Clinical Psychology Science Practice And Culture 3rd Edition By Andrew – Test Bank

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Clinical Psychology Science Practice And Culture 3rd Edition By Andrew – Test Bank

Test Bank – Chapter 6

Conducting Research in Clinical Psychology

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. In 1952, _____ published an unfavorable review of research on psychotherapy outcome, which served as a catalyst for subsequent research on the subject, which has been more positive.
  2. A) Hans Eysenck
  3. B) B. F. Skinner
  4. C) Anna Freud
  5. D) Carl Rogers

Ans: A

 

  1. When researchers measure the outcome of psychotherapy, the perspective of _____ can be a good source of data.
  2. A) the client
  3. B) the psychotherapist
  4. C) family members of the client
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. _____ refers to the success of a particular therapy in a controlled study conducted with clients who were chosen according to particular study criteria.
  2. A) Effectiveness
  3. B) Psychotherapy outcome
  4. C) Efficacy
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: C

 

  1. In short, the _____ of a form of therapy is how well it works “in the lab,” where it is practiced according to manualized methods.
  2. A) outcome
  3. B) efficacy
  4. C) effectiveness
  5. D) status

Ans: B

 

  1. Compared to effectiveness studies, efficacy studies of psychotherapy outcome generally have
  2. A) greater internal validity.
  3. B) greater external validity.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: A

 

  1. Compared to effectiveness studies, efficacy studies of psychotherapy outcome generally have
  2. A) weaker internal validity.
  3. B) weaker external validity.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: B

 

  1. _____ refers to the success of a therapy in actual clinical settings in which client problems may be diagnostically complex.
  2. A) Effectiveness
  3. B) Exposure and response prevention
  4. C) Internal validity
  5. D) Efficacy

Ans: A

 

  1. The 1995 Consumer Reports survey regarding psychotherapy outcome as an example of a _____ study.
  2. A) efficacy
  3. B) effectiveness
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: B

 

  1. The 1995 Consumer Reports study found that
  2. A) less than 40% of respondents reported that therapy was beneficial.
  3. B) longer therapy generally produced greater benefit.
  4. C) the profession of the person providing the therapy made a significant difference, such that clinical psychologists produced better outcomes than psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: B

 

  1. _____ significance in an efficacy or effectiveness study refers to how two groups differ in real-world terms. It answers the question, “Is there a meaningful difference between the groups?”
  2. A) Statistical
  3. B) Clinical
  4. C) Theoretical
  5. D) Control

Ans: B

 

  1. _____ significance in an efficacy or effectiveness study refers to a statistically significant difference between two groups. It is measured quantitatively.
  2. A) Statistical
  3. B) Clinical
  4. C) Theoretical
  5. D) Control

Ans: A

  1. _____ refers to the extent to which change in the dependent variable is due solely to change in the independent variable.
  2. A) Internal validity
  3. B) External validity
  4. C) Test-retest reliability
  5. D) Split-half reliability

Ans: A

 

  1. _____ refers to the generalizability of the result of a scientific study, or the extent to which the same finding is applicable to different settings and populations.
  2. A) Internal validity
  3. B) External validity
  4. C) Convergent validity
  5. D) Reliability

Ans: B

 

  1. _____ variables are those variables in an experiment that are manipulated by the experimenter.
  2. A) Internal
  3. B) External
  4. C) Independent
  5. D) Dependent

Ans: C

 

  1. Among the steps involved in the experimental method are
  2. A) observation of events.
  3. B) development of a hypothesis.
  4. C) empirical testing of the hypothesis.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. In a(n) _____ design, participants in different conditions receive entirely different treatments.
  2. A) quasi-experimental
  3. B) analogue
  4. C) between-group
  5. D) within-group

Ans: C

 

  1. In a(n) _____ design, participants within a single condition are compared to themselves at various points in time.
  2. A) analogue
  3. B) within-group
  4. C) between-group
  5. D) experimental

Ans: B

 

  1. A(n) _____ design is often used by clinical psychologists when they cannot adequately access the target population or situation, so they approximate it to the extent possible. For example, they may ask participants to imagine themselves in a particular situation.
  2. A) analogue
  3. B) between-group
  4. C) within-group
  5. D) mixed-group

Ans: A

 

