Biopsychology  9th Edition by John P.J. Pinel – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Biopsychology  9th Edition by John P.J. Pinel – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 5

The Research Methods of Biopsychology:

Understanding What Biopsychologists Do

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  Vestibular function can be assessed by assessing a patient’s reaction to

  1. A) facial nerve stimulation.
  2. B) electroencephalography.
  3. C) cold water flushed in the ear.
  4. D) needles inserted in the face.
  5. E) needles inserted in the foot.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 101

Topic: Chapter 5 Introduction

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: This answer is illustrated in the ironic case of Dr. P.

 

2)  The ironic case of Professor P. makes the point that

  1. A) two brains are better than one.
  2. B) Alzheimer’s disease can have an early onset.
  3. C) many research methods of biopsychology are used in clinical settings.
  4. D) brain tumors can be bilateral.
  5. E) cortical tumors are usually malignant.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 102

Topic: Chapter 5 Introduction

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: This is an important point for biopsychology students making career plans.

 

3)  Which contrast X-ray technique is designed to locate vascular abnormalities in the brains of human patients?

  1. A) cerebral angiography
  2. B) X-ray photography
  3. C) pneumoencephalography
  4. D) CT scans
  5. E) PET scans

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 102

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing the Living Human Brain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Figure 10.4 provides a beautiful illustration of this point.

 

4)  Which of the following is a contrast X-ray technique?

  1. A) angiography
  2. B) magnetoencephalography
  3. C) positron emission tomography
  4. D) structural magnetic resonance imaging
  5. E) functional MRI

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 102

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing the Living Human Brain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

5)  A computed tomography (CT) scan of the human brain is usually presented as a series of eight or nine

  1. A) horizontal sections.
  2. B) frontal sections.
  3. C) coronal sections.
  4. D) sagittal sections.
  5. E) midsagittal sections.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 102

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

6) Which technique is illustrated here?

  1. A) computed tomography
  2. B) cerebral angiography
  3. C) electroencephalography
  4. D) magnetic resonance imaging
  5. E) positron emission tomography

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

7)  Which of the following procedures is not an adaptation of X-ray photography?

  1. A) computed tomography
  2. B) MRI
  3. C) CT
  4. D) angiography
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

8)  Which of the following provides the most detailed three-dimensional view of the structure of the living human brain?

  1. A) CT
  2. B) PET
  3. C) angiography
  4. D) EEG
  5. E) MRI

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

9)  Positron emission tomography is a valuable research tool because it

  1. A) pictures the brain in fine detail.
  2. B) involves angiography.
  3. C) provides an image of brain function.
  4. D) provides an image of brain structure.
  5. E) involves low levels of radioactivity.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

10)  A patient is sometimes injected with radioactive 2-deoxyglucose before

  1. A) a CT scan.
  2. B) magnetic resonance imaging.
  3. C) a contrast X-ray.
  4. D) positron emission tomography.
  5. E) a sodium amytal test.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

11)  The reason why radioactive 2-DG is useful for revealing the level of activity of neurons in different parts of the brain is that 2-DG

  1. A) is absorbed by neurons in relation to their level of activity.
  2. B) is metabolized by neurons in relation to their level of activity.
  3. C) is not metabolized by neurons.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 103

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

12)  Functional MRI generates images of increases to areas of the brain of

  1. A) oxygenated blood flow.
  2. B) water flow.
  3. C) nitric oxide flow.
  4. D) alpha waves.
  5. E) 2-DG.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

13)  Which technique records the BOLD signal?

  1. A) MRI
  2. B) CT
  3. C) fMRI
  4. D) PET
  5. E) MEG

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 105

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

14)  Functional MRI requires the injection of radioactive

  1. A) water.
  2. B) glucose.
  3. C) 2-DG.
  4. D) oxygen.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 105

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

15)  Which method provides structural and functional information about the living human brain on the same image?

  1. A) functional MRI
  2. B) angiography
  3. C) PET
  4. D) CT
  5. E) EEG

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

16)  Which of the following is a method used by cognitive neuroscientists to turn off part of the brain while the effects on cognition and behavior are assessed?

  1. A) 2-DG.
  2. B) ERP.
  3. C) TMS.
  4. D) PET.
  5. E) EEG.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

17)  Unlike brain-imaging techniques, TMS permits the study of __________ between human cortical activity and cognition.

  1. A) links
  2. B) causal relations
  3. C) correlations
  4. D) neural connections
  5. E) communication

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

18)  An electroencephalograph is

  1. A) a gross measure of the electrical activity of the brain.
  2. B) a gross measure of the electrical activity of the cortex.
  3. C) a gross measure of the electrical activity of neurons.
  4. D) a gross measure of the electrical activity of groups of neurons.
  5. E) an EEG machine.

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

19)  In human patients, EEG activity is commonly recorded directly from

  1. A) muscle.
  2. B) the hippocampus.
  3. C) the scalp.
  4. D) the neocortex.
  5. E) the heart.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Applied)

 

 

20)  Alpha wave EEG activity is associated with

  1. A) high arousal.
  2. B) sleep.
  3. C) relaxed wakefulness.
  4. D) epilepsy.
  5. E) evoked potentials.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

21)  Which of the following biopsychologists would be most likely to study cortical ERPs in human volunteers?

  1. A) a neuropsychologist
  2. B) a psychophysiologist
  3. C) a physiological psychologist
  4. D) a psychopharmacologist
  5. E) a comparative psychologist Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

22)  Signal averaging is commonly used in the recording of ERPs because it reduces the magnitude of

  1. A) large signals.
  2. B) sensory evoked potentials.
  3. C) random signals.
  4. D) the P300.
  5. E) far-field potentials.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

23)  The main difference between an average evoked potential (AEP) and a “raw” evoked potential is that

  1. A) an AEP is usually unobservable.
  2. B) an AEP is an alpha wave.
  3. C) a raw evoked potential is often unobservable amidst the random noise of the ongoing EEG signal.
  4. D) an AEP is a unit response.
  5. E) a raw evoked potential is likely to be larger.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

24)  The P300

  1. A) is an EEG wave that often occurs after the presentation of a momentary stimulus meaningful to the volunteer.
  2. B) is a negative EEG wave.
  3. C) is a far-field potential occurring 300 mm from the electrode.
  4. D) occurs about 300 seconds prior to a response.
  5. E) is a component of the potential evoked by a meaningless click.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

25)  The signals in the first few milliseconds of the average auditory evoked potential

  1. A) always originate next to the scalp electrode.
  2. B) are far-field potentials.
  3. C) originate in the sensory nuclei of the brain stem.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

26)  Components of AEPs recorded in the first few milliseconds after a stimulus are

  1. A) almost always auditory.
  2. B) almost always visual.
  3. C) not usually influenced by the meaning of the stimulus.
  4. D) of special interest to cognitive psychologists.
  5. E) almost always influenced by the meaning of the stimulus.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

27) The short-latency low-amplitude signals (indicated by the arrow) in this average auditory evoked potential are termed

  1. A) the P300.
  2. B) the P400.
  3. C) the ERP.
  4. D) the sensory evoked potential.
  5. E) far-field potentials.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 107

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

28  )  Which of the following technique measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the brain?

  1. A) MRI
  2. B) fMRI
  3. C) MEG
  4. D) EMG
  5. E) EEG

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating  the Living Human Brain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

29)  MEG records

  1. A) the time of particular EEG signals.
  2. B) changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the scalp.
  3. C) the frequency of particular EEG signals.
  4. D) the latency of far-field potentials.
  5. E) the P300.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual, )

 

 

30)  Muscle tension is monitored by

  1. A) electroencephalography.
  2. B) electromyography.
  3. C) electrooculography.
  4. D) ERPs.
  5. E) MEGs.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

31)  Electrooculography is

  1. A) usually performed with one electrode mounted on each cornea.
  2. B) a method of estimating eye movement.
  3. C) a method of measuring skin conductance.
  4. D) an indirect method of measuring pupil constriction.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

32)  Electrooculography is a technique for monitoring

  1. A) penile engorgement.
  2. B) cortical activity.
  3. C) blood pressure.
  4. D) eye movement.
  5. E) muscle tension.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

33)  In electrooculography, how many electrodes are typically used to monitor the movements of one eye?

  1. A) 4
  2. B) 8
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 1
  5. E) 6

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

34) Illustrated here is

  1. A) electroencephalography.
  2. B) magnetoencephalography.
  3. C) electrooculography.
  4. D) plethysmography.
  5. E) electromyography.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

35)  If you were startled by a loud noise, there would be an increase in your skin’s conductance of electricity. This response is called

  1. A) a skin conductance response.
  2. B) an EKG.
  3. C) a skin conductance level.
  4. D) an average evoked potential.
  5. E) a P300 wave.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

36)  Which gland or glands directly influence the SCL and the SCR?

  1. A) gonads
  2. B) pituitary gland
  3. C) sweat glands
  4. D) pancreas
  5. E) adrenal glands

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

37)  Which of the following is a record of a person’s heart beat?

