Business Research Methods 9th Edition By Zikmund – Test Bank

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Business Research Methods 9th Edition By Zikmund – Test Bank

Chapter 6–Problem Definition: The Foundation of Business Research

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. A decision statement is a written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer.
    True    False

 

  1. The term problem definition refers to the process of defining and developing a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objectives.
    True    False

 

  1. The problem definition stage is the easiest stage of the research process.
    True    False

 

  1. It is easier to define the problem in business situations that are not cyclical.
    True    False

 

  1. When a sudden change in the business situation takes place, it can be easier to define the problem.
    True    False

 

  1. A problem occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and a more preferable set of conditions.
    True    False

 

  1. The first step in the problem-definition process is to determine the unit of analysis.
    True    False

 

  1. Conducting a situation analysis often requires exploratory research.
    True    False

 

  1. One of the best ways to identify the symptoms of a problem is to conduct a literature review.
    True    False

 

  1. Interrogative techniques simply involve asking multiple what, where, who, when, why, and how questions.
    True    False

 

  1. Probing is an interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from a discussion.
    True    False

 

  1. Symptoms need to be translated into a problem and then a decision statement.
    True    False

 

  1. The situation analysis ends once researchers have a clear idea of the managerial objectives from the research effort.
    True    False

 

  1. The unit of analysis for a study indicates the level of significance that will be acceptable for acting on the results.
    True    False

 

  1. Sales, income, and age are examples of variables.
    True    False

 

  1. A point estimate is something that does not change.
    True    False

 

  1. An absolute variable is one that can take on a range of values that correspond to some quantitative amount.
    True    False

 

  1. An independent variable is a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
    True    False

 

  1. Research questions express the research objectives in terms of questions that can be addressed by research.
    True    False

 

  1. Managerial benchmarks specify a performance criterion upon which a decision can be based.
    True    False

 

  1. The greater the number of research objectives, the better the research.
    True    False

 

  1. A research proposal is a written statement of the research design.
    True    False

 

  1. A wise researcher will not agree to do a research job for which no written proposal exists.
    True    False

 

  1. Basic business research refers to research usually performed by academic researchers and supported by some public or private institution.
    True    False

 

  1. Tables placed in research proposals that are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report with the exception that the results are hypothetical (fictitious) are referred to as surrogate tables.
    True    False

 

  1. A written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer is referred to as a _____.
    A. problem definition
    B. decision statement
    C. research proposal
    D. hypothesis

 

  1. An IT manager of a hospital needs to know the information technology needs of the healthcare providers and office personnel, so he decides to have research conducted.  When he writes a list of key questions that he wishes to answer through research, what is he creating?
    A. research proposal
    B. written report
    C. decision statement
    D. hypotheses

 

  1. When a researcher defines and develops a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, he or she is involved in what process?
    A. hypotheses development
    B. research planning
    C. research process
    D. problem definition

 

  1. Which of the following make defining problems more difficult?
    A. situation is recurring or routine
    B. a dramatic change occurs
    C. symptoms are scattered
    D. symptoms are consistent

 

  1. All of the following are gaps that represent problems EXCEPT _____.
    A. actual business performance is less than possible business performance
    B. actual business performance is greater than expected business performance
    C. actual business performance is worse than expected business performance
    D. expected business performance is greater than possible business performance

 

  1. Which of the following is the FIRST step of the problem definition process?
    A. determine the unit of analysis
    B. identify the problem
    C. identify key symptoms in the situation
    D. determine the relevant variables

 

  1. Once the researcher has identified the key symptoms and identified the key problem(s) from those symptoms, what is the next step the researcher will take in the problem-definition process?
    A. determine the unit of analysis
    B. write managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives
    C. determine the relevant variables and how to measure them
    D. write research questions and/or research hypotheses

 

  1. Which of the following is the LAST step of the problem definition process?
    A. write research questions and/or hypotheses
    B. determine the relevant variables
    C. determine the unit of analysis
    D. understand the background of the problem

 

  1. All of the following are steps in the problem-definition process EXCEPT _____.
    A. identify key problem(s) from symptoms
    B. determine the unit of analysis
    C. develop dummy tables
    D. determine relevant variables

 

  1. A(n) _____ involves the gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision-making environment.
    A. situation analysis
    B. exploratory review
    C. environmental scan
    D. preliminary analysis

 

  1. A researcher is gathering background information to familiarize himself with his new client’s business environment.  He is analyzing marketplace conditions and conducting interviews with employees of the company.  This researcher is conducting a _____.
    A. gap analysis
    B. pre-research analysis
    C. basic analysis
    D. situation analysis

 

  1. All of the following are helpful hints that can be useful in the interview process when attempting to understand the situation EXCEPT _____.
    A. develop hypotheses before conducting interviews
    B. develop many alternative decisions and problems
    C. think about possible solutions to the problem
    D. be open-minded

 

  1. A researcher is asking managers and line workers questions such as what type of problems they experience, where they are most likely to experience them, who is responsible for them, and how the problems get resolved.  Asking these what, where, who, when, why, and how questions to get a better understanding of his client’s business decision-making situation is an example of using _____.
    A. peeling techniques
    B. iceberg technique
    C. 80/20 techniques
    D. interrogative techniques

 

  1. An interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from the discussion is called _____.
    A. probing
    B. peeling
    C. immersion
    D. ethnography

 

  1. Which of the following is the most important question a researcher can ask when using a probing technique?
    A. How does that make you feel?
    B. Why do you think that is so?
    C. What has changed?
    D. What does _____ make you think of?

 

  1. Which of the following essentially answers the question, “What information is needed to address this situation?”
    A. dependent variable
    B. independent variable
    C. research objectives
    D. research design

 

  1. When a researcher determines what or who should provide the data and at what level of aggregation, he or she is determining the _____.
    A. hypotheses
    B. research questions
    C. analysis technique
    D. unit of analysis

 

  1. Which of the following is a possible unit of analysis in a research study?
    A. an employee
    B. a sales region
    C. a zip code area
    D. all of these choices

 

  1. In research, anything that varies or changes from one instance to another is called a _____.
    A. variable
    B. constant
    C. category
    D. classification

 

  1. A researcher is conducting an experiment in which different formats of a prospectus sent to prospective investors are manipulated.  The format of the prospectus is considered to be a(n) _____.
    A. constant
    B. unit
    C. dependent variable
    D. variable

 

  1. Something that does not change from one instance to another is called a _____.
    A. hypothesis
    B. constant
    C. variable
    D. category

 

  1. All of the following are types of variables EXCEPT _____.
    A. continuous
    B. categorical
    C. constant
    D. dependent

 

  1. A variable that can take on a range of values that correspond to some quantitative amount is called a _____.
    A. categorical variable
    B. continuous variable
    C. classificatory variable
    D. independent variable

 

  1. What type of variable is “dollar sales volume”?
    A. continuous variable
    B. independent variable
    C. categorical variable
    D. classificatory variable

 

  1. Which type of variable indicates membership in some group?
    A. continuous variable
    B. categorical variable
    C. lexicographic variable
    D. dependent variable

 

