Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology 4th Edition by Simon – Test Bank

$20.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS

Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology 4th Edition by Simon – Test Bank

Chapter 6

Learning and Behavior Analysis

Topic Factual Conceptual Applied
The Study of Learning Multiple Choice 4-6 1-3, 9 7-8
True/False 2 1
Fill-Ins 1
Essay 1 2
Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals Multiple Choice 12-13, 15-18, 24-25, 29-31, 34-35, 40-41, 45-46 10, 19, 23, 28, 37-38, 43 20-22, 11, 14, 26-27, 32-33, 36, 39, 42, 44, 47-49
True/False 3, 6 3-6
Fill-Ins 2 3
Essay 3-4
Biology and Learning Multiple Choice 50 52 51
True/False
Fill-Ins
Essay
Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences Multiple Choice 55-56, 59, 63, 66, 70, 78, 81, 86-87 53-54, 61, 73 57-58, 60, 62, 64-65, 67-69, 71-72, 74-77, 79-80, 82-85
True/False 7-9, 12-13 11, 15 10, 14, 16
Fill-Ins 4, 6-8, 5, 9
Essay
Cognitive Influences on Learning Multiple Choice 88, 91 89-90
True/False 18, 20 17 19
Fill-Ins 10
Essay 5

 

Total

Assessment

Guide

 

Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

6.1-1.  All of the following are critical elements that define learning EXCEPT for which one?

 

  1. Change in behavior must be relatively consistent.

Incorrect: Your authors point out that this is, in fact, one of the three critical elements that define learning.

  1. Change in behavior must be permanent.

Correct: To qualify as learned, changes in behavior or behavior potential must be relatively consistent over different occasions.  However, consistent changes are not always permanent changes. For example, if you stop practicing a sport, your skill level will likely deteriorate over time.

  1. Change in behavior must be based on experience.
  2. Change can occur in behavior or in behavior potential.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        145

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. Change in behavior must be permanent.

% correct   86    a= 2  b= 86  c= 10  d=  2     r = .26

 

 

6.1-2.  Why do researchers study an organism’s performance if they are really interested in whether the organism has learned?

 

  1. It doesn’t matter what they study, since performance and learning are identical.
  2. Only performance involves a change in behavior or behavior potential.
  3. Performance changes before learning has occurred.

Incorrect: In fact, performance cannot change until after learning has occurred.

  1. Learning cannot ordinarily be directly observed.

Correct:  You cannot ordinarily see the changes in your brain; learning is obvious only when we can demonstrate the results.  Learning is apparent from improvements in performance.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        145

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. Learning cannot ordinarily be directly observed.

 

 

6.1-3.  Learning is a process that can take place only through

 

  1. trial and error.
  2. positive and negative consequences.

Incorrect: While this answer is not incorrect, it is not the best responses to this question. Learning is a process that can take place only through experience, which includes positive and negative consequences of an action.

  1. classical conditioning.
  2. experience.

Correct: Experience includes taking in information, evaluating and transforming it, and making responses that affect the environment.  Learning also consists of responses influenced by the lessons of memory.  Learning can take place only through experience.  Psychologists look for the aspects of behavior that can be changed through experience and how those changes come about.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        145

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. experience

% correct   88    a=  0 b= 4  c= 8  d=  88     r = .31

 

 

6.1-4.  John Watson founded the school of psychology known as ________ and wrote the book entitled ________.

 

  1. behaviorism; Beyond Freedom and Dignity
  2. radical behaviorism; Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
  3. behaviorism; Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
  4. radical behaviorism; Behaviorism

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        146

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. behaviorism; Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist

 

 

6.1-5.  John Watson’s view was that psychologists should study

 

  1. observable behavior.
  2. participants’ verbal reports of sensations, images, and feelings.
  3. learning rather than performance.
  4. states of consciousness.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        146

Topic:  Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. observable behavior.

 

 

6.1-6.  B. F. Skinner formulated the position known as ________ some time after reading Watson’s book ________.

 

  1. behaviorism; Beyond Freedom and Dignity
  2. radical behaviorism; Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
  3. behaviorism; Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist
  4. radical behaviorism; Behaviorism

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        146

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. radical behaviorism; Behaviorism

 

 

6.1-7.  You deprive your dog of food just before you begin training him to sit down on command. You give your dog food only when he sits on the floor after you press on his back. Pretty soon your dog is sitting on the floor consistently. According to Skinner, your dog’s behavior has been caused by

 

  1. his desire to get the food.

Incorrect: Certainly the dog desires to get food, but in Skinner’s model it is the deprivation that sets up this desire in the first place.

  1. his feelings of extreme hunger.
  2. a combination of his innate intelligence, problem-solving ability, and motivation.
  3. deprivation and the use of his food as reinforcement.

Correct: To understand what the dog does, you do not need to know anything about inner psychological states. The subjective feeling of hunger is the result of deprivation but cannot be directly observed or measured and is not the cause of the dog’s behavior. To understand the dog’s learned behavior (sitting on command), you need only to understand the principles of learning that allow the dog to acquire the association between behavior (sitting) and reward (food).

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        146

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. deprivation and the use of his food as reinforcement.

 

 

6.1-8.  A researcher considers herself to be a behavior analyst. She does research on the psychology of learning, using both human and animal participants. It is most likely that this researcher believes that

 

  1. there are few consistent regularities underlying the behavior of animals.

Incorrect: On the contrary, behavior analysts believe that there are laws of learning that transcend different animal species.

  1. the laws of learning are universal, occurring in all types of animal species, including humans.

Correct: Studies with nonhuman animals have been critical to progress in behavior analysis.  Behavior analysts work to discover regularities in learning that are universal, occurring in all types of animal species.  Complex forms of learning represent combinations and elaborations of simpler processes and are not qualitatively different phenomena.

  1. humans are different from other animal species and are governed by a unique set of learning laws.
  2. there is a small overlap in the laws of learning that applies to both humans and nonhuman animals.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        146

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. the laws of learning are universal, occurring in all types of animal species, including humans.

 

 

6.1-9.  B. F. Skinner argued that all behavior could be understood in terms of

 

  1. an organism’s internal mental states.
  2. genetic predetermination.

Incorrect: This would refer to maturation-based changes in behavior, and as the chapter discusses this is different than learning-based behavioral changes.

  1. simple forms of learning from environmental stimuli.

Correct: To understand behavior, we only need to understand the principles of learning that allow an association between stimulus and reinforcement. Complex learning involves combinations and elaborations of simpler processes and not qualitatively different processes.

  1. an interaction between motivation and personality.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        146

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. simple forms of learning from environmental stimuli.

 

 

6.1-10.  Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which an organism learns a new association between

 

  1. a stimulus and a response.
  2. a response and a stimulus.
  3. two responses.

Incorrect: It is the relationship between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus that forms the basis of classical conditioning.

  1. two stimuli.

Correct: The association is made between a stimulus that did not previously elicit the response and one that naturally elicited the response.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        147

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. two stimuli.

 

 

6.1-11.  Which of the following behaviors is most likely to have been acquired through the process of classical conditioning?

 

  1. blinking when a light shines in your eyes

Incorrect: This is a reflexive behave that occurs without conditioning.

  1. falling off your bicycle when you hit a bump
  2. wincing when you hear the dentist’s drill

Correct: Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning in which one stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another stimulus or event.  The organism learns a new association between two stimuli, one that did not previously elicit the response and one that naturally elicited the response.  In this case the new association is learned between the drilling, which causes wincing, and the sound of the drill.  Once the association is learned, the sound of the drill will elicit wincing.