  1. A) electrocardiogram
  2. B) ECG
  3. C) EKG
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

38)  Hypertension is

  1. A) stress.
  2. B) caused by excitement.
  3. C) chronic high blood pressure.
  4. D) chronic low blood pressure.
  5. E) a sphygmomanometer.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Many students incorrectly select A.

 

39)  The level of 130/70 mmHg is

  1. A) indicative of stress.
  2. B) the ratio of diastolic to total systolic blood pressure.

 

  1. C) a healthy human blood pressure.
  2. D) indicative of hypertension.
  3. E) both a and c

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Everybody should know this.

 

40)  Which of the following have traditionally been used by physicians to measure blood pressure?

  1. A) sphygmomanometers
  2. B) plethysmographs
  3. C) oscilloscopes
  4. D) electrodes
  5. E) ERPs

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

41)  Penile erection is

  1. A) a muscular response.
  2. B) an electromyographic response.
  3. C) a plethysmographic response.
  4. D) a sphygmomanometric response.
  5. E) an aberrant response.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: (Factual)

 

 

42)  Stereotaxic surgery in human patients typically requires

  1. A) a stereotaxic atlas.
  2. B) a stereotaxic instrument.
  3. C) a head holder.
  4. D) an electrode holder.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Applied)

 

43)  The method by which the experimental devices are accurately positioned in subcortical structures of human patients and animal subjects is

  1. A) autoradiography.
  2. B) cryogenesis.
  3. C) perfusion.
  4. D) stereotaxic surgery.
  5. E) aspiration.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Applied)

 

 

44)  Bregma is

  1. A) the point of intersection between two major skull sutures.
  2. B) a common reference point for rat stereotaxic brain surgery.
  3. C) a naughty word.
  4. D) a type of electrode holder.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

45)  The reference point for many stereotaxic atlases of the rat brain is

  1. A) smegma.
  2. B) lambda.
  3. C) the intersection between two major tracts.
  4. D) bregma.
  5. E) both C and D

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

46)  Unlike subcortical lesions, cortical lesions are often made by

  1. A) the electrolytic method.
  2. B) aspiration.
  3. C) radio-frequency current.
  4. D) transection.
  5. E) stereotaxic surgery.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

47)  Which of the following brain lesion techniques is least likely to be associated with damage to major blood vessels?

  1. A) aspiration lesions
  2. B) electrolytic lesions
  3. C) radio-frequency lesions
  4. D) knife cuts
  5. E) lobotomy

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

48)  The __________ created by the current is the main cause of tissue damage produced by a radio-frequency lesion.

  1. A) vibration
  2. B) current induction
  3. C) heat
  4. D) ion deposits
  5. E) acid

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

49)  Reversible brain lesions, if properly done,

  1. A) destroy only those neurons that have been cooled.
  2. B) produce a discrete area of permanent damage.
  3. C) destroy neurons by freezing them.
  4. D) produce no permanent neural damage.
  5. E) eliminate all neural activity in the brain for about 3 hours.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

50)  Cooling can be used to produce a functional or reversible brain lesion because

  1. A) the damage that it produces lasts only a few weeks.
  2. B) the damage that it produces lasts only a day or two.
  3. C) it can temporarily suppress neural activity in a particular area of the brain without damaging the brain.
  4. D) it produces lesions that can be reversed with drugs.
  5. E) the subjects usually survive.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

51)  A temporary or reversible lesion can be produced by

  1. A) excision or cutting.
  2. B) aspiration or suction.
  3. C) cooling the target brain structure or injecting an anesthetic into it.
  4. D) radio-frequency current.
  5. E) invasive EEG.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

52)  Reversible lesions can be produced by microinjection directly into the target brain structure of a

  1. A) local anesthetic such as lidocaine.
  2. B) a micro knife blade.
  3. C) coolant followed by antifreeze.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: Note: Coolants or antifreeze are never injected into the brain.

 

 

 

 

53)  Lesions that are commonly referred to as amygdala lesions often

  1. A) damage neural structures other than the amygdala.
  2. B) do not destroy the entire amygdala.
  3. C) damage prefrontal cortex.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: This is an important idea that needs emphasis, which is why this is a good question.

 

54)  Lesions restricted to structures on one half of the brain are called

  1. A) unilateral lesions.
  2. B) bilateral lesions.
  3. C) monopolar lesions.
  4. D) bipolar lesions.
  5. E) unitary lesions.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

55)  Lesions restricted to structures in one half of the brain usually have effects that are much less severe than do comparable

  1. A) unilateral lesions.
  2. B) bipolar lesions.
  3. C) cryogenic lesions.
  4. D) aspiration lesions.
  5. E) bilateral lesions.

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 111

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

56)  Intracellular unit recording is not commonly used in biopsychological research because

  1. A) it is too difficult for biopsychologists.
  2. B) biopsychologists are usually not interested in neurons.
  3. C) it is a neurophysiological procedure.
  4. D) it is very difficult to keep the tip of a microelectrode inside a single neuron in a moving subject.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

57)  Intracellular unit recording is particularly difficult in

  1. A) humans.
  2. B) monkeys.
  3. C) rats.
  4. D) freely moving animals.
  5. E) higher species.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

58) Which method was used to record this signal?

  1. A) extracellular unit recording
  2. B) intracellular unit recording
  3. C) electroencephalography
  4. D) multiple-unit recording
  5. E) plethysmography

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

59) Unlike other electrophysiological methods of recording neural activity, intracellular unit recording provides measurements of

  1. A) cell firing.
  2. B) action potentials.
  3. C) the membrane potential.
  4. D) reductions in neural firing.
  5. E) EEG activity.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

60)  Extracellular unit recording provides information about

  1. A) the magnitude of the membrane potential.
  2. B) the wave form of action potentials.
  3. C) EPSPs.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

61) Which method was used to record this signal?

  1. A) extracellular unit recording
  2. B) intracellular unit recording
  3. C) electroencephalography
  4. D) integrated multiple unit recording
  5. E) plethysmography

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

62)  Multiple-unit signals are typically

  1. A) recorded through microelectrodes.
  2. B) recorded through electrodes that are larger than microelectrodes.
  3. C) integrated, or added together, to facilitate their interpretation.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

63)  In laboratory animals, cortical EEG signals are commonly recorded through

  1. A) stainless steel skull screws.
  2. B) electrodes placed around the eyes.
  3. C) subcortical electrodes.
  4. D) disk electrodes taped to the scalp.
  5. E) cortical pipettes.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

64)  IP, SC, and IM are all

  1. A) recording methods.
  2. B) drugs.
  3. C) stimulation methods.
  4. D) cranial nerves.
  5. E) routes of drug administration.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

 

65)  Drugs that do not penetrate the blood brain barrier can be administered to particular neural structures

  1. A) by SC injection.
  2. B) through a stereotaxically positioned cerebral cannula.
  3. C) through an intracerebral microelectrode.
  4. D) by IV injection.
  5. E) by injection into a carotid artery.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

66)  Both ibotenic acid and kainic acid

  1. A) are neurotoxins.
  2. B) destroy neurons whose cell bodies are at the tip of an intracerebral cannula, while leaving axons passing through the region undamaged.
  3. C) are selective dopamine agonists.
  4. D) are selective dopamine antagonists.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

67)  The neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively destroys

  1. A) neurons that release dopamine or norepinephrine.
  2. B) axons.
  3. C) cell bodies.
  4. D) multipolar neurons.
  5. E) the hypothalamus.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

68)  A method of identifying all of the brain areas of a laboratory animal that were particularly active during a behavioral test is

  1. A) cerebral dialysis.
  2. B) the 2-deoxyglucose technique.
  3. C) immunocytochemistry.
  4. D) the 6-OHDA technique.
  5. E) the kainic acid technique.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

69)  The final stage of the 2-deoxyglucose technique involves

  1. A) autoradiography.
  2. B) injecting 2-DG.
  3. C) injecting radioactive 2-DG.
  4. D) immunocytochemistry.
  5. E) cerebral dialysis.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

70)  A method of measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals in particular sites in the brains of active laboratory animals is

  1. A) cerebral dialysis.
  2. B) the 6-OHDA histological technique.
  3. C) in situ hybridization.
  4. D) immunocytochemistry.
  5. E) electroencephalography.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

71)  Cerebral dialysis is a method of

  1. A) stimulating the brain.
  2. B) stimulating the neuroendocrine system.
  3. C) measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals at particular sites in the brains of active animals.
  4. D) 6-OHDA.
  5. E) recording AEPs.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

72)  Which of the following is a technique for locating particular proteins in the brain?

  1. A) immunocytochemistry.
  2. B) the 6-OHDA technique.
  3. C) in situ hybridization.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 114

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

73)  Which of the following procedures employs labeled antibodies?

