Biopsychology  8th Edition by John P.J. Pinel – Test Bank  

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Biopsychology  8th Edition by John P.J. Pinel – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 5

The Research Methods of Biopsychology:

Understanding What Biopsychologists Do

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  Vestibular function can be assessed by assessing a patient’s reaction to

 

  1. A) facial nerve stimulation.
  2. B) electroencephalography.
  3. C) cold water flushed in the ear.
  4. D) needles inserted in the face.
  5. E) needles inserted in the foot.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 102

Topic: Chapter 5 Introduction

 

2)  The ironic case of Professor P. makes the point that

  1. A) two brains are better than one.
  2. B) Alzheimer’s disease can have an early onset.
  3. C) many research methods of biopsychology are used in clinical settings.
  4. D) brain tumors can be bilateral.
  5. E) cortical tumors are usually malignant.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 102

Topic: Chapter 5 Introduction

 

3)  Which contrast X-ray technique is designed to locate vascular abnormalities in the brains of human patients?

 

  1. A) cerebral angiography
  2. B) X-ray photography
  3. C) pneumoencephalography
  4. D) CT scans
  5. E) PET scans

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing the Living Human Brain

 

4)  Which of the following is a contrast X-ray technique?

 

  1. A) angiography
  2. B) magnetoencephalography
  3. C) positron emission tomography
  4. D) structural magnetic resonance imaging
  5. E) functional MRI

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing the Living Human Brain

 

5)  A computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain is usually presented as a series of eight or nine

 

  1. A) horizontal sections.
  2. B) frontal sections.
  3. C) coronal sections.
  4. D) sagittal sections.
  5. E) midsagittal sections.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

6) Which technique is illustrated here?

  1. A) computed tomography
  2. B) cerebral angiography
  3. C) electroencephalography
  4. D) magnetic resonance imaging
  5. E) positron emission tomography

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

 

7)  Which of the following procedures is not an adaptation of X-ray photography?

 

  1. A) computed tomography
  2. B) MRI
  3. C) CT
  4. D) angiography
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

8)  Which of the following provides the most detailed three-dimensional view of the structure of the living human brain?

 

  1. A) CT
  2. B) PET
  3. C) angiography
  4. D) EEG
  5. E) MRI

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

9)  Positron emission tomography is a valuable research tool because it

 

  1. A) pictures the brain in fine detail.
  2. B) involves angiography.
  3. C) provides an image of brain function.
  4. D) provides an image of brain structure.
  5. E) involves low levels of radioactivity.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating  the Living Human Brain

 

10)  A patient is sometimes injected with radioactive 2-deoxyglucose before

 

  1. A) a CT scan.
  2. B) magnetic resonance imaging.
  3. C) a contrast X-ray.
  4. D) positron emission tomography.
  5. E) a sodium amytal test.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

11)  The reason why radioactive 2-DG is useful for revealing the level of activity of neurons in different parts of the brain is that 2-DG

  1. A) is absorbed by neurons in relation to their level of activity.
  2. B) is metabolized by neurons in relation to their level of activity.
  3. C) is not metabolized by neurons.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

12)  Functional MRI generates images of increases to areas of the brain of

 

  1. A) oxygenated blood flow.
  2. B) water flow.
  3. C) nitric oxide flow.
  4. D) alpha waves.
  5. E) 2-DG.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 105

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

13)  Which technique records the BOLD signal?

 

  1. A) MRI
  2. B) CT
  3. C) fMRI
  4. D) PET
  5. E) MEG

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 105

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

14)  Functional MRI requires the injection of radioactive

 

  1. A) water.
  2. B) glucose.
  3. C) 2-DG.
  4. D) oxygen.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 105

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

15)  Which method provides structural and functional information about the living human brain on the same image?

 

  1. A) functional MRI
  2. B) angiography
  3. C) PET
  4. D) CT
  5. E) EEG

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

16)  Which of the following technique measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the brain?

 

  1. A) MRI
  2. B) fMRI
  3. C) MEG
  4. D) EMG
  5. E) EEG

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating  the Living Human Brain

17)  Which of the following is a method used by cognitive neuroscientists to turn off part of the brain while the effects on cognition and behavior are assessed?

 

  1. A) 2-DG.
  2. B) ERP.
  3. C) TMS.
  4. D) PET.
  5. E) EEG.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

18)  Unlike brain-imaging techniques, TMS permits the study of __________ between human cortical activity and cognition.

 

  1. A) links
  2. B) causal relations
  3. C) correlations
  4. D) neural connections
  5. E) communication

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

19)  An electroencephalograph is

  1. A) a gross measure of the electrical activity of the brain.
  2. B) a gross measure of the electrical activity of the cortex.
  3. C) a gross measure of the electrical activity of neurons.
  4. D) a gross measure of the electrical activity of groups of neurons.
  5. E) an EEG machine.

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

20)  In human patients, EEG activity is commonly recorded directly from

 

  1. A) muscle.
  2. B) the hippocampus.
  3. C) the scalp.
  4. D) the neocortex.
  5. E) the heart.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

21)  Alpha wave EEG activity is associated with

 

  1. A) high arousal.
  2. B) sleep.
  3. C) relaxed wakefulness.
  4. D) epilepsy.
  5. E) evoked potentials.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

22)  Which of the following biopsychologists would be most likely to study cortical ERPs in human volunteers?

 

  1. A) a neuropsychologist
  2. B) a psychophysiologist
  3. C) a physiological psychologist
  4. D) a psychopharmacologist
  5. E) a comparative psychologist

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

23)  Signal averaging is commonly used in the recording of ERPs because it reduces the magnitude of

 

  1. A) large signals.
  2. B) sensory evoked potentials.
  3. C) random signals.
  4. D) the P300.
  5. E) far-field potentials.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

24)  The main difference between an average evoked potential (AEP) and a “raw” evoked potential is that

  1. A) an AEP is usually unobservable.
  2. B) an AEP is an alpha wave.
  3. C) a raw evoked potential is often unobservable amidst the random noise of the ongoing EEG signal.
  4. D) an AEP is a unit response.
  5. E) a raw evoked potential is likely to be larger.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

25)  The P300

  1. A) is an EEG wave that often occurs after the presentation of a momentary stimulus meaningful to the subject.
  2. B) is a negative EEG wave.
  3. C) is a far-field potential occurring 300 mm from the electrode.
  4. D) occurs about 300 seconds prior to a response.
  5. E) is a component of the potential evoked by a meaningless click.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

26)  The signals in the first few milliseconds of the average auditory evoked potential

  1. A) always originate next to the scalp electrode.
  2. B) are far-field potentials.
  3. C) originate in the sensory nuclei of the brain stem.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

 

 

 

27)  Components of AEPs recorded in the first few milliseconds after a stimulus are

  1. A) almost always auditory.
  2. B) almost always visual.
  3. C) not usually influenced by the meaning of the stimulus.
  4. D) of special interest to cognitive psychologists.
  5. E) almost always influenced by the meaning of the stimulus.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

 

28) The short-latency low-amplitude signals (indicated by the arrow) in this average auditory evoked potential are termed

  1. A) the P300.
  2. B) the P400.
  3. C) the ERP.
  4. D) the sensory evoked potential.
  5. E) far-field potentials.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

 

29)  Modern computer techniques have made it possible to estimate the

 

  1. A) time of particular EEG signals.
  2. B) location of the source of particular EEG signals.
  3. C) frequency of particular EEG signals.
  4. D) latency of far-field potentials.
  5. E) P300.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

30)  Muscle tension is monitored by

 

  1. A) electroencephalography.
  2. B) electromyography.
  3. C) electrooculography.
  4. D) ERPs.
  5. E) MEGs.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

31)  Electrooculography is

  1. A) usually performed with one electrode mounted on each cornea.
  2. B) a method of estimating eye movement from eye muscle activity.
  3. C) a method of measuring skin conductance.
  4. D) an indirect method of measuring pupil constriction.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

32)  Electrooculography is a technique for monitoring

 

  1. A) penile engorgement.
  2. B) cortical activity.
  3. C) blood pressure.
  4. D) eye movement.
  5. E) muscle tension.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

33)  In electrooculography, how many electrodes are typically used to monitor the movements of one eye?