  1. sneezing when an irritant enters your nose cavity

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        147

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. wincing when you hear the dentist’s drill

% correct  73     a= 12  b= 9  c= 73  d= 6       r = .52

 

 

6.1-12.  The first rigorous study of classical conditioning was carried out by

 

  1. B. F. Skinner.
  2. John Watson.
  3. Sir Charles Sherrington.
  4. Ivan Pavlov.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        147

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. Ivan Pavlov.

 

 

6.1-13.  All of the following are accurate statements concerning the career of Ivan Pavlov EXCEPT for which one?

 

  1. He won a Nobel Prize for his work on digestion.
  2. His observation of classical conditioning was accidental.
  3. His only training was in the field of psychology.
  4. He was successful in the development of a research strategy to study conditioning.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        147

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. His only training was in the field of psychology.

% correct  80     a= 13  b=  3 c= 80  d=  5     r = .46

 

 

6.1-14.  Imagine that you are observing one of Pavlov’s early experiments on classical conditioning. After a dog is placed in a harness, what is most likely to happen?

 

  1. A tone will be presented, and then a bell will ring.
  2. If the dog makes an orienting response, he will be given some food.
  3. A tone will be presented, and the dog will be given some food.

Correct: The tone has no prior meaning to the dog with respect to food or salivation. The dog’s first reaction to the tone is an orienting response, but after repeated pairings of tone and food, the orienting response stops and salivation begins.

  1. If the dog barks, he will be given an electric shock.

Incorrect: This would demonstrate the effects of positive punishment in an operant conditioning stratagem. It is not related to Pavlov’s classical conditioning because the bark is not a reflexive behavior.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        147

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. A tone will be presented, and the dog will be given some food.

% correct   80    a=  13 b= 5  c= 80  d= 3      r = .34

 

 

6.1-15.  Reflex responses, which are central to classical conditioning, are

 

  1. learned responses to specific stimuli.
  2. naturally elicited, unlearned responses.
  3. conditioned behaviors.
  4. naturally occurring associations between stimuli.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. naturally elicited, unlearned responses.

 

 

6.1-16.  In a typical classical conditioning experiment, a conditioned stimulus is

 

  1. repeatedly paired with the UCR.
  2. repeatedly paired with the CS.
  3. not paired with any other stimulus.
  4. repeatedly paired with the UCS.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. repeatedly paired with the UCS.

% correct  44     a= 4  b= 32  c= 20  d=  44     r = .35

 

 

6.1-17.  In classical conditioning, the

 

  1. CR cannot be similar to the UCR.
  2. CS is whatever response the CR elicits as a product of learning.
  3. UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior.
  4. stimulus paired with the UCS must bring about a CR prior to the beginning of conditioning trials.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior.

 

 

6.1-18.  In classical conditioning, any stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive behavior is called a(n) ________ stimulus, and the behavior it elicits is called the ________ response.

 

  1. reflexive; orienting
  2. conditioned; unconditioned
  3. conditioned; conditioned
  4. unconditioned; unconditioned

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. unconditioned; unconditioned

% correct  52     a= 6  b= 30  c= 9  d= 52      r = .52

 

 

6.1-19.  In classical conditioning, nature provides the ________ connection, and conditioning provides the ________ connection.

 

  1. UCS-CS; UCR-CR
  2. UCS-UCR; CS-CR

Correct: No learning is required for the unconditioned stimulus to elicit the unconditioned response (a reflex or response that is naturally triggered). Learning produced by classical conditioning (repeatedly pairing CS with UCS) creates the conditioned stimulus-conditioned response connection.

  1. UCR-CR; UCS-CS
  2. CS-CR; UCS-UCR

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. UCS-UCR; CS-CR

 

 

6.1-20.  You feel fine when you sit down in the classroom, but as soon as the teacher announces a surprise quiz you immediately feel your pulse quicken and your stomach churn. Your reaction to the teacher’s announcement is most likely a(n)

 

  1. conditioned response.

Correct: The conditioned response is whatever response the conditioned stimulus (the quiz) elicits as a product of learning (quick pulse and queasy feeling).  If fear (of evaluation) elicits the natural reaction of quick pulse and queasy stomach and is paired often enough with a quiz, the quiz itself will take on some of the power to elicit the same behavior (quick pulse and queasy stomach).

  1. unconditioned response.

Incorrect: Because your reaction has been learned, it cannot be considered unconditioned.

  1. orienting response.
  2. unconditioned stimulus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. conditioned response.

 

 

6.1-21.  The first time a child is inoculated for measles, he responds by crying. The next time he visits the doctor for his booster shot, he cries as soon as he sees the nurse who gave him the first shot. In the context of classical conditioning, the pain associated with being injected represents the ________ and the nurse represents the ________.

 

  1. UCS; CS

Correct: The unconditioned stimulus (the pain) does not require learning. The conditioned stimulus (the nurse) was paired with the UCS. This pairing resulted in the nurse having some of the power of the pain to elicit crying. Pain elicits crying naturally. The nurse does not.

  1. CS; UCS

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. UCS; UCR
  2. CS; CR

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. UCS; CS

 

 

6.1-22.  A child is bitten by a dog while delivering a newspaper to a house. The next day when he sees the house he feels anxious, even though the dog is nowhere in sight. The CS in this case is the

 

  1. barking dog.
  2. pain the child feels when bitten by the dog.

Incorrect: This would be a UCS because the child would not need to learn to be afraid of the pain.

  1. pain the child feels when remembering being bitten by the dog.
  2. sight of the house.

Correct: The dog bite naturally elicits pain. Pain elicits an anxious response. When paired with the pain, the sight of the house elicits the conditioned response, which is anxiety.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. sight of the house.

 

 

6.1-23.  Acquisition is the process during which the CR is first elicited and gradually increases in frequency over trials. In general, for a conditioned response to be acquired, the ________ must be paired several times.

 

  1. CS and UCS

Correct: With systematic CS-UCS pairings, the CR is elicited with increasing frequency and the organism may be said to have acquired a conditioned response.

  1. CS and CR
  2. UCS and UCR
  3. UCR and CR

Incorrect: It would not be two responses, but rather two stimuli, that would need to be paired to create the effect of classical conditioning.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. CS and UCS

 

 

6.1-24.  The most widely used type of conditioning, in which the CS occurs prior to and continues at least until the UCS is presented, is called ________ conditioning.

 

  1. trace
  2. simultaneous
  3. backward
  4. delay

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. delay

 

 

6.1-25.  In trace conditioning,

 

  1. the CS is turned off before the UCS is presented.
  2. both the CS and the UCS are presented at the same time.
  3. the UCS is turned off before the CS is presented.
  4. both the CS and the CR are presented at the same time.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. the CS is turned off before the UCS is presented.

 

 

6.1-26.  While trying to study in the library, you are distracted by two students who are arguing about which CS-UCS time interval is most effective. One student claims that a second or less is best, but the other is positive that longer intervals of five to fifteen seconds work best. Finally, you go over and tell them that the

 

  1. shorter the interval the better.

Incorrect: As your textbook points out, too short an interval can actually undermine the process of acquisition in classical conditioning.

  1. longer the interval the better.
  2. optimal interval most depends upon the person who is being conditioned.
  3. optimal interval most depends upon the response being conditioned.

Correct: For muscular responses, such as eye blinks, a short interval of a second or less is best.  For visceral responses, such as heart rate and salivation, longer intervals of five to fifteen seconds work best.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. optimal interval most depends upon the response being conditioned.

 

 

6.1-27.  A new dog owner is trying to use classical conditioning to train her dog to blink whenever she says “Blink.” She blows into his eyes, then says “Blink,” but the dog is not learning to blink at her command. To improve her training technique, she should

 

  1. not say “Blink” until after the dog has blinked.

Incorrect: This would be an example of backward conditioning, and as your chapter notes it is not very effective at bringing about a new association between a CS and a UCS.

  1. say “Blink” before blowing into the dog’s eyes.

Correct: Delay conditioning is strongest; the CS precedes the UCS by a second or two. When this is repeated over time, the CS comes to predict the UCS and the CR becomes stronger.

  1. say “Blink” without blowing into the dog’s eyes.
  2. give the dog a treat whenever he blinks.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. say “Blink” before blowing into the dog’s eyes.

 

 

6.1-28.  “In classical conditioning, as in telling a good joke, timing is critical.” By this, the authors of the textbook mean that the ________ must be presented ________.

 

  1. CR and UCR; closely enough in time to be perceived as related
  2. CR and UCR; far enough apart in time to be perceived as unrelated
  3. CS and UCS; far enough apart in time to be perceived as unrelated

Incorrect: If the CS and UCS are perceived as being unrelated, there will be no association and classical conditioning will fail.

  1. CS and UCS; closely enough in time to be perceived as related

Correct: In the most widely used and most effective type of conditioning, delay conditioning, the CS occurs before the UCS and continues at least until the UCS is presented. However, the exact time interval that will produce optimal conditioning depends upon several factors.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. CS and UCS; closely enough in time to be perceived as related

 

 

6.1-29.  In simultaneous conditioning,

 

  1. both the CS and the UCS are presented at the same time.
  2. the CS is turned off before the UCS is presented.
  3. both the CS and the CR are presented at the same time.
  4. the UCS is turned off before the CS is presented.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. both the CS and the UCS are presented at the same time.

 

 

6.1-30.  In which form(s) of conditioning is the CS presented after the UCS?

 

  1. trace
  2. backward
  3. delay
  4. trace, backward, and delay

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        149

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. backward

 

 

6.1-31.  Conditioning is usually most effective in a ________ paradigm, while conditioning is very poor with a ________ paradigm.

 

  1. delay; trace
  2. trace; delay
  3. backward; delay
  4. delay; backward

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        149-150

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. delay; backward

 

 

6.1-32.  A girl classically conditions her dog to blink by blowing into her dog’s eyes just after saying “Blink.” Unfortunately, her parrot overhears the procedure, and says “Blink” all day long when the girl is out. When she returns, the girl says “Blink” to her dog, but he does not blink. It appears as though

 

  1. the dog is now under the parrot’s control.
  2. spontaneous recovery has occurred.

Incorrect: Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of  previously extinguished conditioned responses. That has not occurred in this question’s scenario.

  1. the dog’s behavior has generalized.
  2. extinction has taken place.

Correct: When the conditioned response no longer appears in the presence of the conditioned stimulus, extinction is said to have occurred.  The CS no longer predicts the UCS, and the CR becomes weaker and weaker over time and finally disappears.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        150

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. extinction has taken place.

 

 

6.1-33.  A girl has been hit by the school bully and is afraid to go to school. During summer recess her fear of going to school decreases and she is eager to go back. However, the first day back to school her fear returns once again. The reappearance of her fear is an example of

 

  1. savings.
  2. extinction.

Incorrect: The original disappearance of the fear would be an example of extinction.

  1. stimulus generalization.
  2. spontaneous recovery.

Correct: The CR (fear) will reappear in a weak form when the CS (school) is presented alone again after extinction.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        150

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. spontaneous recovery.

% correct  94     a= 0  b= 2  c= 4  d=  94     r = .39

 

 

6.1-34.  In classical conditioning, what happens following extinction if the original CS-UCS pairing is renewed?

 

  1. More time will be necessary to reacquire the CR than it took to acquire it originally.
  2. Less time will be necessary to reacquire the CR than it took to acquire it originally.
  3. The CR will be completely eliminated and you must start from the beginning again.
  4. The UCS will no longer be an effective stimulus and another UCS must be chosen.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        150

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. Less time will be necessary to reacquire the CR than it took to acquire it originally.

 

 

6.1-35.  Once a CR has been conditioned to a particular CS, similar stimuli may also elicit the response. This phenomenon is known as

 

  1. instinctual drift.
  2. spontaneous recovery.
  3. stimulus discrimination.
  4. stimulus generalization.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        150

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. stimulus generalization.

 

 

6.1-36.  A friend has taught her dog to bark whenever she says “Speak.” Now, she wants to teach him a new trick by saying “Sit.” But he barks whenever she says “Sit.” The dog’s behavior is an example of

 

  1. spontaneous recovery.
  2. stimulus generalization.

Correct: The new stimulus (“Sit”) is similar to the original CS (“Speak”) so the response (barking) to “Sit” is strong.

  1. stimulus discrimination.

Incorrect: Because the animal is demonstrating the same CR to slightly different stimuli, this does not demonstrate discrimination.

  1. extinction.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        150

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. stimulus generalization.

 

 

6.1-37.  Stimulus generalization gradients demonstrate that

 

  1. human behavior is not very adaptive.

Incorrect: The fact that stimulus generalization occurs at all belies this answer!

  1. the most important attribute of a CS is its intensity.
  2. less time is necessary to reacquire a response than to acquire it originally.
  3. the more similar a stimulus is to the original CS, the stronger a CR will be.

Correct: The gradient is made up of increasingly dissimilar stimuli. This builds an adaptive factor into our lives by extending the range of learning beyond the original CS-UCS pairing, so that similar experiences can have the same meaning or behavioral significance.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        150-151

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. the more similar a stimulus is to the original CS, the stronger a CR will be.

 

 

6.1-38.  The process of ________ increases the range of stimuli to which a CR will be made, while ________ decreases or narrows the range of stimuli to which a CR will be made.

 

  1. extinction; spontaneous recovery
  2. spontaneous recovery; extinction
  3. stimulus discrimination; stimulus generalization

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. stimulus generalization; stimulus discrimination

Correct: Stimulus generalization allows organisms to recognize events as having the same meaning or behavioral significance despite apparent differences. Stimulus discrimination allows organisms to learn to respond differently to stimuli that are distinct from the CS on some dimension.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        150-151

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. stimulus generalization; stimulus discrimination

 

 

6.1-39.  A researcher pairs a tone of 1200 Hz with an electric shock in a conditioning experiment. On some trials, he presents tones of 1000 Hz or 1500 Hz without the shock. The procedure he is using resembles the method used to bring about

 

  1. blocking.
  2. trace conditioning.
  3. stimulus discrimination.

Correct: An organism’s discrimination among stimuli is sharpened with discrimination training in which only one of the stimuli predicts the UCS and the other stimuli are repeatedly presented without the UCS.

  1. stimulus generalization.

Incorrect: In this example a different stimulus is being used to elicit a different response. That demonstrates discrimination, not generalization.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        151

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. stimulus discrimination.

 

 

6.1-40.  Pavlov believed that classical conditioning resulted from the

 

  1. informativeness of the CS.
  2. law of effect.
  3. mere pairing of the CS and UCS.
  4. contingent relationship between the CS and UCS.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        151

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. mere pairing of the CS and UCS.

 

 

6.1-41.  In Robert Rescorla’s experiment, the dogs exposed to contingency training

 

  1. jumped more frequently in the presence of the tone than the dogs in the contiguous condition.
  2. jumped less frequently in the presence of the tone than the dogs in the contiguous condition.
  3. jumped in the presence of the tone at similar levels to the dogs in the contiguous condition.
  4. were more traumatized by the shock of the tone than were the dogs in the contiguous condition.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        151-152

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. jumped more frequently in the presence of the tone than the dogs in the contiguous condition.

 

 

6.1-42.  The results of Robert Rescorla’s research on the importance of contingency in classical conditioning are analogous to the real-world situation in which people

 

  1. ignore car alarms because they are not dependable predictors of burglary attempts.

Correct: The CS must not only occur closely in time to the UCS, but it must also reliably predict the occurrence of the UCS. The car alarm occurs close in time with the occasional burglary, but it happens so frequently in other situations that it does not reliably predict a break-in attempt.

  1. enter a door that says “no admittance” if they see others using the door.
  2. predict weather based on idiosyncratic physiological states or hunches.
  3. believe the predictions of horoscopes because they are based on random events.

Incorrect: Because there is no contingency between a horoscope and actual events, this answer would not be a direct analogue of Rescorla’s work.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        151-152

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. ignore car alarms because they are not dependable predictors of burglary attempts.

 

 

6.1-43.  Classical conditioning is more complex than Pavlov originally realized in that a neutral stimulus will only become an effective CS if it is appropriately

 

  1. contingent and informative.

Correct: It must reliably predict the occurrence of the UCS (contingency) and provide powerful enough information that it stands out from other stimuli in the environment in relation to the UCS (that is, it must be informative).

  1. contiguous and novel.
  2. noncontingent and familiar.
  3. contiguous and informative.

Incorrect: This is close, but “contiguous” refers to a temporal continuity, and that is not a part of modern theory of classical conditioning.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        151-152

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. contingent and informative.

 

 

6.1-44.  Suppose that laboratory animals are taught that a tone predicts food delivery. Then, a light is added as a second CS and they are given additional trials paired with food. If the animals now are tested with the light alone, they will

 

  1. salivate more to the light than when it was presented with the tone.

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of what was found. Stimulus blocking predicted that salivation to the light alone would not occur.

  1. salivate equally to the light as they did to the tone.
  2. salivate to the light, but less quickly than they did to the tone.
  3. not salivate to the light.

Correct: The light provided no additional information beyond that which the animals already had. The conditioning with the tone blocked the conditioning with the light. In order for conditioning to occur, the CS must stand out among the many stimuli in the environment. It must be informative.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        152

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. not salivate to the light.

 

 

6.1-45.  To condition fear in Little Albert, Watson and Rayner used a ________ as a UCS and found that fear developed in just ________ trial(s).

 

  1. white rat; five
  2. white rat; ten
  3. loud noise; seven
  4. loud noise; one

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        153

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. loud noise; seven

 

 

6.1-46.  After Watson and Rayner established conditioned fear in Little Albert, they found that

 

  1. his fear generalized to other furry objects.
  2. he had developed strong masochistic tendencies.
  3. it was fairly easy to remove the experimentally conditioned fear.
  4. he had only been pretending to be afraid.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        153

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. his fear generalized to other furry objects.

 

 

6.1-47.  When people take drugs repeatedly in the same setting, the body responds with countermeasures intended to reestablish homeostasis. In the language of classical conditioning, these countermeasures to the drug are the ________ and the setting in which the drug is taken is the ________.

 

  1. conditioned response; unconditioned response
  2. conditioned stimulus; compensatory response
  3. unconditioned response; conditioned stimulus

Correct: The CS is the setting that signals the body to start these compensatory measures. The compensatory measures are the UCR reacting to the UCS of drug use. Eventually the CS (setting) sets off the compensatory response (CR), leading to higher and higher doses needed for the same effect (tolerance).

  1. unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct response.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        154

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. unconditioned response; conditioned stimulus

 

 

6.1-48.  A person with a drug addiction always “shoots up” at his girlfriend’s house. On the day that they break up, he injects himself with his usual dose of heroin, but this time it is in his own home. Based on the research findings of Shepard Siegel, the addict

 

  1. is more likely to overdose.

Correct: Taking heroin in the usual setting made the addict more physiologically prepared because the CS (the context) brought about a physiological response (CR) that countered the drug’s usual effects. The compensatory physiological effects would not occur in the new setting.

  1. is less likely to overdose.

Incorrect: Research has found that the location of the drug ingestion actually impacts the body’s response to that drug, so this answer is actually the opposite of the correct response.

  1. will experience effects no different than before.
  2. will become less addicted.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        154-155

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. is more likely to overdose.

 

 

  • A young man does not like the feeling of being drunk, so when he drinks alcohol he always tries to drink in moderation. Based on the research findings of Shepard Siegel, he should also

 

  1. avoid drinking outdoors.
  2. drink only with good friends.
  3. avoid smoking while drinking.

Incorrect: There is nothing presented in your chapter that discusses the relationship between the ingesting two substances simultaneously and the different results you will get from those drugs.

  1. avoid drinking in unfamiliar places.

Correct: Unfamiliar places do not protect him, because no tolerance to the alcohol has been built up in the unfamiliar setting. If the setting is associated with alcohol use (CS), the body physiologically prepares itself (CR) for the alcohol’s expected effects.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        154-155

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. avoid drinking in unfamiliar places.

 

 

6.1-50.  Unlike most other instances of classical conditioning, taste aversion

 

  1. requires many CS-UCS pairings.
  2. is easy to extinguish.
  3. does not involve a CS-UCS association.
  4. can be learned with a long delay between CS and illness.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        155

Topic:  Biology and Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. can be learned with a long delay between CS and illness.

 

 

6.1-51.  Imagine conditioning a rat to elicit a pain response to a previously neutral stimulus. Based on the work of John Garcia and Robert Koelling, you are LEAST likely to be successful in creating the pain response if you use ________ as the neutral stimulus.

 

  1. sweet water

Correct: The results suggest that rats have an inborn bias to associate particular stimuli with particular consequences. For instance, they are likely to associate noise and bright light, rather than sweet water, with pain.

  1. noise

Incorrect: Because sweet water is an attractive stimulus, it was not useful at creating a pain response.

  1. a bright light
  2. a bright light and noise

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        155

Topic:  Biology and Learning

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. sweet water

 

 

6.1-52.  The research of John Garcia and Robert Koelling on taste aversion is noteworthy in the understanding of learning because it demonstrated that

 

  1. organisms are biologically prepared to learn certain associations.

Correct: Animals appear to have encoded within their genetic inheritance the types of sensory cues (taste, smell, appearance) that are most likely to signal dimensions of reward or danger.

  1. complex behaviors may be acquired by shaping of successive approximations.
  2. a more probable activity can be used to reinforce a less probable one.
  3. the associationist principles of learning are common to all organisms.

Incorrect: This would be a statement attributed to a behavior analyst. It is not directly linked to the work of Garcia and Koelling.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        155-156

Topic:  Biology and Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. organisms are biologically prepared to learn certain associations.

% correct   76    a= 76  b= 4 c=  0 d=  20     r = .39

 

 

6.1-53.  Which of the following is out of place among the others?

 

  1. classical conditioning

Correct: Thorndike’s work led to the law of effect, in which a response followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable whereas a response followed by dissatisfying consequences becomes less probable. Thorndike gathered information about learning from watching cats try to escape from puzzle boxes.  According to his analysis learning is an association between stimuli in the situation and the response an animal learns to make.

  1. Edward L. Thorndike
  2. cats in puzzle boxes

Incorrect: The early work of Thorndike examining the stimulus-response connection on cats in puzzle boxes were all important aspects of operant conditioning theory.

  1. stimulus-response connections

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        157

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. classical conditioning

 

 

6.1-54.  Thorndike’s law of effect emphasizes the relationship between

 

  1. the CS and the UCS.
  2. stimuli and responses.

Incorrect: This answer may have a grain of truth to it, but it would also apply to classical conditioning. The best, most specific answer to this question is “behavior and its consequences.”

  1. behavior and its consequences.

Correct: He discovered that as behaviors produced desired responses, they increased in frequency.  Responses followed by satisfying consequences become more probable and those followed by unsatisfying responses become less probable.

  1. “stamping in” and “stamping out.”

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        157

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. behavior and its consequences.

 

 

6.1-55.  In a study quoted in your text, researchers found that the effects of classical conditioning could be used to explain ________ in people undergoing chemotherapy treatment for various forms of cancer.

 

  1. anticipatory nausea
  2. reactive alopecia
  3. psoriatic eczema
  4. fungal infections

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        157

Topic:  Psychology in Your Life:  How Does Classical Conditioning Affect Cancer Treatment?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. anticipatory nausea

 

 

6.1-56.  B. F. Skinner is most closely associated with

 

  1. connectionist models of learning.
  2. cognitive influences on learning.
  3. observational learning.
  4. operant conditioning.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        158

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. operant conditioning.

% correct  76     a= 0  b= 8  c= 16  d= 76      r = .42

 

 

6.1-57.  Suppose you wanted to replicate some of the research carried out by B. F. Skinner. When deciding on a behavior to measure, it is most likely that you would choose the

 

  1. time it takes to run a maze.
  2. number of drops of saliva that are secreted.
  3. probability that a given response will occur.

Correct: Skinner studied the effect that consequences of an organism’s behavior have on subsequent behavior. He embraced Thorndike’s idea that environmental consequences are powerful influences on behavior. If the consequences are satisfying, the behavior is likely to increase, and if they are dissatisfying, it is likely to decrease.

  1. changes in a research participant’s thoughts.

Incorrect: Skinner did not place any emphasis on internal states, like moods or thoughts. Because they are not directly observable, he didn’t feel they had a place in a science like psychology.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        158

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. probability that a given response will occur.

 

 

6.1-58.  All of the following behaviors are instances of operants EXCEPT for which one?

 

  1. A pigeon pecks a key to receive a food reinforcer.
  2. Ted raises his hand in class and waits to be called.

Incorrect: Because this is an action that will have a direct impact on one’s surroundings, it is an example of an operant.

  1. Baby Terri coos in order to be picked up by Mom.
  2. Jim blinks in response to the flash of the camera.

Correct: An operant is a behavior emitted by an organism. The term “operant” means that the behavior affects the environment, or operates on it. Operants are not elicited by specific stimuli in the way that the blink is elicited by the flash.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        158

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. Jim blinks in response to the flash of the camera.

 

 

6.1-59.  To assist in his experimental analysis of behavior, Skinner invented a device known as the “operant chamber.” This apparatus was designed to allow researchers to manipulate

 

  1. an organism’s level of motivation.
  2. the amount of planning behavior that was required of an organism.
  3. an organism’s state of mind.
  4. the consequences of an organism’s behavior.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        158

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. the consequences of an organism’s behavior.

 

 

6.1-60.  Which of the following statements is an example of a reinforcement contingency?

 

  1. A child’s mother will give him what he wants, but only if he says “please.”

Correct: A reinforcement contingency is a consistent relationship between a response (the child saying “please”) and the changes in the environment it produces (the parent gives him what he wants).

  1. When a door is closed, you should knock before entering.
  2. Hotdogs and peanuts go together, because both are sold at baseball games.
  3. If the recipe says to preheat the oven, you should turn it on before mixing the ingredients.

Incorrect: There is no direct reward for the behavior in this case, so it is not an example of a reinforcement contingency.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        159

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. A child’s mother will only give him what he wants if he says “please.”

 

 

6.1-61.  Positive reinforcement ________ the probability of a behavior over time; negative reinforcement ________ the probability of a behavior over time.

 

  1. decreases; also decreases

Incorrect: In fact, both parts of this response are the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. increases; also increases

Correct: If reinforcement is contingent on a behavior, it increases the probability of the behavior over time.  Reinforcement can be positive if a satisfying consequence follows the behavior, or negative if the behavior results in removal of an aversive stimulus.

  1. increases; decreases
  2. decreases; increases

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        159

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. increases; also increases

% correct  18     a= 6  b= 18  c= 64  d= 12      r = .53

 

 

6.1-62.  Covering your ears when you find yourself in a room that is too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning; wearing earplugs that reduce sound intensity before going into a room that you know will be too noisy is an example of ________ conditioning.

 

  1. escape; avoidance

Correct: In escape conditioning, animals learn that a response will allow them to escape an aversive stimulus.  Animals learn through avoidance conditioning that their responses allow them to avoid aversive stimuli.

  1. avoidance; escape

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. operant; classical
  2. classical; operant

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        159

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. escape; avoidance

 

 

6.1-63.  Negative reinforcement ________ response probability by the ________ following a response.

 

  1. increases; presentation of an appetitive stimulus
  2. increases; removal, reduction, or prevention of an aversive stimulus
  3. decreases; presentation of an appetitive stimulus
  4. decreases; removal, reduction, or prevention of an aversive stimulus

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        159

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. increases; removal, reduction, or prevention of an aversive stimulus

% correct  76     a= 8  b= 76  c= 6  d=  10     r = .39

 

 

6.1-64.  A youngster finds that whenever he cries, he receives attention from his mom. So he cries a lot more in order to receive attention. Technically, the attention he receives is

 

  1. a negative reinforcer.
  2. a positive reinforcer.

Correct: Positive reinforcement increases the probability that a behavior will happen. In this case, attention increases the probability of crying because attention is a positive reinforcer.

  1. a negative punisher.

Incorrect: Because the attention is serving to strengthen his crying behavior, the attention is serving as a positive reinforcer.

  1. neither a reinforcer nor a punisher.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        159

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. a positive reinforcer.

% correct  43     a= 42  b= 43  c= 3  d= 12      r = .39

 

 

6.1-65.  A teacher sends a student out of the classroom because she is disturbing the other children. She tells the student she will be allowed to come back to the classroom in fifteen minutes and that she expects her to be quiet when she returns. When the student comes back, she is even more disruptive. What can you conclude from this example?

 

  1. The teacher has used punishment as a way to control the student’s behavior.
  2. The student’s behavior is an example of positive punishment.

Incorrect: Because the student’s behavior has been strengthened, the removal from class actually served as a reinforcer instead of a punisher.

  1. The student’s behavior is an example of negative punishment.
  2. The teacher thought she was using punishment, but the student was actually being reinforced.

Correct: Being allowed to leave the room can be seen as a negative reinforcer because the removal of a stimulus (the classroom) resulted in increased disruptive behavior.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        159-160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. The teacher thought she was using punishment, but the student was actually being reinforced.

 

 

6.1-66.  In negative punishment, the probability of a response ________ over time when a stimulus is ________.

 

  1. decreases; presented
  2. decreases; removed
  3. increases; removed
  4. increases; presented

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. decreases; removed

 

 

6.1-67.  A boy runs on an icy sidewalk, slips, and falls. In the future, he no longer runs on icy sidewalks. His getting hurt is an example of

 

  1. positive reinforcement.

Incorrect: Because the running was inhibited instead of strengthened, the pain was a punisher, not a reinforcer.

  1. negative reinforcement.
  2. positive punishment.

Correct: When a behavior (running on the icy sidewalk) is followed by an aversive stimulus (pain), the behavior is likely to decrease in the future.

  1. negative punishment.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. positive punishment.

 

 

6.1-68.  A boy is sent to his room and is not allowed to watch television with the rest of the family until he can do so without yelling and jumping in the living room. When he returns to the living room, he sits down quietly. The boy’s change in behavior is an illustration of

 

  1. positive reinforcement.
  2. positive punishment.
  3. negative reinforcement.

Incorrect: Because the behavior in question was decreased rather than strengthened, it was effectively punished, not reinforced.

  1. negative punishment.

Correct: When something desirable is removed in response to a behavior, the behavior is likely to decrease in the future; this is called negative punishment.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. negative punishment.

% correct  80     a= 0  b= 8  c= 12  d= 80      r = .20

 

 

6.1-69.  A tennis player has learned that a “lob” shot is likely to be successful whenever her opponent runs up to the net. The sight of her opponent at the net is a ________ that sets the occasion for a lob shot.

 

  1. three-term contingency
  2. discriminative stimulus

Correct: Through their associations with reinforcement (a successful shot, in this case) or punishment, certain stimuli (discriminative stimuli) that precede a particular response (opponent misses the shot) set the context for a behavior (the lob shot).

  1. conditioned response

Incorrect: This is a classical conditioning term, and the question is examining an operant conditioning situation involving a discriminative stimulus.

  1. secondary gain

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. discriminative stimulus

 

 

6.1-70.  According to Skinner, the three-term contingency is composed of a(n)

 

  1. operant chain of three events.
  2. three-part schedule of reinforcement.
  3. discriminative stimulus-emitted response-stimulus consequence.
  4. stimulus, a response, and a punisher.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        160-161

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. discriminative stimulus-emitted response-stimulus consequence.

 

 

6.1-71.  A student would like to change his study habits by applying what he knows about reinforcement contingencies to his routines. He has written down the basic rules that he plans to follow. All of the student’s rules are correct EXCEPT for which one?

 

  1. Carefully define the specific behavior you would like to change.

Incorrect: In order for behavior change to occur, the specific behavior MUST be defined so that it can be addressed.

  1. Make sure reinforcement is not contingent on the behavior you want to occur.

Correct: Reinforcement should be contingent on exactly the behavior he would like to change. If reinforcers are not contingent, their presence has little effect on behavior.

  1. Define the discriminative stimuli that will control the behavior you want.
  2. Try to extinguish your inappropriate behaviors.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        160-161

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. Make sure reinforcement is not contingent on the behavior you want to occur.

 

 

6.1-72.  A child was very sick and unable to attend school. While she was ill, she received lots of attention and was excused from her normal responsibilities. Although she no longer has symptoms, the child says she still does not feel well. A behavior analyst would most likely suggest that the child’s current behavior is the result of

 

  1. emotional scars from childhood.
  2. irrational or inappropriate thought processes.
  3. secondary gains derived from being sick.
  4. instinctual drift.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        161

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. secondary gains derived from being sick.

Correct: Secondary gains reinforce undesirable behaviors because the person receives attention or sympathy and is excused from normal responsibilities.

 

 

6.1-73.  Gerald Patterson’s coercion model suggests that children’s antisocial behavior may result from parents who

 

  1. use exceedingly large amounts of reinforcement with their children to prevent misbehavior.
  2. sometimes use large amounts of reinforcement, but often ignore misbehavior.
  3. encourage children to misbehave, then punish them when they do so.

Incorrect: This answer seems awfully silly, doesn’t it? That’s because it is!

  1. make threats that sometimes have no consequences, but are other times followed by strong discipline.

Correct: Observations suggest that children are at risk for antisocial behavior when parents make threats for small misbehaviors while at other times use harsh or explosive discipline toward the same behaviors. The children learn that large acts of aggression and coercive behavior are appropriate and necessary for reaching their goals.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        161-162

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. make threats that sometimes have no consequences, but are other times followed by strong discipline.

 

 

6.1-74.  All of the following are primary reinforcers EXCEPT

 

  1. food when you are hungry.

Incorrect: Food is a primary reinforcer that satisfies the basic biological need created by hunger.

  1. a glass of water when you are thirsty.
  2. a good night’s sleep when you are tired.
  3. money when you are broke.

Correct: Primary reinforcers have reinforcing properties that are biologically determined. Money is a neutral stimulus that has become associated with primary reinforcers. It is a conditioned reinforcer.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        162

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. money when you are broke.

 

 

6.1-75.  All of the following are likely to be conditioned reinforcers EXCEPT a

 

  1. twenty-dollar bill slipped to you by your dad.
  2. chuckle from a friend when you make a joke.
  3. plate of spaghetti when you are hungry.

Correct: Food is a primary reinforcer when we are hungry. Its reinforcing properties are biologically determined.

  1. trophy for winning a miniature golf tournament.

Incorrect: A trophy is something that we are taught to desire, and thus it is an example of a conditioned reinforcer.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        162

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. a plate of spaghetti when you are hungry.

% correct  40     a= 39  b= 12  c= 40  d= 9      r = .56

 

 

6.1-76.  You read about a program designed to help patients in a psychiatric hospital take better care of themselves and their environment and engage in more positive social interactions. After engaging in specified behaviors, the patients are given plastic chips that can be exchanged later for rewards and privileges. Such systems are technically known as

 

  1. self-reinforcement systems.

Incorrect: In a token economy like the one described above reinforcement comes from others, not from one’s self.

  1. token economies.

Correct: Desired behaviors are explicitly defined, and token payoffs are given by the staff when the behaviors are performed. Tokens can be dispensed rapidly and are portable. Their reinforcing effects depend only on the perception of receiving them and not on biological processing, as in the case of primary reinforcers.

  1. verbal reinforcements.
  2. reinforcement exchanges.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        162

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. token economies.

 

 

6.1-77.  A woman is keeping her New Year’s resolution. Every morning she makes a list of what she is going to do that day. Then, she performs the tasks in order of their appeal to her, doing the least appealing thing first and the most appealing thing last. The woman is applying

 

  1. successive approximations.
  2. a schedule of reinforcement.
  3. response deprivation theory.

Correct: When we are deprived of an activity to a level that is below its normal inclusion in our lives, the behavior becomes more reinforcing. To overcome the deprivation of the most preferred activity, the woman will work on the other activities. The most preferred activity becomes a reinforcer for the less desirable activities, which will be done to get to the more desirable one.

  1. a biological constraint.

Incorrect: This is more consistent with the theories of the Brelands, who spoke about instinctual drift.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        163

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. response deprivation theory.

% correct  12     a= 6  b= 82  c= 12  d=  0     r = .21

 

 

6.1-78.  According to research examining the most effective way to punish children’s misbehavior, the concept of “time out” was explored. Researchers found that “time out” was most effective when administered to children between the ages of ____ and ____ years.

 

  1. 2; 5
  2. 2; 7
  3. 3; 5
  4. 3; 7

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        163

Topic:  Critical Thinking in Your Life: When Do “Time Outs” Change Children’s Behavior?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. 3; 7

 

 

6.1-79.  The parents are trying to get their three-year-old daughter to go to bed without fussing, but sometimes they give in to her tears and let her stay up later. On the basis of the partial reinforcement effect, it can be expected that the child’s fussing will

 

  1. be difficult to stop.

Correct: Responses acquired under schedules of partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction than those acquired under continuous reinforcement.

  1. be easy to stop.

Incorrect: In fact, this sort of inconsistent responses to her behaviors will make them more difficult to inhibit.

  1. disappear for a while, but then reappear.
  2. develop into a discriminative stimulus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        163-164

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. be difficult to stop.

 

 

6.1-80.  Imagine being quizzed by your teacher on schedules of reinforcement. You are asked to name the schedule that generates the highest rate of responding and the greatest resistance to extinction. You are told further that gamblers are often under the control of this schedule. You should respond that this describes a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

 

  1. fixed-interval
  2. fixed-ratio

Incorrect: The criterion for the receipt of reinforcement is changing, not constant, so this could not be a fixed schedule of reinforcement.

  1. variable-interval
  2. variable-ratio

Correct: In a VR schedule, the average number of responses between reinforcers is predetermined. When the reinforcement will come is unclear, so we are left guessing until reinforcement appears. On the premise that it might be the very next response, we respond in a steady, continuous way.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. variable-ratio

% correct  37     a= 12  b= 33  c= 18  d= 37      r = .32

 

 

6.1-81.  Research has shown that response rates under ________ schedules show a “scalloped” pattern.

 

  1. FR
  2. VR
  3. FI
  4. VI

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. FI

 

 

6.1-82.  Every night at supper time a telemarketer calls people and tries to get them to buy things that they don’t need. On average, he makes a sale after every 72 calls. Every Friday night he treats himself by buying a steak dinner with part of his earnings. The telemarketer’s success is on a ________ schedule of reinforcement, and his dining behavior is on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

 

  1. fixed-interval; variable-ratio

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

  1. fixed-ratio; variable-interval
  2. variable-ratio; fixed-interval

Correct: With ratio schedules, reinforcement is delivered after a certain number of responses; the schedule is variable when reinforcement comes after an average number of responses (a sale after an average of 72 calls). With interval schedules, reinforcement comes after a certain amount of time; the interval is fixed because he reinforces his own behavior with a fixed weekly dining schedule.

  1. variable-interval; fixed-ratio

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        164-165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. variable-ratio; fixed-interval

% correct  62     a= 12  b= 6  c= 62  d=  20     r = .22

 

 

6.1-83.  A man and woman are farm workers. The man is paid every week for his work, while the woman is paid for every two bushels of fruit she picks. The man is under a ________ schedule of reinforcement and the woman is under a ________ schedule of reinforcement.

 

  1. variable-ratio; fixed-interval
  2. fixed-interval; variable-ratio
  3. fixed-ratio; fixed-interval

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

  1. fixed-interval; fixed-ratio

Correct: An FI schedule refers to a reinforcement that will be delivered regularly after a set amount of time (every week).  An FR schedule refers to a reinforcement that will be delivered after a set number of responses (two bushels).

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164-165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. fixed-interval; fixed-ratio

 

 

6.1-84.  A teacher gives five occasional but irregularly scheduled pop quizzes during the semester. If you study your notes each day before class, you will be reinforced on a ________ schedule.

 

  1. FI

Incorrect: The criterion for the receipt of reinforcement is changing, not constant, so this could not be a fixed schedule of reinforcement.

  1. FR-1
  2. VI

Correct: You will be reinforced by being ready for the pop quiz from time to time. The intervals between quizzes (the intervals between the incidents in which you are rewarded for your studying) are different each time.

  1. FR-5

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. VI

 

 

6.1-85.  A boy is teaching his younger sister how to make her bed. At first, he tells her she did a good job if she gets the bedspread pulled up, even if the sheets are still rumpled. Each following day, he encourages her to be a little neater before telling her she did a good job. The boy may not know it, but he is using

 

  1. secondary reinforcement.

Incorrect: Even though the sister is getting praise, which she has learned to like, secondary reinforcement is not the best answer to this question. The behaviors are being shaped by successive approximations of a desired response (making the bed).

  1. primary reinforcement.
  2. a fixed-interval schedule.
  3. shaping by successive approximations.

Correct: Shaping reinforces each increment in the behavior that leads to a particular goal behavior.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. shaping by successive approximations.

% correct  68     a= 8  b= 4  c= 20  d=  68     r = .58

 

 

6.1-86.  To understand the phenomenon of instinctual drift, it is most helpful to realize the importance of

 

  1. cognitive maps.
  2. species-specific tendencies.
  3. operant conditioning.
  4. classical conditioning.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        166

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. species-specific tendencies.

 

6.1-87.  In their use of operant conditioning techniques to train animals from many species to perform various behaviors, the Brelands described instances of animal “misbehavior.” They attributed this misbehavior to the

 

  1. spontaneous recovery of extinguished behaviors.
  2. use of punishment rather than reinforcement.
  3. tendency for learned behavior to drift toward instinctual behavior.
  4. use of shaping by successive approximations.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        166

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. tendency for learned behavior to drift toward instinctual behavior.

 

 

6.1-88.  Edward Tolman pioneered the study of cognitive processes in learning by designing experiments in which

 

  1. conditioned reinforcers were used instead of primary reinforcers.
  2. one-to-one associations between stimuli and responses could not explain animals’ behavior.
  3. animals’ biological preparation to learn certain associations was experimentally manipulated.
  4. the operant chamber could be used to test animal cognitions.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        167

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. one-to-one associations between stimuli and responses could not explain animals’ behavior.

 

 

6.1-89.  A student notices that a classmate is praised by the teacher for asking questions in class. The student then begins asking questions also. The student is exhibiting learning through

 

  1. vicarious punishment.

Incorrect: The outcome of the behavior being observed is a reward, so it is vicarious reinforcement.

  1. vicarious reinforcement.

Correct: We have the capacity to use our cognitive processes to change behaviors on the basis of vicarious rewards and punishments; we use memory and reasoning to change our own behaviors in light of the experiences of others.

  1. the application of cognitive maps.
  2. response deprivation theory.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        168

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. vicarious reinforcement.

 

 

6.1-90.  Suppose your nephew’s parents have forbidden his viewing of television shows that depict violent acts, preferring that he watch shows with prosocial themes. Your nephew knows you are familiar with the impact of television on learning and hopes that you can intercede on his behalf. Based on the research, you can honestly tell his parents that

 

  1. viewing television violence does not bring about increases in aggressive behavior.

Incorrect: The research cited in your book suggests that not only can it bring about an increase in aggressive behavior, but it can also lead to desensitization to this sort of violence.

  1. viewing television violence leads viewers to underestimate the occurrences of real-world violence.
  2. viewing television violence may bring about a reduction in both emotional arousal and distress at viewing violent behavior.

Correct: Heavy TV viewing of aggression early in life can serve as a basis for antisocial behavior and/or as a basis for fear of becoming a victim. In addition, viewing violent programs may bring about desensitization to violence.

  1. there has been little psychological research on the behavioral impact of viewing television violence.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        169

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. viewing television violence may bring about a reduction in both emotional arousal and distress at viewing violent behavior.

 

 

6.1-91.  In a study of TV viewing that is described in the textbook, researchers measured the extent to which children watched programs with violent content and then interviewed those same children fifteen years later. Analysis of the data suggested that

 

  1. there was no relationship between the number of violent TV shows that children watched and their behavior as adults.
  2. the men and women who had watched the most violent TV as children were the least likely to display aggression.
  3. early viewing of violent TV causes later aggression.
  4. there was a correlation between early watching of violent TV programs and levels of adult aggression, but the relationship was not causal.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        169

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. early viewing of violent TV causes later aggression.

% correct  36     a= 12  b= 6  c= 36  d= 46      r = .28

 

 

 

True/False Questions

 

6.2-1.  Learned behavior does not include changes that come about simply because of physical maturation.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        145

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-2.  The book Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist was written by John Watson.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        146

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-3.  Even after a classically conditioned response has been extinguished, it may reappear.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        150

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-4.  The research of Robert Rescorla strongly confirmed Pavlov’s belief that classical conditioning only requires the pairing of the CS and the UCS.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        151-152

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-5.  Research has confirmed that people addicted to drugs may die of an overdose even when they have taken less than their normal dosage of a drug.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        154

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-6.  Taste-aversion learning may occur in one trial.

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        155

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Factual/Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-7.  B. F. Skinner is best known for his pioneering research on cats trying to escape from puzzle boxes.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        157

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-8.  Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequences.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        158

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-9.  Positive reinforcers increase the probability of a behavior whereas negative reinforcers decrease the probability of a behavior.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        159

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-10.  Learning to “buckle up” to avoid the annoying car alarm that results if you don’t fasten your seatbelt is an example of negative reinforcement at work.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        159

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-11.  Punishment has essentially the same effect on behavior as negative reinforcement.

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        159-160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-12.  Primary reinforcers are best described as formerly neutral stimuli that have become reinforcers because they have been associated with conditioned reinforcers.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        162

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-13.  Responses acquired under schedules of partial reinforcement are less resistant to extinction than those acquired with continuous reinforcement.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-14.  Imagine that you are a salesperson whose salary will be determined solely by the number of items that you sell each week. Since some weeks are better for sales than others, your pay will most likely follow a fixed-ratio schedule.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164-165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-15.  On a fixed-interval schedule, a reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a fixed period of time.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164-165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-16.  Imagine that you have decided to use shaping to teach a rat to press a lever. For shaping to be effective, you should be sure to withhold any reinforcement until the rat completely depresses the lever.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-17.  Behaviors influenced by instinctual drift will override the changes in behavior brought about by operant conditioning.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        166

Topic:  Biology and Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-18.  Research by Edward Tolman demonstrated that only humans are capable of forming internal “cognitive maps.”

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        167

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

6.2-19.  A nursing student learns by watching the behavior of an experienced nurse. This is an example of observational learning.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        168

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. true

 

 

6.2-20.  Research by Albert Bandura and others has demonstrated that children who watch violent television programs are less likely to engage in aggressive behavior as adults.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        169

Topic:  Observational Learning

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

6.3-1.  The difference between what has been learned and what is expressed in overt behavior is known as the ________ distinction.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        145

Topic:  The Study of Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: learning-performance

 

 

6.3-2.  In classical conditioning, when appropriately paired with an unconditioned stimulus, a previously neutral stimulus will become a(n) ________ and will elicit a(n) ________.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        148

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: conditioned stimulus (CS); conditioned response (CR)

 

 

6.3-3.  When you watch late-night TV, you might find yourself salivating when a fast-food commercial appears, but you are unlikely to salivate in response to a dog food commercial. This is the result of ________, a conditioning process in which an organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that differ from the conditioned stimulus.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        151

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: stimulus discrimination

 

 

6.3-4.  The law of ________ states that the power of a stimulus to evoke a response is strengthened when the response is followed by a reward, and it is weakened when the response is not followed by a reward.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        157

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: effect

 

 

6.3-5.  The predictors of reinforcement that signal when particular behaviors will result in positive reinforcement are known as ________ stimuli.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: discriminative

 

 

6.3-6.  Skinner referred to the sequence of discriminative stimulus-behavior-consequence as the ________ and believed that it could explain most human actions.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        160

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: three-term contingency

 

 

6.3-7.  In a ________ schedule of reinforcement, the reinforcer comes after a set number of responses.

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: fixed-ratio

 

 

6.3-8.  When using intermittent schedules of reinforcement, reinforcers can be delivered after a certain number of responses, through ________, or after a specified period of time, through ________.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        164-165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Factual

Answer: ratio schedules; interval schedules

 

 

6.3-9.  In classic studies with animals, Keller Breland and Marion Breland used operant conditioning techniques in their training. Even when animals learned to make operant responses perfectly, however, their behaviors gradually showed evidence of “misbehavior,” which was attributed to a tendency called ________.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        166

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: instinctual drift

 

 

6.3-10.  Researchers who study ________ trace the development of cognitive abilities across species and the continuity of abilities from nonhuman to human animals.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        167

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: comparative cognition

 

 

Essay Questions

 

6.4-1.  Describe the main features of the typical classical conditioning experiment, including the four temporal patterns that Pavlov could have used. Distinguish between extinction, spontaneous recovery, and stimulus generalization. Then compare Pavlov’s contiguity view with more recent explanations of conditioning.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        147-153

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Identify the UCS, CS, UCR, and CR and explain the associations among them. Explain how the CR gradually increases over trials, and discuss acquisition. Describe delay conditioning, trace conditioning, backward conditioning, and simultaneous conditioning. Identify the paradigm that is most widely used. Discuss extinction, spontaneous recovery, and generalization. Explain in what way classical conditioning is more complex than Pavlov had originally thought.

 

 

6.4-2.   Discuss why classical conditioning is a useful model to explain emotional behaviors such as fear and drug addiction.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        153-155

Topic:  Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals

Skill:    Applied

Answer: There are many circumstances in which we are left wondering why we had such a strong emotion, preference, or aversion to something. Explain how this phenomenon relates to classical conditioning. Discuss how someone can become addicted partially as the result of a classical conditioning paradigm. Include an explanation of the compensatory response.

 

 

6.4-3.  What is the law of effect? Discuss what is meant by reinforcement contingencies and explain how reinforcement and punishment affect the probability of behavior. Describe the difference between variable-ratio and variable-interval schedules of reinforcement.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        157-165

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: The law of effect states that a response followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable, and a response followed by unsatisfying consequences becomes less probable. Discuss contingencies, properties of reinforcers, and schedules of reinforcement. Identify the strongest schedule. Give an example of how this might work to increase the probability of a behavior.

 

 

6.4-4.  Instinctual drift and taste-aversion learning are two interesting findings from research with animals that have led psychologists to question whether the principles of conditioning apply to any stimulus a researcher might select. Define and compare these two phenomena. Describe how each was discovered, and explain why they are important theoretically.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        155-156; 166

Topic:  Operant Conditioning: Learning about Consequences

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Instinctual drift means that animals’ learned behavior drifts toward instinctual behavior, which is stronger than operant conditioning. Taste aversion seems to be an adaptive behavior that discourages animals, including humans, from trying a food again after it has made them sick. Repeated trials are not needed for either to occur. Mention the discovery of each and what relationship this information has to operant conditioning.

 

 

6.4-5.  Discuss the findings of researchers with respect to the cognitive abilities of nonhuman animals, focusing on cognitive maps and conceptual behavior.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        168-169

Topic:  Cognitive Influences on Learning

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Include a discussion of spatial memory, spatial cognitive maps, and the three functions that spatial cognitive maps serve. Include a discussion of the ability to categorize objects that some nonhuman species possess.

 

Chapter 7

 

Topic Factual Conceptual Applied
What is Memory? Multiple Choice 1, 7 2-6
True/False
Fill-Ins 1
Essay 1
Memory Use for the Short Term Multiple Choice 10-12, 17, 21 19-20, 24 8-9, 13-16, 18, 22-23
True/False 1-2, 4-5 3, 7 6, 8
Fill-Ins
Essay 1-3
Long-Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval Multiple Choice 28, 32, 35-36, 40, 45, 47, 49, 52-53, 57 27, 38, 41-42, 44, 55 25-26, 29-31, 33-34, 37, 39, 43, 46, 48, 50-51, 54, 56, 58
True/False 16 10, 12, 14, 18 9, 11, 13, 15, 17
Fill-Ins 2-4, 7-8 5 6
Essay 4-5
Structures in Long-Term Memory Multiple Choice 62-63, 65, 67-68, 70 61, 71 59-60, 64, 66, 69
True/False 19
Fill-Ins 9
Essay
Biological Aspects of Memory Multiple Choice 72-73, 75-76, 78-79, 81 74, 80 77
  True/False 20, 21
  Fill-Ins 10
  Essay