  1. A) immunocytochemistry
  2. B) in situ hybridization
  3. C) cerebral dialysis
  4. D) electroencephalography
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 114

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

74)  In immunocytochemistry, the labeled ligand is

  1. A) an amino acid.
  2. B) a microelectrode.
  3. C) an antibody.
  4. D) a neurotransmitter.
  5. E) a receptor.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 114

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

75)  Immunocytochemistry is to in situ hybridization as

  1. A) antibody is to messenger RNA.
  2. B) DNA is to antibody.
  3. C) neurotransmitter is to cell body.
  4. D) antibody is to DNA.
  5. E) RNA is to antibody.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 114

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

 

76)  Knockout mice are mice that

  1. A) have had a concussion.
  2. B) are susceptible to concussion.
  3. C) have amnesia.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: Knockout out mice are those in whom a particular gene has been deleted or “knocked out.”

 

 

 

 

77)  Which of the following is a weakness of the gene knockout technique as a method of biopsychological research?

  1. A) Most behavioral traits are influenced by many interacting genes.
  2. B) Elimination of one gene often influences the expression of other genes.
  3. C) The effects of some gene knockouts are likely to depend on experience.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: To get this answer correct, students need to recognize only that more than one of the statements is correct.

 

78)  Melanopsin knockout mice have difficulty

  1. A) adjusting their circadian rhythms in response to changes in the daily light-dark cycle.
  2. B) seeing.
  3. C) sleeping on a regular schedule.
  4. D) displaying circadian rhythms.
  5. E) recognizing circadian signals.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

79)  Transgenic mice always possess

  1. A) more chromosomes than normal.
  2. B) genes of the other sex.
  3. C) the behavioral characteristics of the other sex.
  4. D) fewer chromosomes than normal.
  5. E) genes of another species.

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

Type: (Factual)

 

 

80)  Green fluorescent protein

  1. A) was first isolated from a species of jelly fish.
  2. B) fluoresces when exposed to blue light.
  3. C) has been used to visualize neurons in a few plants, but not yet in animals.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: C is clearly incorrect: Plants do not have neurons.

 

81)  The brainbow technique

  1. A) is an extension of the green fluorescent protein technique.
  2. B) is a technique for labeling neurons in an animal different colors so that each can be traced.
  3. C) has not yet been applied to neural tissue in multicellular animals.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 116

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

Type: (Factual)

 

 

82)  A behavioral paradigm normally includes a method for

  1. A) producing the behavioral phenomenon under investigation.
  2. B) measuring the behavioral phenomenon under investigation.
  3. C) recording brain activity.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: Introduction: Behavioral Research Methods

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: This important two-part concept is emphasized in the text.

 

83)  The main difference between neurologists and neuropsychologists is that

  1. A) neurologists deal with brain-damaged people.
  2. B) neuropsychologists tend to focus on the assessment of complex behavioral problems.
  3. C) neuropsychologists generally refer patients to neurologists, but not vice versa.
  4. D) neurologists deal with behavior.
  5. E) neurologists are scientists.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: This is an important point for students making career decisions.

 

84)  Neuropsychological assessment is useful because it can

  1. A) assist diagnosis.
  2. B) influence treatment.
  3. C) be the basis for effective counseling.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: To get this question correct, the student needs to recognize that more than one of the three statements (all three of which are made in the text) are true.

 

 

 

85)  Before the 1950s, neuropsychological testing usually employed the

  1. A) standardized-test-battery approach.
  2. B) single-test approach.
  3. C) customized-test-battery approach.
  4. D) neurological approach.
  5. E) psychophysical approach.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Factual)

 

 

86)  The primary purpose of the single-test and standardized-test-battery approaches to neuropsychological testing was to

  1. A) identify brain-damaged patients.
  2. B) locate the area of brain damage.
  3. C) characterize the nature of the psychological deficits.
  4. D) measure brain activity.
  5. E) compete with neurologists.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Factual)

 

 

87)  The modern customized-test-battery approach to neuropsychological testing typically begins with a

  1. A) test of memory.
  2. B) test of speech.
  3. C) test of motor function.
  4. D) test of emotion.
  5. E) battery of tests.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

88)  Tests used in the modern customized-test-battery approach to neuropsychological testing

  1. A) are often specifically designed to measure aspects of psychological function that have been spotlighted by modern theories and data.
  2. B) often focus on the cognitive strategies employed by the patient, rather than on just how well the patient does.
  3. C) often require skilled practitioners for their prescription, administration, and interpretation.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: All three of these points are made in the text; the student needs to recognize only two of them to deduce the correct answer.

 

89)  Many current neuropsychological assessments begin with the

  1. A) sodium amytal test.
  2. B) dichotic listening test.
  3. C) WAIS.

 

.

  1. D) Psychiatric Test Inventory (PTI).
  2. E) ERP

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

90)  The digit-span test is a common test of

  1. A) short-term memory.
  2. B) counting.
  3. C) arithmetic.
  4. D) intelligence.
  5. E) lateralization.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Unfortunately, it is quite insensitive to brain damage.

 

91)  On the digit-span test, most people score about

  1. A) 65%.
  2. B) 85%.
  3. C) 50%.
  4. D) 100%.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: The correct answer is 7; students who understand the test should be able to deduce the answer.

 

92)  Which of the following is a test of language ability that employs objects of two shapes, two sizes, and five different colors?

  1. A) block-span test
  2. B) token test
  3. C) aphasia subtest of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery
  4. D) paired-associate test
  5. E) Wechsler Language Scale Test

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

93)  Which of the following WAIS subtests is part of the Performance Scale?

  1. A) Picture Completion
  2. B) Digit Symbol
  3. C) Block Design
  4. D) Object Assembly
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Students need only to recognize that more than one of the options is correct to deduce the answer.

 

94)  Which of the following subtests of the WAIS involves cartoon drawings?

  1. A) Object Assembly
  2. B) Picture Arrangement
  3. C) Coloring
  4. D) Similarities
  5. E) Digit Span

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

95)  The sodium amytal test and dichotic listening test are tests of

  1. A) audition.
  2. B) memory.
  3. C) intelligence.
  4. D) language lateralization.
  5. E) language.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

96)  In the sodium amytal test, injections are sequentially made into the left and right

  1. A) language areas of the cortex.
  2. B) speech areas of the cortex.
  3. C) carotid arteries.
  4. D) auditory cortex.
  5. E) motor cortex.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: To answer correctly the student only needs to know that sodium amytal is not injected into the brain during this test.

 

 

97)  In the sodium amytal test, an injection into the carotid artery contralateral to the dominant hemisphere for speech renders the patient completely mute for

  1. A) 50 seconds.
  2. B) 2 minutes.
  3. C) 4 minutes.
  4. D) 30 minutes.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Injection into the nondominant side does not render the patient mute.

 

98)  In the conventional dichotic listening test of language lateralization, on each trial

  1. A) seven digits are presented.
  2. B) three digits are presented twice in rapid succession.
  3. C) seven pairs of digits are presented.
  4. D) three pairs of digits are presented.
  5. E) seven dichotic stimuli are presented.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 119

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

99)  Memories that are demonstrated by improved performance in the absence of any conscious awareness of the memories are called

  1. A) implicit memories.
  2. B) explicit memories.
  3. C) semantic memories.
  4. D) episodic memories.
  5. E) short-term memories.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

100)  Repetition priming tests are tests of

  1. A) explicit memory.
  2. B) implicit memory.
  3. C) episodic memory.
  4. D) semantic memory.
  5. E) consolidated memory.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

101)  Brain damage may produce selective language deficits associated with the sounds, grammar, or meaning of language. In other words, they may disrupt

  1. A) syntax, phonology, or semantics, respectively.
  2. B) phonology, semantics, or syntax, respectively.
  3. C) phonology, syntax, or semantics, respectively.
  4. D) semantics, syntax, or phonology, respectively.
  5. E) semantics, phonology, or syntax, respectively.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

102)  Dyslexia is a difficulty in

  1. A) speaking.
  2. B) reading.
  3. C) understanding.
  4. D) thinking.
  5. E) fleeming.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

103)  A common neuropsychological test of frontal-lobe damage is the

  1. A) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
  2. B) token test.
  3. C) Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.
  4. D) digit-span test.
  5. E) block-design test.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

 

104)  Illustrated here is the

  1. A) Washington Symbols Test.
  2. B) Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.
  3. C) a classic test of parietal-lobe damage.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: This is a classic test of frontal lobe damage.

 

105)  Most cognitive neuroscientific research is based on the assumption that

  1. A) complex cognitive processes result from the combination of simple constituent cognitive processes.
  2. B) each constituent cognitive process is mediated by activity in a particular area of the brain.
  3. C) Almost all constituent cognitive processes tend to be localized in subcortical structures.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: A and B are emphasized in the text, and students should have little difficulty recognizing that C is incorrect.

 

106)  If a PET image is recorded while a patient is reading, many areas of activity on the PET image will have nothing to do with the cognitive activity of reading per se. That is why cognitive neuroscientists often use

  1. A) functional MRI.
  2. B) structural MRI.
  3. C) the paired-image subtraction technique.
  4. D) the additive-image control procedure.
  5. E) EEG.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: (Factual)

 

 

107)  A network of brain structures that tends to be active when a person sits quietly and lets her mind wander has been termed the

  1. A) limbic system.
  2. B) constituent cognitive processor.
  3. C) default mode network.
  4. D) cerebral paradigm.
  5. E) paired-image subtraction mode.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 121

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: (Factual)

 

 

108)  In most PET and functional MRI studies of cognitive processes, the signal-to-noise ratio is increased by

  1. A) subtraction.
  2. B) addition.
  3. C) signal averaging.
  4. D) signal splitting.
  5. E) multiplication.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: (Factual)

 

 

109)  Which of the following is a commonly studied species-common behavior?

