parkinson’s disease
b. ​a contributing factor in some cases of Huntington’s disease
c. ​the primary cause of myasthenia gravis
d. ​a contributing factor in some cases of Parkinson’s disease

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

102. What is the most common drug in the treatment for Parkinson’s disease?​

a. ​haloperidol
b. physostigmine​
c. Dilantin​
d. L-dopa​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

103. ​A dopamine pill is ineffective for treating Parkinson’s disease because it ____.

a. ​is already present in too large an amount
b. ​does not cross the blood-brain barrier
c. ​would have to be the size of a baseball to be effective
d. ​is too expensive

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

104. ​What is a limitation of using L-dopa for Parkinson’s disease?

a. ​It only helps those who are in the later stages.
b. It does not cross the blood-brain barrier.​
c. It can contribute to a greater loss of dopamine neurons.​
d. It blocks glutamate receptors.​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

105. ​L-Dopa, a common treatment for Parkinson’s disease, is a drug that ____.

a. ​inhibits activity of the immune system
b. ​increases the brain’s production of dopamine
c. ​blocks the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
d. ​facilitates the passage of sodium across neuron membranes

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

106. ​As an option for treating Parkinson’s patients, transplantation of stem cells appears to be ____.

a. ​the most effective technique
b. more effective in late stages of the disease​
c. modestly effective, as with other treatments​
d. not at all effective​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

107. ​Early symptoms of Huntington’s disease usually include ____.

a. ​paralysis
b. ​jerky arm movements and body tremors
c. ​rapid fatigue
d. ​difficulty coordinating the left hand with the right hand

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

108. ​What is a common symptom of Huntington’s disease?

a. ​rapid fatigue of the muscles
b. loss of both sensation and motor control in certain limbs​
c. twitches, tremors, and writhing that interfere with voluntary movement​
d. impairment of saccadic eye movements and rapid alternating movements​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

109. ​Which parts of the brain deteriorate most strongly in Huntington’s disease?

a. ​Pathways of neurons containing the neurotransmitter dopamine
b. ​The cerebellum and medulla
c. ​The caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
d. ​The hippocampus and amygdala

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

110. ​The psychological disorders that accompany Huntington’s disease could be mistaken for which of the following?

a. ​schizophrenia
b. dissociative identity disorder​
c. antisocial personality disorder​
d. bipolar disorder​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

111. ​What is the usual age of onset for Huntington’s disease?

a. ​5-7 years old
b. ​12-20 years old
c. ​30-50 years old
d. ​65 years or older

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

112. ​What is the relationship of genetics to Huntington’s disease?

a. ​It is caused by a dominant gene on the X chromosome.
b. It is caused by a dominant gene on chromosome 4.​
c. It is caused by a recessive gene on one of the autosomal chromosomes.​
d. There is no evidence linking Huntington’s disease to any gene.​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

113. ​In its normal form, part of the gene that controls Huntington’s disease repeats its sequence of bases ____.

a. ​under ten times
b. ​between approximately 11-24 times
c. ​at least 36 times
d. ​approximately 75 or 80 times

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

114. ​The presymptomatic test for Huntington’s disease enables one to predict not only who will get the disease but also ____.

a. ​the approximate age of onset
b. what other diseases the person will contract​
c. which drugs will best alleviate the disease​
d. which symptoms will become prominent first, and which ones later​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

115. ​Which of the following would be the most promising treatment for Huntington’s disease?

a. ​enhancing formation of glutamine chains
b. ​increasing production of huntingtin
c. ​blocking formation of glutamine chain clustering
d. ​decreasing production of BDNF

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Huntington’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders

 

Essay

 

116. ​Describe the areas and major functions of the primary motor cortex (include the relevant areas near to the motor cortex).