  1. _____ tend to be held in high regard by researchers who prefer the idiographic approach to the nomothetic approach.
  2. A) Experiments
  3. B) Quasi-experiments
  4. C) Case studies
  5. D) Correlational studies

Ans: C

 

  1. The ABAB design is an example of a(n) _____.
  2. A) case study
  3. B) analogue design
  4. C) between-groups design
  5. D) meta-analysis

Ans: A

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a statistical method of combining results of separate studies to create a summation of its findings.
  2. A) ABAB design
  3. B) case study
  4. C) qualitative review
  5. D) meta-analysis

Ans: D

 

  1. _____ designs examine changes in a participant or group across time, often over many years.
  2. A) Cross-sectional
  3. B) ABAB
  4. C) Analog
  5. D) Longitudinal

Ans: D

 

  1. Which of these statements is consistent with ethical standards of the most recent edition of the APA ethical code?
  2. A) Researchers should obtain informed consent from prospective participants.
  3. B) Researchers should never fabricate or falsify data.
  4. C) Researchers should share their data with other competent researchers for reanalysis.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. _____ involve a thorough and detailed examination of one person or situation.
  2. A) Case studies
  3. B) Correlational studies
  4. C) Meta-analyses
  5. D) Within-group design studies

Ans: A

 

  1. Case studies
  2. A) are typically low in generalizability.
  3. B) often have direct clinical relevance and can stimulate more systematic research findings.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: C

 

  1. Reading a single review of a movie can be informative, but reading a synthesis of many reviews of the same movie can be much more informative about the effect the movie had across many individuals. This notion is analogous to the research strategy known as _____.
  2. A) case studies
  3. B) between-group designs
  4. C) correlational methods
  5. D) meta-analysis

Ans: D

 

  1. As reported in the text, what research methods are used to measure psychotherapy outcome?
  2. A) questionnaires
  3. B) direct observation
  4. C) interviews
  5. D) all of the above

Ans: D

 

  1. How well a specific type of psychotherapy works in a controlled lab setting is a measure of the therapy’s _____.
  2. A) effectiveness
  3. B) efficacy
  4. C) eloquence
  5. D) none of the above

Ans: B

 

  1. Another phrase for “generalizability” is _____.
  2. A) internal validity
  3. B) external validity
  4. C) positive psychology
  5. D) negative psychology

Ans: B

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Who published a 1952 review of psychotherapy stating (erroneously) that psychotherapy did not work?

Ans: Hans Eysenck

 

  1. A study examining a psychotherapy’s success in an actual clinical setting is measuring the therapy’s _____.

Ans: effectiveness

 

  1. _____ validity refers to the generalizability of a study’s results, or the extent to which the study’s findings hold true across different settings and populations.

Ans: External

 

  1. _____ variables are those variables in a study that are manipulated by the experimenter.

Ans: Independent

 

  1. A study in which participants in a single condition are compared to themselves at various points in time is using a _____ design.

Ans: within-groups

 

  1. What is a meta-analysis?

Ans: a statistical method of combining results of separate studies (translated into effect sizes) to create a summation (or statistically, an overall effect size) of the findings; a “study of studies”

 

  1. A researcher planning to follow a group of depressed patients over a 20-year period would likely be using a _____ design.

Ans: longitudinal

 

  1. What is one APA ethical standard that applies to research in clinical psychology?

Ans: Obtain informed consent from prospective participants. Do not coerce participation by offering excessive or inappropriate rewards. Avoid using deception unless the prospective value of the research justifies its use and nondeceptive methods are not feasible. If research procedures have harmed a participant, take reasonable steps to minimize the harm. Never fabricate or falsify data. Researchers should list themselves as authors of a study only when their contributions are justifiably substantial. Share data with other competent researchers who intend to reanalyze it for verification.

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Compare and contrast efficacy and effectiveness studies of psychotherapy outcome.

Ans: Efficacy studies measure how well a treatment works “in the lab,” under controlled conditions with highly manualized therapy methods and clients chosen according to specific diagnostic criteria. Effectiveness studies measure how well a treatment works “in the real world,” where client selection is less strict, manuals may not be followed as closely, and cultural diversity of clients may be greater. Efficacy studies tend to have stronger internal validity, whereas effectiveness studies tend to have stronger external validity.

 

  1. Compare and contrast the idiographic approach to the nomothetic approach.

Ans: The idiographic approach emphasizes the unique qualities of each person, and lends itself to such methods as the case study. The nomothetic approach emphasizes similarities or common qualities among people, and lends itself to experimental or quasi-experimental research methods.