 

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 8
  3. C) 2
  4. D) 1
  5. E) 6

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

 

34) Illustrated here is

  1. A) electroencephalography.
  2. B) magnetoencephalography.
  3. C) electrooculography.
  4. D) plethysmography.
  5. E) electromyography.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

 

35)  If you were startled by a loud noise, there would be an increase in your skin’s conductance of electricity. This response is called

 

  1. A) a skin conductance response.
  2. B) an EKG.
  3. C) a skin conductance level.
  4. D) an average evoked potential.
  5. E) a P300 wave.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

36)  Which gland or glands directly influence the SCL and the SCR?

 

  1. A) gonads
  2. B) pituitary gland
  3. C) sweat glands
  4. D) pancreas
  5. E) thymus gland

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

37)  Which of the following is a record of a person’s heart beat?

 

  1. A) electrocardiogram
  2. B) ECG
  3. C) EKG
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

38)  Hypertension is

 

  1. A) stress.
  2. B) caused by excitement.
  3. C) chronic high blood pressure.
  4. D) chronic low blood pressure.
  5. E) a sphygmomanometer.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

39)  The level of 130/70 mmHg is

 

  1. A) indicative of stress.
  2. B) the ratio of diastolic to total systolic blood pressure.

.

  1. D) a healthy human blood pressure.
  2. E) both A and C

 

  1. C) indicative of hypertension

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

40)  Which of the following have traditionally been used by physicians to measure blood pressure?

 

  1. A) sphygmomanometers
  2. B) plethysmographs
  3. C) oscilloscopes
  4. D) electrodes
  5. E) ERPs

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

41)  Penile erection is

 

  1. A) a muscular response.
  2. B) an electromyographic response.
  3. C) a plethysmographic response.
  4. D) a sphygmomanometric response.
  5. E) an aberrant response.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

42)  Stereotaxic surgery typically requires

 

  1. A) a stereotaxic atlas.
  2. B) a stereotaxic instrument.
  3. C) a head holder.
  4. D) an electrode holder.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

43)  The method by which the experimental devices are accurately positioned in subcortical structures is

 

  1. A) autoradiography.
  2. B) cryogenesis.
  3. C) perfusion.
  4. D) stereotaxic surgery.
  5. E) aspiration.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

44)  Bregma is

  1. A) the point of intersection between two major skull sutures.
  2. B) a common reference point for rat stereotaxic brain surgery.
  3. C) a naughty word.
  4. D) a type of electrode holder.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

45)  The reference point for many stereotaxic atlases of the rat brain is

 

  1. A) smegma.
  2. B) lambda.
  3. C) the intersection between two major fissures.
  4. D) bregma.
  5. E) both C and D

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

46)  Unlike subcortical lesions, cortical lesions are often made by

 

  1. A) the electrolytic method.
  2. B) aspiration.
  3. C) radio-frequency current.
  4. D) transection.
  5. E) stereotaxic surgery.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

47)  Which of the following brain lesion techniques is least likely to be associated with the destruction of major blood vessels?

 

  1. A) aspiration lesions
  2. B) electrolytic lesions
  3. C) radio-frequency lesions
  4. D) knife cuts
  5. E) lobotomy

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

48)  The __________ created by the current is the main cause of  tissue damage produced be a radio-frequency lesion.

 

  1. A) vibration
  2. B) current induction
  3. C) heat
  4. D) ion deposits
  5. E) acid

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

49)  Cryogenic blockade, if properly done,

  1. A) destroys only those neurons that have been cooled.
  2. B) produces a discrete area of permanent damage.
  3. C) destroys neurons by freezing them.
  4. D) produces little or no permanent neural damage.
  5. E) eliminates all neural activity in the brain.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

50)  Cryogenic blockade is often referred to as a functional or reversible lesion because

  1. A) the damage that it produces lasts only a few weeks.
  2. B) the damage that it produces lasts only a day or two.
  3. C) it temporarily eliminates the contribution of a particular area of the brain without damaging the brain.
  4. D) it produces lesions that can be reversed with drugs.
  5. E) the subjects always survive.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

51)  A temporary or reversible lesion can be produced by

 

  1. A) excision or cutting.
  2. B) aspiration or suction.
  3. C) cryogenic blockade.
  4. D) radio-frequency current.
  5. E) invasive EEG.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

52)  Reversible lesions can be produced by microinjection directly into the target brain structure of

 

  1. A) a local anesthetic.
  2. B) lidocaine.
  3. C) a coolant.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

53)  Lesions that are commonly referred to as amygdala lesions often

  1. A) damage neural structures other than the amygdala.
  2. B) do not destroy the entire amygdala.
  3. C) damage prefrontal cortex.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

54)  Lesions restricted to structures on one half of the brain are called

 

  1. A) unilateral lesions.
  2. B) bilateral lesions.
  3. C) monopolar lesions.
  4. D) bipolar lesions.
  5. E) unitary lesions.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

55)  Lesions restricted to structures in one half of the brain usually have effects that are much less severe than comparable

 

  1. A) unilateral lesions.
  2. B) bipolar lesions.
  3. C) cryogenic lesions.
  4. D) aspiration lesions.
  5. E) bilateral lesions.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

56)  Intracellular unit recording is not commonly used in biopsychological research because

  1. A) it is too difficult for biopsychologists.
  2. B) biopsychologists are usually not interested in neurons.
  3. C) it is a neurophysiological procedure.
  4. D) it is very difficult to keep the tip of a microelectrode inside a single neuron in a moving subject.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

57)  Intracellular unit recording is very difficult in

 

  1. A) humans.
  2. B) monkeys.
  3. C) rats.
  4. D) freely moving animals.
  5. E) higher species.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

 

  • Which method was used to record this signal?
  1. A) extracellular unit recording
  2. B) intracellular unit recording
  3. C) electroencephalography
  4. D) integrated multiple-unit recording
  5. E) plethysmography

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

 

59) Unlike other electrophysiological methods of recording neural activity, intracellular unit recording provides measurements of

 

  1. A) cell firing.
  2. B) action potentials.
  3. C) the membrane potential.
  4. D) reductions in neural firing.
  5. E) EEG activity.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

60)  Extracellular unit recording provides information about

 

  1. A) the magnitude of the membrane potential.
  2. B) the wave form of action potentials.
  3. C) EPSPs.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

 

61) Which method was used to record this signal?

  1. A) extracellular unit recording
  2. B) intracellular unit recording
  3. C) electroencephalography
  4. D) integrated multiple unit recording
  5. E) plethysmography

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

 

62)  Multiple-unit signals are typically

  1. A) recorded through microelectrodes.
  2. B) recorded through electrodes that are larger than microelectrodes.
  3. C) integrated to facilitate their interpretation.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 114

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

63)  In laboratory animals, cortical EEG signals are commonly recorded through

 

  1. A) stainless steel skull screws.
  2. B) electrodes placed around the eyes.
  3. C) subcortical electrodes.
  4. D) disk electrodes taped to the scalp.
  5. E) cortical pipettes.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 114

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

64)  IP, SC, and IM are all

 

  1. A) recording methods.
  2. B) drugs.
  3. C) stimulation methods.
  4. D) cranial nerves.
  5. E) routes of drug administration.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

65)  Drugs that don’t penetrate the blood brain barrier can be administered to brain tissue

  1. A) by SC injection.
  2. B) through a stereotaxically positioned cerebral cannula.
  3. C) through an intracerebral microelectrode.
  4. D) by IV injection.
  5. E) by injection into a carotid artery.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

66)  Both ibotenic acid and kainic acid

  1. A) are neurotoxins.
  2. B) destroy neurons whose cell bodies are at the tip of an intracerebral cannula, while leaving axons passing through the region undamaged.
  3. C) are selective dopamine agonists.
  4. D) are selective dopamine antagonists.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

67)  The neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively destroys

  1. A) neurons that release dopamine or norepinephrine.
  2. B) axons.
  3. C) cell bodies.
  4. D) multipolar neurons.
  5. E) the hypothalamus.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

68)  A method of identifying all of the brain areas of a laboratory animal that were particularly active during a behavioral test is

 

  1. A) cerebral dialysis.
  2. B) the 2-deoxyglucose technique.
  3. C) immunocytochemistry.
  4. D) the 6-OHDA technique.
  5. E) the kainic acid technique.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

69)  The final stage of the 2-deoxyglucose technique involves

 

  1. A) autoradiography.
  2. B) injecting 2-DG.
  3. C) injecting radioactive 2-DG.
  4. D) immunocytochemistry.
  5. E) cerebral dialysis.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

70)  A method of measuring the levels of neurochemicals in particular sites in the brains of active laboratory animals is

 

  1. A) cerebral dialysis.
  2. B) the 6-OHDA histological technique.
  3. C) in situ hybridization.
  4. D) immunocytochemistry.
  5. E) electroencephalography.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

71)  Cerebral dialysis is a method of

  1. A) stimulating the brain.
  2. B) stimulating the neuroendocrine system.
  3. C) measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals at particular sites in the brains of active animals.
  4. D) 6-OHDA.
  5. E) recording AEPs.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

72)  Which of the following is a technique for locating particular proteins in the brain?