  1. Categorical variables are also called _____ variables.
    A. independent
    B. index
    C. dependent
    D. classificatory

 

  1. What type of variable is “gender”?
    A. continuous variable
    B. primary variable
    C. dependent variable
    D. categorical variable

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
    A. primary variable
    B. absolute variable
    C. dependent variable
    D. independent variable

 

  1. In the statement:  “Years of sales experience is an important predictor of dollar sales performance,” what type of variable is “dollar sales performance”?
    A. dependent variable
    B. categorical variable
    C. classificatory variable
    D. independent variable

 

  1. A(n) _____ variable is one that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way.
    A. primary
    B. interactive
    C. independent
    D. first-order

 

  1. In the statement:  “Years of sales experience is an important variable in predicting unit sales performance,” what type of variable is “years of experience”?
    A. dependent variable
    B. independent variable
    C. categorical variable.
    D. classificatory variable

 

  1. Which of the following expresses the research objectives in terms of questions that can be addressed by research?
    A. situation analysis
    B. dependent variable
    C. research question
    D. independent variable

 

  1. A statement such as:  “Increasing price five percent will cause sales to drop by eight percent or more,” is an example of a _____.
    A. hypothesis
    B. dependent variable
    C. problem definition
    D. research objective

 

  1. A specific performance criterion upon which a decision can be based is called a(n) _____.
    A. managerial action standard
    B. managerial benchmark
    C. unit of analysis
    D. standardized variable

 

  1. A statement such as: “If our new floor cleaner reaches a local market share of three percent after nine months of test marketing the product in Phoenix, we will launch the product nationally,” is an example of a _____.
    A. hypothesis
    B. situation analysis
    C. managerial action standard
    D. problem definition

 

  1. A written statement of the research design is called a _____.
    A. research hypothesis
    B. research proposal
    C. research question
    D. research summary

 

  1. Todd has prepared a document that includes the deliverables and a definition of the problem for a research client.  In this document, he described how he will conduct a survey along with a schedule of costs and deadlines.  What is this document called?
    A. research proposal
    B. research statement
    C. research blueprint
    D. managerial action statement

 

  1. _____ refers to basic research usually performed by academic researchers that is financially supported by some public or private institution, as in federal government grants.
    A. Philanthropic business research
    B. Priority business research
    C. Underwritten business research
    D. Funded business research

 

  1. Sharon is a management professor who received a grant from the American Management Association to study how employees make decisions in cross-functional groups.  Sharon’s research is _____.
    A. applied business research
    B. dependent business research
    C. funded business research
    D. analytical business research

 

  1. Tables placed in a research proposal that are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report but contain hypothetical results are called _____.
    A. dummy tables
    B. surrogate tables
    C. interim tables
    D. placeholder tables

 

  1. “What is to be measured in this research study?” is a fundamental question to ask at the ______ stage of a research design.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A _____ is a written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A(n) _____ occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and a more preferable set of conditions.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A preliminary study of background information that led up to the current situation is called a(n) ______.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. _____ is an interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from a discussion with a decision maker.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A researcher is studying purchasing managers to determine how they decide to use credit in purchase situations for their companies.  In this case, purchasing managers are the _____.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Anything that changes in value from one instance to another in a research study is called a(n) ______.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Income is an example of a(n) ______ variable.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. The variable that is measured to determine the outcome of the research process is called the ______ variable.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. If type of promotional offer is manipulated in an experiment to determine its effect on consumers’ intent to purchase a product, the type of promotional offer is the ______ variable.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. The research objectives of a study are translated into research ________ that can be answered by the research study.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A performance criterion that expresses what a manager will do if a criterion is achieved in a research study is called a(n) ______.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A written statement of the research design for a study is called the _____ .
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Basic research usually performed by academic researchers and supported by some public or private institution is called _____ business research.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Tables in a research proposal which contain fictitious, but realistic, data of the likely outcome of the research study are referred to as ______ tables.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Define problem definition and discuss factors that make defining problems more difficult.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What are the three types of gaps that may reflect a problem, indicating that research may be needed to assist a business in making some decision?  Give an explanation of each.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A researcher has been hired by a business owner to help her understand why she is losing customers.  List the steps the researcher should follow in defining the problem for this research study.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Devise a study that contains continuous, categorical, dependent, and independent variables and the research objective(s) of your study.  Be sure to label each variable accordingly and identify the unit of analysis in your study.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between research questions and hypotheses.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is a research proposal and how is it useful for both the researcher and the client?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. How does a research proposal differ from the final research report?  What is the best way for the researcher to let management know exactly what kind of results will be produced by the research?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6–Problem Definition: The Foundation of Business Research Key

  1. A decision statement is a written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer.
    TRUE

 

  1. The term problem definition refers to the process of defining and developing a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objectives.
    TRUE

 

  1. The problem definition stage is the easiest stage of the research process.
    FALSE

 

  1. It is easier to define the problem in business situations that are not cyclical.
    FALSE

 

  1. When a sudden change in the business situation takes place, it can be easier to define the problem.
    TRUE

 

  1. A problem occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and a more preferable set of conditions.
    TRUE

 

  1. The first step in the problem-definition process is to determine the unit of analysis.
    FALSE

 

  1. Conducting a situation analysis often requires exploratory research.
    TRUE

 

  1. One of the best ways to identify the symptoms of a problem is to conduct a literature review.
    FALSE

 

  1. Interrogative techniques simply involve asking multiple what, where, who, when, why, and how questions.
    TRUE

 

  1. Probing is an interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from a discussion.
    TRUE

 

  1. Symptoms need to be translated into a problem and then a decision statement.
    TRUE

 

  1. The situation analysis ends once researchers have a clear idea of the managerial objectives from the research effort.
    TRUE

 

  1. The unit of analysis for a study indicates the level of significance that will be acceptable for acting on the results.
    FALSE

 

  1. Sales, income, and age are examples of variables.
    TRUE

 

  1. A point estimate is something that does not change.
    FALSE

 

  1. An absolute variable is one that can take on a range of values that correspond to some quantitative amount.
    FALSE

 

  1. An independent variable is a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
    FALSE

 

  1. Research questions express the research objectives in terms of questions that can be addressed by research.
    TRUE

 

  1. Managerial benchmarks specify a performance criterion upon which a decision can be based.
    FALSE

 

  1. The greater the number of research objectives, the better the research.
    FALSE

 

  1. A research proposal is a written statement of the research design.
    TRUE

 

  1. A wise researcher will not agree to do a research job for which no written proposal exists.
    TRUE

 

  1. Basic business research refers to research usually performed by academic researchers and supported by some public or private institution.
    FALSE

 

  1. Tables placed in research proposals that are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report with the exception that the results are hypothetical (fictitious) are referred to as surrogate tables.
    FALSE

 

  1. A written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer is referred to as a _____.
    A.problem definition
    B. decision statement
    C. research proposal
    D. hypothesis

 

  1. An IT manager of a hospital needs to know the information technology needs of the healthcare providers and office personnel, so he decides to have research conducted.  When he writes a list of key questions that he wishes to answer through research, what is he creating?
    A.research proposal
    B. written report
    C. decision statement
    D. hypotheses