ANSWER:  

Since the pioneering work of Gustav Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig (1870), neuroscientists have known that direct electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex—the precentral gyrus of the frontal cortex, just anterior to the central sulcus—elicits movements. The motor cortex does not send messages directly to the muscles. Its axons extend to the brainstem and spinal cord, which generate the impulses that control the muscles. In most mammals, these axons connect only to interneurons, which in turn control motor neurons. In humans and other primates, some axons go directly from the cerebral cortex to motor neurons, presumably giving us greater dexterity. Human movements depend on both the axons to motor neurons and axons to interneurons.

The motor cortex is just anterior to the somatosensory cortex, and the two match up nicely. That is, the brain area that controls the left hand is near the area that feels the left hand, the area that controls the left foot is near the area that feels the left foot, and so forth. You need to feel a body part to control its movement accurately.

The primary motor cortex is important for making movements, but not for initial planning. One of the first areas to become active in planning a movement is the posterior parietal cortex which monitors the position of the body relative to the world. The prefrontal cortex and the supplementary motor cortex are also important for planning and organizing a rapid sequence. The premotor cortex is most active immediately before a movement. It receives information about the target to which the body is directing its movement, as well as information about the body’s current position and posture. The prefrontal cortex, which is also active during a delay before a movement, stores sensory information relevant to a movement. It is also important for considering the probable outcomes of possible movements.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

117. ​Describe the significance of mirror neurons.

ANSWER:   ​O

f discoveries in neuroscience, one of the most exciting to psychologists has been mirror neurons, which are active both during preparation for a movement and while watching someone else perform the same or a similar movement. Mirror neurons were first reported in the premotor cortex of monkeys and later in other areas and other species, including humans. These neurons are theoretically exciting because of the idea that they may be important for understanding other people, identifying with them, and imitating them. For example, mirror neurons in part of the frontal cortex become active when people smile or see someone else smile, and they respond especially strongly in people who report identifying strongly with other people. Many people have speculated that people with autism—who fail to form strong social bonds—might lack mirror neurons. However, one study using fMRI found normal mirror neuron responses in autistic people, so we need to look elsewhere to explain autism. Mirror neurons are activated not only by seeing an action, but also by any reminder of the action. Certain cells respond to hearing an action as well as seeing or doing it. Other cells respond to either doing an action or reading about it.

The possibilities are exciting, but before we speculate too far, an important question remains: Do mirror neurons cause imitation and social behavior, or do they result from them? Put another way, are we born with neurons that respond to the sight of a movement and also facilitate the same movement? If so, they could be important for social learning. However, another possibility is that we learn which visible movements correspond to movements of our own. Then seeing others’ actions reminds us of our own, and activates brain areas responsible for those actions. In that case, mirror neurons are not responsible for imitation or socialization.

The answer may be different for different movements. Some newborn infants imitate a few facial movements, especially tongue protrusion. That result implies built-in mirror neurons that connect the sight of a movement to the movement itself. However, in both monkey and human infants, many mirror neurons do not respond to observations of others’ movements until after the infant has practiced making those movements itself. A mirror neuron cannot be essential for learning to imitate a movement if you have to practice the movement before that neuron develops its mirror properties.

Also, researchers identified mirror neurons that responded both when people moved a certain finger, such as the index finger, and when they watched someone else move the same finger. Then they asked people to watch a display on the screen and move their index finger whenever the hand on the screen moved the little finger. They were to move their little finger whenever the hand on the screen moved the index finger. After some practice, these “mirror” neurons turned into “counter-mirror” neurons that responded to movements of one finger by that person and the sight of a different finger on the screen. In other words, at least some mirror neurons modify their properties by learning, and therefore it is possible that they developed their original properties by learning also.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.02 – Describe the cortical mechanisms that control movement and its inhibition.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

118. ​Describe the relationship of conscious decisions and movements. What may this relationship reveal about consciousness?