 

  1. A) immunocytochemistry.
  2. B) the 6-OHDA technique.
  3. C) in situ hybridization.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 116

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

73)  Which of the following procedures employs labeled antibodies?

 

  1. A) immunocytochemistry
  2. B) in situ hybridization
  3. C) cerebral dialysis
  4. D) electroencephalography
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 116

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

74)  In immunocytochemistry, the labeled ligand is

 

  1. A) an amino acid.
  2. B) a microelectrode.
  3. C) an antibody.
  4. D) a neurotransmitter.
  5. E) a receptor.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 116

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

75)  Immunocytochemistry is to in situ hybridization as

 

  1. A) antibody is to messenger RNA.
  2. B) DNA is to antibody.
  3. C) neurotransmitter is to cell body.
  4. D) antibody is to DNA.
  5. E) RNA is to antibody.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 116

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

76)  Knockout mice are mice that

 

  1. A) have had a concussion.
  2. B) are susceptible to concussion.
  3. C) have amnesia.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

 

77)  Which of the following is a weakness of the gene knockout technique as a method of biopsychological research?

  1. A) Most behavioral traits are influenced by many interacting genes.
  2. B) Elimination of one gene often influences the expression of other genes.
  3. C) The effects of some gene knockouts are likely to depend on experience.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

 

78)  Melanopsin knockout mice have difficulty

 

  1. A) adjusting their circadian rhythms in response to changes in the daily light-dark cycle.
  2. B) seeing.
  3. C) sleeping on a regular schedule.
  4. D) displaying circadian rhythms.
  5. E) recognizing circadian signals.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

 

79)  Transgenic mice always possess

 

  1. A) more genes than normal.
  2. B) fewer genes than normal.
  3. C) the characteristics of the other sex.
  4. D) fewer chromosomes than normal.
  5. E) genes of another species.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

 

80)  Green fluorescent protein

  1. A) was first isolated from a species of jelly fish.
  2. B) fluoresces when exposed to blue light.
  3. C) has been used to visualize neurons in a few plants and invertebrates, but not in higher organisms.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

 

81)  The brainbow technique

  1. A) is an extension of the green fluorescent protein technique.
  2. B) is a technique for labeling neurons in an animal different colors so that each can be traced.
  3. C) has not yet been applied to neural tissue in multicellular animals.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

 

82)  A behavioral paradigm normally includes a method for

  1. A) producing the behavioral phenomenon under investigation.
  2. B) measuring the behavioral phenomenon under investigation.
  3. C) recording brain activity.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: Introduction: Behavioral Research Methods

 

83)  The main difference between neurologists and neuropsychologists is that

  1. A) neurologists deal with brain-damaged people.
  2. B) neuropsychologists tend to focus on the assessment of complex behavioral problems.
  3. C) neuropsychologists generally refer patients to neurologists, but not vice versa.
  4. D) neurologists deal with behavior.
  5. E) neurologists are scientists.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

84)  Neuropsychological assessment is useful because it can

 

  1. A) assist diagnosis.
  2. B) influence treatment.
  3. C) be the basis for effective counseling.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

85)  Before the 1950s, neuropsychological testing usually employed the

 

  1. A) standardized-test-battery approach.
  2. B) single-test approach.
  3. C) customized-test-battery approach.
  4. D) neurological approach.
  5. E) psychophysical approach.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

86)  The primary purpose of the single-test and standardized-test-battery approaches to neuropsychological testing was to

  1. A) identify brain-damaged patients.
  2. B) locate the area of brain damage.
  3. C) characterize the nature of the psychological deficits.
  4. D) measure brain activity.
  5. E) compete with neurologists.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

87)  The modern customized-test-battery approach to neuropsychological testing typically begins with a

 

  1. A) test of memory.
  2. B) test of speech.
  3. C) test of motor function.
  4. D) test of emotion.
  5. E) battery of tests.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

88)  Tests used in the modern customized-test-battery approach to neuropsychological testing

  1. A) are often specifically designed to measure aspects of psychological function that have been spotlighted by modern theories and data.
  2. B) often focus on the cognitive strategies employed by the patient, rather than on just how well the patient does.
  3. C) often require skilled practitioners for their prescription, administration, and interpretation.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

89)  Many current neuropsychological assessments begin with the

 

  1. A) sodium amytal test.
  2. B) dichotic listening test.
  3. C) WAIS.
  4. D) Neuropsychiatric Test Inventory (NTI).
  5. E) ERP.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

90)  The digit-span test is a common test of

 

  1. A) short-term memory.
  2. B) counting.
  3. C) arithmetic.
  4. D) intelligence.
  5. E) lateralization.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

91)  On the digit-span test, most people score about

 

  1. A) 65%.
  2. B) 85%.
  3. C) 50%.
  4. D) 100%.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

92)  Which of the following is a test of language ability that employs objects of two shapes, two sizes, and five different colors?

  1. A) block-span test
  2. B) token test
  3. C) aphasia subtest of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery
  4. D) paired-associate test
  5. E) Wechsler Language Scale Test

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

93)  Which of the following WAIS subtests is part of the Performance Scale?

 

  1. A) Picture Completion
  2. B) Digit Symbol
  3. C) Block Design
  4. D) Object Assembly
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

94)  Which of the following subtests of the WAIS involves cartoon drawings?

 

  1. A) Object Assembly
  2. B) Picture Arrangement
  3. C) Picture Coloring
  4. D) Similarities
  5. E) Digit Span

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

95)  The sodium amytal test and dichotic listening test are tests of

 

  1. A) audition.
  2. B) memory.
  3. C) intelligence.
  4. D) language lateralization.
  5. E) language.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

96)  In the sodium amytal test, injections are sequentially made into the left and right

 

  1. A) language areas of the cortex.
  2. B) speech areas of the cortex.
  3. C) carotid arteries.
  4. D) auditory cortex.
  5. E) motor cortex.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

97)  In the sodium amytal test, an injection into the carotid artery contralateral to the dominant hemisphere for speech renders the subject completely mute for

 

  1. A) 50 seconds.
  2. B) 2 minutes.
  3. C) 4 minutes.
  4. D) 30 minutes.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

98)  In the conventional dichotic listening test of language lateralization,

  1. A) seven digits are presented.
  2. B) three digits are presented twice in rapid succession.
  3. C) seven pairs of digits are presented.
  4. D) three pairs of digits are presented.
  5. E) seven dichotic stimuli are presented.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

99)  Memories that are demonstrated by improved performance in the absence of conscious awareness of the memories are called

 

  1. A) implicit memories.
  2. B) explicit memories.
  3. C) semantic memories.
  4. D) episodic memories.
  5. E) short-term memories.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

100)  Repetition priming tests are tests of

 

  1. A) explicit memory.
  2. B) implicit memory.
  3. C) episodic memory.
  4. D) semantic memory.
  5. E) consolidated memory.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

101)  Brain damage may produce selective language deficits associated with the sounds, grammar, or meaning of language. In other words, they may disrupt

  1. A) syntax, phonology, or semantics, respectively.
  2. B) phonology, semantics, or syntax, respectively.
  3. C) phonology, syntax, or semantics, respectively.
  4. D) semantics, syntax, or phonology, respectively.
  5. E) semantics, phonology, or syntax, respectively.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

102)  Dyslexia is a difficulty in

 

  1. A) speaking.
  2. B) reading.
  3. C) understanding.
  4. D) thinking.
  5. E) fleeming.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

103)  A common neuropsychological test of frontal-lobe damage is the

 

  1. A) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
  2. B) token test.
  3. C) Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.
  4. D) digit-span test.
  5. E) block-design test.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

 

 

104)  Illustrated here is the

  1. A) Washington Symbols Test.
  2. B) Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.
  3. C) a classic test of parietal-lobe damage.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

 

 

 

105)  Most cognitive neuroscientific research is based on the assumption that

  1. A) complex cognitive processes result from the combination of simple constituent cognitive processes.
  2. B) each constituent cognitive process is mediated by activity in a particular area of the brain.
  3. C) constituent cognitive processes tend to be localized in subcortical
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

 

106)  If a PET image is recorded while a subject is reading, many areas of activity on the PET image will have nothing to do with the cognitive activity of reading. That is why cognitive neuroscientists often use

 

  1. A) functional MRI.
  2. B) structural MRI.
  3. C) the paired-image subtraction technique.
  4. D) the additive-image control procedure.
  5. E) EEG.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

 

107) A network of brain structures that tends to be active when a person sits quietly and lets her mind wander has been termed the

 

  1. A) limbic system.
  2. B) constituent cognitive processor.
  3. C) default mode network.
  4. D) cerebral paradigm.
  5. E) paired-image subtraction mode.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

 

108)  In most PET and functional MRI studies of cognitive processes, the signal-to-noise ratio is increased by

 

  1. A) subtraction.
  2. B) addition.
  3. C) averaging.
  4. D) signal splitting.
  5. E) multiplication.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

 

109)  Which of the following is a commonly studied species-common behavior?