 

  1. When a researcher defines and develops a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, he or she is involved in what process?
    A.hypotheses development
    B. research planning
    C. research process
    D. problem definition

 

  1. Which of the following make defining problems more difficult?
    A.situation is recurring or routine
    B. a dramatic change occurs
    C. symptoms are scattered
    D. symptoms are consistent

 

  1. All of the following are gaps that represent problems EXCEPT _____.
    A.actual business performance is less than possible business performance
    B. actual business performance is greater than expected business performance
    C. actual business performance is worse than expected business performance
    D. expected business performance is greater than possible business performance

 

  1. Which of the following is the FIRST step of the problem definition process?
    A.determine the unit of analysis
    B. identify the problem
    C. identify key symptoms in the situation
    D. determine the relevant variables

 

  1. Once the researcher has identified the key symptoms and identified the key problem(s) from those symptoms, what is the next step the researcher will take in the problem-definition process?
    A.determine the unit of analysis
    B. write managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives
    C. determine the relevant variables and how to measure them
    D. write research questions and/or research hypotheses

 

  1. Which of the following is the LAST step of the problem definition process?
    A.write research questions and/or hypotheses
    B. determine the relevant variables
    C. determine the unit of analysis
    D. understand the background of the problem

 

  1. All of the following are steps in the problem-definition process EXCEPT _____.
    A.identify key problem(s) from symptoms
    B. determine the unit of analysis
    C. develop dummy tables
    D. determine relevant variables

 

  1. A(n) _____ involves the gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision-making environment.
    A.situation analysis
    B. exploratory review
    C. environmental scan
    D. preliminary analysis

 

  1. A researcher is gathering background information to familiarize himself with his new client’s business environment.  He is analyzing marketplace conditions and conducting interviews with employees of the company.  This researcher is conducting a _____.
    A.gap analysis
    B. pre-research analysis
    C. basic analysis
    D. situation analysis

 

  1. All of the following are helpful hints that can be useful in the interview process when attempting to understand the situation EXCEPT _____.
    A.develop hypotheses before conducting interviews
    B. develop many alternative decisions and problems
    C. think about possible solutions to the problem
    D. be open-minded

 

  1. A researcher is asking managers and line workers questions such as what type of problems they experience, where they are most likely to experience them, who is responsible for them, and how the problems get resolved.  Asking these what, where, who, when, why, and how questions to get a better understanding of his client’s business decision-making situation is an example of using _____.
    A.peeling techniques
    B. iceberg technique
    C. 80/20 techniques
    D. interrogative techniques

 

  1. An interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from the discussion is called _____.
    A.probing
    B. peeling
    C. immersion
    D. ethnography

 

  1. Which of the following is the most important question a researcher can ask when using a probing technique?
    A.How does that make you feel?
    B. Why do you think that is so?
    C. What has changed?
    D. What does _____ make you think of?

 

  1. Which of the following essentially answers the question, “What information is needed to address this situation?”
    A.dependent variable
    B. independent variable
    C. research objectives
    D. research design

 

  1. When a researcher determines what or who should provide the data and at what level of aggregation, he or she is determining the _____.
    A.hypotheses
    B. research questions
    C. analysis technique
    D. unit of analysis

 

  1. Which of the following is a possible unit of analysis in a research study?
    A.an employee
    B. a sales region
    C. a zip code area
    D. all of these choices

 

  1. In research, anything that varies or changes from one instance to another is called a _____.
    A.variable
    B. constant
    C. category
    D. classification

 

  1. A researcher is conducting an experiment in which different formats of a prospectus sent to prospective investors are manipulated.  The format of the prospectus is considered to be a(n) _____.
    A.constant
    B. unit
    C. dependent variable
    D. variable

 

  1. Something that does not change from one instance to another is called a _____.
    A.hypothesis
    B. constant
    C. variable
    D. category

 

  1. All of the following are types of variables EXCEPT _____.
    A.continuous
    B. categorical
    C. constant
    D. dependent

 

  1. A variable that can take on a range of values that correspond to some quantitative amount is called a _____.
    A.categorical variable
    B. continuous variable
    C. classificatory variable
    D. independent variable

 

  1. What type of variable is “dollar sales volume”?
    A.continuous variable
    B. independent variable
    C. categorical variable
    D. classificatory variable

 

  1. Which type of variable indicates membership in some group?
    A.continuous variable
    B. categorical variable
    C. lexicographic variable
    D. dependent variable

 

  1. Categorical variables are also called _____ variables.
    A.independent
    B. index
    C. dependent
    D. classificatory

 

  1. What type of variable is “gender”?
    A.continuous variable
    B. primary variable
    C. dependent variable
    D. categorical variable

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
    A.primary variable
    B. absolute variable
    C. dependent variable
    D. independent variable

 

  1. In the statement:  “Years of sales experience is an important predictor of dollar sales performance,” what type of variable is “dollar sales performance”?
    A.dependent variable
    B. categorical variable
    C. classificatory variable
    D. independent variable

 

  1. A(n) _____ variable is one that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way.
    A.primary
    B. interactive
    C. independent
    D. first-order

 

  1. In the statement:  “Years of sales experience is an important variable in predicting unit sales performance,” what type of variable is “years of experience”?
    A.dependent variable
    B. independent variable
    C. categorical variable.
    D. classificatory variable

 

  1. Which of the following expresses the research objectives in terms of questions that can be addressed by research?
    A.situation analysis
    B. dependent variable
    C. research question
    D. independent variable

 

  1. A statement such as:  “Increasing price five percent will cause sales to drop by eight percent or more,” is an example of a _____.
    A.hypothesis
    B. dependent variable
    C. problem definition
    D. research objective

 

  1. A specific performance criterion upon which a decision can be based is called a(n) _____.
    A.managerial action standard
    B. managerial benchmark
    C. unit of analysis
    D. standardized variable

 

  1. A statement such as: “If our new floor cleaner reaches a local market share of three percent after nine months of test marketing the product in Phoenix, we will launch the product nationally,” is an example of a _____.
    A.hypothesis
    B. situation analysis
    C. managerial action standard
    D. problem definition

 

  1. A written statement of the research design is called a _____.
    A.research hypothesis
    B. research proposal
    C. research question
    D. research summary

 

  1. Todd has prepared a document that includes the deliverables and a definition of the problem for a research client.  In this document, he described how he will conduct a survey along with a schedule of costs and deadlines.  What is this document called?
    A.research proposal
    B. research statement
    C. research blueprint
    D. managerial action statement

 

  1. _____ refers to basic research usually performed by academic researchers that is financially supported by some public or private institution, as in federal government grants.
    A.Philanthropic business research
    B. Priority business research
    C. Underwritten business research
    D. Funded business research

 

  1. Sharon is a management professor who received a grant from the American Management Association to study how employees make decisions in cross-functional groups.  Sharon’s research is _____.
    A.applied business research
    B. dependent business research
    C. funded business research
    D. analytical business research

 

  1. Tables placed in a research proposal that are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report but contain hypothetical results are called _____.
    A.dummy tables
    B. surrogate tables
    C. interim tables
    D. placeholder tables

 

