Biology Concepts And Investigations 2 nd Edition By Hoefnagels -Test Bank

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Biology Concepts And Investigations 2 nd Edition By Hoefnagels -Test Bank

Chapter 006 – How Cells Release Energy

 

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Plants are:

A. Net O2 consumers and CO2 producers

 

B. Net O2 producers and CO2 consumers

 

C. Net O2 and CO2 producers

 

D. Net O2 and CO2 consumers

 

2. Animals are:

A. Net O2 producers and CO2 consumers

 

B. Net O2 and CO2 producers

 

C. Net O2 consumers and CO2 producers

 

D. Net O2 and CO2 consumers

 

3. In animal cells the primary organelle that generates molecules of ATP is the:

A. Ribosome

 

B. Lysosome

 

C. Golgi body

 

D. None of these are correct

 

E. Mitochondrion

 

4. The main reason that cellular respiration needs to occur step by step is because:

A. Cells don’t store enough oxygen

 

B. Cells don’t have many mitochondria

 

C. Glucose breaks down slowly inside a cell

 

D. Too much energy would be released for the cell to harness

 

E. Cells produce the enzymes needed for cellular respiration very slowly

 

5. The chemical formula for glucose is:

A. C6H12O6

 

B. C12H6O12

 

C. C6H6O12

 

D. C12H12O6

 

E. All are correct

 

6. During glycolysis molecules of glucose are:

A. Broken down into three molecules of pyruvate

 

B. Put together to form two molecules of pyruvate

 

C. Put together to form three molecules of pyruvate

 

D. Broken down to form two molecules of pyruvate

 

E. Broken down and the carbon atoms liberated as CO2

 

7. Glycolysis of a glucose molecule:

A. Produces a net gain of two molecules of ATP

 

B. Occurs only in animal cells

 

C. Transfers electrons from glucose to FAD

 

D. Occurs only in microorganisms

 

E. Occurs in mitochondria

 

8. The three main biochemical pathways of cellular respiration are:

A. Glycolysis, light reactions, and Calvin cycle

 

B. Calvin cycle, Kreb’s cycle, and light reactions

 

C. Kreb’s cycle, Calvin cycle, and electron transport

 

D. Glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, and electron transport

 

E. Light reactions, carbon reactions, and electron transport

 

9. The electrons that are transferred during cellular respiration are carried in the molecules:

A. NADP and FADH2

 

B. NADH and FADH2

 

C. NADH and NADP

 

D. NADH2 and Glucose

 

E. NADP and Glucose

 

10. Glycolysis occurs in the:

A. Cytoplasm

 

B. Mitochondria

 

C. Lysosome

 

D. Nucleus

 

E. Cell membrane

 

11. The Kreb’s cycle occurs in the:

A. Lysosome

 

B. Nucleus

 

C. Cytoplasm

 

D. Mitochondria

 

E. Ribosome

 

12. The electron transport system occurs in the:

A. Lysosome.

 

B. Nucleus.

 

C. Cytoplasm.

 

D. Ribosome.

 

E. Mitochondria.

 

13. The “spent” electrons from electron transport in aerobic respiration are transferred to:

A. Oxygen

 

B. Nitrogen

 

C. Hydrogen

 

D. Sulfur

 

E. Carbon dioxide

 

14. The enzyme that forms a channel in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and phosphorylates ADP is:

A. ATP Synthase

 

B. NADH Synthase

 

C. FADH2 Synthase

 

D. ADP Synthase

 

E. None of these are correct

 

15. The products of cellular respiration are:

A. Carbon dioxide, glucose, and water

 

B. Glucose, water, and ATP

 

C. Glucose, carbon dioxide, and ATP

 

D. Oxygen, ATP, and water

 

E. Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP

 

16. The reactants for cellular respiration are:

A. Glucose and ATP

 

B. Water and ATP

 

C. Oxygen and ATP

 

D. Glucose and oxygen

 

E. Carbon dioxide and glucose

 

17. Anaerobic respiration is most common in:

A. Microorganisms

 

B. Plants

 

C. Animals

 

D. Fungi

 

18. Fermentation is most common in:

A. Plants

 

B. Animals

 

C. Fungi

 

D. Microorganisms

 

19. In prokaryotic cells, cellular respiration occurs in the:

A. Mitochondria

 

B. Cytoplasm and the cell’s outer membrane

 

C. Cell’s outer membrane

 

D. Mitochondria and cytoplasm

 

E. Cytoplasm

 

20. The area enclosed by the highly folded inner mitochondrial membrane is the:

A. Cytoplasm

 

B. Nucleus

 

C. Outer membrane

 

D. Both cytoplasm and nucleus are correct

 

E. Matrix

 

21. In eukaryotic cells NADH and FADH2 are transported along electron carriers of the:

A. Inner mitochondrial membrane

 

B. Matrix

 

C. Outer mitochondrial membrane

 

D. Cell membrane

 

E. Cytoplasm

 

22. Glycolysis does not require:

A. ATP

 

B. Glucose

 

C. Enzymes

 

D. NAD

 

E. Oxygen

 

23. During glycolysis, to “activate” glucose ________ molecules of ____________ are required.

A. Three, NAD

 

B. Two, ATP

 

C. Two, FAD

 

D. Three, ADP

 

E. Three, ATP

 

24. In glycolysis the net number of NADH produced is:

A. 0

 

B. 3

 

C. 2

 

D. 4

 

E. 30

 

25. If a high-energy “donor” molecule physically transfers a phosphate group to ADP, this is called:

A. Photosynthesis

 

B. Oxidative phosphorylation

 

C. Substrate-level phosphorylation

 

D. Electron transport

 

E. Glycolysis

 

26. The net ATP production in glycolysis is only two because:

A. Two molecules of ATP are needed to “activate” glucose

 

B. Two molecules of ATP are used to move NADH into the mitochondria

 

C. That is all the ATP produced during glycolysis

 

D. ATP production cannot exceed NADH production

 

E. Glycolysis may occur without oxygen being present

 

27. Only a small amount of ATP is produced during glycolysis because most of the energy stored in a glucose molecule remains in the bonds of:

A. Carbon dioxide

 

B. NADH

 

C. PGAL

 

D. Pyruvate

 

E. None of these are correct

 

28. The compound that enters the Kreb’s cycle is:

A. ATP

 

B. Pyruvate

 

C. PGAL

 

D. ATP Synthase

 

E. Acetyl CoA

 

29. The sole source of ATP production in cells using fermentation only is:

A. Glycolysis

 

B. Kreb’s cycle

 

C. Photosynthesis

 

D. Electron transport

 

E. The Calvin cycle

 

30. The Kreb’s cycle produces __________ and ____________.

A. Carbon dioxide, oxygen

 

B. Oxygen, ATP

 

C. ATP, electron carriers

 

D. Electron carriers, oxygen

 

E. Pyruvate, PGAL

 

31. The molecule in the Krebs cycle that acetyl CoA combines with is:

A. Pyruvate

 

B. Oxygen

 

C. Oxaloacetate

 

D. NADH

 

E. A cytochrome

 

32. Since the Kreb’s cycle is a cyclic pathway the original acceptor needed to start the Kreb’s cycle and the end product of the Kreb’s cycle are:

A. Enzymes

 

B. Different molecules

 

C. ATP molecules

 

D. The same molecule

 

E. NADH and FADH2 respectively

 

33. Glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle do not capture all of the energy in a glucose molecule because:

A. ATP easily vaporizes

 

B. Energy cannot be created or destroyed

 

C. Some glucose is not broken down

 

D. Some energy is always lost as heat during chemical reactions

 

E. Some energy remains in the atoms

 

34. Another function of the Kreb’s cycle other than to continue the breakdown of glucose is to:

A. Manufacture fats and amino acids

 

B. Manufacture fats

 

C. Manufacture amino acids and provide oxygen to cells

 

D. Manufacture amino acids

 

E. Provide oxygen to cells

 

35. The electron transport chain produces a/an _____________ gradient.

A. Electron

 