ANSWER:   Each of us has the feeling, “I consciously decide to do something, and then I do it.” That sequence seems so obvious that we might not even question it, but research casts doubt on this assumption. Research indicates that the brain activity responsible for the movement apparently began before the person’s conscious decision to move. The results seem to indicate that your conscious decision does not cause your action. Rather, you become conscious of the decision after the process leading to action has already been underway for about 300 ms. None of these results deny that you make a voluntary decision. The implication, however, is that what we identify as a conscious decision is the perception of a gradual brain process. It probably begins with unconscious processes that build up to a certain level before they become conscious.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebral Cortex
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.05 – Evaluate the evidence regarding the role of consciousness in planning a movement.
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

119. ​Briefly describe the cellular organization of the cerebellum.

ANSWER:   The cerebellum receives input from the spinal cord, from each of the sensory systems by way of the cranial nerve nuclei, and from the cerebral cortex. That information eventually reaches the cerebellar cortex, the surface of the cerebellum.

  • The neurons are arranged in a precise geometrical pattern, with multiple repetitions of the same units.
  • The Purkinje cells are flat (two-dimensional) cells in sequential planes, parallel to one another.
  • The parallel fibers are axons parallel to one another and perpendicular to the planes of the Purkinje cells.
  • Action potentials in parallel fibers excite one Purkinje cell after another. Each Purkinje cell then transmits an inhibitory message to cells in the nuclei of the cerebellum (clusters of cell bodies in the interior of the cerebellum) and the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem, which in turn send information to the midbrain and the thalamus.
  • Depending on which and how many parallel fibers are active, they might stimulate only the first few Purkinje cells or a long series of them. Because the parallel fibers’ messages reach different Purkinje cells one after another, the greater the number of excited Purkinje cells, the greater their collective duration of response. That is, if the parallel fibers stimulate only the first few Purkinje cells, the result is a brief message to the target cells; if they stimulate more Purkinje cells, the message lasts longer. The output of Purkinje cells controls the timing of a movement, including both its onset and offset.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   The Cerebellum
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.04 – Describe the functions of the cerebellum and basal ganglia
TOPICS:   7.2 Brain Mechanisms of Movement

 

120. ​Briefly describe the nature of Parkinson’s disease. Include a discussion of its causes and possible treatments.

ANSWER:  

The main symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (also known as Parkinson disease) are rigidity, muscle tremors, slow movements, and difficulty initiating physical and mental activity. It becomes more common as people age, striking 1 percent to 2 percent of people over age 65. Early symptoms usually include loss of olfaction and psychological depression. Many but not all Parkinson’s patients have cognitive deficits, which may include problems with attention, language, or memory. The immediate cause of Parkinson’s disease is the gradual loss of neurons in the substantia nigra and therefore a loss of dopamine-releasing axons to the striatum (part of the basal ganglia). With the loss of this input, the striatum decreases its inhibition of the globus pallidus, which therefore increases its inhibitory input to the thalamus. The result is less vigorous voluntary movements. People with Parkinson’s disease are still capable of movement, and sometimes they move normally in response to signals or instructions, such as when following a parade. However, their spontaneous movements are slow and weak.

What causes the damage to the substantia nigra? An early study reported that having a monozygotic twin with early-onset Parkinson’s disease greatly increased your probability of getting it, but having a monozygotic twin with late-onset disease had no effect. That result implied that genes make little or no contribution to late-onset Parkinson’s disease. Later studies have found less extreme results, indicating that genes do influence the late-onset disease, though less strongly than they impact early-onset disease. So far, researchers have identified more than 20 genes that apparently increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease, although the results vary from one study to another, and one population to another.

The results agree, however, that none of these genes by itself produces a high risk. An accidental discovery implicated exposure to toxins as another factor in Parkinson’s disease. In northern California in 1982, several young adults developed symptoms of Parkinson’s disease after using a drug similar to heroin. Before the investigators could alert the community to the danger, many other users had developed symptoms ranging from mild to fatal. The substance responsible for the symptoms was MPTP, a chemical that the body converts to MPP+, which accumulates in, and then destroys, neurons that release dopamine, partly by impairing the transport of mitochondria from the cell body to the synapse. Postsynaptic neurons react to the loss of input by increasing their number of dopamine receptors.