  1. “What is to be measured in this research study?” is a fundamental question to ask at the ______ stage of a research design.
    problem definition

 

  1. A _____ is a written expression of the key question(s) that a research user wishes to answer.
    decision statement

 

  1. A(n) _____ occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and a more preferable set of conditions.
    problem

 

  1. A preliminary study of background information that led up to the current situation is called a(n) ______.
    situation analysis

 

  1. _____ is an interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from a discussion with a decision maker.
    Probing

 

  1. A researcher is studying purchasing managers to determine how they decide to use credit in purchase situations for their companies.  In this case, purchasing managers are the _____.
    unit of analysis

 

  1. Anything that changes in value from one instance to another in a research study is called a(n) ______.
    variable

 

  1. Income is an example of a(n) ______ variable.
    continuous

 

  1. The variable that is measured to determine the outcome of the research process is called the ______ variable.
    dependent

 

  1. If type of promotional offer is manipulated in an experiment to determine its effect on consumers’ intent to purchase a product, the type of promotional offer is the ______ variable.
    independent

 

  1. The research objectives of a study are translated into research ________ that can be answered by the research study.
    questions

 

  1. A performance criterion that expresses what a manager will do if a criterion is achieved in a research study is called a(n) ______.
    managerial action standard

 

  1. A written statement of the research design for a study is called the _____ .
    research proposal

 

  1. Basic research usually performed by academic researchers and supported by some public or private institution is called _____ business research.
    funded

 

  1. Tables in a research proposal which contain fictitious, but realistic, data of the likely outcome of the research study are referred to as ______ tables.
    dummy

 

  1. Define problem definition and discuss factors that make defining problems more difficult.

Problem definition is the process of defining and developing a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objectives.  Factors that make it more difficult to define problems include:
(1) Situation frequency – recurring and/or routine situations allow easier problem definition and may even be automated through a company’s DSS.
(2) Dramatic changes – it is easier to define the problem when a sudden change in the business situation takes place.
(3) How widespread are the symptoms? – the more scattered any symptoms are, the more difficult it is to put them together into some coherent problem.
(4) Symptom ambiguity – the higher the ambiguity, the more difficult it is to define the problem.

 

  1. What are the three types of gaps that may reflect a problem, indicating that research may be needed to assist a business in making some decision?  Give an explanation of each.

The gap can come about in a number of ways:
(1) Business performance is worse than expected business performance.  For example, sales, profits, and margins could be below targets set by management.  Or employee turnover is higher than expected.
(2) Actual business performance is less than possible business performance.  Realization of this gap first requires that management has some idea of what is possible.
(3) Expected business performance is greater than possible business performance.  This could be due to management having an unrealistic view of possible performance levels.

 

  1. A researcher has been hired by a business owner to help her understand why she is losing customers.  List the steps the researcher should follow in defining the problem for this research study.

(1) Understand the business situation by identifying key symptoms
(2) Identify key problem(s) from symptoms
(3) Write managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives
(4) Determine the unit of analysis
(5) Determine the relevant variables
(6) Write research questions and/or research hypotheses

 

  1. Devise a study that contains continuous, categorical, dependent, and independent variables and the research objective(s) of your study.  Be sure to label each variable accordingly and identify the unit of analysis in your study.

Students’ applications will vary, but they should demonstrate an understanding of what a variable is and the types of variables.  A variable is anything that varies or changes from one instance to another.  A continuous variable is one that can take on a range of values that correspond to some quantitative amount.  Age, sales, or satisfaction are examples.  Categorical variables indicate membership in some group.  For example, male/female; freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior.  A dependent variable is a process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.  An independent variable is one that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way.  For example, advertising expenditures (independent variable) might influence sales (dependent variable).  Independent and dependent variables can be continuous variables or categorical variables.

 

  1. Explain the difference between research questions and hypotheses.

Research questionsexpress the research objectives in terms of questions that can be addressed by research.  For example, a research question might be “Are consumers’ perceptions of food quality, price, and atmosphere related to customer loyalty?”  Hypotheses are more specific than research questions.  One key distinction between research questions and hypotheses is that hypotheses can generally specify the direction of a relationship.  For example, a hypothesis might be stated as, “Food quality perceptions are related positively to customer commitment toward a restaurant.”  At times, a researcher may suspect that two variables are related but have insufficient theoretical rationale to support the relationship as positive or negative.  In this case, hypotheses cannot be offered.  At times in research, particularly in exploratory research, a proposal can only offer research questions.  Research hypotheses are much more specific and therefore require considerably more theoretical support.  In addition, research questions are interrogative, whereas research hypotheses are declarative.

 

  1. What is a research proposal and how is it useful for both the researcher and the client?

The research proposal is a written statement of the research design.  It includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study (in the form of research objectives or deliverables) and a definition of the problem, often in the form of a decision statement.  It outlines the particular research methodology and details procedures that will be used during each stage of the research process.  Normally a schedule of costs and deadlines is included.  It becomes the primary communication document between the researcher and the research user.

A research proposal is useful to both the researcher and the client in two ways:
(1) Planning tool – forces the researcher to think critically about each stage of the research process.  Research clients evaluate the proposed study with particular emphasis on whether or not it will provide useful information and whether it will do so within a reasonable budget.  It helps managers decide if the proper information will be obtained and if the proposed research will accomplish what is desired.
(2) Contract – serves as the researcher’s bid to offer a specific service.  Both the researcher and client should sign the proposal indicating agreement on what will be done.  Thus, it is a record of the researcher’s obligations and provides a standard for determining whether the actual research was conducted as originally planned.

 

  1. How does a research proposal differ from the final research report?  What is the best way for the researcher to let management know exactly what kind of results will be produced by the research?

The proposal and the final research report will contain much of the same information.  The proposal describes the data collection, measurement, data analysis, and so forth, in future tense.  In the report, the actual results are presented.  In this sense, the proposal anticipates the research outcome.  Perhaps the best way to let management know exactly what kind of results will be produced by research is by using dummy tables.  Dummy tables are placed in research proposals and are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report with one exception:  the results are hypothetical.  A researcher can present dummy tables to the decision maker and ask if he or she can make a decision based on findings like these.