B. ATP

 

C. NADH

 

D. Oxygen

 

E. Proton

 

36. An example of a poison that kills by interfering with ATP production is:

A. Arsenic

 

B. Carbon monoxide

 

C. All are correct

 

D. Cyanide

 

E. Rotenone

 

37. The approximate maximum net ATP yield from a molecule of glucose is about __ ATP molecules.

A. 2

 

B. 30

 

C. 4

 

D. 15

 

E. 42

 

38. Muscle cells use lactic acid fermentation to:

A. Generate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue in the absence of oxygen

 

B. Produce ATP in the presence of oxygen

 

C. Produce more ATP than in respiration

 

D. Allow an animal to survive for long periods of time in the absence of oxygen

 

E. Produce less CO2

 

39. Alcoholic fermentation:

A. Is carried out by yeasts

 

B. Produces far less ATP than aerobic respiration

 

C. Produces ethanol

 

D. All are correct

 

E. Produces carbon dioxide

 

40. The most ancient of the energy pathways is probably:

A. Aerobic respiration

 

B. Calvin cycle

 

C. Photosynthesis

 

D. Kreb’s cycle

 

E. Glycolysis

 

41. If you measure the air a person inhales you observe that the concentrations ______ in the air they exhale.

A. of O2 rises and CO2 falls

 

B. of O2 falls and CO2 rises

 

C. of both O2 and CO2 rise

 

D. of both O2 and CO2 fall

 

42. If a person is burning only glucose what will be the ratio of oxygen consumed to carbon dioxide produced?

A. 1:1

 

B. 1:2

 

C. 2:1

 

D. 6:1

 

E. 1:6

 

43. In glycolysis and the Krebs cycle electrons are removed from glucose and taken up by molecules like NAD+. In such a reaction, glucose is being _____ and NAD+ is being ____.

A. Reduced, oxidized

 

B. Oxidized, reduced

 

C. Phosphorylated, oxidized

 

D. Phosphorylated, reduced

 

E. Reduced, phosphorylated

 

44. Mitochondria have two membranes. How is this important in the function of mitochondria?

A. Glycolysis occurs in the membranes

 

B. Protons are pumped into the space between the membranes

 

C. Oxygen is transported across the membranes

 

D. Without two membranes the mitochondria may rupture due to osmosis

 

E. The Krebs cycle enzymes are found on the outer mitochondrial membrane

 

45. How can glycolysis produce ATP in the absence of oxygen?

A. All are correct

 

B. By ATPase linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain

 

C. By attaching a phosphate ion to ADP

 

D. By exciting electrons using photons of light

 

E. By substrate level phosphorylation

 

46. The first steps in glycolysis involve:

A. Lysing glucose into two 3C molecules

 

B. Reducing glucose

 

C. Adding two phosphates from ATP to glucose

 

D. Generation of ATP

 

E. Donation of electrons from NADH to an electron transporter

 

47. When NAD+ picks up two electrons from a reaction in the Krebs cycle to form NADH, the NAD+ is being:

A. Oxidized

 

B. Phosphorylated

 

C. Reduced

 

D. Hydrolyzed

 

E. Lysed

 

48. The smallest molecule in the Krebs cycle contains ____ carbon atoms.

A. 4

 

B. 1

 

C. 3

 

D. 5

 

E. 6

 

49. The largest molecule in the Krebs cycle contains ____ carbon atoms.

A. 1

 

B. 3

 

C. 5

 

D. 4

 

E. 6

 

50. What first happens to the carbon atoms that enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA?

A. They are reduced to form carbon dioxide

 

B. They combine with a 4-carbon sugar to form a 6-carbon sugar

 

C. Two acetyl CoA molecules join together to form a 6-carbon sugar

 

D. They combine with pyruvate to form a 4-carbon sugar

 

E. They are activated with a phosphate from ATP

 

51. What is the role of oxygen in respiration?

A. It is formed from the oxidation of water at the beginning of the electron transport chain

 

B. It flows through the electron transport chain, losing energy as it goes

 

C. It is reduced at the end of the electron transport chain, forming water

 

D. It is necessary to obtain any ATP from glucose

 

E. It flows down its concentration gradient through an ATPase to produce ATP

 

52. Molecules called uncouplers allow protons to cross the inner mitochondrial membrane. What effect would this have on ATP production in the mitochondria?

A. Reduction, because electrons would not be able to move through the electron transport chain

 

B. Reduction, because protons would not be available to pass through the ATPase

 

C. No effect, because protons cross the outer mitochondrial membrane to produce ATP

 

D. Increase, because this would spontaneously establish a proton gradient

 

E. Increase, because this would make more oxygen available in the mitochondrial matrix

 

53. Cyanide and carbon monoxide block the final step in the electron transport chain. What effect would this have on ATP production in the mitochondria?

A. Reduction, because protons would not be able to move across the inner mitochondrial membrane

 

B. No effect, because protons cross the outer mitochondrial membrane to produce ATP

 

C. Reduction, because electrons would not be able to move through the electron transport chain

 

D. Increase, because this would spontaneously establish a proton gradient

 

E. Increase, because this would make more oxygen available in the mitochondrial matrix

 

54. A cell produces approximately 30 ATP per glucose, however, if you calculated the total energy in a glucose molecule, 90 ATP should be generated. What is the best explanation for this difference?

A. Some of the energy is destroyed

 

B. Scientists have not figured out where the rest of the energy goes

 

C. ATP has more energy than originally thought

 

D. Some of the energy is used to do work in the cell

 

E. Some energy is lost as heat

 

55. The reactions in glycolysis are reversible, however, the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl CoA is irreversible in animal cells. Can fatty acids be converted back into carbohydrates?

A. No, because they enter metabolism as pyruvate

 

B. Yes, because they enter metabolism as acetyl CoA

 

C. No, because they enter metabolism as acetyl CoA

 

D. Yes, because they enter metabolism as pyruvate

 

E. Yes, because they enter metabolism in the Krebs cycle

 

56. Which of the following could be electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration?

A. Nitrate or oxygen

 

B. Sulfate or oxygen

 

C. Lactic acid

 

D. Nitrate or sulfate

 

E. All are correct

 

57. During fermentation yeast produce ethanol, a toxic waste product. Why would yeast produce something that is toxic to themselves?

A. To produce NADH for energy

 

B. To regenerate NAD+ in order to continue glycolysis

 

C. To use up excess pyruvate in order to continue glycolysis

 

D. To conserve oxygen for other reactions

 

E. To avoid the production of lactic acid

 

58. During fermentation ___ ATP can be produced per glucose, compared with ____ by aerobic respiration.

A. 30, 2

 

B. 6, 30

 

C. 2, 30

 

D. 30, 6

 

E. 2, 6

 

59. If you put a plant in a chamber and shine a light on it, the concentrations ______.

A. of O2 will rise and CO2 will fall

 

B. of O2 will fall and CO2 will rise

 

C. of both O2 and CO2 will rise

 

D. of both O2 and CO2 will fall

 

60. If you put a plant in a chamber and place it in the dark, the concentrations ______.

A. of O2 will fall and CO2 will rise

 

B. of O2 will rise and CO2 will fall

 

C. of both O2 and CO2 will rise

 

D. of both O2 and CO2 will fall

 

61. Most plants are:

A. Autotrophic endotherms

 

B. Autotrophic ecotherms

 

C. Heterotrophic ectotherms

 

D. Heterotrophic endotherms

 

62. Philodendron flowers pass electrons through an electron transport chain to generate heat. What is the source of these electrons?

A. Water

 

B. Oxygen

 

C. ATP

 

D. Sunlight

 

E. NADH and FADH2

 

63. Philodendron flowers pass electrons through a mitochondrial electron transport chain to generate heat. What step is bypassed in generating heat?