 

  1. Compare and contrast cross-sectional designs and longitudinal designs.

Ans: Cross-sectional designs assess or compare a participant or group of participants at one particular point in time. By contrast, longitudinal designs emphasize changes across time, often making within-group comparisons from one point in time to another.

 

  1. What is the primary difference between correlational methods and experimental methods?

Ans: Correlational methods cannot determine causality, whereas experimental methods can. In an experimental study, the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable is isolated. In a correlational study, the relationship between the variables is determined, but variables are not labeled as independent or dependent, so the extent to which one causes the other cannot be determined.

 

  1. What are two main areas in which clinical psychologists conduct research?

Ans: Treatment outcome: to determine how well therapies work. Assessment methods: to evaluate and improve the assessment methods used with patients. Diagnostic issues: to explore issues of diagnosis and categorization regarding psychological problems. Professional issues: to examine psychologists’ activities, beliefs, and practices. Teaching and training issues: to examine how to educate those entering the profession.

 

Test Bank – Chapter 7

Diagnosis and Classification Issues

 

Note: New or modified questions are marked with an *.

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The harmful dysfunction theory of mental disorders was developed by
  2. A) Sigmund Freud
  3. B) Jerome Wakefield
  4. C) Emil Kraepelin
  5. D) F. Skinner

Ans:  B

 

  1. Jerome Wakefield is the creator of the theory of
  2. A) harmful dysfunction.
  3. B) the unconscious.
  4. C) aberrant behavior.
  5. D) categorical disorders.

Ans:  A

 

  1. According to the harmful dysfunction theory of mental disorders, when we try to determine what is abnormal, we should consider
  2. A) scientific or evolutionary data
  3. B) the social values that provide the context for the behavior in question
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  C

 

*4. The DSM-5 defines mental disorders as

  1. A) a clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior.
  2. B) indicating a dysfunction in mental functioning.
  3. C) usually associated with significant distress or disability in work, relationships, or other areas of functioning.
  4. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. All editions of the DSM have been published by the
  2. A) American Psychiatric Association
  3. B) American Psychological Association
  4. C) American Psychological Society
  5. D) American Counseling Association

Ans:  A

 

  1. The DSM is primarily authored by
  2. A) social workers.
  3. B)
  4. C)
  5. D)

Ans:  D

 

  1. The DSM reflects a medical model of psychopathology, according to which
  2. A) each mental disorder is a byproduct of a medical disorder centered in a part of the body other than the brain.
  3. B) each mental disorder is an entity defined categorically and features a list of specific symptoms.
  4. C) medication is the only acceptable form of treatment for mental disorders.
  5. D) psychotherapy cannot be expected to succeed unless it is accompanied by medication.

Ans:  B

 

*8. Attenuated psychosis syndrome

  1. A) is not mentioned in the current DSM at all.
  2. B) is listed in the Emerging Measures and Models section of the current DSM.
  3. C) is listed as an official disorder in the current DSM.
  4. D) is included in the current DSM as a sub-type of schizophrenia.

Ans:  B

 

*9. Why might naming various experiences mental disorders be beneficial?

  1. A) An official label may help clients demystify an otherwise nameless experience.
  2. B) Naming promotes greater attention to the symptoms by researchers and clinicians.
  3. C) An official diagnosis can help clients gain access to treatment, especially if health insurance is used to pay.
  4. D) All of the above.

Ans:  D

 

*10. Disorders such as attenuated psychosis syndrome are not official diagnoses and are listed as _____ in the DSM-5.

  1. A) upcoming diagnoses
  2. B) research disorders
  3. C) proposed criteria sets
  4. D) cultural diagnoses

Ans:  C

 

  1. Hippocrates identified an imbalance in _____ as the source of abnormality.
  2. A) the ego
  3. B) spiritual harmony
  4. C) bodily fluids
  5. D) the unconscious

Ans:  C

 

  1. Emil Kraepelin was a pioneer of the diagnosis of mental disorders. Among the categories he identified were _____, which is similar to the current label of bipolar disorder, and _____ which is similar to the current label of schizophrenia.
  2. A) manic-depressive psychosis; dementia praecox
  3. B) anxiety neurosis; disorderly thought psychosis
  4. C) dementia praecox; separation disorder
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  A

 

  1. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the primary purpose of diagnostic categories was
  2. A) the diagnosis of prisoners.
  3. B) the collection of statistical and census data.
  4. C) compliance with health insurance and managed care company policies.
  5. D) to offer guidance toward particular forms of medication and psychotherapy.

Ans:  B

 

  1. In the mid-1900s, _____ developed a classification system to treat World War II soldiers that had a significant influence on the creation of the first DSM.
  2. A) NATO
  3. B) the World Health Organization
  4. C) the U.S. Army and Veterans’ Administration
  5. D) the European Psychiatric Association

Ans:  C

 

  1. The first edition of the DSM was published in
  2. A) 1914
  3. B) 1930
  4. C) 1952
  5. D) 1986

Ans:  C

 

  1. The first edition of the DSM contained only three broad categories:
  2. A) psychoses, neuroses, and character disorders.
  3. B) internalizing, externalizing, and mediating disorders.
  4. C) primary, secondary, and tertiary disorders.
  5. D) Freudian, Jungian, and undifferentiated disorders.

Ans:  A

 

  1. DSM-I and DSM-II
  2. A) were entirely empirically based.
  3. B) reflected a psychoanalytic orientation.
  4. C) included lists of specific symptoms or criteria for each disorder.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  B

 

  1. DSM-III differed from its predecessors in significant ways, such as
  2. A) the inclusion of a multi-axial system by which clinicians could diagnose clients on five separate axes.
  3. B) the use of specific diagnostic criteria to define disorders.
  4. C) a greater reliance on empirical data rather than clinical consensus.
  5. D) all of the above

Ans:  D

 

  1. DSM-III was published in
  2. A) 1952
  3. B) 1968
  4. C) 1980
  5. D) 1994

Ans:  C

 

*22. Which of the following is true?

  1. A) DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR used a multiaxial diagnosis system.
  2. B) DSM-5 uses a multiaxial diagnosis system.
  3. C) DSM-5 switched to a dimensional model of diagnosis.
  4. D) None of the above is/are true.

Ans:  A

 

*23. DSM-5 added a number of new disorders including

  1. A) premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  2. B) disruptive mood dysregulation disorder.
  3. C) binge eating disorder.
  4. D) All of the above.

Ans:  D

 

*24. New features in DSM-5 include

  1. A) elimination of the multiaxial diagnostic system.
  2. B) the use of Arabic, rather than Roman, numerals in the title.
  3. C) Both A and B.
  4. D) None of the above.

Ans:  C

 

*25. DSM-5 has received numerous criticisms.  Which of the following is NOT one of these criticisms?

  1. A) Diagnostic overexpansion
  2. B) Lack of transparency of the revision process
  3. C) The high price of the manual
  4. D) All of the above.

Ans:  D

 

  1. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  2. A) was an official disorder in the original edition of the DSM, but is not mentioned at all in the current edition.
  3. B) is listed as a provisional disorder, or a “criteria set for further study,” in the current DSM.
  4. C) is a subtype of bipolar disorder.
  5. D) is an official mental disorder in DSM-5.

Ans:  D

 

  1. All editions of the DSM have offered a _____ approach to diagnosis.
  2. A) dimensional
  3. B) symptom- or criteria-based
  4. C) categorical
  5. D) multi-axial

Ans:  C

 

  1. Essentially, a categorical approach to diagnosis of mental disorders suggests that an individual
  2. A) has a disorder or does not have it.
  3. B) has every disorder to some extent.
  4. C) can only be diagnosed with one disorder at a single point in time.
  5. D) can have multiple disorders at the same time only if those disorders fall within the same larger category, such as mood disorders or anxiety disorders.

Ans:  A

 

  1. In recent years, researchers have offered alternatives to the categorical approach to the diagnosis of mental disorders. Specifically, the _____ approach has received significant attention, especially regarding the _____ disorders.
  2. A) dimensional; anxiety
  3. B) dimensional; personality
  4. C) multi-axial; mood
  5. D) medical model; eating

Ans:  B

 

  1. Researchers who endorse the dimensional approach to diagnosis of mental problems most often recommend that _____ serve as the basis for the dimensions.
  2. A) the five-factor model of personality
  3. B) cognitive thought distortion categories
  4. C) baseline behavioral data
  5. D) neurosis and psychosis

Ans:  A

 

  1. A potential risk of expanding the range of pathology included in the DSM is that
  2. A) more people may have to live with stigma associated with a diagnostic label.
  3. B) the concept of mental illness could be trivialized because it is applied to so many people and experiences.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  C

 

  1. Categorical diagnosis of mental illness has many advantages, including the fact that it
  2. A) facilitates communication between professionals.
  3. B) forces professionals to think categorically, which is an unnatural and uncommon manner of cognition among human beings.
  4. C) all of the above
  5. D) none of the above

Ans:  A

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. What is harmful dysfunction theory?

Ans:  The harmful dysfunction theory proposes that in our efforts to determine what is abnormal, we consider both scientific (e.g., evolutionary) data and the social values in the context of which the behavior takes place.

 

  1. The DSM reflects a _____ model of psychopathology.

Ans:  medical

 

*3. Where are disorders such as internet gaming disorder and attenuated psychosis syndrome listed in DSM-5?

Ans:  Emerging Measures and Models

 

  1. Which edition of the DSM was the first to rely heavily on empirical data to determine which diagnoses to include?

Ans:  DSM-III

 

*5. What is one major change in DSM-5 in comparison to DSM-IV?

Ans:  The use of Arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals in the title; the removal of the multiaxial assessment system

 

*6. Who was the Chair of the Task Force for DSM-IV and has also been a vocal critic of DSM-5?

Ans:  Allen Frances

 

*7. List one criticism of recent DSMs.

Ans:  Breadth of coverage, controversial cutoffs, cultural issues/sensitivity, gender bias, nonempirical influences, limitations on objectivity.

 

  1. The _____ approach to diagnosis examines where on a continuum a client’s symptoms fall.

Ans:  dimensional

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Briefly explain how the inclusion of minor depressive disorder could have beneficial or problematic consequences for clients in the future.

 

Ans:  Beneficial consequences: identify and demystify the experience; allow the client to feel that he shares this experience with others and is not the only one with it; acknowledge the significance of problem to friends, family, employer, self; gain access to treatment.  Problematic consequences: view of self as mentally ill could harm self-image; could be stereotyped by others; locate problem in individual rather than in system; negatively influence legal cases, such as child custody.

 

  1. Briefly explain how the professions of the primary authors of the DSM, as well as its publisher, have influenced its approach to conceptualizing mental disorders.

 

Ans:  The DSM‘s authors have always been primarily medical doctors, and the publisher as always been the American Psychiatric (not Psychological) Association.  This results in a medical model and a categorical approach to diagnosis, rather than an alternate approach, such as the dimensional model.

 

  1. Compare and contrast the categorical and dimensional approaches to diagnosis.

Ans:  The categorical approach essentially requires a yes/no decision regarding diagnoses; a client either “has” or “doesn’t have” a disorder.  By contrast, the dimensional approach essentially eliminates yes/no categories and replaces them with a dimension or continuum on which client’s system can be placed.  The categorical approach has always been used by DSM, so it is more familiar at this point; also, it facilitates communication and research.  The dimensional approach can produce more accurate client descriptions, especially when dimensions are readily identifiable (as is most true with personality disorders).

 

  1. Describe two DSM-IV disorders that were revised in DSM-5. Be specific about the change(s) that occurred.

Ans:  1. The “bereavement exclusion” formerly included in the diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode was dropped.  2. The DSM-IV diagnoses of autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, and related developmental disorders were combined into a single DSM-5 diagnosis: autism spectrum disorder.  3. In the criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the age at which symptoms must first appear was changed from 7 to 12 years old, and the number of symptoms required for the diagnosis to apply to adults was specified as 5 (as opposed to 6 for kids).  4. In the criteria for bulimia nervosa, the frequency of binge eating required for the disorder was dropped from twice per week to once per week.  5. In the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, the requirement that menstrual periods stop has been omitted, and the definition of low body weight has been changed from a numeric definition (less than 85% of expected body weight) to a less specific description that takes into account age, sex, development, and physical health.  6. The two separate DSM-IV diagnoses of substance abuse and substance dependence have been combined into a single diagnosis:  substance use disorder.  7. Mental retardation was renamed intellectual disability (intellectual development disorder).  8. Learning disabilities in reading, math, and writing were combined into a single diagnosis with a new name: specific learning disorder.