Chapter 7–Qualitative Research

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

  1. Qualitative research is subjective in the sense that the results are researcher-dependent.
    True    False

 

  1. Quantitative research is especially useful when it is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives.
    True    False

 

  1. Quantitative research address research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and analytical approaches.
    True    False

 

  1. Qualitative research is objective.
    True    False

 

  1. When different researchers reach different conclusions based on the same interview, the research lacks intersubjective certifiability.
    True    False

 

  1. Qualitative research is cheaper than quantitative research.
    True    False

 

  1. Most exploratory research designs produce qualitative data.
    True    False

 

  1. Phenomenology represents a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.
    True    False

 

  1. A hermeneutic unit refers to a participant in a focus group interview.
    True    False

 

  1. Studying cultures using methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture is called phenomenology.
    True    False

 

  1. Observation is a major way information is gathered in ethnography.
    True    False

 

  1. Phenomenology represents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records.
    True    False

 

  1. Case studies involve documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.
    True    False

 

  1. A primary advantage of the case study is that an entire organization or entity can be investigated in depth.
    True    False

 

  1. Case studies are analyzed for important themes identified by the frequency with which the same term arises.
    True    False

 

  1. A focus group typically involves a rigid question-and-answer session among participants.
    True    False

 

  1. Focus groups, while useful, take considerable time and effort to execute.
    True    False

 

  1. Leapfrogging is a procedure in which one respondent stimulates thought among the others in a focus group.
    True    False

 

  1. The ideal size of a focus group is 20 to 25 people.
    True    False

 

  1. A focus group moderator needs to be a good talker and dominate the group discussion to keep it on track.
    True    False

 

  1. A focus group discussion guide includes written introductory comments, informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be asked in the group session.
    True    False

 

  1. A focus blog is established for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from an informal, continuous focus group.
    True    False

 

  1. In online focus group sessions, the moderator’s ability to probe is greater than it is in a face-to-face focus group session.
    True    False

 

  1. Laddering is an approach to probing, asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels that produces distinctions at different levels.
    True    False

 

  1. Depth interviews are less expensive than focus group interviews, especially if several depth interviews are conducted.
    True    False

 

  1. The sentence completion method is a type of free-association technique.
    True    False

 

  1. The thematic apperception test (TAT) presents subjects with an ambiguous picture in which consumers and products are the center of attention.
    True    False

 

  1. The term interpretive research is often used to mean qualitative research.
    True    False

 

  1. One advantage of qualitative research is that it is highly replicable.
    True    False

 

  1. The primary barriers to scientific decisions are time, money, and consensus.
    True    False

 

  1. Research that addresses business objectives through techniques allowing the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of business phenomena without depending on numerical measurement is called _____.
    A. preliminary research
    B. primitive research
    C. qualitative research
    D. secondary research

 

  1. Kodetra is interpreting consumers’ blog postings on the Internet.  Which of the following best describes the type of research Kodetra is conducting?
    A. independent business research
    B. dependent business research
    C. quantitative business research
    D. qualitative business research

 

  1. Qualitative research is considered to be _____ because the researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses.
    A. researcher-dependent
    B. less valid
    C. less useful
    D. object-dependent

 

  1. All of the following are situations that often call for qualitative research EXCEPT _____.
    A. when it is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives
    B. when conclusive evidence is desired
    C. when the research objective is to develop an understanding of some phenomena in great detail and in much depth
    D. when a fresh approach to studying some problem is needed

 

  1. Research that addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and analysis approaches is called _____.
    A. quantitative business research
    B. qualitative business research
    C. extensive business research
    D. grounded business research

 

  1. Researcher-dependent results are _____.
    A. subjective
    B. objective
    C. primary
    D. secondary

 

  1. When different researchers reach the same conclusions based on the same interview data, the research is said to have _____.
    A. validity
    B. intersubjective certifiability
    C. subjective validity
    D. qualitative validity

 

  1. Which type of data are not characterized by numbers and instead are textual, visual, or oral?
    A. grounded data
    B. quantitative data
    C. subjective data
    D. qualitative data

 

  1. All of the following are qualitative research orientations EXCEPT _____.
    A. phenomenology
    B. grounded theory
    C. case studies
    D. ANOVA

 

  1. Which qualitative research orientation originated in philosophy and psychology?
    A. phenomenology
    B. grounded theory
    C. ethnography
    D. anthropology

 

  1. Ethnography is a qualitative research orientation originating in _____.
    A. marketing
    B. psychology
    C. anthropology
    D. sociology

 

  1. Which qualitative research orientation originated in sociology?
    A. phenomenology
    B. grounded theory
    C. ethnography
    D. case studies

 

  1. Owen is a researcher who studies human experiences based on the idea that it is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.  He focuses on how a person’s behavior is shaped by the relationship he or she has with the physical environment, objects, people, and situation.  Which qualitative research orientation is Owen using?
    A. grounded theory
    B. phenomenology
    C. ethnography
    D. case study

 

  1. Which of the following is an important approach used in phenomenology?
    A. netnography
    B. ethnography
    C. grounded theory
    D. hermeneutics

 

  1. Which of the following is an approach to understanding phenomenology that relies on analysis of texts through which a person tells a story about him- or herself?
    A. hermeneutics
    B. ethnography
    C. psychographics
    D. psychodynamics

 

  1. A text passage from a respondent’s story that is linked with a key theme from within this story or provided by the researcher is called  _____.
    A. trace element
    B. schemata
    C. hermeneutic unit
    D. case study

 

  1. _____ is a way of studying culture through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture.
    A. Grounded theory
    B. Ethnography
    C. Phenomenology
    D. Case studies

 

  1. Cindy is an ethnographer who is trying to better understand how mothers take care of toddlers.  Being a mother herself, she was able to join a mother’s group and spent considerable time immersed within that culture.  From this immersion, she is able to draw data from her observations.  Cindy is referred to as a(n) _____.
    A. interloper
    B. participant-observer
    C. moderator
    D. mystery shopper

 

  1. Which qualitative research orientation extracts a theory from whatever emerges from an area of inquiry?
    A. phenomenology
    B. ethnography
    C. grounded theory
    D. case study

 

  1. What is the distinguishing characteristic of grounded theory?
    A. Culture is analyzed by participant-observation in which the researcher becomes “grounded” in the culture over a long period of time.
    B. It relies on analysis of texts in which a person tells a story about him- or herself.
    C. The interplay among respondents allows them to piggyback off of each other’s ideas.
    D. It does not begin with a theory but instead extracts one from whatever emerges from an area of inquiry.

 

  1. _____ represent(s) the documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.
    A. Case studies
    B. Phenomenology
    C. netnography
    D. Attribution theory

 

  1. When Schwinn studies its most successful retailer in depth in order to determine some better ideas for displaying bicycles in its retail stores, this is an example of _____.
    A. an experiment
    B. a test market
    C. a case study
    D. causal research

 

  1. In case studies, _____ are identified by the frequency with which the same term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.
    A. themes
    B. threats
    C. links
    D. ladders

 

  1. An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group of people led by a trained moderator is called a(n) _____.
    A. interaction group interview
    B. focus group interview
    C. depth interview
    D. ethnographic interview

 

  1. Which of the following is the most common size of a focus group?
    A. 1-2 participants
    B. 3-5 participants
    C. 6-10 participants
    D. 12-20 participants

 

  1. Betsy and six other women are participating in a research study that is an unstructured, free-flowing interview.  The researcher asked the group their feelings about how they are treated at work.  Betsy is participating in a _____.
    A. case study
    B. grounded research study
    C. depth interview
    D. focus group interview

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of focus group interviews?
    A. provide multiple perspectives
    B. low degree of scrutiny
    C. inexpensive
    D. easy to use for sensitive topics

 

  1. In a focus group discussion, when the comments of one member triggers a stream of comments from the other participants, this is called _____.
    A. serendipity
    B. piggyback
    C. structure
    D. themes

 

  1. The person who leads a focus group interview and ensures that everyone gets a chance to speak and facilitates discussion is called a(n) _____.
    A. moderator
    B. interviewer
    C. facilitator
    D. leader