  1. A) copulating
  2. B) nest building
  3. C) grooming
  4. D) swimming
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 122

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: Students can either memorize the correct answer from the text or deduce it from their understanding of species common behaviors.

 

110)  The open-field test is usually conducted in

  1. A) a large, empty chamber.
  2. B) the animals’ natural habitat.
  3. C) an open space in the animals’ natural habitat.
  4. D) a thigmotaxic chamber.
  5. E) Iowa.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

111)  In the open-field test, a high bolus count is frequently used as an indicator of

  1. A) aggression.
  2. B) fearfulness.
  3. C) motor activity.
  4. D) attention.
  5. E) defense.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

112)  In the open-field test, thigmotaxia is often used as a measure of

  1. A) body temperature.
  2. B) fearfulness.
  3. C) sexual motivation.
  4. D) obesity.
  5. E) aggression.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

113)  If a rat with its hair erect, moves sideways towards another rat and then pushes against it, the

  1. A) first rat is likely sexually motivated.
  2. B) second rat is likely a female.
  3. C) first rat is likely a female.
  4. D) first rat is likely a dominant male displaying social aggression.
  5. E) second rat is likely dominant to the first.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

114)  In rats, boxing (rearing up and pushing with the forepaws) is usually a sign of

  1. A) sexual motivation.
  2. B) aggression.
  3. C) predation.
  4. D) defense against conspecific attack.
  5. E) a lack of sexual motivation in alpha males.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

115)  The elevated plus maze is a commonly used test of

  1. A) balance.
  2. B) learning.
  3. C) memory.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: The elevated plus maze is a commonly used test of defensiveness or anxiety in the study of anxiolytic drugs.

 

116)  The elevated plus maze is commonly employed to study

  1. A) memory in rats.
  2. B) anxiety or defensiveness in studies of anxiolytic drugs.
  3. C) aggression in drug experiments.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Applied)

 

 

117)  Normally, a male rat cannot intromit unless

  1. A) it is all by itself.
  2. B) it first displays lordosis.
  3. C) the female first displays lordosis.
  4. D) the female has a low lordosis quotient.
  5. E) it first ejaculates.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

118)  Which of the following is a commonly used measure of male rat sexual behavior?

  1. A) number of mounts required to achieve an intromission
  2. B) number of intromissions required to achieve an ejaculation
  3. C) duration of the interval between an ejaculation and the reinitiation of mounting
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: All three of the correct options are listed in the text.

 

119)  Which of the following is a commonly used measure of the sexual receptivity of female rats?

  1. A) postejaculatory interval
  2. B) mount frequency
  3. C) lordosis quotient
  4. D) number of intromissions to ejaculation
  5. E) number of ejaculations to intromission

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

120)  During conventional Pavlovian conditioning, the conditional stimulus is repeatedly presented just before the

  1. A) conditional response.
  2. B) unconditional stimulus.
  3. C) other conditional stimulus.
  4. D) operant response.
  5. E) classical stimulus.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

121)  In operant conditioning paradigms, the rate of a voluntary response is increased by __________ and decreased by __________.

  1. A) positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
  2. B) reinforcement; punishment
  3. C) brain stimulation; food
  4. D) food; brain stimulation
  5. E) conditional stimuli; unconditional stimuli

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: Students often assume that negative reinforcement and punishment are the same. They aren’t: all reinforcements (positive or negative) increase response rates; punishments reduce response rates.

 

122)  The self-stimulation paradigm is

  1. A) a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.
  2. B) an operant conditioning paradigm.
  3. C) a punishment procedure.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

123)  In most self-stimulation paradigms, laboratory animals

  1. A) press levers or perform other operant responses to obtain reinforcement.
  2. B) receive electrical stimulation through implanted electrodes.
  3. C) receive punishment for inappropriate self-stimulation.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

124)  The first time a wild rat encounters a food it has never tasted before, it usually displays

  1. A) conditioned taste aversion.
  2. B) neophobia.
  3. C) thigmotaxis.
  4. D) temporal contiguity.
  5. E) an emetic reaction.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

125)  Cancer patients sometimes develop conditioned taste aversions in response to their

  1. A) tumors.
  2. B) bad news.
  3. C) chemotherapy.
  4. D) X-rays.
  5. E) ulcers.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: This greatly complicates the treatment of cancer.

 

126)  The discovery of conditioned taste aversion challenged the

  1. A) principle of equipotentiality.
  2. B) belief that temporal contiguity is necessary for conditioning.
  3. C) the engram theory of memory.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: To answer this question correctly, students need to understand the impact of the discovery of conditioned taste aversion. Three kinds of impact are described in the text: These include A and B but not C.

 

127)  The radial arm maze is commonly used to study

  1. A) eating.
  2. B) motor activity.
  3. C) foraging for food.
  4. D) Pavlovian conditioning.
  5. E) discrimination learning.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: It can also be used to study memory.

 

 

 

128)  This apparatus is

  1. A) an elevated plus maze.
  2. B) a Hebb-Williams maze.
  3. C) a wheel maze.
  4. D) a Morris maze.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: It is a radial arm maze.

129)  Most radial arm mazes have

  1. A) 8 or more arms radiating out from a central starting area.
  2. B) 8 or more arms radiating out from a central goal area.
  3. C) 8 arms that continuously revolve.
  4. D) no goal areas.
  5. E) no starting area.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

130)  In the typical radial arm maze, rats tend to orient themselves on the basis of

  1. A) the colors of the arms.
  2. B) the size of the arms.
  3. C) the number of the arms.
  4. D) the length of the arms.
  5. E) external room cues.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

131)  The Morris water maze is commonly used to study

  1. A) swimming in fish.
  2. B) spatial ability in rats.
  3. C) maze running in rats.
  4. D) passive avoidance in fish.
  5. E) swimming in rats.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

132)  The typical Morris water maze

  1. A) is circular.
  2. B) contains a clearly visible escape platform.
  3. C) is filled with clear water.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

133)  If a rat receives a single painful stimulus from a small object in a test box containing commercial bedding material, the rat will usually investigate the object and then

  1. A) flee.
  2. B) bury it.
  3. C) dig a tunnel.
  4. D) escape.
  5. E) build a nest.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

134)  Antianxiety (anxiolytic) drugs tend to reduce the amount of

  1. A) conditioned taste aversion.
  2. B) time spent in the closed arms of the elevated plus maze.
  3. C) self-stimulation.
  4. D) conditioned defensive burying.
  5. E) both B and D

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 123 & 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  The patient is often injected with radioactive 2-DG before positron emission  __________.

Answer: tomography

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 102

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Applied

 

2)  The two most common techniques for producing images of human brain function are PET and functional __________.

Answer: MRI

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 104

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

3)  A technique for disrupting activity of an area of cortex in healthy human volunteers is transcranial  __________ stimulation.

Answer: magnetic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

4)  In humans, EEG electrodes are usually taped to the __________ .

Answer: scalp

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 106

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

5)  The unabbreviated name of the procedure used to record muscle tension is __________.

Answer: electromyography

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 108

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

6)  The SCL and SCR are both influenced by __________ glands.

Answer: sweat

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 109

Topic: 5.2 Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

7)  Electrodes are accurately implanted in subcortical structures by __________ surgery.

Answer: stereotaxic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 110

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Applied

 

8)  Intracellular unit recording provides a measure of the __________ potential over time.

Answer: membrane

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

9)  As the final step in the 2-deoxyglucose technique, brain slices are subjected to __________.

Answer: autoradiography

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 113

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

10)  To facilitate immunochemistry, neurochemists have created stocks of __________ to most neuropeptides.

Answer: antibodies

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 114

Topic: 5.4 Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

11)  Gene __________ techniques are used to create organisms that lack particular genes.

Answer:  knockout

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 115

Topic: 5.5 Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

 

12)  The test of intelligence that is most frequently used in neuropsychological assessment is abbreviated __________.

Answer: WAIS

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

13)  A commonly used test of short-term memory is the __________ subtest of the WAIS.

Answer: digit span

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 118

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Factual

 

14)  In the open-field test, fearful rats are __________, that is, they stay near the walls of the test box.

Answer: thigmotaxic

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

15)  Sexually receptive female rats often assume the __________ posture when mounted by a male rat.

Answer: lordosis

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

16)  Pavlovian conditioning typically involves repeatedly presenting the conditional stimulus just before the __________.

Answer: unconditional stimulus

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 123

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

17)  Many cancer patients receiving chemotherapy develop conditioned __________.

Answer: taste aversions

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Applied

 

18)  The __________ maze typically has eight or more arms and is used to study the spatial abilities of rats.