 

  1. A) copulating
  2. B) nest building
  3. C) grooming
  4. D) swimming
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

110)  The open-field test is usually conducted in

 

  1. A) a large, empty chamber.
  2. B) the animals’ natural habitat.
  3. C) an open space in the animals’ natural habitat.
  4. D) a thigmotaxic chamber.
  5. E) Iowa.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

111)  In the open-field test, a high bolus count is frequently used as an indicator of

 

  1. A) aggression.
  2. B) fearfulness.
  3. C) motor activity.
  4. D) attention.
  5. E) defense.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

112)  In the open-field test, thigmotaxia is often used as a measure of

 

  1. A) body temperature.
  2. B) fearfulness.
  3. C) sexual motivation.
  4. D) obesity.
  5. E) aggression.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

113)  If a rat with its hair erect, moves sideways towards another rat and then pushes against it, the

  1. A) first rat is likely sexually motivated.
  2. B) second rat is likely a female.
  3. C) first rat is likely a female.
  4. D) first rat is likely a dominant male displaying social aggression.
  5. E) second rat is likely dominant to the first.

Answer: D

Diff:2   Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

114)  In rats, “boxing” is usually a sign of

 

  1. A) sexual motivation.
  2. B) aggression.
  3. C) predation.
  4. D) defense against conspecific attack.
  5. E) a lack of sexual motivation in alpha males.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

115)  The elevated plus maze is a commonly used test of

 

  1. A) balance.
  2. B) learning.
  3. C) memory.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

116)  The elevated plus maze is commonly employed to study

 

  1. A) memory.
  2. B) anxiety or defensiveness.
  3. C) aggression.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

 

117)  Normally, a male rat cannot intromit unless

 

  1. A) it is by itself.
  2. B) it displays lordosis.
  3. C) the female displays lordosis.
  4. D) the female has a low lordosis quotient.
  5. E) it first ejaculates.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

118)  Which of the following is a commonly used measure of male rat sexual behavior?

  1. A) number of mounts required to achieve an intromission
  2. B) number of intromissions required to achieve an ejaculation
  3. C) duration of the interval between an ejaculation and the reinitiation of mounting
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

119)  Which of the following is a commonly used measure of the sexual receptivity of female rats?

 

  1. A) postejaculatory interval
  2. B) mount frequency
  3. C) lordosis quotient
  4. D) number of intromissions to ejaculation
  5. E) number of ejaculations to intromission

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

120)  During conventional Pavlovian conditioning, the conditional stimulus is repeatedly presented just before the

 

  1. A) conditional response.
  2. B) unconditional stimulus.
  3. C) other conditional stimulus.
  4. D) operant response.
  5. E) classical stimulus.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

121)  In operant conditioning paradigms, the rate of a voluntary response is increased by __________ and decreased by __________.

  1. A) positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
  2. B) reinforcement; punishment
  3. C) brain stimulation; food
  4. D) food; brain stimulation
  5. E) conditional stimuli; unconditional stimuli

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

122)  The self-stimulation paradigm is

 

  1. A) a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.
  2. B) an operant conditioning paradigm.
  3. C) a punishment procedure.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

123)  In most self-stimulation paradigms,

  1. A) laboratory animals press levers.
  2. B) laboratory animals stimulate their own brains through implanted electrodes.
  3. C) there is punishment, but no reinforcement.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

124)  The first time a wild rat encounters a food that it has never tasted before, it usually displays

 

  1. A) conditioned taste aversion.
  2. B) neophobia.
  3. C) thigmotaxis.
  4. D) temporal contiguity.
  5. E) an emetic reaction.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

125)  Cancer patients sometimes develop conditioned taste aversions in response to their

 

  1. A) tumors.
  2. B) bad news.
  3. C) chemotherapy.
  4. D) X-rays.
  5. E) ulcers.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

126)  The discovery of conditioned taste aversion challenged the

  1. A) principle of equipotentiality.
  2. B) belief that temporal contiguity is necessary for conditioning.
  3. C) the engram theory of memory.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

127)  The radial arm maze is commonly used to study

 

  1. A) eating.
  2. B) motor activity.
  3. C) foraging for food.
  4. D) Pavlovian conditioning.
  5. E) discrimination learning.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

 

 

128)  This apparatus is

  1. A) an elevated plus maze.
  2. B) a Hebb-Williams maze.
  3. C) a wheel maze.
  4. D) a Morris maze.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

 

 

129)  Most radial arm mazes have

  1. A) 8 or more arms radiating out from a central starting area.
  2. B) 8 or more arms radiating out from a central goal area.
  3. C) 8 arms that continuously revolve.
  4. D) no goal areas.
  5. E) no starting area.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

130)  In the typical radial arm maze, rats tend to orient themselves on the basis of

 

  1. A) the colors of the arms.
  2. B) the size of the arms.
  3. C) the number of the arms.
  4. D) the length of the arms.
  5. E) external room cues.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

131)  The Morris water maze is commonly used to study

 

  1. A) fish behavior.
  2. B) spatial ability.
  3. C) maze running.
  4. D) passive avoidance.
  5. E) swimming.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 127

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

132)  The typical Morris water maze

 

  1. A) is circular.
  2. B) contains a clearly visible escape platform.
  3. C) is filled with clear water.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

133)  If a rat receives a single painful stimulus from a small object in a test box containing commercial bedding material, the rat will usually investigate the object and then

 

  1. A) flee.
  2. B) bury it.
  3. C) dig a tunnel.
  4. D) escape.
  5. E) build a nest.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 127

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

134)  Antianxiety (anxiolytic) drugs tend to reduce the amount of

  1. A) conditioned taste aversion.
  2. B) time spent in the closed arms of the elevated plus maze.
  3. C) self-stimulation.
  4. D) conditioned defensive burying.
  5. E) both B and D

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 125&127

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  The patient is often injected with radioactive 2-DG before positron __________.

Answer: emission tomography

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

2)  The two most common techniques for producing images of human brain function are PET and functional __________.

Answer: MRI

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 105

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

3)  A technique for disrupting activity in an area of cortex in healthy human subjects is __________ stimulation.

Answer: transcranial magnetic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

4)  In human subjects, EEG electrodes are often fixed to the __________ .

Answer: scalp

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

5)  The unabbreviated name of the procedure used to record muscle tension is __________.

Answer: electromyography

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

6)  The SCL and SCR are influenced by __________ glands.

Answer: sweat

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

 

7)  Electrodes are typically implanted in subcortical structures by __________ surgery.

Answer: stereotaxic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

8)  Intracellular unit recording provides a measure of the __________ over time.

Answer: membrane potential

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

9)  As the final step in the 2-deoxyglucose technique, brain slices are subjected to __________.

Answer: autoradiography

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

 

 

10)  To facilitate immunochemistry, neurochemists have created stocks of __________ to most neuropeptides.

Answer: antibodies

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 116

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

 

11)  Gene __________ techniques are used to create organisms that lack particular genes.

Answer:  knockout

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

 

12)  The test of intelligence that is most frequently used in neuropsychological assessment is abbreviated __________.

Answer: WAIS

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

13)  A commonly used test of short-term memory is the __________ subtest of the WAIS.

Answer: digit span

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

14)  In the open-field test, fearful rats are __________, that is, they stay near the walls of the test box.

Answer: thigmotaxic

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

15)  Sexually receptive female rats often assume the __________ posture when mounted by a male rat.

Answer: lordosis

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

16)  Pavlovian conditioning typically involves repeatedly presenting the conditional stimulus just before the __________.

Answer: unconditional stimulus

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

17)  Many cancer patients receiving chemotherapy develop conditioned __________.