 

  1. Which of the following is a good characteristic for a focus group moderator to possess?
    A. good listener
    B. ability to make people feel comfortable so that they will talk in the group
    C. ability to control discussion without being overbearing
    D. all of these choices

 

  1. The written set of guidelines that describes an outline of topics to be covered by a focus group moderator is called a _____.
    A. discussion guide
    B. TAT test
    C. concept test
    D. case study

 

  1. A type of informal, “continuous” focus group established as an Internet blog for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from participants is referred to as a _____.
    A. net group
    B. market blog
    C. focus blog
    D. focus unit

 

  1. Which of the following is a disadvantage of focus groups?
    A. requires objective, sensitive, and effective moderators
    B. may not be useful for discussing sensitive topics
    C. high cost
    D. all of these choices

 

  1. When a professional interviewer holds a 90-minute discussion with one member of the target market to find out why that respondent purchases a particular brand of clothing, this is an example of a _____.
    A. depth interview
    B. concept test
    C. focus interview
    D. hermeneutic analysis

 

  1. Which type of qualitative tool is an informal and almost completely unstructured approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter?
    A. depth interview
    B. conversation
    C. focus group
    D. free-association

 

  1. Hank is a researcher who is discussing football fan behavior with a respondent.  His approach is almost completely unstructured, and he enters into a discussion with few expectations.  What he wants is for a respondent to tell him about his or her experience as a football fan.  Hank will then try to derive meaning from the resulting dialog.  Which qualitative research technique is Hank using?
    A. conversation
    B. focus group
    C. depth interview
    D. case study

 

  1. All of the following are advantages of semi-structured interviews EXCEPT _____.
    A. ability to address more specific issues
    B. responses are usually easier to interpret than other qualitative approaches
    C. questions are administered without the presence of an interviewer
    D. high degree of scrutiny

 

  1. Which qualitative tool simply records a respondent’s first cognitive reaction (top-of-mind) to some stimulus?
    A. phenomenology
    B. conversations
    C. probing
    D. free-association techniques

 

  1. When the respondent is presented with:  “People who watch football on television are ________,” and asked to fill in the blank, this is an example of a _____.
    A. word association test
    B. concept test
    C. case study
    D. sentence completion test

 

  1. _____ are the researcher’s descriptions of what actually happens in the field and are the text from which meaning is extracted.
    A. Hermeneutics
    B. Field notes
    C. Discussion guides
    D. Verbatims

 

  1. Stephanie was asked to look at a picture of a woman sitting on a deserted beach and to describe what was happening in the picture.  She was then asked to tell what might happen next.  Stephanie was participating in a(n) _____.
    A. aptitude test
    B. focus interview
    C. thematic apperception test
    D. focus blog

 

  1. Which of the following means the same conclusion would be reached based on another researcher’s interpretation of the research?
    A. validity
    B. replicable
    C. homogeneity
    D. scrutiny

 

  1. Research that addresses marketing objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of business phenomena without depending on numerical measurement is referred to as _____ business research.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Qualitative research results are _____ because they are researcher-dependent.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Most exploratory research designs do not usually product _____ data.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Ethnography originated from the discipline of _____.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. _____ represents a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. The typical ethnographic approach requires the use of _____.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. An in-depth study of a major competitor in order to determine how to improve your organization’s product line offerings is an example of a(n) _____.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. An unstructured, free-flowing discussion with a small group of consumers in a session that is conducted by a moderator is called a(n) ______.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. In a focus group, when the comments of one member stimulate another member to say what she is thinking, this is called ________.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. The person who leads a focus group discussion is called a(n) ______.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A written set of guidelines prepared by a moderator that outlines the topics to be discussed in a focus group session is called a(n) ______.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A focus group session that is conducted over the Internet is called a(n) ______ focus group session.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. A one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent about why she selected a specific insurance benefit option is an example of a(n) ______.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. When an interviewer reads a list of words and asks the respondent to “say the first thing that comes to mind after I say each word,” this is an example of a(n) _____ technique.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Research that leads to the same results and conclusions by different researchers is _____.
    ________________________________________

 

  1. Compare and contrast qualitative research and quantitative research and discuss situations in which qualitative research is useful.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain the role of qualitative data and quantitative data in exploratory research designs.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the four qualitative research orientations.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe a focus group interview and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this technique.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Develop a discussion guide for a focus group on football fan behavior.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Explain how the Internet is useful in conducting qualitative research.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Do exploratory research approaches using qualitative research tools have a role in scientific inquiry?  Explain why a decision may be based solely on these results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7–Qualitative Research Key

  1. Qualitative research is subjective in the sense that the results are researcher-dependent.
    TRUE

 

  1. Quantitative research is especially useful when it is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives.
    FALSE

 

  1. Quantitative research address research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and analytical approaches.
    TRUE

 

  1. Qualitative research is objective.
    FALSE

 

  1. When different researchers reach different conclusions based on the same interview, the research lacks intersubjective certifiability.
    TRUE

 

  1. Qualitative research is cheaper than quantitative research.
    FALSE

 

  1. Most exploratory research designs produce qualitative data.
    TRUE

 

  1. Phenomenology represents a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.
    TRUE

 

  1. A hermeneutic unit refers to a participant in a focus group interview.
    FALSE

 

  1. Studying cultures using methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture is called phenomenology.
    FALSE

 

  1. Observation is a major way information is gathered in ethnography.
    TRUE

 

  1. Phenomenology represents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records.
    FALSE

 

  1. Case studies involve documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.
    TRUE

 

  1. A primary advantage of the case study is that an entire organization or entity can be investigated in depth.
    TRUE

 

  1. Case studies are analyzed for important themes identified by the frequency with which the same term arises.
    TRUE

 

  1. A focus group typically involves a rigid question-and-answer session among participants.
    FALSE

 

  1. Focus groups, while useful, take considerable time and effort to execute.
    FALSE

 

  1. Leapfrogging is a procedure in which one respondent stimulates thought among the others in a focus group.
    FALSE

 

  1. The ideal size of a focus group is 20 to 25 people.
    FALSE

 

  1. A focus group moderator needs to be a good talker and dominate the group discussion to keep it on track.
    FALSE

 

  1. A focus group discussion guide includes written introductory comments, informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be asked in the group session.
    TRUE

 

  1. A focus blog is established for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from an informal, continuous focus group.
    TRUE

 

  1. In online focus group sessions, the moderator’s ability to probe is greater than it is in a face-to-face focus group session.
    FALSE

 

  1. Laddering is an approach to probing, asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels that produces distinctions at different levels.
    TRUE

 

  1. Depth interviews are less expensive than focus group interviews, especially if several depth interviews are conducted.
    FALSE

 

  1. The sentence completion method is a type of free-association technique.
    TRUE

 

  1. The thematic apperception test (TAT) presents subjects with an ambiguous picture in which consumers and products are the center of attention.
    TRUE

 

  1. The term interpretive research is often used to mean qualitative research.
    TRUE

 

  1. One advantage of qualitative research is that it is highly replicable.
    FALSE

 