A. Formation of a proton gradient

 

B. Transfer of electrons to oxygen

 

C. Donation of electrons to the electron transport chain

 

D. Excitation of electrons by sunlight

 

E. Release of electrons from water

 

64. What hypothesis were the scientists testing?

A. Does generating heat increase the metabolism of Philodendron?

 

B. Does generating heat decrease the metabolism of Philodendron?

 

C. Is heat being used by Philodendron to attract pollinators?

 

D. Is heat being used by Philodendron increase the rate of pollen production?

 

E. Does heat increase the rate of photosynthesis by Philodendron?

 

65. The rate of carbon dioxide production by Cyclocephala colasi beetles was used to measure their:

A. Ability to pollinate flowers

 

B. Rate of photosynthesis

 

C. Body temperature

 

D. Level of activity

 

E. Rate of respiration

 

 

66. What is the dependent variable in figure 6.14?

A. Temperature

 

B. Rate of oxygen production

 

C. Amount of pollen collected

 

D. Rate of carbon dioxide production

 

E. Glucose production

 

67. What is the independent variable in figure 6.14?

A. Temperature

 

B. Rate of carbon dioxide production

 

C. Rate of oxygen production

 

D. Amount of pollen collected

 

E. Glucose production

 

68. What did the scientists conclude from figure 6.14?

A. That at higher temperatures resting beetles saved energy

 

B. That at higher temperatures active beetles saved energy

 

C. That at lower temperatures active beetles saved energy

 

D. That at lower temperatures resting beetles saved energy

 

E. That generating heat led to increased pollination of Philodendron flowers by beetles

 

69. Philodendron flowers have to use a lot of energy to attract beetles as pollinators. This is similar to the energy used to produce ____ by many other flowering plants to attract pollinators.

A. Pollen

 

B. Seeds

 

C. Spores

 

D. Nectar

 

E. Leaves

 

70. Cells from a Philodendron flower have which of the following?

A. All are correct

 

B. Mitochondria

 

C. Chloroplasts

 

D. A nucleus

 

E. A cell wall

 

 

True / False Questions

71. Cellular respiration includes glycolysis, the Kreb’s cycle, and electron transport.

True    False

 

72. Cellular respiration includes only the Kreb’s cycle and electron transport.

True    False

 

73. In Eukaryotic cells the electron transport system occurs in the mitochondria.

True    False

 

74. In prokaryotic cells the electron transport system occurs in the mitochondria.

True    False

 

75. Fermentation is a more efficient form of energy production than aerobic respiration.

True    False

 

76. NADH is the only electron carrier produced during aerobic respiration.

True    False

 

77. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs when protons pass through ATP synthase and combine with oxygen to make water.

True    False

 

78. Substrate phosphorylation occurs when protons pass through ATP synthase and combine with oxygen to make water.

True    False

 

79. Substrate phosphorylation occurs when a high energy “donor” molecule physically transfers a phosphate group to ADP.

True    False

 

80. The electron transport chain extracts most of the potential energy in NADH by removing the energy from its electrons in a single step.

True    False

 

81. According to the first law of thermodynamics some energy is lost as heat during energy transfers.

True    False

 

82. Anaerobic respiration uses oxygen as its final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.

True    False

 

83. Anaerobic respiration uses an inorganic molecule other than O2 as the electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.

True    False

 

84. Aerobic respiration uses oxygen as its final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.

True    False

 

 

 

Chapter 006 – How Cells Release Energy Key
Multiple Choice Questions

1. Plants are:

A. Net O2 consumers and CO2 producers

 

B. Net O2 producers and CO2 consumers

 

C. Net O2 and CO2 producers

 

D. Net O2 and CO2 consumers

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
SECTION: 06.09
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

2. Animals are:

A. Net O2 producers and CO2 consumers

 

B. Net O2 and CO2 producers

 

C. Net O2 consumers and CO2 producers

 

D. Net O2 and CO2 consumers

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
SECTION: 06.09
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

3. In animal cells the primary organelle that generates molecules of ATP is the:

A. Ribosome

 

B. Lysosome

 

C. Golgi body

 

D. None of these are correct

 

E. Mitochondrion

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

4. The main reason that cellular respiration needs to occur step by step is because:

A. Cells don’t store enough oxygen

 

B. Cells don’t have many mitochondria

 

C. Glucose breaks down slowly inside a cell

 

D. Too much energy would be released for the cell to harness

 

E. Cells produce the enzymes needed for cellular respiration very slowly

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

5. The chemical formula for glucose is:

A. C6H12O6

 

B. C12H6O12

 

C. C6H6O12

 

D. C12H12O6

 

E. All are correct

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

6. During glycolysis molecules of glucose are:

A. Broken down into three molecules of pyruvate

 

B. Put together to form two molecules of pyruvate

 

C. Put together to form three molecules of pyruvate

 

D. Broken down to form two molecules of pyruvate

 

E. Broken down and the carbon atoms liberated as CO2

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

7. Glycolysis of a glucose molecule:

A. Produces a net gain of two molecules of ATP

 

B. Occurs only in animal cells

 

C. Transfers electrons from glucose to FAD

 

D. Occurs only in microorganisms

 

E. Occurs in mitochondria

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

8. The three main biochemical pathways of cellular respiration are:

A. Glycolysis, light reactions, and Calvin cycle

 

B. Calvin cycle, Kreb’s cycle, and light reactions

 

C. Kreb’s cycle, Calvin cycle, and electron transport

 

D. Glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, and electron transport

 

E. Light reactions, carbon reactions, and electron transport

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

9. The electrons that are transferred during cellular respiration are carried in the molecules:

A. NADP and FADH2

 

B. NADH and FADH2

 

C. NADH and NADP

 

D. NADH2 and Glucose

 

E. NADP and Glucose

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

10. Glycolysis occurs in the:

A. Cytoplasm

 

B. Mitochondria

 

C. Lysosome

 

D. Nucleus

 

E. Cell membrane

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

11. The Kreb’s cycle occurs in the:

A. Lysosome

 

B. Nucleus

 

C. Cytoplasm

 

D. Mitochondria

 

E. Ribosome

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

12. The electron transport system occurs in the:

A. Lysosome.

 

B. Nucleus.

 

C. Cytoplasm.

 

D. Ribosome.

 

E. Mitochondria.

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

13. The “spent” electrons from electron transport in aerobic respiration are transferred to:

A. Oxygen

 

B. Nitrogen

 

C. Hydrogen

 

D. Sulfur

 

E. Carbon dioxide

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

14. The enzyme that forms a channel in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and phosphorylates ADP is:

A. ATP Synthase

 

B. NADH Synthase

 

C. FADH2 Synthase

 

D. ADP Synthase

 

E. None of these are correct

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

15. The products of cellular respiration are:

A. Carbon dioxide, glucose, and water

 

B. Glucose, water, and ATP

 

C. Glucose, carbon dioxide, and ATP

 

D. Oxygen, ATP, and water

 

E. Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

16. The reactants for cellular respiration are:

A. Glucose and ATP

 

B. Water and ATP

 

C. Oxygen and ATP

 

D. Glucose and oxygen

 

E. Carbon dioxide and glucose

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

17. Anaerobic respiration is most common in:

A. Microorganisms

 

B. Plants

 

C. Animals

 

D. Fungi

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

18. Fermentation is most common in:

A. Plants

 

B. Animals

 

C. Fungi

 

D. Microorganisms

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

19. In prokaryotic cells, cellular respiration occurs in the:

A. Mitochondria

 

B. Cytoplasm and the cell’s outer membrane

 

C. Cell’s outer membrane

 

D. Mitochondria and cytoplasm

 

E. Cytoplasm

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

20. The area enclosed by the highly folded inner mitochondrial membrane is the:

A. Cytoplasm

 

B. Nucleus

 

C. Outer membrane

 

D. Both cytoplasm and nucleus are correct

 

E. Matrix

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.03.01 Describe where each step in respiration occurs in a mitochondria.
SECTION: 06.03
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

21. In eukaryotic cells NADH and FADH2 are transported along electron carriers of the:

A. Inner mitochondrial membrane

 

B. Matrix

 

C. Outer mitochondrial membrane

 

D. Cell membrane

 