Answer: taste aversions

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

18)  The __________ maze typically has eight or more arms and is used to study the spatial abilities of rats.

Answer: radial arm

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

 

 

 

19)  The typical __________ maze contains a hidden escape platform.

Answer: Morris water

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

20)  If a rat is hurt by an object in a test chamber containing commercial bedding material, the rat will often __________ the object.

Answer: bury

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 127

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  Describe and compare the various techniques commonly used for obtaining structural images of the living human brain.

Answer:

50% for describing contrast X-rays (e.g., cerebral angiography), CT, and MRI

50% for comparing them

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 103-104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

 

2)  Describe and compare the various methods for recording the electrical activity of the brain through invasive electrodes.

Answer:

50% for describing intracellular unit recording, extracellular unit recording, multiple unit recording, and invasive EEG recording

50% for comparing them

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 113-114

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

 

3)  Describe the modern customized-test-battery approach to assessing the psychological deficits of neuropsychological patients. Give examples of two specific tests. How is this approach an improvement over previous approaches?

Answer:

40% for describing the two phases of this approach

40% for describing how this is an improvement over the standardized-test-battery approach

20% for intelligently discussing two specific tests

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 119-122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

4)  Discuss the assessment of memory deficits in neuropsychological patients. Discuss the effectiveness of the memory span and repetition priming tests.

Answer:

50% for explaining that assessing memory deficits is complex because there are so many different kinds of memory deficits

25% for describing the memory span test and its insensitivity to brain damage

25% for describing the repetition priming tests and that it is particularly sensitive to brain damage

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 120-122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

 

5)  Describe both the paired-image subtraction and the averaging techniques that are used in cognitive neuroscience research. Why are they employed?

Answer:

35% for describing paired-image subtraction

35% for describing averaging

30% for explaining why they are used

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 122-123

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

 

 

 

 

6)  Describe the conditioned taste aversion phenomenon and how it changed how researchers thought about learning.

Answer:

20% for describing the step-by-step assumption

20% for describing the equipotentiality assumption

20% for describing the temporal contiguity assumption

40% for explaining how the discovery of conditioned taste aversion challenged these three assumptions

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 125-126

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

7)  Your text describes three categories of paradigms for studying the behavior of laboratory animals. Name and describe the three categories, and describe one example of each.

Answer:

25% for naming and describing “paradigms for the assessment of species common behaviors”

25% for naming and describing “traditional conditioning paradigms”

25% for naming and describing “seminatural animal learning paradigms”

25% for naming and describing one test from each category

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124-128

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

 

Chapter 7 

Mechanisms of Perception: Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste, and Attention:

How You Know the World

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  Areas of neocortex that receive most of their input from the sensory thalamic relay nuclei of the thalamus are classified as

 

  1. A) association cortex.
  2. B) tertiary cortex.
  3. C) motor cortex.
  4. D) secondary sensory cortex.
  5. E) primary sensory cortex.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

2)  An area of cerebral cortex that receives input from more than one sensory system is classified as

 

  1. A) hierarchical cortex.
  2. B) primary sensory cortex.
  3. C) secondary sensory cortex.
  4. D) association cortex.
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

3)  A hierarchical system is one in which

  1. A) there is one absolute top.
  2. B) there is one absolute bottom.
  3. C) each element has specific levels or ranks with respect to one another.
  4. D) no two elements are at the same level.
  5. E) there is no cortical involvement.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

4)  The simple process of detecting the presence of stimuli is often referred to as

 

  1. A) seeing.
  2. B) hearing.
  3. C) sensation.
  4. D) perception.
  5. E) attention.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

5)  Each cortical level of a sensory system – primary, secondary, or association – is itself composed of different areas that mediate different psychological processes. This principle of sensory system organization is referred to as

 

  1. A) functional segregation.
  2. B) parallel processing.
  3. C) the binding problem.
  4. D) hierarchical organization.
  5. E) serial processing.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

6)  A major principle of sensory system organization is

 

  1. A) hierarchical organization.
  2. B) functional segregation.
  3. C) parallel processing.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

7)  A system in which information is conducted in a single route through its various components – like a string through beads – is called a

 

  1. A) parallel system.
  2. B) functional system.
  3. C) hierarchical system.
  4. D) serial system.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

8)  Modern biopsychological theory considers sensory systems to be

 

  1. A) analog, parallel, and general.
  2. B) functionally segregated, serial, and parallel.
  3. C) hierarchical, functionally segregated, and parallel.
  4. D) functionally segregated, serial, and sequential.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

9)  Because sensory systems are characterized by functional segregation while perception is largely holistic, there is a

 

  1. A) binding problem.
  2. B) need for feedback circuits.
  3. C) flaw in serial coding.
  4. D) flaw in parallel coding.
  5. E) segregation problem.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

10)  For humans, sounds are those molecular vibrations between about __________ hertz.

 

  1. A) 20 and 200
  2. B) 2,000 and 20,000
  3. C) 200 and 2,000
  4. D) 200 and 8,000
  5. E) 20 and 20,000

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

11)  The loudness, pitch, and timbre of a sound are directly related to the __________, respectively, of the vibrations that produced it.

 

  1. A) frequency, amplitude, and complexity
  2. B) amplitude, complexity, and frequency
  3. C) amplitude, frequency, and complexity
  4. D) complexity, frequency, and amplitude
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

12)  The frequency of sound waves is to the complexity of sound waves as the

 

  1. A) pitch of sound is to the timbre.
  2. B) amplitude of sound is to the loudness.
  3. C) pitch of sound is to the amplitude.
  4. D) timbre of sound is to the loudness.
  5. E) loudness of sound is to the timbre.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

13)  Which of the following ossicles is attached to the round window?

 

  1. A) malleus
  2. B) incus
  3. C) hammer
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

14)  The malleus, incus, and stapes

  1. A) are small bones that transmit vibrations from the ear drum to the oval window.
  2. B) are small bones that transmit vibrations from the oval window to the round window.
  3. C) were the three ships of Christopher Columbus.
  4. D) are small bones in the inner ear.
  5. E) both B and D

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

15)  Which of the following auditory structures has the appearance of a snail and has a name that is derived from the Greek word for land snail?

 

  1. A) ossicles
  2. B) cochlea
  3. C) malleus
  4. D) tectorial membrane
  5. E) superior olive

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

16)  Resting on the auditory hair cells is the

 

  1. A) cochlea.
  2. B) basilar membrane.
  3. C) organ of Corti.
  4. D) tectorial membrane.
  5. E) auditory nerve.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

17)  Which of the following is part of the organ of Corti?

 

  1. A) the semicircular canals
  2. B) the hair cells
  3. C) the basilar membrane
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

18)  The auditory system is organized

 

  1. A) retinotopically.
  2. B) geographically.
  3. C) tonotopically.
  4. D) somatotopically.
  5. E) volumetrically.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 169

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

19)  The visual system is to retinotopic as the auditory system is to

 

  1. A) homotopic.
  2. B) spatiotopic.
  3. C) intensity topic.
  4. D) tonotopic.
  5. E) timbre topic.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 169

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

20)  Which of the following contains the receptors of the vestibular system?

 

  1. A) the basilar membrane
  2. B) the semicircular canals
  3. C) the ossicles
  4. D) the superior olive
  5. E) the cochlea

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

21)  The sensory organs of the vestibular system

 

  1. A) maintain balance.
  2. B) activate one branch of cranial nerve VIII.
  3. C) are the semicircular canals.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

22)  The semicircular canals are the receptive organs of

 

  1. A) the auditory system.
  2. B) the vestibular system.
  3. C) a top-down system .
  4. D) an exteroceptive system.
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

23)  The axons of the auditory nerves synapse in the ipsilateral

 

  1. A) cochlear nuclei.
  2. B) superior olivary nuclei.
  3. C) medial geniculate nuclei.
  4. D) inferior colliculi.
  5. E) lateral lemniscus.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

24)  The superior olives receive most of their input from the

 

  1. A) medial geniculate nuclei.
  2. B) superior colliculus.
  3. C) inferior colliculus.
  4. D) cochlear nuclei.
  5. E) lateral geniculate nuclei.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

25)  The major auditory projections of the inferior colliculi go to the

 

  1. A) cochlear nuclei.
  2. B) medial geniculate nuclei.
  3. C) lateral geniculate nuclei.
  4. D) superior olives.
  5. E) auditory nerve.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

26)  One exception to the usual tonotopic organization of the auditory system is the

 

  1. A) primary auditory cortex.
  2. B) basilar membrane.
  3. C) superior colliculus.
  4. D) inferior colliculus.
  5. E) cochlear nucleus.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

27)  Barn owls are often used in auditory research on sound localization because they have

 

  1. A) excellent sound localization ability.
  2. B) large ears.
  3. C) a large auditory cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

28)  Much of the recent research on sound localization has focused on the

 

  1. A) cochlea.
  2. B) barn owl.
  3. C) snail.
  4. D) mouse.
  5. E) cat.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

29)  The primary auditory cortex is in the

 

  1. A) temporal lobe.
  2. B) lateral fissure.
  3. C) occipital lobe.
  4. D) frontal lobe.
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

30)  Much of the human auditory cortex is invisible to casual inspection because it is in the depths of the __________ fissure.