Answer: radial arm

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

19)  The typical __________ maze contains a hidden escape platform.

Answer: Morris water

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

20)  If a rat is hurt by a small object in a test chamber containing commercial bedding material, the rat will often __________ the object.

Answer: bury

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  Describe and compare the various techniques commonly used for obtaining structural images of the brains of neurological patients.

Answer:

50% for describing contrast X-rays (e.g., cerebral angiography), CT, and MRI

50% for comparing them

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 102-105

Topic: 5.1 Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: (Applied)

 

2)  Describe and compare the various methods for recording the electrical activity of the brain through invasive electrodes.

Answer:

50% for describing intracellular unit recording, extracellular unit recording, multiple unit recording, and invasive EEG recording

50% for comparing them

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 111-112

Topic: 5.3 Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: (Factual)

 

3)  Describe the modern customized-test-battery approach to assessing the psychological deficits of neuropsychological patients. Give examples of two specific tests. How is this approach an improvement over previous approaches?

Answer:

40% for describing the two phases of this approach

40% for describing how this is an improvement over the standardized-test-battery approach

20% for intelligently discussing two specific tests

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 117-121

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

4)  Discuss the assessment of memory deficits in neuropsychological patients. Discuss the effectiveness of the memory span and repetition priming tests.

Answer:

50% for explaining that assessing memory deficits is complex because there are so many different kinds of memory deficits

25% for describing the memory span test and its insensitivity to brain damage

25% for describing the repetition priming tests and that it is particularly sensitive to brain damage

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 118-120

Topic: 5.6 Neuropsychological Testing

Type: (Applied)

 

5)  Describe both the paired-image subtraction and the averaging techniques that are used in cognitive neuroscience research. Why are they employed?

Answer:

35% for describing paired-image subtraction

35% for describing averaging

30% for explaining why they are used

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 121-122

Topic: 5.7 Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: (Conceptual)

 

6)  Describe the conditioned taste aversion phenomenon and how it changed how researchers thought about learning.

Answer:

20% for describing the step-by-step assumption

20% for describing the equipotentiality assumption

20% for describing the temporal contiguity assumption

40% for explaining how the discovery of conditioned taste aversion challenged these three assumptions

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 123-124

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Conceptual)

 

7)  Your text describes three categories of paradigms for studying the behavior of laboratory animals. Name and describe the three categories, and describe one example of each.

Answer:

25% for naming and describing “paradigms for the assessment of species common behaviors”

25% for naming and describing “traditional conditioning paradigms”

25% for naming and describing “seminatural animal learning paradigms”

25% for naming and describing one test from each category

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 122-125

Topic: 5.8 Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: (Factual)

 

Chapter 7

Mechanisms of Perception: Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste, and Attention:

How You Know the World

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  Areas of neocortex that receive most of their input from the thalamic relay nuclei of one sensory system are classified as

  1. A) association cortex.
  2. B) tertiary cortex.
  3. C) motor cortex.
  4. D) secondary sensory cortex.
  5. E) primary sensory cortex.

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 162

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: This is true by definition.

 

2)  An area of cerebral cortex that receives substantial input from more than one sensory system is classified as

  1. A) hierarchical cortex.
  2. B) primary sensory cortex.
  3. C) secondary sensory cortex.
  4. D) association cortex.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 162

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: This is true by definition.

 

3)  A hierarchical system is one in which

  1. A) there is one absolute top.
  2. B) there is one absolute bottom.
  3. C) each element has specific levels or ranks with respect to one another.
  4. D) no two elements are at the same level.
  5. E) there is no cortical involvement.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 163

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: A and B may be partially true, but C is the best answer to the question.

 

4)  The simple process of detecting the presence of stimuli is often referred to as

  1. A) seeing.
  2. B) hearing.
  3. C) sensation.
  4. D) perception.
  5. E) attention.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 163

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: This is true by historical definition.

 

5)  Each cortical level of a sensory system (primary, secondary, or association) is itself composed of different areas that mediate different psychological processes. This principle of sensory system organization is referred to as A) functional segregation.

  1. B) parallel processing.
  2. C) the binding problem.
  3. D) hierarchical organization.
  4. E) serial processing.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 163

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: This is true by definition.

 

6)  A major principle of sensory system organization is

  1. A) hierarchical organization.
  2. B) functional segregation.
  3. C) parallel processing.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 163

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: All three principles are emphasized in the text.

 

7)  A system in which information is conducted in a single route through its various components – like a string through beads – is called a

  1. A) parallel system.
  2. B) functional system.
  3. C) hierarchical system.
  4. D) serial system.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 164

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: This is a key principle because it is a common way of thinking about neural systems that is totally incompatible with modern parallel-systems approach.

 

8)  Modern neuroscientific theory considers sensory systems to be

  1. A) analog, parallel, and general.
  2. B) functionally segregated, serial, and parallel.
  3. C) hierarchical, functionally segregated, and parallel.
  4. D) functionally segregated, serial, and sequential.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 164

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: The chapter is based on this three-part concept.

 

9)  Because sensory systems are characterized by functional segregation while perception is largely holistic, there is a

  1. A) binding problem.
  2. B) need for feedback circuits.
  3. C) flaw in serial coding.
  4. D) flaw in parallel coding.
  5. E) segregation problem.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 164

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

Rationale: The binding problem is discussed in the text and is a classic problem of cognitive psychology.

 

10)  For humans, sounds are those molecular vibrations between about __________ hertz.

  1. A) 20 and 200
  2. B) 2,000 and 20,000
  3. C) 200 and 2,000
  4. D) 200 and 8,000
  5. E) 20 and 20,000

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

11)  The loudness, pitch, and timbre of a sound are directly related to the __________, respectively, of the vibrations that produced it.

  1. A) frequency, amplitude, and complexity
  2. B) amplitude, complexity, and frequency
  3. C) amplitude, frequency, and complexity
  4. D) complexity, frequency, and amplitude
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

12)  The frequency of sound waves is to the complexity of sound waves as the

  1. A) pitch of sound is to the timbre.
  2. B) amplitude of sound is to the loudness.
  3. C) pitch of sound is to the amplitude.
  4. D) timbre of sound is to the loudness.
  5. E) loudness of sound is to the timbre.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

13)  Which ossicle is attached to the round window?

  1. A) malleus
  2. B) incus
  3. C) hammer
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: E is correct because the ossicles are attached to the tympanic membrane and oval window.

 

14)  The malleus, incus, and stapes

  1. A) are small bones that transmit vibrations from the ear drum to the oval window.
  2. B) are small bones that transmit vibrations from the oval window to the round window.
  3. C) were the three ships of Christopher Columbus.
  4. D) are small bones in the inner ear.
  5. E) both B and D

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 165

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

15)  Which of the following auditory structures has the appearance of a snail and has a name that is derived from the Greek word for land snail?

  1. A) ossicles
  2. B) cochlea
  3. C) malleus
  4. D) tectorial membrane
  5. E) olive

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

16)  Resting on the auditory hair cells is the

  1. A) cochlea.
  2. B) basilar membrane.
  3. C) organ of Corti.
  4. D) tectorial membrane.
  5. E) auditory nerve. Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

17)  Which of the following is part of the organ of Corti?

  1. A) the semicircular canals
  2. B) the hair cells
  3. C) the basilar membrane
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: The semicircular canals are part of the vestibular system.

 

18)  The auditory system is organized

  1. A) retinotopically.
  2. B) geographically.
  3. C) tonotopically.
  4. D) somatotopically.
  5. E) volumetrically.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

19)  The visual system is to retinotopic as the auditory system is to

  1. A) homotopic.
  2. B) spatiotopic.
  3. C) intensity topic.
  4. D) tonotopic.
  5. E) timbre topic.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

20)  Which of the following contains the receptors of the vestibular system?

  1. A) the basilar membrane
  2. B) the semicircular canals
  3. C) the ossicles
  4. D) the vestibular nucleus
  5. E) the cochlea

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: The vestibular nucleus contains no receptors: D is incorrect.

 

 

21)  The sensory organs of the vestibular system

  1. A) maintain balance.
  2. B) activate one branch of cranial nerve VIII.
  3. C) are the semicircular canals.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

22)  The semicircular canals are the receptive organs of

  1. A) the auditory system.
  2. B) the vestibular system.
  3. C) a top-down sensory system.
  4. D) an exteroceptive system.
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

23)  The axons of the auditory nerves synapse in the ipsilateral

  1. A) cochlear nuclei.
  2. B) superior olivary nuclei.
  3. C) medial geniculate nuclei.
  4. D) inferior colliculi.
  5. E) lateral lemniscus.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

24)  The superior olives receive much of their neural input from the

  1. A) medial geniculate nuclei.
  2. B) superior colliculus.
  3. C) inferior colliculus.
  4. D) cochlear nuclei.
  5. E) lateral geniculate nuclei.