E. Cytoplasm

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.03.01 Describe where each step in respiration occurs in a mitochondria.
SECTION: 06.03
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

22. Glycolysis does not require:

A. ATP

 

B. Glucose

 

C. Enzymes

 

D. NAD

 

E. Oxygen

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

23. During glycolysis, to “activate” glucose ________ molecules of ____________ are required.

A. Three, NAD

 

B. Two, ATP

 

C. Two, FAD

 

D. Three, ADP

 

E. Three, ATP

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

24. In glycolysis the net number of NADH produced is:

A. 0

 

B. 3

 

C. 2

 

D. 4

 

E. 30

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

25. If a high-energy “donor” molecule physically transfers a phosphate group to ADP, this is called:

A. Photosynthesis

 

B. Oxidative phosphorylation

 

C. Substrate-level phosphorylation

 

D. Electron transport

 

E. Glycolysis

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

26. The net ATP production in glycolysis is only two because:

A. Two molecules of ATP are needed to “activate” glucose

 

B. Two molecules of ATP are used to move NADH into the mitochondria

 

C. That is all the ATP produced during glycolysis

 

D. ATP production cannot exceed NADH production

 

E. Glycolysis may occur without oxygen being present

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

27. Only a small amount of ATP is produced during glycolysis because most of the energy stored in a glucose molecule remains in the bonds of:

A. Carbon dioxide

 

B. NADH

 

C. PGAL

 

D. Pyruvate

 

E. None of these are correct

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

28. The compound that enters the Kreb’s cycle is:

A. ATP

 

B. Pyruvate

 

C. PGAL

 

D. ATP Synthase

 

E. Acetyl CoA

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

29. The sole source of ATP production in cells using fermentation only is:

A. Glycolysis

 

B. Kreb’s cycle

 

C. Photosynthesis

 

D. Electron transport

 

E. The Calvin cycle

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in anaerobic respiration.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

30. The Kreb’s cycle produces __________ and ____________.

A. Carbon dioxide, oxygen

 

B. Oxygen, ATP

 

C. ATP, electron carriers

 

D. Electron carriers, oxygen

 

E. Pyruvate, PGAL

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

31. The molecule in the Krebs cycle that acetyl CoA combines with is:

A. Pyruvate

 

B. Oxygen

 

C. Oxaloacetate

 

D. NADH

 

E. A cytochrome

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

32. Since the Kreb’s cycle is a cyclic pathway the original acceptor needed to start the Kreb’s cycle and the end product of the Kreb’s cycle are:

A. Enzymes

 

B. Different molecules

 

C. ATP molecules

 

D. The same molecule

 

E. NADH and FADH2 respectively

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

33. Glycolysis and the Kreb’s cycle do not capture all of the energy in a glucose molecule because:

A. ATP easily vaporizes

 

B. Energy cannot be created or destroyed

 

C. Some glucose is not broken down

 

D. Some energy is always lost as heat during chemical reactions

 

E. Some energy remains in the atoms

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

34. Another function of the Kreb’s cycle other than to continue the breakdown of glucose is to:

A. Manufacture fats and amino acids

 

B. Manufacture fats

 

C. Manufacture amino acids and provide oxygen to cells

 

D. Manufacture amino acids

 

E. Provide oxygen to cells

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.07.01 Compare and contrast where carbohydrate, fat and protein enter metabolism.
SECTION: 06.07
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

35. The electron transport chain produces a/an _____________ gradient.

A. Electron

 

B. ATP

 

C. NADH

 

D. Oxygen

 

E. Proton

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

36. An example of a poison that kills by interfering with ATP production is:

A. Arsenic

 

B. Carbon monoxide

 

C. All are correct

 

D. Cyanide

 

E. Rotenone

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

37. The approximate maximum net ATP yield from a molecule of glucose is about __ ATP molecules.

A. 2

 

B. 30

 

C. 4

 

D. 15

 

E. 42

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.06.01 Calculate the net ATP produced in aerobic metabolism.
SECTION: 06.06
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

38. Muscle cells use lactic acid fermentation to:

A. Generate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue in the absence of oxygen

 

B. Produce ATP in the presence of oxygen

 

C. Produce more ATP than in respiration

 

D. Allow an animal to survive for long periods of time in the absence of oxygen

 

E. Produce less CO2

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.06.01 Calculate the net ATP produced in aerobic metabolism.
SECTION: 06.06
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

39. Alcoholic fermentation:

A. Is carried out by yeasts

 

B. Produces far less ATP than aerobic respiration

 

C. Produces ethanol

 

D. All are correct

 

E. Produces carbon dioxide

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.06.01 Calculate the net ATP produced in aerobic metabolism.
SECTION: 06.06
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

40. The most ancient of the energy pathways is probably:

A. Aerobic respiration

 

B. Calvin cycle

 

C. Photosynthesis

 

D. Kreb’s cycle

 

E. Glycolysis

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

41. If you measure the air a person inhales you observe that the concentrations ______ in the air they exhale.

A. of O2 rises and CO2 falls

 

B. of O2 falls and CO2 rises

 

C. of both O2 and CO2 rise

 

D. of both O2 and CO2 fall

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

42. If a person is burning only glucose what will be the ratio of oxygen consumed to carbon dioxide produced?

A. 1:1

 

B. 1:2

 

C. 2:1

 

D. 6:1

 

E. 1:6

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

43. In glycolysis and the Krebs cycle electrons are removed from glucose and taken up by molecules like NAD+. In such a reaction, glucose is being _____ and NAD+ is being ____.

A. Reduced, oxidized

 

B. Oxidized, reduced

 

C. Phosphorylated, oxidized

 

D. Phosphorylated, reduced

 

E. Reduced, phosphorylated

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

44. Mitochondria have two membranes. How is this important in the function of mitochondria?

A. Glycolysis occurs in the membranes

 

B. Protons are pumped into the space between the membranes

 

C. Oxygen is transported across the membranes

 

D. Without two membranes the mitochondria may rupture due to osmosis

 

E. The Krebs cycle enzymes are found on the outer mitochondrial membrane

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.03.01 Describe where each step in respiration occurs in a mitochondria.
SECTION: 06.03
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

45. How can glycolysis produce ATP in the absence of oxygen?

A. All are correct

 

B. By ATPase linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain

 

C. By attaching a phosphate ion to ADP

 

D. By exciting electrons using photons of light

 

E. By substrate level phosphorylation

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

46. The first steps in glycolysis involve:

A. Lysing glucose into two 3C molecules

 

B. Reducing glucose

 

C. Adding two phosphates from ATP to glucose

 

D. Generation of ATP

 

E. Donation of electrons from NADH to an electron transporter

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis.
SECTION: 06.04
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

47. When NAD+ picks up two electrons from a reaction in the Krebs cycle to form NADH, the NAD+ is being:

A. Oxidized

 

B. Phosphorylated

 

C. Reduced

 

D. Hydrolyzed

 

E. Lysed

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

48. The smallest molecule in the Krebs cycle contains ____ carbon atoms.

A. 4

 

B. 1

 

C. 3

 

D. 5

 

E. 6

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

49. The largest molecule in the Krebs cycle contains ____ carbon atoms.

A. 1

 

B. 3

 

C. 5

 

D. 4

 

E. 6

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

50. What first happens to the carbon atoms that enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA?

A. They are reduced to form carbon dioxide

 

B. They combine with a 4-carbon sugar to form a 6-carbon sugar

 

C. Two acetyl CoA molecules join together to form a 6-carbon sugar

 

D. They combine with pyruvate to form a 4-carbon sugar

 

E. They are activated with a phosphate from ATP

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

51. What is the role of oxygen in respiration?

A. It is formed from the oxidation of water at the beginning of the electron transport chain

 

B. It flows through the electron transport chain, losing energy as it goes

 

C. It is reduced at the end of the electron transport chain, forming water

 

D. It is necessary to obtain any ATP from glucose

 

E. It flows down its concentration gradient through an ATPase to produce ATP

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.03 Explain the role of oxygen in respiration.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

52. Molecules called uncouplers allow protons to cross the inner mitochondrial membrane. What effect would this have on ATP production in the mitochondria?