 

  1. A) central
  2. B) lateral
  3. C) longitudinal
  4. D) calcarine
  5. E) postcentral

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

 

31) The arrow points to

  1. A) somatosensory cortex.
  2. B) vestibular cortex.
  3. C) gustatory cortex.
  4. D) auditory cortex.
  5. E) olfactory cortex.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

 

32)  Neurons of the monkey secondary auditory cortex respond robustly to

 

  1. A) bird calls.
  2. B) pure tones.
  3. C) monkey calls.
  4. D) the location of sounds.
  5. E) pitch.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

33)  Investigators have proposed that in each hemisphere, there are two major streams of

 

  1. A) visual information
  2. B) auditory information.
  3. C) pain information.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

34)  The perception of pitch in primates seems to occur in

  1. A) the thalamus.
  2. B) one small cortical area just anterior to primary auditory cortex.
  3. C) association cortex.
  4. D) primary auditory cortex.
  5. E) all areas of association cortex together.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

35)  Which of the following has played a major role in differentiating neurons that respond to pitch from those that respond to frequency?

 

  1. A) missing fundamentals
  2. B) primary auditory cortex
  3. C) tinnitus
  4. D) barn owls
  5. E) posterior auditory pathway

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

36)  In most of the mammals that have been studied, auditory cortex lesions produce

  1. A) permanent and total deafness.
  2. B) permanent and total deafness, if the lesions are bilateral.
  3. C) a deficit in the ability to localize brief sounds.
  4. D) tinnitus.
  5. E) total deafness that is permanent only in the contralateral field.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

37)  The permanent effects of bilateral auditory cortex damage are surprisingly minor in primates although they do include disruption of the ability to

  1. A) detect sounds, but only those presented to the contralateral ear.
  2. B) discriminate frequencies.
  3. C) localize brief sounds.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

38)  Bilateral damage to which of the following auditory structures would be most likely to produce complete and permanent hearing loss?

 

  1. A) primary auditory cortex
  2. B) superior colliculus
  3. C) cochlear nerve
  4. D) secondary auditory cortex
  5. E) association cortex

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

39)  Tinnitus

  1. A) always accompanies hearing loss.
  2. B) is always cured by cutting the contralateral auditory nerve.
  3. C) is always cured by cutting the ipsilateral auditory nerve.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

40)  The somatosensory system is

 

  1. A) exteroceptive.
  2. B) proprioceptive.
  3. C) interoceptive.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

41)  The sense of touch is largely

 

  1. A) exteroceptive.
  2. B) proprioceptive.
  3. C) interoceptive.
  4. D) nociceptive.
  5. E) slow-adapting.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

42)  Nociceptive stimuli are

 

  1. A) exteroceptive.
  2. B) mechanical.
  3. C) thermal.
  4. D) painful.
  5. E) bad.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

43)  The cutaneous somatosensory system responds to

 

  1. A) nociceptive stimuli.
  2. B) thermal stimuli.
  3. C) mechanical stimuli.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

44)  The perception of both pain and changes in skin temperature are largely mediated by

 

  1. A) free nerve endings.
  2. B) Pacinian corpuscles.
  3. C) nociceptors.
  4. D) temperoceptors.
  5. E) both B and D

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

45)  Free nerve endings are thought to mediate the perception of

 

  1. A) pressure.
  2. B) pain.
  3. C) skin temperature.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

46)  The Pacinian corpuscle is

 

  1. A) the largest cutaneous receptor.
  2. B) the most deeply positioned cutaneous receptor.
  3. C) fast adapting.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

47)  Pacinian corpuscles, Merkel’s disks, and Ruffini endings are

 

  1. A) blood cells.
  2. B) auditory receptors.
  3. C) receptors in the skin.
  4. D) taste receptors.
  5. E) nuclei in the somatosensory system.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

48)  The identification of objects by touch is

 

  1. A) proprioception.
  2. B) lewd.
  3. C) vestibulation.
  4. D) stereognosis.
  5. E) astereognosia.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

49)  A dermatome is a

 

  1. A) slowly adapting cutaneous receptor.
  2. B) fast adapting cutaneous receptor.
  3. C) free nerve ending.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

50)  The area of the body that is innervated by the left and right dorsal roots of a given segment of the spinal cord is a

 

  1. A) dermatome.
  2. B) stereognosis.
  3. C) Ruffini ending.
  4. D) region of glabrous skin.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

51)  The destruction of a single dorsal root typically produces little somatosensory loss because

  1. A) there are few cutaneous receptors in the back.
  2. B) the dorsal roots soon degenerate.
  3. C) there is considerable overlap between adjacent dermatomes.
  4. D) the dorsal roots accurately regenerate.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

52)  The dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system and the anterolateral system both carry sensory information from the

 

  1. A) eyes.
  2. B) ears.
  3. C) skin.
  4. D) nose.
  5. E) mouth.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

53)  The dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system is particularly responsive to

 

  1. A) sound and movement.
  2. B) touch and proprioception.
  3. C) motor output.
  4. D) proprioception and temperature.
  5. E) pain and temperature.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

54)  The anterolateral system is particularly responsive to

 

  1. A) pain.
  2. B) temperature.
  3. C) touch.
  4. D) all of the above.
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

55)  The dorsal columns are composed of

  1. A) the axons of cutaneous somatosensory neurons.
  2. B) the cell bodies of cutaneous somatosensory neurons.
  3. C) the dorsal column nuclei.
  4. D) many of the branches of the trigeminal nerve.
  5. E) the axons of medial lemniscus neurons.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

56)  The neurons of the ventral posterior nucleus project to

 

  1. A) SI, SII, and the posterior parietal cortex.
  2. B) the thalamus.
  3. C) the medial lemniscus.
  4. D) the dorsal column nuclei.
  5. E) the auditory cortex.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

57)  The longest neuron in the human body

 

  1. A) is a toe motor neuron.
  2. B) has its cell body in the spinal cord.
  3. C) is part of the anterolateral system.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) is somatosensory.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

58)  Most of the neurons of the anterolateral system decussate in the

 

  1. A) spinal cord.
  2. B) lower brain stem.
  3. C) midbrain.
  4. D) corpus callosum.
  5. E) medulla.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

59)  The anterolateral system comprises the

 

  1. A) spinothalamic tract.
  2. B) spinoreticular tract.
  3. C) spinotectal tract.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

60)  Dorsal columns are to anterolateral pathways as

 

  1. A) pain is to temperature.
  2. B) touch is to temperature and pain.
  3. C) exteroceptive is to interoceptive.
  4. D) free nerve endings are to Pacinian corpuscles.
  5. E) temperature is to pain.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

61)  Which of the following somatosensory structures do not receive substantial input from the anterolateral system?