  1. The primary barriers to scientific decisions are time, money, and consensus.
    FALSE

 

  1. Research that addresses business objectives through techniques allowing the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of business phenomena without depending on numerical measurement is called _____.
    A.preliminary research
    B. primitive research
    C. qualitative research
    D. secondary research

 

  1. Kodetra is interpreting consumers’ blog postings on the Internet.  Which of the following best describes the type of research Kodetra is conducting?
    A.independent business research
    B. dependent business research
    C. quantitative business research
    D. qualitative business research

 

  1. Qualitative research is considered to be _____ because the researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses.
    A.researcher-dependent
    B. less valid
    C. less useful
    D. object-dependent

 

  1. All of the following are situations that often call for qualitative research EXCEPT _____.
    A.when it is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives
    B. when conclusive evidence is desired
    C. when the research objective is to develop an understanding of some phenomena in great detail and in much depth
    D. when a fresh approach to studying some problem is needed

 

  1. Research that addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and analysis approaches is called _____.
    A.quantitative business research
    B. qualitative business research
    C. extensive business research
    D. grounded business research

 

  1. Researcher-dependent results are _____.
    A.subjective
    B. objective
    C. primary
    D. secondary

 

  1. When different researchers reach the same conclusions based on the same interview data, the research is said to have _____.
    A.validity
    B. intersubjective certifiability
    C. subjective validity
    D. qualitative validity

 

  1. Which type of data are not characterized by numbers and instead are textual, visual, or oral?
    A.grounded data
    B. quantitative data
    C. subjective data
    D. qualitative data

 

  1. All of the following are qualitative research orientations EXCEPT _____.
    A.phenomenology
    B. grounded theory
    C. case studies
    D. ANOVA

 

  1. Which qualitative research orientation originated in philosophy and psychology?
    A.phenomenology
    B. grounded theory
    C. ethnography
    D. anthropology

 

  1. Ethnography is a qualitative research orientation originating in _____.
    A.marketing
    B. psychology
    C. anthropology
    D. sociology

 

  1. Which qualitative research orientation originated in sociology?
    A.phenomenology
    B. grounded theory
    C. ethnography
    D. case studies

 

  1. Owen is a researcher who studies human experiences based on the idea that it is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.  He focuses on how a person’s behavior is shaped by the relationship he or she has with the physical environment, objects, people, and situation.  Which qualitative research orientation is Owen using?
    A.grounded theory
    B. phenomenology
    C. ethnography
    D. case study

 

  1. Which of the following is an important approach used in phenomenology?
    A.netnography
    B. ethnography
    C. grounded theory
    D. hermeneutics

 

  1. Which of the following is an approach to understanding phenomenology that relies on analysis of texts through which a person tells a story about him- or herself?
    A.hermeneutics
    B. ethnography
    C. psychographics
    D. psychodynamics

 

  1. A text passage from a respondent’s story that is linked with a key theme from within this story or provided by the researcher is called  _____.
    A.trace element
    B. schemata
    C. hermeneutic unit
    D. case study

 

  1. _____ is a way of studying culture through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture.
    A.Grounded theory
    B. Ethnography
    C. Phenomenology
    D. Case studies

 

  1. Cindy is an ethnographer who is trying to better understand how mothers take care of toddlers.  Being a mother herself, she was able to join a mother’s group and spent considerable time immersed within that culture.  From this immersion, she is able to draw data from her observations.  Cindy is referred to as a(n) _____.
    A.interloper
    B. participant-observer
    C. moderator
    D. mystery shopper

 

  1. Which qualitative research orientation extracts a theory from whatever emerges from an area of inquiry?
    A.phenomenology
    B. ethnography
    C. grounded theory
    D. case study

 

  1. What is the distinguishing characteristic of grounded theory?
    A.Culture is analyzed by participant-observation in which the researcher becomes “grounded” in the culture over a long period of time.
    B. It relies on analysis of texts in which a person tells a story about him- or herself.
    C. The interplay among respondents allows them to piggyback off of each other’s ideas.
    D. It does not begin with a theory but instead extracts one from whatever emerges from an area of inquiry.

 

  1. _____ represent(s) the documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.
    A.Case studies
    B. Phenomenology
    C. netnography
    D. Attribution theory

 

  1. When Schwinn studies its most successful retailer in depth in order to determine some better ideas for displaying bicycles in its retail stores, this is an example of _____.
    A.an experiment
    B. a test market
    C. a case study
    D. causal research

 

  1. In case studies, _____ are identified by the frequency with which the same term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.
    A.themes
    B. threats
    C. links
    D. ladders

 

  1. An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group of people led by a trained moderator is called a(n) _____.
    A.interaction group interview
    B. focus group interview
    C. depth interview
    D. ethnographic interview

 

  1. Which of the following is the most common size of a focus group?
    A.1-2 participants
    B. 3-5 participants
    C. 6-10 participants
    D. 12-20 participants

 

  1. Betsy and six other women are participating in a research study that is an unstructured, free-flowing interview.  The researcher asked the group their feelings about how they are treated at work.  Betsy is participating in a _____.
    A.case study
    B. grounded research study
    C. depth interview
    D. focus group interview

 

  1. Which of the following is an advantage of focus group interviews?
    A.provide multiple perspectives
    B. low degree of scrutiny
    C. inexpensive
    D. easy to use for sensitive topics

 

  1. In a focus group discussion, when the comments of one member triggers a stream of comments from the other participants, this is called _____.
    A.serendipity
    B. piggyback
    C. structure
    D. themes

 

  1. The person who leads a focus group interview and ensures that everyone gets a chance to speak and facilitates discussion is called a(n) _____.
    A.moderator
    B. interviewer
    C. facilitator
    D. leader

 

  1. Which of the following is a good characteristic for a focus group moderator to possess?
    A.good listener
    B. ability to make people feel comfortable so that they will talk in the group
    C. ability to control discussion without being overbearing
    D. all of these choices

 

  1. The written set of guidelines that describes an outline of topics to be covered by a focus group moderator is called a _____.
    A.discussion guide
    B. TAT test
    C. concept test
    D. case study

 

  1. A type of informal, “continuous” focus group established as an Internet blog for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from participants is referred to as a _____.
    A.net group
    B. market blog
    C. focus blog
    D. focus unit

 

  1. Which of the following is a disadvantage of focus groups?
    A.requires objective, sensitive, and effective moderators
    B. may not be useful for discussing sensitive topics
    C. high cost
    D. all of these choices

 

  1. When a professional interviewer holds a 90-minute discussion with one member of the target market to find out why that respondent purchases a particular brand of clothing, this is an example of a _____.
    A.depth interview
    B. concept test
    C. focus interview
    D. hermeneutic analysis

 

  1. Which type of qualitative tool is an informal and almost completely unstructured approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter?
    A.depth interview
    B. conversation
    C. focus group
    D. free-association

 

  1. Hank is a researcher who is discussing football fan behavior with a respondent.  His approach is almost completely unstructured, and he enters into a discussion with few expectations.  What he wants is for a respondent to tell him about his or her experience as a football fan.  Hank will then try to derive meaning from the resulting dialog.  Which qualitative research technique is Hank using?
    A.conversation
    B. focus group
    C. depth interview
    D. case study

 

  1. All of the following are advantages of semi-structured interviews EXCEPT _____.
    A.ability to address more specific issues
    B. responses are usually easier to interpret than other qualitative approaches
    C. questions are administered without the presence of an interviewer
    D. high degree of scrutiny

 

  1. Which qualitative tool simply records a respondent’s first cognitive reaction (top-of-mind) to some stimulus?
    A.phenomenology
    B. conversations
    C. probing
    D. free-association techniques

 

  1. When the respondent is presented with:  “People who watch football on television are ________,” and asked to fill in the blank, this is an example of a _____.
    A.word association test
    B. concept test
    C. case study
    D. sentence completion test

 

  1. _____ are the researcher’s descriptions of what actually happens in the field and are the text from which meaning is extracted.
    A.Hermeneutics
    B. Field notes
    C. Discussion guides
    D. Verbatims

 

  1. Stephanie was asked to look at a picture of a woman sitting on a deserted beach and to describe what was happening in the picture.  She was then asked to tell what might happen next.  Stephanie was participating in a(n) _____.
    A.aptitude test
    B. focus interview
    C. thematic apperception test
    D. focus blog

 

  1. Which of the following means the same conclusion would be reached based on another researcher’s interpretation of the research?
    A.validity
    B. replicable
    C. homogeneity
    D. scrutiny

 

  1. Research that addresses marketing objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of business phenomena without depending on numerical measurement is referred to as _____ business research.
    qualitative

 

  1. Qualitative research results are _____ because they are researcher-dependent.
    subjective

 

  1. Most exploratory research designs do not usually product _____ data.
    quantitative

 

  1. Ethnography originated from the discipline of _____.
    anthropology

 

  1. _____ represents a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.
    Phenomenology

 

  1. The typical ethnographic approach requires the use of _____.
    participant-observation

 

  1. An in-depth study of a major competitor in order to determine how to improve your organization’s product line offerings is an example of a(n) _____.
    case study

 

  1. An unstructured, free-flowing discussion with a small group of consumers in a session that is conducted by a moderator is called a(n) ______.
    focus group

 

  1. In a focus group, when the comments of one member stimulate another member to say what she is thinking, this is called ________.
    piggyback

 

  1. The person who leads a focus group discussion is called a(n) ______.
    moderator

 

  1. A written set of guidelines prepared by a moderator that outlines the topics to be discussed in a focus group session is called a(n) ______.
    discussion guide

 

  1. A focus group session that is conducted over the Internet is called a(n) ______ focus group session.
    online

 

  1. A one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent about why she selected a specific insurance benefit option is an example of a(n) ______.
    depth interview

 

  1. When an interviewer reads a list of words and asks the respondent to “say the first thing that comes to mind after I say each word,” this is an example of a(n) _____ technique.
    free-association

 

  1. Research that leads to the same results and conclusions by different researchers is _____.
    replicable

 

  1. Compare and contrast qualitative research and quantitative research and discuss situations in which qualitative research is useful.

Qualitative business research is research that addresses business objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of phenomena without depending on numerical measurement.  Its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights.  It is less structured than most quantitative approaches and does not rely on self-response questionnaires containing structured response formats.  Instead, it is more researcher-dependent in that the researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience.  The researcher interprets the data to extract its meaning and converts it to information.  Qualitative research is useful when:
(1) it is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives;
(2 )the research objective is to develop an understanding of some phenomena in greater detail and in much depth;
(3) the research objective is to learn how a phenomenon occurs in its natural setting or to learn how to express some concept in colloquial terms;
(4) some behavior the researcher is studying is particularly context-dependent; or
(5) when the researcher needs a fresh approach.

Quantitative business research can be defined as business research that addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and analysis approaches.  It is more apt to stand on its own in the sense that it requires less interpretation.

 

  1. Explain the role of qualitative data and quantitative data in exploratory research designs.

When researchers have limited experience or knowledge about an issue, exploratory research is useful.  Most exploratory research designs produce qualitative data, which are not characterized by numbers and instead are textual, visual, or oral.  Exploratory designs do not usually produce quantitative data, which represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way.

 

  1. Name and briefly describe the four qualitative research orientations.

Major categories of qualitative research:
(1) Phenomenology – originating in philosophy and psychology.  It represents a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which they live.
(2) Ethnography – originating in anthropology.  It represents ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly involved within that culture (e.g., participant-observer).
(3) Grounded theory – originating in sociology. It represents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records.
(4) Case studies – originating in psychology and in business research.  It refers to the documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event, and cases are analyzed for important themes.

 

  1. Describe a focus group interview and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this technique.

A focus group interview is an unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group of people (i.e., 6-10).  Focus groups are led by a trained moderator who follows a flexible format encouraging dialogue among respondents.  A moderator begins by providing some opening statement to broadly steer discussion in the intended direction.  Ideally, discussion topics emerge at the group’s initiative, not the moderator’s.

Focus groups offer several advantages: (1) relatively fast, (2) easy to execute, (3) allow respondents to piggyback off each other’s ideas, (4) provides multiple perspectives, (5) flexibility to allow more detailed descriptions, and (6) high degree of scrutiny.

Disadvantages include: (1) requires objective, sensitive, and effective moderators, (2) group may not be representative of the entire target market, (3) may not be useful for discussing sensitive topics, and (4) expensive.

 

  1. Develop a discussion guide for a focus group on football fan behavior.

Students’ answers will vary, but they should demonstrate knowledge and application of the elements of a discussion guide:
1. Welcome and introductions should take place first.
2. Begin the interview with a broad icebreaker that does not reveal too many specifics about the interview.
3. Questions become increasingly more specific as the interview proceeds.
4. If there is a very specific objective to be accomplished, that question should probably be saved for last.
5. A debriefing statement should be provided providing respondents with the actual focus group objectives and answering any questions any may have.

 

  1. Explain how the Internet is useful in conducting qualitative research.

Internet applications of qualitative exploratory research are growing rapidly and involve both formal and informal applications.  Formally, the term online focus group refers to a qualitative research effort where a group of individuals provides unstructured comments by entering their remarks into an electronic Internet display board of some type.  Several companies have established a form of informal, “continuous” focus group by establishing an Internet blog for that purpose, called a focus blog.

 

  1. Do exploratory research approaches using qualitative research tools have a role in scientific inquiry?  Explain why a decision may be based solely on these results.

Objectivity and replicability are two characteristics of scientific inquiry, and many would question whether exploratory research using qualitative research tools can satisfy these.  A focus group or a depth interview or a TAT alone does not best represent a complete scientific inquiry.  However, if the thoughts discovered through these techniques survive preliminary evaluations and are developed into research hypotheses, they can be further tested.  Thus, exploratory research approaches using qualitative research tools are very much a part of scientific inquiry.  In practice, many marketing decisions are based solely on the results of exploratory research as a scientific decision process is not always justified.  However, as the risk increases, the confidence that comes along with a rigorous research and decision process becomes well worth the investment.  The primary barriers to scientific decisions are (1) time, (2) money, and (3) emotion.