A. Reduction, because electrons would not be able to move through the electron transport chain

 

B. Reduction, because protons would not be available to pass through the ATPase

 

C. No effect, because protons cross the outer mitochondrial membrane to produce ATP

 

D. Increase, because this would spontaneously establish a proton gradient

 

E. Increase, because this would make more oxygen available in the mitochondrial matrix

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

53. Cyanide and carbon monoxide block the final step in the electron transport chain. What effect would this have on ATP production in the mitochondria?

A. Reduction, because protons would not be able to move across the inner mitochondrial membrane

 

B. No effect, because protons cross the outer mitochondrial membrane to produce ATP

 

C. Reduction, because electrons would not be able to move through the electron transport chain

 

D. Increase, because this would spontaneously establish a proton gradient

 

E. Increase, because this would make more oxygen available in the mitochondrial matrix

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.03 Explain the role of oxygen in respiration.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

54. A cell produces approximately 30 ATP per glucose, however, if you calculated the total energy in a glucose molecule, 90 ATP should be generated. What is the best explanation for this difference?

A. Some of the energy is destroyed

 

B. Scientists have not figured out where the rest of the energy goes

 

C. ATP has more energy than originally thought

 

D. Some of the energy is used to do work in the cell

 

E. Some energy is lost as heat

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.06.01 Calculate the net ATP produced in aerobic metabolism.
SECTION: 06.06
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

55. The reactions in glycolysis are reversible, however, the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl CoA is irreversible in animal cells. Can fatty acids be converted back into carbohydrates?

A. No, because they enter metabolism as pyruvate

 

B. Yes, because they enter metabolism as acetyl CoA

 

C. No, because they enter metabolism as acetyl CoA

 

D. Yes, because they enter metabolism as pyruvate

 

E. Yes, because they enter metabolism in the Krebs cycle

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.07.01 Compare and contrast where carbohydrate, fat and protein enter metabolism.
SECTION: 06.07
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

56. Which of the following could be electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration?

A. Nitrate or oxygen

 

B. Sulfate or oxygen

 

C. Lactic acid

 

D. Nitrate or sulfate

 

E. All are correct

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in anaerobic respiration.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

57. During fermentation yeast produce ethanol, a toxic waste product. Why would yeast produce something that is toxic to themselves?

A. To produce NADH for energy

 

B. To regenerate NAD+ in order to continue glycolysis

 

C. To use up excess pyruvate in order to continue glycolysis

 

D. To conserve oxygen for other reactions

 

E. To avoid the production of lactic acid

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

58. During fermentation ___ ATP can be produced per glucose, compared with ____ by aerobic respiration.

A. 30, 2

 

B. 6, 30

 

C. 2, 30

 

D. 30, 6

 

E. 2, 6

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

59. If you put a plant in a chamber and shine a light on it, the concentrations ______.

A. of O2 will rise and CO2 will fall

 

B. of O2 will fall and CO2 will rise

 

C. of both O2 and CO2 will rise

 

D. of both O2 and CO2 will fall

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
SECTION: 06.09
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

60. If you put a plant in a chamber and place it in the dark, the concentrations ______.

A. of O2 will fall and CO2 will rise

 

B. of O2 will rise and CO2 will fall

 

C. of both O2 and CO2 will rise

 

D. of both O2 and CO2 will fall

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
SECTION: 06.09
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

61. Most plants are:

A. Autotrophic endotherms

 

B. Autotrophic ecotherms

 

C. Heterotrophic ectotherms

 

D. Heterotrophic endotherms

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
LEARNING OUTCOME: 18.00.01 Describe the characteristics common to all plants.
SECTION: 06.09
SECTION: 18.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
TOPIC: Plant Diversity
 

 

62. Philodendron flowers pass electrons through an electron transport chain to generate heat. What is the source of these electrons?

A. Water

 

B. Oxygen

 

C. ATP

 

D. Sunlight

 

E. NADH and FADH2

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
 

 

63. Philodendron flowers pass electrons through a mitochondrial electron transport chain to generate heat. What step is bypassed in generating heat?

A. Formation of a proton gradient

 

B. Transfer of electrons to oxygen

 

C. Donation of electrons to the electron transport chain

 

D. Excitation of electrons by sunlight

 

E. Release of electrons from water

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
 

 

64. What hypothesis were the scientists testing?

A. Does generating heat increase the metabolism of Philodendron?

 

B. Does generating heat decrease the metabolism of Philodendron?

 

C. Is heat being used by Philodendron to attract pollinators?

 

D. Is heat being used by Philodendron increase the rate of pollen production?

 

E. Does heat increase the rate of photosynthesis by Philodendron?

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
LEARNING OUTCOME: 18.05.02 Explain the interaction of flowers and fruit with animals in angiosperm evolution.
SECTION: 06.09
SECTION: 18.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
TOPIC: Plant Diversity
 

 

65. The rate of carbon dioxide production by Cyclocephala colasi beetles was used to measure their:

A. Ability to pollinate flowers

 

B. Rate of photosynthesis

 

C. Body temperature

 

D. Level of activity

 

E. Rate of respiration

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
 

 

 

66. What is the dependent variable in figure 6.14?

A. Temperature

 

B. Rate of oxygen production

 

C. Amount of pollen collected

 

D. Rate of carbon dioxide production

 

E. Glucose production

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
 

 

67. What is the independent variable in figure 6.14?

A. Temperature

 

B. Rate of carbon dioxide production

 

C. Rate of oxygen production

 

D. Amount of pollen collected

 

E. Glucose production

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
 

 

68. What did the scientists conclude from figure 6.14?

A. That at higher temperatures resting beetles saved energy

 

B. That at higher temperatures active beetles saved energy

 

C. That at lower temperatures active beetles saved energy

 

D. That at lower temperatures resting beetles saved energy

 

E. That generating heat led to increased pollination of Philodendron flowers by beetles

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose.
SECTION: 06.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
 

 

69. Philodendron flowers have to use a lot of energy to attract beetles as pollinators. This is similar to the energy used to produce ____ by many other flowering plants to attract pollinators.

A. Pollen

 

B. Seeds

 

C. Spores

 

D. Nectar

 

E. Leaves

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
LEARNING OUTCOME: 18.05.02 Explain the interaction of flowers and fruit with animals in angiosperm evolution.
SECTION: 06.09
SECTION: 18.05
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
TOPIC: Plant Diversity
 

 

70. Cells from a Philodendron flower have which of the following?

A. All are correct

 

B. Mitochondria

 

C. Chloroplasts

 

D. A nucleus

 

E. A cell wall

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
LEARNING OUTCOME: 18.00.01 Describe the characteristics common to all plants.
SECTION: 06.09
SECTION: 18.01
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
TOPIC: Investigating Life
TOPIC: Plant Diversity
 

 

True / False Questions

71. Cellular respiration includes glycolysis, the Kreb’s cycle, and electron transport.

TRUE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

72. Cellular respiration includes only the Kreb’s cycle and electron transport.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

73. In Eukaryotic cells the electron transport system occurs in the mitochondria.

TRUE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

74. In prokaryotic cells the electron transport system occurs in the mitochondria.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.
SECTION: 06.02
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

75. Fermentation is a more efficient form of energy production than aerobic respiration.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

76. NADH is the only electron carrier produced during aerobic respiration.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

77. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs when protons pass through ATP synthase and combine with oxygen to make water.

TRUE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

78. Substrate phosphorylation occurs when protons pass through ATP synthase and combine with oxygen to make water.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

79. Substrate phosphorylation occurs when a high energy “donor” molecule physically transfers a phosphate group to ADP.

TRUE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

80. The electron transport chain extracts most of the potential energy in NADH by removing the energy from its electrons in a single step.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

81. According to the first law of thermodynamics some energy is lost as heat during energy transfers.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

82. Anaerobic respiration uses oxygen as its final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.

FALSE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

83. Anaerobic respiration uses an inorganic molecule other than O2 as the electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.