 

  1. A) dorsal column nuclei
  2. B) tectum
  3. C) reticular formation
  4. D) colliculi
  5. E) intralaminar nuclei

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

62)  The ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus receive direct input from the

  1. A) dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system.
  2. B) lateral geniculate nuclei.
  3. C) spinothalamic tract of the anterolateral system.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

63)  Lesions to the intralaminar and parafascicular nuclei

 

  1. A) disrupt input from the spinoreticular tract.
  2. B) reduce deep chronic pain.
  3. C) eliminate cutaneous sensitivity.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

64)  Primary somatosensory cortex is in the

 

  1. A) postcentral gyrus.
  2. B) precentral gyrus.
  3. C) occipital lobe.
  4. D) frontal lobe.
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

65)  Some primary somatosensory cortex is in the

 

  1. A) central fissure.
  2. B) lateral fissure.
  3. C) longitudinal fissure.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

66)  Much of SII is

 

  1. A) adjacent to SI.
  2. B) in the lateral fissure.
  3. C) in the parietal cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

67)  Research has shown that SI

 

  1. A) is really SII.
  2. B) includes SII.
  3. C) is posterior to SII.
  4. D) is organized in four somatotopically organized, parallel strips.
  5. E) is smaller than SII.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

68)  Unilateral damage to SI

  1. A) eliminates the sense of touch in the contralateral hand.
  2. B) eliminates the sense of touch in the ipsilateral hand.
  3. C) produces contralateral neglect.
  4. D) produces stereognosis.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 179

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

69)  Unilateral excision of SI produces a contralateral deficit in the ability to

 

  1. A) detect light touch.
  2. B) identify objects by touch.
  3. C) feel pain.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 179

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

70)  The inability to identify objects by touch is

 

  1. A) astereognosia.
  2. B) stereognosis.
  3. C) asomatognosia.
  4. D) anosognosia.
  5. E) apraxia.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 179

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

71)  Astereognosia and asomatognosia are the two major types of

 

  1. A) touch blindness.
  2. B) apraxia.
  3. C) somatosensory agnosia.
  4. D) contralateral neglect.
  5. E) stereognosis.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

72)  Harold Klawans’s case of Aunt Betty suffered from a form of

 

  1. A) asomatognosia.
  2. B) prosopagnosia.
  3. C) color agnosia.
  4. D) stereognosis.
  5. E) anosmia.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

73)  Contralateral neglect is often observed in cases of

 

  1. A) stereognosis.
  2. B) astereognosia.
  3. C) asomatognosia.
  4. D) congenital absence of pain.
  5. E) prosopagnosia.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

74)  Which of the following is often associated with asomatognosia?

 

  1. A) contralateral neglect
  2. B) aphasia
  3. C) anosognosia
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

75)  Hemispherectomized patients feel

 

  1. A) no pain.
  2. B) no pain from the contralateral side of the body.
  3. C) no pain from the ipsilateral side of the body.
  4. D) no pain from their extremities.
  5. E) pain from both sides of the body.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

 

76) Illustrated here is the cortical area most commonly linked to the perception of pain: the

  1. A) anterior cingulate cortex.
  2. B) periaqueductal gray matter.
  3. C) gate control cortex.
  4. D) pain mucosa.
  5. E) dorsolateral frontal cortex.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

 

77)  The cortical area that has most frequently been linked to pain by functional brain imaging studies is the

 

  1. A) anterior cingulate cortex.
  2. B) secondary somatosensory cortex.
  3. C) posterior parietal cortex.
  4. D) inferotemporal cortex.
  5. E) PAG.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

78)  Evidence suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a major role in the

 

  1. A) detection of pain.
  2. B) localization of pain.
  3. C) emotional reaction to pain.
  4. D) none of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

79)  The first influential theory to emphasize that central circuits can block incoming pain signals before they reach the brain was the

 

  1. A) endorphin theory.
  2. B) gate-control theory.
  3. C) duplexity theory.
  4. D) dopamine theory.
  5. E) pain-inhibition theory.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

80)  Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces

 

  1. A) opiates.
  2. B) serotonin.
  3. C) analgesia.
  4. D) opiate receptors.
  5. E) pain.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

81)  Electrical stimulation of which of the following structures has analgesic effects?

 

  1. A) SII
  2. B) periaqueductal gray
  3. C) paraventricular nuclei
  4. D) ventral posterior nuclei
  5. E) medial lemniscus

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

82)  Morphine is an

 

  1. A) analgesic.
  2. B) opiate.
  3. C) endogenous opiate.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

83)  The descending PAG-raphé-dorsal-column circuit has been hypothesized to mediate

 

  1. A) some types of pain.
  2. B) some types of analgesia.
  3. C) touch.
  4. D) audition.
  5. E) stereognosis.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

84)  The analgesia-producing axons descending in the dorsal columns originate in

 

  1. A) the PAG.
  2. B) the raphé nucleus.
  3. C) SI.
  4. D) SII.
  5. E) the ventral posterior nuclei.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

85)  The PAG is to the raphé as

 

  1. A) endorphin is to serotonin.
  2. B) serotonin is to endorphin.
  3. C) pain is to analgesia.
  4. D) analgesia is to pain.
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

86)  Severe chronic pain in the absence of a recognizable pain stimulus is

 

  1. A) psychophysiological.
  2. B) analgesic.
  3. C) neuropathic.
  4. D) pheromonal.
  5. E) psychophysical.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

87)  Smell and taste

  1. A) are the most well understood of the exteroceptive sensory systems.
  2. B) combine to produce the sensation of flavor.
  3. C) have only recently evolved.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

88)  Much of the interest in the chemical senses stems from the fact that

  1. A) their physiology is particularly simple.
  2. B) their anatomy and physiology are particularly well known.
  3. C) they play important roles in the social lives of many species.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

89)  A male hamster intruder can be converted from the object of assassination to an object of hamster lust by

  1. A) injecting it with estrogen.
  2. B) injecting it with progesterone.
  3. C) swabbing it with lemon.
  4. D) swabbing it with the vaginal secretions of an ovulating female.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

90)  Olfactory receptors are embedded in the

 

  1. A) olfactory mucosa.
  2. B) nose hairs.
  3. C) olfactory nucleus.
  4. D) olfactory neocortex.
  5. E) hair receptors.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

91)  The axons of the olfactory receptors run through the

 

  1. A) olfactory bulb to the thalamus.
  2. B) olfactory bulb to the paleocortex.
  3. C) cribriform plate to the thalamus.
  4. D) cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb.
  5. E) olfactory epithelium to olfactory cortex.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

92)  Parts of olfactory receptor cells can be found

 

  1. A) in the walls of the nasal passages.
  2. B) in the olfactory mucosa.
  3. C) passing through the cribriform plate.
  4. D) in the olfactory bulb.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

93)  Because we can discriminate among thousands of different odors and each receptor responds to many odors, coding in the olfactory system has been assumed to operate according to

 

  1. A) opponent principles.
  2. B) component principles.
  3. C) pheromonal principles.
  4. D) excitatory principles.
  5. E) inhibitory principles.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

94)  Recent evidence suggests that humans have __________ different types of olfactory receptors.

 

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 16
  5. E) almost 1,000

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

95)  How many types of protein molecules are contained by each olfactory receptor cell?

 

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 7
  5. E) about 1,000

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.4  Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

96)  All of the olfactory receptors with the same receptor protein

  1. A) are located in the same part of the mucosa.
  2. B) are scattered throughout the mucosa.
  3. C) project to the same location of the olfactory bulb.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

97)  Olfactory receptor cells differ from other receptor cells in one important way:

  1. A) They are bigger.
  2. B) New ones are created throughout life.
  3. C) They have no axons.
  4. D) Each contains several different receptors.
  5. E) They release chemicals.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

98)  The olfactory system is unique among the exteroceptive sensory systems in that its signals

  1. A) are chemical.
  2. B) are relayed to the neocortex by the thalamus.
  3. C) reach cortical tissue before reaching the thalamus.
  4. D) do not reach the neocortex.
  5. E) are completely contralateral.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

99)  Most of the output of the olfactory bulbs goes to structures of the medial temporal lobes, in particular to the

 

  1. A) amygdala.
  2. B) thalamus.
  3. C) piriform cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4  Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

100)  Two major olfactory pathways leave the amygdala-piriform area. One projects diffusely to the limbic system; the other projects to the

  1. A) medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus and then to the orbitofrontal cortex.
  2. B) hippocampus and caudate.
  3. C) striatum and olfactory bulb.
  4. D) olfactory bulb and SI.
  5. E) basal forebrain and cingulate.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4  Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

101)  Human olfactory neocortex is

 

  1. A) near the orbits.
  2. B) in the frontal lobe.
  3. C) in the parietal lobe.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

102)  Olfactory neocortex is in the

 

  1. A) occipital lobe.
  2. B) thalamus.
  3. C) parietal lobe.
  4. D) orbitofrontal cortex.
  5. E) nasal passages.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

103)  Taste receptors typically occur in clusters of 50 or so. These clusters are called

 

  1. A) the tongue.
  2. B) taste buds.
  3. C) taste receptor nuclei.
  4. D) papillae.
  5. E) taste mucosas.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

104)  __________ are found in __________, which are often located around small protuberances called __________.