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

25)  The major auditory projections of the inferior colliculi go to the

  1. A) cochlear nuclei.
  2. B) medial geniculate nuclei.
  3. C) lateral geniculate nuclei.
  4. D) superior olives.
  5. E) auditory nerve.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

26)  Exceptions to the usual tonotopic organization of the auditory system are the deep layers of the

  1. A) primary auditory cortex.
  2. B) basilar membrane.
  3. C) superior colliculus.
  4. D) semicircular canals.
  5. E) cochlear nucleus.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

27)  Barn owls are often used in auditory research on sound localization because they have

  1. A) excellent sound localization ability.
  2. B) large ears.
  3. C) a large auditory cortex.
  4. D) poor vision.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

28)  Much of the recent research on sound localization has focused on the

  1. A) cochlea.
  2. B) barn owl.
  3. C) snail.
  4. D) mouse.
  5. E) cat.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

29)  The primary auditory cortex is in the

  1. A) temporal lobe.
  2. B) lateral fissure.
  3. C) occipital lobe.
  4. D) frontal lobe.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

30)  Much of the human auditory cortex is invisible to casual inspection because it is in the __________ fissure.

  1. A) central
  2. B) lateral
  3. C) longitudinal
  4. D) calcarine
  5. E) postcentral

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

31) The arrow points to

  1. A) the central fissure.
  2. B) vestibular cortex.
  3. C) gustatory cortex.
  4. D) auditory cortex.
  5. E) olfactory cortex.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

32)  Neurons of the monkey secondary auditory cortex respond robustly to

  1. A) bird calls.
  2. B) pure tones.
  3. C) monkey calls.
  4. D) the location of sounds.
  5. E) pitch.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 168

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

33)  Investigators have proposed that in each hemisphere, there are two major streams of

  1. A) visual information
  2. B) auditory information.
  3. C) vestibular information.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 169

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

34)  The perception of pitch in primates seems to occur in

  1. A) the thalamus.
  2. B) one small cortical area just anterior to primary auditory cortex.
  3. C) association cortex.
  4. D) primary auditory cortex.
  5. E) all areas of association cortex together.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 169

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

35)  Which of the following has played a major role in the research differentiating neurons that respond to pitch from those that respond to frequency?

  1. A) missing fundamentals
  2. B) primary auditory cortex
  3. C) tinnitus
  4. D) barn owls
  5. E) posterior auditory pathway

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 169

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

36)  In humans and other primates, large bilateral auditory cortex lesions produce

  1. A) permanent total deafness.
  2. B) permanent partial deafness.
  3. C) a permanent deficit in the ability to localize sounds and discriminate frequencies.
  4. D) total deafness that is permanent only in the ipsilateral field.
  5. E) total deafness that is permanent only in the contralateral field.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

37)  The permanent effects of bilateral auditory cortex damage are surprisingly minor in primates although they do include disruption of the ability to

  1. A) detect sounds, but only those presented to the contralateral ear.
  2. B) discriminate frequencies.
  3. C) localize sounds.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Factual)

 

 

38)  Bilateral damage to which of the following auditory structures would be most likely to produce complete and permanent hearing loss?

  1. A) primary auditory cortex
  2. B) superior colliculus
  3. C) cochlear nerve
  4. D) secondary auditory cortex
  5. E) association cortex

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Applied)

 

 

39)  Tinnitus

  1. A) always accompanies hearing loss.
  2. B) is always cured by cutting the contralateral auditory nerve.
  3. C) is always cured by cutting the ipsilateral auditory nerve.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Hearing loss is only sometimes associated with tinnitus, thus A is incorrect.

 

40)  The somatosensory system is

  1. A) exteroceptive.
  2. B) proprioceptive.
  3. C) interoceptive.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

41)  The sense of touch is largely

  1. A) exteroceptive.
  2. B) proprioceptive.
  3. C) interoceptive.
  4. D) nociceptive.
  5. E) slow-adapting.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

42)  Nociceptive stimuli are

  1. A) exteroceptive.
  2. B) mechanical.
  3. C) thermal.
  4. D) painful.
  5. E) bad.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

43)  The cutaneous somatosensory system responds to

  1. A) nociceptive stimuli.
  2. B) thermal stimuli.
  3. C) mechanical stimuli.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

44)  The perception of both pain and changes in skin temperature are largely mediated by

  1. A) free nerve endings.
  2. B) Pacinian corpuscles.
  3. C) nociceptors.
  4. D) temperoceptors.
  5. E) red corpuscles.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

45)  Free nerve endings are thought to mediate the perception of

  1. A) pressure.
  2. B) pain.
  3. C) skin temperature.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

46)  The Pacinian corpuscle is

  1. A) the largest cutaneous receptor.
  2. B) the most deeply positioned cutaneous receptor.
  3. C) fast adapting.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

47)  Pacinian corpuscles, Merkel’s disks, and Ruffini endings are

  1. A) blood cells.
  2. B) auditory receptors.
  3. C) receptors in the skin.
  4. D) taste receptors.
  5. E) nuclei in the somatosensory system.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

48)  The identification of objects by touch is

  1. A) proprioception.
  2. B) lewd.
  3. C) vestibulation.
  4. D) stereognosis.
  5. E) astereognosia.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

49)  A dermatome is a

  1. A) slowly adapting cutaneous receptor.
  2. B) fast adapting cutaneous receptor.
  3. C) free nerve ending.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

50)  The area of the body that is innervated by the left and right dorsal roots of a given segment of the spinal cord is one

  1. A) dermatome.
  2. B) stereognosis.
  3. C) Ruffini ending.
  4. D) region of glabrous skin.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

51)  The destruction of a single dorsal root typically produces little somatosensory loss because

  1. A) there are few cutaneous receptors in the back.
  2. B) the dorsal roots soon degenerate.
  3. C) there is considerable overlap of projections from adjacent dermatomes.
  4. D) the dorsal roots accurately regenerate.
  5. E) the somatosensory system has a motor component.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

52)  The dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system and the anterolateral system both carry sensory information from the

  1. A) eyes.
  2. B) ears.
  3. C) skin.
  4. D) nose.
  5. E) mouth.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

53)  The dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system is particularly responsive to

  1. A) sound and movement.
  2. B) touch and proprioception.
  3. C) motor output.
  4. D) tickle and temperature.
  5. E) pain and temperature.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

54)  The anterolateral system is particularly responsive to

  1. A) pain.
  2. B) temperature.
  3. C) tickle.
  4. D) all of the above.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

55)  The dorsal columns are composed of the axons of

  1. A) cutaneous somatosensory neurons.
  2. B) neurons with their cell bodies in the cochlear nuclei.
  3. C) neurons with their cell bodies in the dorsal column nuclei.
  4. D) several branches of the trigeminal nerve.
  5. E) medial lemniscus neurons.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

56)  The neurons of the ventral posterior nucleus project to

  1. A) SI, SII, and the posterior parietal cortex.
  2. B) the thalamus.
  3. C) the medial lemniscus.
  4. D) the dorsal column nuclei.
  5. E) the auditory cortex.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

57)  The longest neuron in the human body

  1. A) is a finger neuron.
  2. B) has its cell body in the spinal cord.
  3. C) is part of the anterolateral system.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) is somatosensory neuron with one end in a toe and the other in the dorsal column nuclei.

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

58)  Most of the neurons of the anterolateral system decussate in the

  1. A) spinal cord.
  2. B) lower brain stem.
  3. C) midbrain.
  4. D) corpus callosum.
  5. E) medulla.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

59)  The anterolateral system comprises the

  1. A) spinothalamic tract.
  2. B) spinoreticular tract.
  3. C) spinotectal tract.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

60)  Dorsal columns are to anterolateral pathways as

  1. A) pain is to temperature.
  2. B) touch is to temperature and pain.
  3. C) exteroceptive is to interoceptive.
  4. D) free nerve endings are to Pacinian corpuscles.
  5. E) temperature is to tickle.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

 

61)  Which of the following somatosensory structures do not receive substantial input from the anterolateral system?

  1. A) dorsal column nuclei
  2. B) tectum
  3. C) reticular formation
  4. D) colliculi
  5. E) thalamus

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

62)  The ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus receive direct input from the

  1. A) dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system.
  2. B) spinotectal tract.
  3. C) spinoreticular tract.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: This seems like a difficult question, however it is obvious that B ends in the tectum and C ends in the reticular formation, leaving A as the only possible correct answer.

 

63)  Which tract is part of the anterolateral somatosensory system?

  1. A) spinoreticular tract
  2. B) spinothalamic tract
  3. C) spinotectal tract
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) dorsal columns

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

64)  Primary somatosensory cortex is in the

  1. A) postcentral gyrus.
  2. B) precentral gyrus.
  3. C) occipital lobe.
  4. D) frontal lobe.
  5. E) both B and D

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

65)  Some of the primary somatosensory cortex is in the

  1. A) central fissure.
  2. B) lateral fissure.
  3. C) longitudinal fissure.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

66)  Much of SII is

  1. A) adjacent to SI.
  2. B) in the lateral fissure.
  3. C) in the parietal cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 174-175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

67)  Research has shown that SI

  1. A) is really SII.
  2. B) includes SII.
  3. C) is posterior to SII.
  4. D) is organized in four somatotopically organized, parallel strips.
  5. E) is smaller than SII.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

68)  Unilateral damage to SI

  1. A) eliminates the sense of touch in the contralateral hand.
  2. B) eliminates the sense of touch in the ipsilateral hand.
  3. C) produces contralateral neglect.
  4. D) produces contralateral deficits in stereognosis.
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: The point here is that the effects are surprisingly mild.

 

 

 

 

69)  Unilateral excision of SI produces a contralateral deficit in the ability to

  1. A) detect light touch.
  2. B) identify objects by touch.
  3. C) feel anything with the hand.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

Rationale: The effects are surprisingly mild.

 

70)  The inability to identify objects by touch is

  1. A) astereognosia.
  2. B) stereognosis.
  3. C) asomatognosia.
  4. D) anosognosia.
  5. E) apraxia.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 175

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Stereognosis is the ability to identify objects by touch: B is incorrect.

 

71)  Astereognosia and asomatognosia are the two major types of

  1. A) touch blindness.
  2. B) apraxia.
  3. C) somatosensory agnosia.
  4. D) contralateral neglect.
  5. E) stereognosis.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

72)  Harold Klawans’s neurological case of Aunt Betty suffered from a form of

  1. A) asomatognosia.
  2. B) prosopagnosia.
  3. C) color agnosia.
  4. D) stereognosis.
  5. E) anosmia.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

 

 

 

73)  Asomatognosia is often associated with

  1. A) stereognosis.
  2. B) anosognosia.
  3. C) contralateral neglect.
  4. D) the rubber hand illusion.
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 176-177

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: These relations are described in the text and illustrated by the case of Aunt Betty.

 

74)  Which of the following is often associated with asomatognosia?

  1. A) the rubber hand illusion
  2. B) aphasia
  3. C) anosognosia
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: It is difficult to understand how patients with such extreme deficits can fail to recognize them (i.e., to have anosognosia); the case of Aunt Betty illustrates this condition.

 

75)  Hemispherectomized patients feel

  1. A) no pain.
  2. B) no pain from the contralateral side of the body.
  3. C) no pain from the ipsilateral side of the body.
  4. D) pain from both sides of the body.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Surprisingly, removal of a hemisphere has little effect on the perception of pain.

 

76) Illustrated here is the cortical area most commonly linked to the perception of pain: the

  1. A) anterior cingulate cortex.
  2. B) periaqueductal gray matter.
  3. C) gate control cortex.
  4. D) pain mucosa.
  5. E) dorsolateral frontal cortex.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

77)  The cortical area that has most frequently been linked to pain by functional brain imaging studies is the

  1. A) anterior cingulate cortex.
  2. B) secondary somatosensory cortex.
  3. C) posterior parietal cortex.
  4. D) inferotemporal cortex.
  5. E) PAG.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

78)  Evidence suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex plays a major role in the

  1. A) expectation of pain.
  2. B) adaptive responses to minimize pain.
  3. C) emotional reaction to pain.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) perception of pain.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

79)  Evidence for the existence of a descending pain-control circuit came from the finding that

  1. A) stimulation of the PAG produces analgesia.
  2. B) the PAG contains opiate receptors.
  3. C) some opiates are endogenous.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

80)  Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) produces

  1. A) opiates.
  2. B) serotonin.
  3. C) analgesia.
  4. D) opiate receptors.
  5. E) pain.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

81)  Electrical stimulation of which of the following structures has analgesic effects?

  1. A) SII
  2. B) periaqueductal gray
  3. C) paraventricular nuclei
  4. D) ventral posterior nuclei
  5. E) medial lemniscus

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

82)  Morphine is an

  1. A) analgesic.
  2. B) opiate.
  3. C) endogenously produced.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Morphine is derived from the opium poppy and is not synthesized in the body: C is incorrect.

 

83)  The descending PAG-raphé-dorsal-column circuit has been hypothesized to mediate

  1. A) some types of pain.
  2. B) some types of analgesia.
  3. C) touch.
  4. D) audition.
  5. E) stereognosis.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: This is the classic descending analgesia circuit.

 

84)  The analgesia-mediating axons descending in the dorsal columns originate in

  1. A) the PAG.
  2. B) the raphé nucleus.
  3. C) SI.
  4. D) SII.
  5. E) the ventral posterior nuclei.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

85)  The PAG is to the raphé as

  1. A) opiate is to serotonin.
  2. B) serotonin is to opiate.
  3. C) pain is to analgesia.
  4. D) analgesia is to pain.
  5. E) descending is to ascending.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

 

86)  Severe chronic pain in the absence of a recognizable pain stimulus is classified as

  1. A) psychophysiological.
  2. B) analgesic.
  3. C) neuropathic.
  4. D) pheromonal.
  5. E) psychophysical.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 179

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Applied)

 

 

87)  Smell and taste

  1. A) are the most well understood of the exteroceptive sensory systems.
  2. B) combine to produce the sensation of flavor.
  3. C) have only recently evolved.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 179

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

88)  Much of the interest in the chemical senses stems from the fact that

  1. A) their physiology is particularly simple.
  2. B) their anatomy and physiology are well understood.
  3. C) they play important roles in the social lives of many species.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

89)  In one experiment, a male hamster intruder was converted from the object of assassination to an object of lust by

  1. A) injecting it with estrogen.
  2. B) injecting it with testosterone.
  3. C) swabbing it with lemon.
  4. D) swabbing it with the vaginal secretions of an ovulating female.
  5. E) swabbing it with expensive perfume.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

90)  Olfactory receptors are embedded in the

  1. A) olfactory mucosa.
  2. B) nose hairs.
  3. C) olfactory nucleus.
  4. D) olfactory neocortex.
  5. E) cribriform plate.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

91)  The axons of the olfactory receptors run through the

  1. A) olfactory bulb to the thalamus.
  2. B) olfactory bulb to the paleocortex.
  3. C) cribriform plate to the thalamus.
  4. D) cribriform plate to the olfactory bulbs.
  5. E) olfactory epithelium to olfactory cortex.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

92)  Various parts of olfactory receptor cells can be found

  1. A) in the nasal passages.
  2. B) in the olfactory mucosa.
  3. C) passing through the cribriform plate.
  4. D) in the olfactory bulb.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

93)  For decades, it had been assumed that mammals had only a small number of olfactory

  1. A) receptor cells.
  2. B) receptor types.
  3. C) receptors.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

94)  Evidence suggests that humans have about __________ different types of olfactory receptors.

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 16
  5. E) 350

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

95)  How many types of receptor protein molecules are contained by each olfactory receptor cell?

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 3
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 7
  5. E) about 350

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.4  Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

96)  All of the olfactory receptor cells with the same receptor protein

  1. A) are located in the same part of the mucosa.
  2. B) are scattered throughout the mucosa.
  3. C) project to the same locations (glomeruli) of the olfactory bulbs.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

 

97)  Olfactory receptor cells

  1. A) contain no receptor molecules.
  2. B) survive for only a few weeks and are replaced by new ones.
  3. C) have no axons.
  4. D) each contain three different receptor molecules.
  5. E) each contain 350 different receptor molecules.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

98)  Each olfactory receptor cell survives for a few

  1. A) decades.
  2. B) years.
  3. C) months.
  4. D) weeks.
  5. E) days.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

99)  The olfactory tracts project from the olfactory bulbs to the structure of the medial temporal lobes, particularly to the

  1. A) amygdala.
  2. B) thalamus.
  3. C) piriform cortex.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4  Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

100)  Two major olfactory pathways leave the amygdala-piriform area. One projects diffusely to the limbic system; the other projects to the

  1. A) medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus and then to the orbitofrontal cortex.
  2. B) hippocampus and caudate.
  3. C) striatum and olfactory bulb.
  4. D) olfactory bulb and SI.
  5. E) basal forebrain and cingulate.

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4  Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

101)  Although it is somewhat arbitrary, primary olfactory cortex is considered to be

  1. A) piriform cortex.
  2. B) in the thalamus.
  3. C) in the orbits.
  4. D) olfactory bulbs.
  5. E) in the glomeruli.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

102)  Olfactory neocortex is considered to be in the

  1. A) occipital lobe.
  2. B) thalamus.
  3. C) parietal lobe.
  4. D) piriform cortex.
  5. E) glomeruli.

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

103)  Taste receptors typically occur in clusters of 50 to 100. These clusters are called

  1. A) glomeruli.
  2. B) taste buds.
  3. C) taste receptor nuclei.
  4. D) papillae.
  5. E) taste mucosas.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

104)  __________ are found in __________, which are often located around small protuberances called __________.