TRUE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

84. Aerobic respiration uses oxygen as its final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.

TRUE

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.
SECTION: 06.08
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration
 

 

 

Chapter 006 – How Cells Release Energy Summary

Category # of Questions
BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember 54
BLOOM’S LEVEL: 2. Understand 16
BLOOM’S LEVEL: 3. Apply 7
BLOOM’S LEVEL: 4. Analyze 7
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.01.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in aerobic respiration of glucose. 11
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.02.01 Compare and contrast what occurs in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain. 10
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.03.01 Describe where each step in respiration occurs in a mitochondria. 3
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.04.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in glycolysis. 10
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in the Krebs cycle. 9
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.02 Diagram and explain the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain. 7
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.05.03 Explain the role of oxygen in respiration. 2
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.06.01 Calculate the net ATP produced in aerobic metabolism. 4
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.07.01 Compare and contrast where carbohydrate, fat and protein enter metabolism. 2
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.01 Draw and explain the net reaction in anaerobic respiration. 2
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.08.02 Compare and contrast aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. 16
LEARNING OUTCOME: 06.09.01 Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis. 8
LEARNING OUTCOME: 18.00.01 Describe the characteristics common to all plants. 2
LEARNING OUTCOME: 18.05.02 Explain the interaction of flowers and fruit with animals in angiosperm evolution. 2
SECTION: 06.01 11
SECTION: 06.02 10
SECTION: 06.03 3
SECTION: 06.04 10
SECTION: 06.05 18
SECTION: 06.06 4
SECTION: 06.07 2
SECTION: 06.08 18
SECTION: 06.09 8
SECTION: 18.01 2
SECTION: 18.05 2
TOPIC: Cellular Respiration 84
TOPIC: Investigating Life 10
TOPIC: Plant Diversity 4

Chapter 007 – DNA Structure and Gene Function

 

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The twisted ladder of DNA is composed of building blocks called:

A. Amino acids

 

B. Monosaccharides

 

C. Phospholipids

 

D. Disaccharides

 

E. Nucleotides

 

2. The rungs of the DNA ladder:

A. Are formed by base pairs joined by covalent bonds

 

B. Are formed by base pairs joined by hydrogen bonds

 

C. Are formed by base pairs joined by phosphodiester bonds

 

D. Are formed by base pairs joined by hydrogen bonds

 

3. In a molecule of DNA:

A. Cytosine pairs with adenine

 

B. Thymine pairs with uracil

 

C. Adenine pairs with uracil

 

D. Adenine pairs with thymine

 

E. Cytosine pairs with thymine

 

4. The “Central Dogma” refers:

A. Genetic information passing from DNA to RNA by translation

 

B. Genetic information passing from RNA to protein by transcription

 

C. To inheritance of traits between generations

 

D. To production of energy in a cell

 

E. To the flow of genetic information in cells

 

5. RNA differs from DNA in that:

A. RNA contains ribose

 

B. RNA contains uracil

 

C. All are correct

 

D. RNA is usually single stranded

 

E. RNA can catalyze chemical reactions

 

6. DNA differs from RNA in that:

A. DNA contains uracil

 

B. DNA contains thymine

 

C. DNA can catalyze chemical reactions

 

D. DNA is usually single stranded

 

E. DNA contains ribose

 

7. The type of RNA that carries the information that specifies a protein is:

A. Transfer RNA

 

B. Ribosomal RNA

 

C. Messenger RNA

 

D. Double-stranded RNA

 

E. Complementary RNA

 

8. The type of RNA that helps align the ribosome and mRNA is:

A. Messenger RNA

 

B. Ribosomal RNA

 

C. Transfer RNA

 

D. Double-stranded RNA

 

E. Complementary RNA

 

9. The type of RNA that carries each amino acid to the ribosome is:

A. Complementary RNA

 

B. Messenger RNA

 

C. Ribosomal RNA

 

D. Double-stranded RNA

 

E. Transfer RNA

 

10. Transcription and replication occur during ____________________ of the cell cycle.

A. Interphase

 

B. Prophase

 

C. Metaphase

 

D. Anaphase

 

E. Telophase

 

11. The strand of DNA that encodes the RNA molecule during transcription is the:

A. Lagging strand

 

B. Leading strand

 

C. Codon strand

 

D. Template strand

 

E. Parent strand

 

12. A DNA sequence that signals a gene’s start is:

A. A codon

 

B. An anticodon

 

C. A terminator

 

D. A promoter

 

E. An amino acid attachment site

 

13. In eukaryotic cells sequences of mRNA that are removed from an mRNA molecule before being translated are:

A. Introns

 

B. Anticodons

 

C. Exons

 

D. Proteomes

 

E. Terminators

 

14. The process used by cells to convert the mRNA “message” into a sequence of amino acids is:

A. Transcription

 

B. Replication

 

C. Mitosis

 

D. Amino acid synthesis

 

E. Translation

 

15. Initiation, elongation, and termination are the three main steps in:

A. Replication and translation

 

B. Transcription and translation

 

C. Translation

 

D. Replication

 

E. Translation

 

16. A three base sequence (loop) in tRNA that is complementary to a sequence of three bases in mRNA is:

A. A codon

 

B. An anticodon

 

C. A promoter

 

D. A terminator

 

E. An amino acid attachment site

 

17. A tRNA molecule is “bilingual” because it binds to:

A. Amino acids and DNA

 

B. DNA and mRNA codons

 

C. Promoters and amino acids

 

D. Codons of mRNA and amino acids

 

E. Promoters and terminators

 

18. The step of translation in which an mRNA, a small ribosomal subunit, and the initiator tRNA are aligned together is:

A. Initiation

 

B. Mitosis

 

C. Elongation

 

D. Termination

 

E. Transcription

 

19. The step of translation in which amino acids are added one at a time to the growing polypeptide is:

A. Mitosis

 

B. Initiation

 

C. Elongation

 

D. Termination

 

E. Transcription

 

20. The step of translation in which release factors bind to a stop codon is:

A. Mitosis

 

B. Termination

 

C. Initiation

 

D. Elongation

 

E. Transcription

 

21. Which of the following does not occur during translation’s termination step?

A. The initiator tRNA brings the amino acid methionine

 

B. Ribosomal subunits separate from each other

 

C. The polypeptide is released

 

D. A “stop” codon is reached by the ribosome

 

E. Release factors bind to the stop codon

 

22. A group of prokaryotic genes and other segments of DNA that are controlled together is:

A. A proteome

 

B. A chromosome

 

C. A ribosome

 

D. A replication fork

 

E. An operon

 

23. In the Lac operon, the attachment site for RNA polymerase is:

A. The operator

 

B. The promoter

 

C. The repressor

 

D. The first lactose degrading gene of the operon

 

E. The last lactose degrading gene of the operon

 

24. In the Lac operon, the protein that binds to the operator to prevent transcription is:

A. The repressor

 

B. RNA polymerase

 

C. DNA polymerase

 

D. The promoter

 

E. Lactose

 

25. Proteins that initiate transcription in eukaryotes by recognizing sequences within the promoter region of a gene and attracting RNA polymerase are:

A. Repressors

 

B. Inducers

 

C. Transcription factors

 

D. TATA boxes

 

E. Poly A Tails

 

26. A change in a cell’s DNA sequence is:

A. Replication

 

B. Transcription

 

C. A mutation

 

D. Translation

 

E. An operon

 

27. In a “nonsense” mutation:

A. The codon that mutates does not cause a change in the amino acid specified

 

B. The codon that mutates causes a change in the amino acid specified

 

C. The codon that mutates causes a stop codon to occur instead of the placement of an amino acid

 

D. The mutation does not occur in a codon

 

E. The mutation is not in DNA

 

28. In a “missense” mutation:

A. The codon that mutates does not cause a change in the amino acid specified

 

B. The codon that mutates causes a change in the amino acid specified

 

C. The codon that mutates causes a stop codon to occur instead of the placement of an amino acid

 