People are sometimes exposed to hazardous environmental chemicals that damage cells of the substantia nigra. Many studies have shown increased risk of Parkinson’s disease among people with much exposure to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, including paraquat, rotenone, maneb, and ziram. The disease is more common in farmers and other rural dwellers than in city dwellers, presumably because of increased exposure to these chemicals. Exposure to these chemicals increases the risk especially among people with any of the genes that predispose to Parkinson’s. If someone also had a traumatic head injury, the risk goes up even more. In short, most cases result from several influences combined, not just one.

What else might influence the risk of Parkinson’s disease? Researchers compared the lifestyles of people who did and didn’t develop the disease. One factor that stands out consistently is cigarette smoking and coffee drinking: People who smoke cigarettes or drink coffee have less chance of developing Parkinson’s disease.

Because Parkinson’s disease results from a dopamine deficiency, a logical goal is to restore the missing dopamine. A dopamine pill would be ineffective because dopamine does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Physicians in the 1950s and 1960s reasoned that L-dopa, a precursor to dopamine that does cross the barrier, might be a good treatment. In contrast to all the medicines that were discovered by trial and error, this was the first drug in psychiatry or neurology, and one of the first in all of medicine, to emerge from a plausible theory. Taken as a daily pill, L-dopa reaches the brain, where neurons convert it to dopamine. L-dopa is still the most common treatment for Parkinson’s disease. However, L-dopa treatment is disappointing in several ways. It increases dopamine release in all axons, including those that had deteriorated and those that were still functioning normally. It produces spurts of high release alternating with lower release. Even if it adequately replaces lost dopamine, it does not replace other transmitters that are also depleted. It does not slow the continuing loss of neurons. And it produces unpleasant side effects such as nausea, restlessness, sleep problems, low blood pressure, repetitive movements, and sometimes hallucinations and delusions.

A potentially exciting strategy has been “in the experimental stage” since the 1980s. In a pioneering study, M. J. Perlow and colleagues (1979) injected the chemical 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine, a chemical modification of dopamine) into rats to damage the substantia nigra of one hemisphere, producing Parkinson’s-type symptoms on the opposite side of the body. After the movement abnormalities stabilized, the experimenters transplanted substantia nigra tissue from rat fetuses into the damaged brains. Most recipients recovered much of their normal movement within four weeks. Control animals that suffered the same brain damage without receiving grafts showed little or no recovery. This is only a partial brain transplant, but still, the Frankensteinian implications are striking.

If such surgery works for rats, might it also for humans? Ordinarily, scientists test any experimental procedure extensively with laboratory animals before trying it on humans, but with Parkinson’s disease, the temptation was too great. People in the late stages have little to lose and are willing to try almost anything. The obvious problem is where to get the donor tissue. Several early studies used tissue from the patient’s own adrenal gland. Although that tissue is not composed of neurons, it produces and releases dopamine. Unfortunately, the adrenal gland transplants seldom produced much benefit.

Another possibility is to transplant brain tissue from aborted fetuses. Fetal neurons transplanted into the brains of patients with Parkinson’s sometimes survive for years and make synapses with the patient’s own cells. However, the operation is expensive and difficult, requiring brain tissue from four to eight aborted fetuses, and the benefits to the patient have been small at best.

A related approach is to take stem cells—immature cells that are capable of differentiating into other cell types—guide their development so that they produce large quantities of L-dopa, and then transplant them into the brain. The idea sounds promising, but researchers will need to overcome several difficulties before this might become an effective treatment.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   Parkinson’s Disease
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   KALA.BIOP.16.07.06 – Discuss the causes of Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.
TOPICS:   7.3 Movement Disorders