  1. A) Taste receptors; taste buds; papillae
  2. B) Taste buds; taste receptors; papillae
  3. C) Taste receptors; papillae; taste buds
  4. D) Taste buds; papillae; taste receptors
  5. E) Papillae; taste receptors; taste buds

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

105)  Unlike olfactory receptors, each taste receptor has no

 

  1. A) cytoplasm.
  2. B) axon.
  3. C) nucleus.
  4. D) receptors.
  5. E) ion channels.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

106)  There seem to be at least five primary tastes; the most recently documented was

 

  1. A) sour.
  2. B) unami.
  3. C) bitter.
  4. D) mamawawa.
  5. E) yumyumi.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

107)  The conventional four-taste component processing theory of taste has a problem:

  1. A) There are no receptors for bitter or sweet.
  2. B) There are at least five primary tastes.
  3. C) Many tastes cannot be created from combinations of the primaries.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

108)  Gustatory afferents leave the mouth as part of the

 

  1. A) facial nerve.
  2. B) glossopharyngeal nerve.
  3. C) vagus nerve.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

109)  The main medullary nucleus of the gustatory system is the

 

  1. A) solitary nucleus.
  2. B) red nucleus.
  3. C) dorsal column nucleus.
  4. D) ventral posterior nucleus.
  5. E) piriform nucleus.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

110)  The primary gustatory cortex is in the

 

  1. A) longitudinal fissure.
  2. B) central fissure.
  3. C) frontal lobe.
  4. D) parietal lobe.
  5. E) temporal lobe.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

111)  Unlike the projections of the other exteroceptive sensory systems, the projections of the gustatory system are primarily

 

  1. A) contralateral.
  2. B) ipsilateral.
  3. C) unilateral.
  4. D) bilateral.
  5. E) descending.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

112)  Gustation is to olfaction as

 

  1. A) flavor is to odor.
  2. B) onions are to potatoes.
  3. C) thalamus is to neocortex.
  4. D) ageusia is to anosmia.
  5. E) NaCl is to thiamine.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

113)  The most common neurological cause of anosmia is

 

  1. A) a tumor.
  2. B) an infection.
  3. C) a blow to the head.
  4. D) a convulsion.
  5. E) a blow to the nose.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

114)  Anosmia typically results when the olfactory receptor cells are sheared by the

 

  1. A) septum.
  2. B) olfactory mucosa.
  3. C) cribriform plate.
  4. D) chorda tympani.
  5. E) olfactory bulbs.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

115) Ageusia is very rare, presumably because

  1. A) people have such poor taste to begin with.
  2. B) the tongue is protected in the mouth.
  3. C) taste information from the mouth is carried via three separate sensory pathways.
  4. D) olfactory information from the nose is carried via three separate sensory pathways.
  5. E) olfactory information from the nose is carried via two separate sensory pathways.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

116)  The ability to focus on only a small subset of the stimuli that are being received by sensory organs is called

 

  1. A) subliminal perception.
  2. B) selective attention.
  3. C) selective perception.
  4. D) subliminal attention.
  5. E) sensory focus.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 187

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

117)  Selective attention

  1. A) improves the perception of stimuli that are its focus.
  2. B) has no effect on the quality of perception.
  3. C) seems to depend on thalamic mechanisms.
  4. D) seems to depend on changes in receptors.
  5. E) blocks out, just slightly, the perception of those stimuli that are its focus.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 187

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

118)  Endogenous attention is mediated by

 

  1. A) top-down mechanisms.
  2. B) bottom-up mechanisms.
  3. C) recurrent collateral inhibition.
  4. D) exogenous inhibition.
  5. E) subliminal perception.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 187

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

119)  The mechanisms of selective attention are

 

  1. A) top-down.
  2. B) bottom-up.
  3. C) inside-out.
  4. D) outside-in.
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 187

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

 

120) Stare at the + sign and without moving your eyes, shift your focus from one letter to another. You have just experienced

  1. A) overt attention.
  2. B) covert attention.
  3. C) the cocktail party phenomenon.
  4. D) bottom-up attention.
  5. E) exogenous attention.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 187

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

 

121)  The cocktail-party phenomenon refers to your ability to “focus on” a specific conversation at a cocktail party while

  1. A) drunk out of your mind.
  2. B) unconsciously monitoring other conversations.
  3. C) being totally conscious of other conversations.
  4. D) talking to someone else.
  5. E) eating.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

122)  If you were looking at holiday slides of your family and a major background object, such as a tree, moved as you blinked, you would likely

  1. A) experience change blindness.
  2. B) have your attention drawn from your family to the tree.
  3. C) immediately notice the movement.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 188

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

123)  Functional brain imaging studies have shown that attention to movement is associated with increased activity in the human

 

  1. A) primary visual cortex.
  2. B) ventral stream.
  3. C) dorsal stream.
  4. D) thalamus.
  5. E) optic chiasm.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 189

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

124)  A difficulty in attending to more than one visual object at a time is

 

  1. A) visual agnosia.
  2. B) visual prosopagnosia.
  3. C) visual simultanagnosia.
  4. D) change blindness.
  5. E) visual ageusia.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 189

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  Sensory systems are hierarchical, parallel, and __________ segregated.

Answer: functionally

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

2)  The three ossicles transmit auditory vibrations to the __________.

Answer: oval window

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

3)  The organ of Corti comprises the tectorial membrane, hair cells, and __________.

Answer: basilar membrane

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

4)  The organization of the auditory system is not retinotopic; it is __________.

Answer: tonotopic

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 169

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

5)  Hearing loss is sometimes associated with __________, which is not eliminated by cutting the auditory nerves from the affected ear..

Answer: tinnitus

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

6)  The somatosensory system is three interacting systems: one interoceptive, one exteroceptive, and one __________.

Answer: proprioceptive

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

7)  Painful stimuli are also referred to as __________ stimuli.

Answer: nociceptive

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

8)  The identification of objects by touch is called __________.

Answer: stereognosis

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

9)  A __________ is an area of the body that is innervated by the dorsal roots of one segment of the spinal cord.

Answer: dermatome

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

 

10)  The __________ pathway carries pain and temperature information to the brain.

Answer: anterolateral

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

11)  The axons of dorsal column nuclei decussate and then ascend in the medial lemniscus to the __________ nucleus of the thalamus.

Answer: ventral posterior

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

12)  The spinothalamic, spinoreticular, and spinotectal tracts are all part of the __________ pathway of the somatosensory system.

Answer: anterolateral

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

13)  Primary __________ cortex is in the postcentral gyrus.

Answer: somatosensory

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

14)  SI is also known as the __________ somatosensory cortex.

Answer: primary

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

15)  The inability to recognize objects by touch is __________.

Answer: astereognosia

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 179

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

16)  An analgesia circuit descends into the spinal cord from the __________ gray.

Answer: periaqueductal

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

17)  __________ are chemicals that are released by animals and influence the physiology and behavior of conspecifics.

Answer: Pheromones

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 183

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

18)  The __________ cortex is considered to be the primary olfactory cortex

Answer: piriform

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

 

 

19)  The inability to smell is called __________.

Answer: anosmia

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

20)  In contrast to endogenous attention, exogenous attention is mediated by __________ neural mechanisms.

Answer: bottom-up

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 187

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

21)  We experience change blindness because we have absolutely no memory for parts of a scene that are not the focus of __________.

Answer: attention

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 188

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  The modern model of sensory system organization features three important principles. Name them and explain them. Draw a representation of the modern model.

Answer:

25% for naming and discussing hierarchical organization

25% for naming and discussing functional segregation

25% for naming and discussing parallel processing

25% for drawing the modern model

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 166-167

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

 

2)  Discuss current knowledge of auditory cortex, emphasizing both difficulties and successes.

Answer:

25% for discussing location and organization in columns of primary auditory cortex

25% for discussing the problems created by the complexity of auditory neuron responses to sound

25% for discussing the two hypothetical cortical streams of auditory information

25% for discussing the cortical localization of pitch discrimination

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 171-173

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

 

3)  Compare the anatomy of the two major ascending somatosensory pathways: the dorsal-column medial lemniscus pathway and the anterolateral pathway. Draw them. What are their functions?

Answer:

50% for comparing the two systems

30% for drawing the two systems

20% for comparing the functions of the two systems

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 175-177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

 

4)  The chemical senses are unique in several ways. Describe and discuss two ways in which either the gustatory or olfactory systems is different from other sensory systems.

Answer:

50% for describing each difference

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 183-186

Topic: 7.4 The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

 

5)  Describe and discuss two important aspects of selective attention. In your discussion, explain why you think that these two aspects are important, and describe any relevant research.

Answer:

50% for describing two differences

50% for discussing the two selected differences

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 187-189

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention