Biotechnology 2nd Edition by David P. Clark – Test Bank

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Biotechnology 2nd Edition by David P. Clark – Test Bank

Clark: Biotechnology, 2nd Edition

 

Chapter 6: Immune Technology

 

 

  1. Which of the following is the third most common antibody that is frequently found as a pentamer?
  2. IgG

*b. IgM

  1. IgE
  2. IgA
  3. IgD

 

  1. Which of the following antibodies is found in breast milk and mucosal secretions?
  2. IgG
  3. IgM
  4. IgE

*d. IgA

  1. IgD

 

  1. Which of the following is responsible for allergic responses?
  2. IgG
  3. IgM

*c. IgE

  1. IgA
  2. IgD

 

  1. Which of the following antibodies is found most commonly in serum?

*a. IgG

  1. IgM
  2. IgE
  3. IgA
  4. IgD

 

  1. The typical IgG antibody has a Y shaped structure. How many antigen binding sites are there?
  2. One

*b. Two

  1. Three
  2. None

 

  1. The typical IgG has _____ heavy chain(s) and _____ light chain(s).
  2. One; one
  3. Two; one
  4. One; two

*d. Two; Two

 

  1. ______________ holds the heavy and light chains of IgG together.

*a. Disulfide bonds

  1. Phosphorothioate bonds
  2. Amide linkages
  3. Nothing holds the IgG heavy and light chains

 

  1. An epitope is a(n)

*a. Small region on a protein or antigen that the antibody recognizes and binds.

  1. Immune cell that produces antibodies.
  2. Subset of cells that is kept for a secondary response after an infection
  3. Cell surface protein involved in immune recognition.
  4. White blood cell involved as a helper cell or cytotoxic cell in cell-mediated immunity.

 

  1. A T-lymphocyte is a(n)
  2. Small region on a protein or antigen that the antibody recognizes and binds.
  3. Immune cell that produces antibodies.
  4. Subset of cells that is kept for a secondary response after an infection
  5. Cell surface protein involved in immune recognition.

*e. White blood cell involved as a helper cell or cytotoxic cell in cell-mediated immunity.

 

  1. A B-cell is a(n)
  2. Small region on a protein or antigen that the antibody recognizes and binds.

*b. Immune cell that produces antibodies.

  1. Subset of cells that is kept for a secondary response after an infection
  2. Cell surface protein involved in immune recognition.
  3. White blood cell involved as a helper cell or cytotoxic cell in cell-mediated immunity.

 

  1. A memory cell is a(n)
  2. Small region on a protein or antigen that the antibody recognizes and binds.
  3. Immune cell that produces antibodies.

*c. Subset of cells that is kept for a secondary response after an infection

  1. Cell surface protein involved in immune recognition.
  2. White blood cell involved as a helper cell or cytotoxic cell in cell-mediated immunity.

 

  1. The major histocompatibility complex produces a(n)
  2. Small region on a protein or antigen that the antibody recognizes and binds.
  3. Immune cell that produces antibodies.
  4. Subset of cells that are kept for a secondary response after an infection

*d. Cell surface protein involved in immune recognition.

  1. White blood cell involved as a helper cell or cytotoxic cell in cell-mediated immunity.

 

  1. Hybridomas are useful in biotechnology because
  2. They are cell lines that can in principle live forever.
  3. They produce a monoclonal antibody
  4. They are made from B cells which can grow well outside the body.
  5. All of the above are useful properties of hybridomas.

*e. Some of the above are useful properties of hybridomas.

 

  1. Herceptin is an antibody developed to treat breast cancer. It works as follows:

*a. Binds to the HER2 receptor when overexpressed in breast cancer cells.  Prevents internalization and further cell division.

  1. Binds to the HER3 receptor of breast cancer cells and promotes proliferation of healthy cells.
  2. Herceptin is found in the bloodstream to bind to breast cancer antigens and prevents the cancer from spreading.
  3. All of the above
  4. Some of the above.

 

  1. In addition to products such as Herceptin, commercially prepared antibodies can also be used for all of these EXCEPT:

*a. As recombinant vaccines

  1. In fluorescence activated cell sorting
  2. For ELISA for diagnosis and testing.
  3. Visualization of molecules inside living cells
  4. All of the above are uses for commercially prepared antibodies.

 

  1. Which of the following is the best describes a heat- or chemically-inactivated vaccine
  2. The use of one purified component of an infectious agent in order to stimulate immunity.
  3. Use of mutated or weakened live strains to stimulate immunity.

*c. The use of denaturants to kill the infectious agent so it does not cause infection.

  1. The use of a non-pathogen into which surface antigen genes have been cloned.

 

  1. Which of the following best describes a subunit vaccine?

*a. The use of one purified component of an infectious agent in order to stimulate immunity.

  1. Use of mutated or weakened live strains to stimulate immunity.
  2. The use of denaturants to kill the infectious agent so it does not cause infection.
  3. The use of a non-pathogen into which surface antigen genes have been cloned.

 

  1. Which of the following best describes a recombinant vaccine?
  2. The use of one purified component of an infectious agent in order to stimulate immunity.
  3. Use of mutated or weakened live strains to stimulate immunity.
  4. The use of denaturants to kill the infectious agent so it does not cause infection.

*d. The use of a non-pathogen into which surface antigen genes have been cloned.

 

  1. Which of the following best describes an attenuated vaccine?
  2. The use of one purified component of an infectious agent in order to stimulate immunity.

*b. Use of mutated or weakened live strains to stimulate immunity.

  1. The use of denaturants to kill the infectious agent so it does not cause infection.
  2. The use of a non-pathogen into which surface antigen genes have been cloned.

 

  1. All of the following represent potential problems with attenuated vaccines EXCEPT:
  2. A mutated virus might revert back.
  3. Immunocompromised patients might become ill with these vaccines.
  4. Much research is required to identify safe but effective changes in the infectious agent.

*d. All of these are potential problems.

 

  1. Flow cytometry is a
  2. A technique that can detect and estimate the concentration of a protein by reacting with a primary antibody, then reacting with a secondary antibody containing a detection system.

*b. Mechanical separation of mixtures of cells based on their surface antigens.  Antibodies with different fluorescent labels are used in the separation.

  1. Method used to count and measure various kinds of cells by using fluorescently-labeled antibodies.
  2. A technique that uses a patient’s serum to identify antibodies useful against various infectious diseases.

 

  1. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) is a
  2. Technique that can detect and estimate the concentration of a protein by reacting with a primary antibody, then reacting with a secondary antibody containing a detection system.
  3. Technique to identify proteins needed for growth of pathogens inside a host. Pathogen proteins are fused to a reporter such as GFP and then screened for growth inside the host.
  4. Mechanical separation of mixtures of cells based on their surface antigens. Antibodies with different fluorescent labels are used in the separation.

*d. Methods used to count and measure various kinds of cells by using fluorescently-labeled antibodies.

  1. The use of patient’s serum to identify antibodies useful against various infectious diseases.

 

  1. ELISA is a

*a. A technique that can detect and estimate the concentration of a protein by reacting with a primary antibody, then reacting with a secondary antibody containing a detection system.

  1. Technique to identify proteins needed for growth of pathogens inside a host. Pathogen proteins are fused to a reporter such as GFP and then screened for growth inside the host.
  2. Mechanical separation of mixtures of cells based on their surface antigens. Antibodies with different fluorescent labels are used in the separation.
  3. Methods used to count and measure various kinds of cells by using fluorescently-labeled antibodies.
  4. The use of patient’s serum to identify antibodies useful against various infectious diseases.

 

  1. Which of the following procedures were used in developing a vaccine for Neisseria mengitidis via reverse vaccinology?
  2. A library of different proteins was expressed and purified in E. coli
  3. The proteins were screened for the presence on cell surfaces
  4. Proteins were screened for immune effectiveness.

*d. All of the above were steps in vaccine development.

  1. Some of the above were steps in vaccine development.

 

  1. The reasons to develop edible vaccines include
  2. Less apt to be susceptible to heat
  3. No need for syringes and needles and trained personnel to administer vaccine.
  4. Do not need special storage conditions other than typical food storage.

*d. All of the above

  1. None of the above

 

  1. Vaccines have potential adverse side effects. Which of the following is NOT a safety concern of vaccines?
  2. Vaccines may be manufactured from allergenic material such as eggs.
  3. There can be systemic issues such as fever or very mild disease.
  4. Preservatives such as thimerosol may cause health problems.

*d. All of the above.

  1. Some of the above.

 

  1. When an antibody molecule is broken at “the hinge”, the result is:
  2. Four peptides, two are “light chains”: and two are “heavy chains”.
  3. Four peptides, two are Fab fragments and two are Fc fragments.

*c. Three peptides, two are Fab fragments and one is an Fc fragment.

  1. Three peptides, two are light chains and one heavy chain.
  2. None of the above.

 

  1. When bound by infliximab, the release of is blocked, which helps prevent inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.
  2. TNFα
  3. TNFβ

*c. IL-1

  1. HER2
  2. EGFR

 

  1. Nanobodies .
  2. are modeled from humanized hybridomas
  3. only contains the scFv

*c. consists of a recombinant protein with the small VHH

  1. contain disulfide bridges
  2. are made by linking two light chains

 

  1. Nanobodies are small enough to pass through the blood-brain barrier.

*a. True

  1. False

 

Clark: Biotechnology, 2nd Edition

 

Chapter 7: Nanobiotechnology

 

 

  1. In 1959, a physicist first suggested that devices and materials might someday be made to atomic specifications. Thus nanotechnology was first described. The physicist was:
  2. Niels Bohr
  3. Harold Scheraga
  4. Albert Einstein

*d. Richard Feynman

  1. None of the above

 

  1. As any measurement increases or decreases, the metric system adds prefixes to its units to account for order of magnitude differences. Place the following prefixes in order from larger to smaller. Choose from the following:

 

Atto     Tera     Micro   Yocto  Nano

 

  1. Atto Yocto  Micro   Nano   Tera

*b. Tera           Micro   Nano   Atto     Yocto

  1. Micro Nano Atto     Tera     Yocto
  2. Tera Micro Nano Yocto  Atta

 

  1. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) aids in visualizing at the nanoscale. Its use in biology is limited because:
  2. There are no biological specimens small enough to need STM.

*b. STM requires a metal layer as a conducting surface.

  1. Both of the above.
  2. None of the above.

 

  1. Atomic force microscopy compared to a light microscope is like ____________________ compared reading text with the eye.
  2. a. Listening to books on tape.
  3. Reading the lips of the person speaking.

*c. Feeling Braille.

  1. AFM is light microscopy, none of the above are correct.

 

  1. Both individual bacterial cells and individual viral particles have been weighed using a technique that is similar to:
  2. Television commercials inserted into a television program.
  3. A record player needle scratching the surface of a record.

*c. The oscillation of a diving board in response to a force.

  1. All of the above.

 

  1. Of the following, which are NOT uses of nanoparticles in biology
  2. Sensors to detect pathogens or their molecules.
  3. Delivery of pharmaceuticals.
  4. Tumor destruction by chemical means.

*d. All of the above actually are uses of nanoparticles.

  1. None of the above are uses of nanoparticles.

 

  1. Which of the following are advantages of using fluorescent nanoparticles over fluorescent dye?
  2. Nanoparticles can be targeted to specific tissues, dyes cannot.
  3. Nanoparticles do not photobleach the way dyes can, thus they can be used long-term.

*c. Both a and b are advantages.

  1. Neither a nor b are advantages.

 

  1. The use of nanoparticles to deliver medicine, RNA, DNA, or proteins may involve
  2. The use of positively charged molecules to neutralize negative charges of the nucleic acid backbone.
  3. The use of chitosan to make a biocompatible nanoshell.
  4. The use of cellulose to make a biocompatible nanoshell.
  5. All of the above.

*e. Some of the above.

 

  1. In developing nanoparticles for use in cancer therapy, one should consider
  2. Delivering chemicals to cancer cells but not healthy tissue.
  3. Keeping medicine from leaking out of cells.

*c. Both a and b are correct

  1. Neither a nor b is correct.

 

  1. Semiconductor nanowires can be “biosynthesized by ___________”.
  2. Using phage display to place CdS or ZnS binding peptide on the surface.
  3. Using a filamentous phage such as M13.
  4. Allowing arrays of nanocrystals to form.

*d. All of the above are steps in creating semiconductor nanowires.

  1. Some of the above are steps in creating semiconductor nanowires.

 

  1. Magnetospirllum magnetotacticum naturally produces magnetic nanoparticles. These magnetosome proteins are useful in nanotechnology for
    1. Orienting the cell towards magnetic north.

*b. Purifying fused proteins by magnetic separation.

  1. Cloning genes from E. coli.
  2. They are of no use.

 

  1. All of the following are properties of antibacterial nanocarpets EXCEPT
  2. Nanocarpets are capable of changing color and killing bacteria.
  3. The lipid molecules in nanotubes are able to kill bacteria by themselves.

*c. Only one color can be seen in response to various stimuli

  1. Eventually nanocarpets may also be used as biosensors.

 

  1. The development of ion channel nanosensors involves the use of
  2. Gramicidin A to make the ion channel.
  3. Method to measure change in current or pH.
  4. Attachment of a sensitive ligand to the channel so that it extends outside.

*d. All of the above are used.

  1. Some of the above are used.

 

  1. One goal of nanotechnology is to produce nanomachines. Examples of these are found in living cells.  Which of the following is an example of a nanomachine?
    1. Bacterial flagella.
    2. Kinesin and dynein proteins.
    3. ATP synthase.

*d. All of these are examples of nanomachines.

 

  1. Scientists will generally denature DNA molecules using heat. Yet, specific sequences of DNA can be melted using nanotechnology.  This involves all of the following EXCEPT
  2. Binding gold to dsDNA.
  3. Using nanoparticles of about 1.4 nm.

*c. Chemically synthesized DNA primers.

  1. Gold acts as an antenna for radiowaves.
  2. All of the above.

 

  1. Using DNA origami to produce nanostructure involves all of the following except

*a. gold particles

  1. very long DNA strands
  2. “staple strands”
  3. All of the above are involved in DNA origami

 

  1. Fill in the blank: Escherichia coli and earthworms produce fluorescent nanocrystals when exposed to cadmium chloride and .

*a. Potassium tellurite

  1. Gold particles
  2. Selenium crystals
  3. Both a and b are correct
  4. None of the above are correct

 

  1. Glutathione .
  2. provides the crosslinker in nanostructure formation by DNA origami
  3. improves the structure of nanocarpets

*c. increases the yield of biosynthesized nanocrystals

  1. can be coated with gold particles and used as a nano-antenna
  2. is made fluorescent by earthworms and bacteria

 

 

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