  1. A) Taste receptors; taste buds; papillae
  2. B) Taste buds; taste receptors; papillae
  3. C) Taste receptors; papillae; taste buds
  4. D) Taste buds; papillae; taste receptors
  5. E) Papillae; taste receptors; taste buds

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

105)  Unlike olfactory receptors, each taste receptor has no

  1. A) cytoplasm.
  2. B) axon.
  3. C) nucleus.
  4. D) receptors.
  5. E) ion channels.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

106)  There seem to be five primary tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and

  1. A) fatty.
  2. B) umami.
  3. C) oily.
  4. D) mamawawa.
  5. E) yumyumi.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

107)  The conventional view that all tastes are encoded by various combinations of activity in five primary taste receptors has a problem:

  1. A) No receptors have been discovered for salty and sour.
  2. B) Evidence suggests that there may be more than five primary tastes.
  3. C) Many tastes cannot be created from combinations of the five current primaries.
  4. D) Thirty receptors have been discovered for bitter.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

108)  Gustatory afferents leave the mouth as part of the

  1. A) facial nerve.
  2. B) glossopharyngeal nerve.
  3. C) vagus nerve.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

109)  The main medullary nucleus of the gustatory system is the

  1. A) solitary nucleus.
  2. B) red nucleus.
  3. C) dorsal column nucleus.
  4. D) ventral posterior nucleus.
  5. E) piriform nucleus.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

110)  The primary gustatory cortex is in the

  1. A) longitudinal fissure.
  2. B) central fissure.
  3. C) lateral fissure.
  4. D) occipital lobe.
  5. E) temporal lobe.

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

111)  Unlike the projections of the other exteroceptive sensory systems, the projections of the gustatory system are primarily

  1. A) contralateral.
  2. B) ipsilateral.
  3. C) unilateral.
  4. D) bilateral.
  5. E) descending.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Factual)

 

 

112)  Gustation is to olfaction as

  1. A) flavor is to odor.
  2. B) onions are to potatoes.
  3. C) thalamus is to neocortex.
  4. D) ageusia is to anosmia.
  5. E) NaCl is to thiamine.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: Ageusia is the inability to taste: anosmia is the inability to smell.

 

 

 

113)  The most common neurological cause of anosmia is

  1. A) a tumor.
  2. B) an infection.
  3. C) a blow to the head.
  4. D) a convulsion.
  5. E) a blow to the nose.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Applied)

 

 

114)  Anosmia typically results when the olfactory receptor cells are sheared by the

  1. A) septum.
  2. B) olfactory mucosa.
  3. C) cribriform plate.
  4. D) chorda tympani.
  5. E) olfactory bulbs.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Applied)

 

 

115) Ageusia is very rare, presumably because

  1. A) people have such poor taste to begin with.
  2. B) the tongue is protected in the mouth.
  3. C) taste information from the mouth is carried via three separate sensory pathways.
  4. D) olfactory information from the nose is carried via three separate sensory pathways.
  5. E) olfactory information from the nose is carried via two separate sensory pathways.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Applied)

 

 

116)  The ability to focus on only a small subset of the stimuli that are being received by sensory organs is called

  1. A) subliminal perception.
  2. B) selective attention.
  3. C) selective perception.
  4. D) subliminal attention.
  5. E) sensory focus.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

 

117)  Selective attention

  1. A) improves the perception of stimuli that are its focus.
  2. B) has no effect on perception.
  3. C) seems to depend totally on thalamic mechanisms.
  4. D) seems to depend totally on changes in receptors.
  5. E) blocks out, just slightly, the perception of those stimuli that are its focus.

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

118)  Endogenous attention is mediated by

  1. A) top-down mechanisms.
  2. B) bottom-up mechanisms.
  3. C) recurrent collateral inhibition.
  4. D) exogenous inhibition.
  5. E) subliminal perception.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

119)  The mechanisms of selective attention are

  1. A) top-down.
  2. B) bottom-up.
  3. C) inside-out.
  4. D) outside-in.
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

120) Stare at the + sign and without moving your eyes, shift your focus from one letter to another. You have just experienced

  1. A) overt attention.
  2. B) covert attention.
  3. C) the cocktail party phenomenon.
  4. D) bottom-up attention.
  5. E) exogenous attention.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

 

121)  The cocktail-party phenomenon refers to your ability to “focus on” a specific conversation at a cocktail party while

  1. A) drunk out of your mind.
  2. B) unconsciously monitoring other conversations.
  3. C) being totally conscious of other conversations.
  4. D) talking to someone else.
  5. E) eating.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

122)  If you were looking at holiday slides of your family and a major background object, such as a tree, moved as you blinked, you would likely

  1. A) experience change blindness.
  2. B) have your attention drawn from your family to the tree.
  3. C) immediately notice the movement.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

123)  In one functional brain imaging study, attention to movement was associated with increased activity in the

  1. A) primary visual cortex.
  2. B) ventral stream.
  3. C) dorsal stream.
  4. D) thalamus.
  5. E) optic chiasm.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 185

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Factual)

 

 

124)  A difficulty in attending to more than one visual object at a time is

  1. A) visual agnosia.
  2. B) visual prosopagnosia.
  3. C) visual simultanagnosia.
  4. D) change blindness.
  5. E) visual ageusia.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 186

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Applied)

Rationale: This is the disorder illustrated by the chapter-opening case study.

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  Sensory systems are hierarchical, parallel, and __________ segregated.

Answer: functionally

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 163

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: Factual

 

2)  The three ossicles transmit auditory vibrations from the ear drum to the __________ window.

Answer: oval

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: Factual

 

3)  The organ of Corti comprises the tectorial membrane, hair cells, and __________ membrane.

Answer: basilar

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 166

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: Factual

 

4)  The organization of the auditory system is not retinotopic; it is __________.

Answer: tonotopic

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 167

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: Factual

 

5)  Hearing loss is sometimes associated with __________ (ringing of the ears).

Answer: tinnitus

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 177

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: Applied

 

6)  The somatosensory system is three interacting systems: one interoceptive, one exteroceptive, and one __________.

Answer: proprioceptive

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

7)  Painful stimuli are also referred to as __________ stimuli.

Answer: nociceptive

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 171

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

8)  The identification of objects by touch is called __________.

Answer: stereognosis

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

9)  A __________ is an area of the body that is innervated by the dorsal roots of one segment of the spinal cord.

Answer: dermatome

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 172

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: Factual

 

10)  The __________ system carries pain and temperature information from the body to the brain.

Answer: anterolateral

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

11)  The axons of dorsal column nuclei decussate and then ascend in the medial lemniscus to the ventral posterior nucleus of the __________ .

Answer: thalamus

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

12)  The spinothalamic, spinoreticular, and spinotectal somatosensory tracts are all part of the __________ system.

Answer: anterolateral

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

13)  Primary __________ cortex is in the postcentral gyrus.

Answer: somatosensory

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

14)  SI is also known as the __________ somatosensory cortex.

Answer: primary

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

15)  The inability to recognize objects by touch is __________.

Answer: astereognosia

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 176

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Applied

 

16)  An analgesia circuit descends into the spinal cord from the __________ gray.

Answer: periaqueductal

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 178

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: Factual

 

17)  __________ are chemicals that are released by some species and influence the physiology and behavior of conspecifics.

Answer: Pheromones

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 180

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: Factual

 

18)  The __________ cortex is considered to be the primary olfactory cortex

Answer: piriform

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 181

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: Factual

 

19)  The inability to smell is called __________.

Answer: anosmia

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 182

Topic: 7.4 Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: Applied

 

20)  In contrast to endogenous attention, exogenous attention is mediated by __________ neural mechanisms.

Answer: bottom-up

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: Factual

 

21)  We experience change blindness because we have absolutely no memory for parts of a scene that are not the focus of __________.

Answer: attention

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 184

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: Factual

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  The modern model of sensory system organization features three important principles. Name them and explain them. Draw a representation of the modern model.

Answer:

25% for naming and discussing hierarchical organization

25% for naming and discussing functional segregation

25% for naming and discussing parallel processing

25% for drawing the modern model

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 162-164

Topic: 7.1 Principles of Sensory System Organization

Type: (Conceptual)

 

2)  Discuss current knowledge of auditory cortex, emphasizing both difficulties and successes.

Answer:

25% for discussing location and organization in columns of primary auditory cortex

25% for discussing the problems created by the complexity of auditory neuron responses to sound

25% for discussing the two hypothetical cortical streams of auditory information

25% for discussing the cortical localization of pitch discrimination

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 168-170

Topic: 7.2 Auditory System

Type: (Conceptual)

 

3)  Compare the anatomy of the two major ascending somatosensory pathways: the dorsal-column medial lemniscus pathway and the anterolateral pathway. Draw them. What are their functions?

Answer:

50% for comparing the two systems

30% for drawing the two systems

20% for comparing the functions of the two systems

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 173-174

Topic: 7.3 Somatosensory System: Touch and Pain

Type: (Factual)

 

4)  The chemical senses are unique in several ways. Describe and discuss two ways in which either the gustatory or olfactory systems is different from other sensory systems.

Answer:

50% for describing each difference

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 179-182

Topic: 7.4 The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Type: (Conceptual)

 

5)  Describe and discuss two important aspects of selective attention. In your discussion, explain why you think that these two aspects are important, and describe any relevant research.

Answer:

50% for describing two differences

50% for discussing the two selected differences

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 184-186

Topic: 7.5 Selective Attention

Type: (Conceptual)