D. The mutation does not occur in a codon

 

E. The mutation is not in DNA

 

29. In a “silent” mutation:

A. The codon that mutates causes a change in the amino acid specified

 

B. The codon that mutates does not cause a change in the amino acid specified

 

C. The codon that mutates causes a stop codon to occur instead of the placement of an amino acid

 

D. The mutation does not occur in a codon

 

E. The mutation is not in DNA

 

30. In a “frameshift” mutation:

A. The codon that mutates causes a change in the amino acid specified

 

B. The codon that mutates causes a stop codon to occur instead of the placement of an amino acid

 

C. The mutation does not occur in a codon

 

D. May be caused by an addition or deletion of one or more nucleotides

 

E. The mutation is not in DNA

 

31. Which of the following is not a common cause of mutation?

A. Errors in replication

 

B. Events of meiosis

 

C. Exposure to radiation

 

D. Exposure to chemical substances

 

E. Obesity

 

32. A germline mutation occurs in cells that give rise to:

A. Gametes

 

B. Diploid cells

 

C. Skin cells

 

D. Nonsex cells

 

E. Liver cells

 

33. Transposable elements:

A. Are segments of RNA found in chromosomes

 

B. Are another name for translocations

 

C. Are DNA sequences that can “jump” within the genome

 

D. Result from damage to the chromosomes by things like radiation

 

E. Are formed during transcription

 

34. An organism that receives recombinant DNA:

A. Has a genetic disease

 

B. Is a transgenic organism

 

C. Will develop cancer

 

D. Is sterile

 

E. Is a new species

 

35. Treating a solution from S strain Streptococcus pneumoniae with an enzyme that destroys ____ would prevent it from transforming type R bacteria into a form that would cause pneumonia in mice.

A. DNA

 

B. Protein

 

C. Lipid

 

D. DNA or protein

 

E. Protein or lipid

 

36. If bacteria are infected with bacteriophage containing radioactive ____ the bacteria will now be radioactive.

A. Sulfur

 

B. Iron

 

C. Phosphate or sulfur

 

D. Iron or sulfur

 

E. Phosphate

 

37. If the DNA in a cell consists of 20% A, it will be ___ G.

A. 20%

 

B. 80%

 

C. 30%

 

D. 40%

 

E. 10%

 

38. If the DNA in a cell consists of 20% A, it will be ___ T.

A. 30%

 

B. 80%

 

C. 40%

 

D. 20%

 

E. 10%

 

39. The DNA sequence 5′ – ATGCATGC – 3′ will pair with which of the following DNA strands?

A. 3′ – TAGCTAGC – 5′

 

B. 5′ – TAGCTAGC – 3′

 

C. 3′ – ATGCATGC – 5′

 

D. 5′ – ATGCATGC – 3′

 

E. 3′ – CGTACGTA – 5′

 

40. Why would it take more energy to separate the double-stranded region of DNA with the sequence GCGCGCGC than a region with the sequence ATATATAT?

A. GC base pairs form more phosphodiester bonds

 

B. The helix is wound more tightly in GC base pairs

 

C. GC base pairs form more hydrogen bonds

 

D. The sequence containing G’s and C’s is longer

 

E. GC base pairs form covalent bonds between DNA strands

 

41. The DNA sequence 5′ – ATGCATGC – 3′ will pair with which of the following RNA strands?

A. 5′ – UAGCUAGC – 3′

 

B. 3′ – UAGCUAGC – 5′

 

C. 3′ – AUGCAUGC – 5′

 

D. 3′ – TAGCTAGC – 5′

 

E. 5′ – TAGCTAGC – 3′

 

42. A region of a chromosome contains two strands of DNA, yet only one is used to transcribe a gene because:

A. RNA polymerase binds to the promoter, initiating transcription on one strand of DNA

 

B. The start of transcription is random along the chromosome and doesn’t always occur on a gene

 

C. RNA polymerase binds to the terminator, stopping transcription on one strand of DNA

 

D. Both strands are transcribed, but only one strand of DNA contains a reading frame

 

E. All genes are found on the same strand of DNA in a chromosome

 

43. If you compared the DNA sequence of a gene with the sequence of the mature mRNA that was transcribed from the gene you would find:

A. The mRNA is shorter because it does not contain exons

 

B. Both are the same length

 

C. The mRNA is shorter because it does not contain introns

 

D. The mRNA is shorter because each codon of three bases encodes only one amino acid

 

E. The mRNA is longer because each codon of one amino acid encodes three bases

 

44. What would be the first codon translated in the mRNA sequence
5′ – GGAAUGAAACAGGAACCC – 3′?

A. GGA

 

B. CCC

 

C. AUG

 

D. GAA

 

E. AAU

 

 

45. Using the genetic code shown here, predict what type of mutation has occurred in the hemoglobin sickle cell anemia allele.
Normal allele 5′ – GGAAUGAAACAGGAACCC – 3′
Mutant allele 5′ – GGAAUGAAACAGGUACCC – 3′

A. A point mutation, Val to Glu

 

B. A frame shift

 

C. Addition of a new stop codon

 

D. A point mutation, Glu to Val

 

46. A diploid cell only has two copies of most genes, but can make hundreds of copies of a protein from those genes per second because during transcription:

A. Multiple codons can encode for the same amino acid

 

B. Multiple ribosomes can bind to the same mRNA simultaneously

 

C. The DNA can replicate making more copies of the gene

 

D. Once formed, proteins can feed back and help make more proteins

 

E. Multiple copies of the same mRNA can be produced from one gene

 

47. A diploid cell only has two copies of most genes, but can make hundreds of copies of a protein from those genes per second because during translation:

A. Multiple codons can encode for the same amino acid

 

B. Multiple copies of the same mRNA can be produced from one gene

 

C. The DNA can replicate making more copies of the gene

 

D. Once formed, proteins can feed back and help make more proteins

 

E. Multiple ribosomes can bind to the same mRNA simultaneously

 

48. Amanatin is a toxin found in the death cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides. It inhibits RNA polymerase, thus blocking:

A. Transcription

 

B. Translation

 

C. Replication

 

D. Cell division

 

E. RNA splicing

 

49. If E. coli bacteria are grown in the presence of lactose:

A. The repressor will bind the operator allowing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

B. The repressor will not bind the operator preventing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

C. The repressor will not bind the operator allowing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

D. The repressor will bind the operator preventing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

50. If E. coli bacteria are grown in the absence of lactose:

A. The repressor will not bind the operator allowing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

B. The repressor will bind the operator allowing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

C. The repressor will not bind the operator preventing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

D. The repressor will bind the operator preventing transcription of the lac operon genes

 

51. In humans, typically only infants produce the enzyme lactase to break down lactose. Some adults have changes in _____ that allow transcription factors to bind and turn on expression of the lactase gene into adulthood.

A. Exons

 

B. RNA polymerase

 

C. Enhancers

 

D. mRNA

 

E. Codons

 

52. What type of mutation has occurred in the following?
Normal allele 5′ – GGAAUGAAACAGGAACCC – 3′
Mutant allele 5′ – GGAAUGAAACAGGUACCC – 3′

A. Substitution

 

B. Insertion of one base

 

C. Deletion of one base

 

D. Insertion of two bases

 

E. Deletion of two bases

 

53. What type of mutation has occurred in the following?
Normal allele 5′ – GGAAUGAAACAGGAACCC – 3′
Mutant allele 5′ – GGAAUGAAAUCAGGAACCC – 3′

A. Insertion of one base

 

B. Substitution

 

C. Deletion of one base

 

D. Insertion of two bases

 

E. Deletion of two bases

 

54. How can a single gene encode for more than one protein?

A. By mutating their genes

 

B. By removing some exons during splicing of mRNA

 

C. By transcribing multiple copies of mRNA

 

D. By using different codons

 

E. By using transgenes

 

55. In creating a transgenic organism, the ____ from one species is inserted into another species.

A. RNA

 

B. DNA

 

C. protein

 

D. DNA or protein

 

E. RNA or protein

 

56. An antisense RNA is complementary to a mRNA and could:

A. Prevent transcription of the mRNA

 

B. Increase translation of the mRNA

 

C. Increase transcription of the mRNA

 

D. Prevent translation of the mRNA

 

E. Mutate the mRNA sequence

 

57. How does this study support the study of a family with a language disorder support the role of genes in communication?

A. The identification of a single mutation in a single gene responsible for the disorder

 

B. The disorder is common in the family

 

C. The family members were all lacking vocal chords

 

D. The identification of multiple mutations in multiple genes responsible for the disorder

 

E. The identification of the same mutation in all patients with speech disorders

 

58. Based on this study, FOXP2 must be expressed in which tissues?

A. Muscle

 

B. Muscle and brain

 

C. Brain

 

D. Nerves in the ear

 

E. Muscle and nerves in the ear

 

59. FOXP2 functions by:

A. Regulating cell division

 

B. Regulating mRNA splicing

 

C. Regulating the transcription of other genes

 

D. Acting as a neurotransmitter between neurons in the ear and brain

 

E. Acting as a neurotransmitter between neurons and muscles in the jaw

 

60. FOXP2 sequences were the most different between mice and _____.

A. Rhesus monkeys

 

B. Gorillas

 

C. Chimpanzees

 

D. Humans

 

E. All had the same number of changes from the mouse sequence

 

61. Which mutation in DNA would lead to the change of a single amino acid in a protein?

A. A nonsense mutation

 

B. A one base deletion

 

C. A one base insertion

 

D. A missense mutation

 

E. A frameshift

 

62. The observation that all races of humans have the same FOXP2 allele is evidence that ____ favored this allele.

A. Recombination

 

B. Artificial selection

 

C. Random chance

 

D. Independent assortment

 

E. Natural selection

 

63. How did the researchers estimate that the original mutation happened 3-400,000 years ago?

A. By examining the fossil record

 

B. Using a molecular clock

 

C. They found the mutation in chimpanzee DNA

 

D. They found the mutation in Neandertal DNA

 

E. They found the mutation in 300,000 year old human remains

 

64. Based just on what is known about FOXP2, could Neandertals speak?

A. No, they have the same FOXP2 mutation as humans

 

B. Yes, they have the same FOXP2 mutation as humans

 

C. Yes, they have the same FOXP2 sequence as chimpanzees

 

D. No, they have the same FOXP2 sequence as chimpanzees

 

E. Yes, they have the same FOXP2 sequence as both humans and chimpanzees

 

65. How did the researchers initially estimate that the original mutation happened 200,000 years ago?

A. They found the mutation in Neandertal DNA

 

B. By examining the fossil record

 

C. They found the mutation in chimpanzee DNA

 

D. Using a molecular clock

 

E. They found the mutation in 300,000-year-old human remains

 

 

True / False Questions

66. The process by which cells use the information of RNA molecules to make proteins is transcription.

True    False

 

67. There are only two main types of RNA needed to make proteins. They are tRNA and rRNA.

True    False

 

68. The type of RNA that delivers amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis is tRNA.

True    False

 

69. In eukaryotes transcription copies just one gene from one DNA strand, but replication copies both strands of an entire chromosome.

True    False

 

70. A gene is any DNA sequence that is transcribed to mRNA only.

True    False

 

71. A gene is any DNA sequence that is transcribed to any type of RNA.

True    False

 

72. A poly A tail helps attach the ribosome to the mRNA molecule and may also determine how long the mRNA is retained within the cell.

True    False

 

73. Cystic fibrosis may be caused by a protein that does not fold correctly into its final form.

True    False

 

74. Because cells are very efficient in the processes that they carry out, very little energy is needed for the cell to make proteins.

True    False

 

75. In eukaryotes an mRNA molecule can only be translated by one ribosome at a time.

True    False

 

76. In the bacterium E. coli, in the absence of lactose, a repressor protein binds to the operator region of the DNA, preventing the transcription of the genes of the lactose operon.

True    False

 

77. In eukaryotic cells gene expression may be controlled by not allowing mRNA to leave the nucleus.

True    False

 

78. Translocation during meiosis is not a cause of mutation.

True    False

 

79. A somatic mutation is a mutation that occurs in cells that give rise to gametes.

True    False

 

80. A transgenic organism is an organism that receives all of its genes from only a single parent.

True    False

 

81. Gene therapy might someday be used to treat many genetic disorders by removing faulty genes from somatic cells and replacing them with functional gene copies.

True    False

 

82. A proteome is all of the proteins an organism expresses throughout its life.

True    False

 

 

 

Chapter 007 – DNA Structure and Gene Function Key
Multiple Choice Questions

1. The twisted ladder of DNA is composed of building blocks called:

A. Amino acids

 

B. Monosaccharides

 

C. Phospholipids

 

D. Disaccharides

 

E. Nucleotides

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.02.01 Identify the components of double-stranded DNA.
SECTION: 07.02
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

2. The rungs of the DNA ladder:

A. Are formed by base pairs joined by covalent bonds

 

B. Are formed by base pairs joined by hydrogen bonds

 

C. Are formed by base pairs joined by phosphodiester bonds

 

D. Are formed by base pairs joined by hydrogen bonds

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.02.01 Identify the components of double-stranded DNA.
SECTION: 07.02
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

3. In a molecule of DNA:

A. Cytosine pairs with adenine

 

B. Thymine pairs with uracil

 

C. Adenine pairs with uracil

 

D. Adenine pairs with thymine

 

E. Cytosine pairs with thymine

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.02.01 Identify the components of double-stranded DNA.
SECTION: 07.02
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

4. The “Central Dogma” refers:

A. Genetic information passing from DNA to RNA by translation

 

B. Genetic information passing from RNA to protein by transcription

 

C. To inheritance of traits between generations

 

D. To production of energy in a cell

 

E. To the flow of genetic information in cells

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.03.01 Explain the roles of DNA, RNA, and protein in the central dogma.
SECTION: 07.03
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

5. RNA differs from DNA in that:

A. RNA contains ribose

 

B. RNA contains uracil

 

C. All are correct

 

D. RNA is usually single stranded

 

E. RNA can catalyze chemical reactions

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.03.01 Explain the roles of DNA, RNA, and protein in the central dogma.
SECTION: 07.03
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

6. DNA differs from RNA in that:

A. DNA contains uracil

 

B. DNA contains thymine

 

C. DNA can catalyze chemical reactions

 

D. DNA is usually single stranded

 

E. DNA contains ribose

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.03.01 Explain the roles of DNA, RNA, and protein in the central dogma.
SECTION: 07.03
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

7. The type of RNA that carries the information that specifies a protein is:

A. Transfer RNA

 

B. Ribosomal RNA

 

C. Messenger RNA

 

D. Double-stranded RNA

 

E. Complementary RNA

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.03.01 Explain the roles of DNA, RNA, and protein in the central dogma.
SECTION: 07.03
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

8. The type of RNA that helps align the ribosome and mRNA is:

A. Messenger RNA

 

B. Ribosomal RNA

 

C. Transfer RNA

 

D. Double-stranded RNA

 

E. Complementary RNA

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.03.01 Explain the roles of DNA, RNA, and protein in the central dogma.
SECTION: 07.03
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

9. The type of RNA that carries each amino acid to the ribosome is:

A. Complementary RNA

 

B. Messenger RNA

 

C. Ribosomal RNA

 

D. Double-stranded RNA

 

E. Transfer RNA

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.03.01 Explain the roles of DNA, RNA, and protein in the central dogma.
SECTION: 07.03
TOPIC: Gene Regulation
 

 

10. Transcription and replication occur during ____________________ of the cell cycle.

A. Interphase

 

B. Prophase

 

C. Metaphase

 

D. Anaphase

 

E. Telophase

 

BLOOM’S LEVEL: 1. Remember
LEARNING OUTCOME: 07.04.01 Describe the events in transcription.
SECTION: 07.04
TOPIC: Gene Regulation