Cognition Exploring The Science of the Mind 6th Edition by Daniel Reisberg – Test Bank

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Cognition Exploring The Science of the Mind 6th Edition by Daniel Reisberg – Test Bank

Chapter 06: The Acquisition of Memories and the Working-Memory System

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The operations through which we gain new knowledge, retain that knowledge, and later use that knowledge are often divided into three categories. Which of the following is NOT one of those categories?
a. retrieval c. deliberation
b. acquisition d. storage

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Route into Memory

OBJ:   6.1                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of these is NOT true for an information-processing view of memory?
a. It involves a large number of discrete steps.
b. Each step within the model has its own characteristic and its own job to do.
c. All the steps of the model run in parallel.
d. The output of one step provides the input of the next step in the sequence.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Route into Memory

OBJ:   6.1                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of working memory (sometimes called short-term memory)?
a. unlimited storage capacity
b. drawn on by a wide range of tasks
c. easily accessible
d. contents closely associated with the current focus of attention

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Updating the Modal Model

OBJ:   6.1                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. One difference between working memory and long-term memory is that
a. the contents of working memory tend to be in the form of visual images, whereas the contents of long-term memory are often verbal and symbolic.
b. damage to the brain can disrupt working memory, but long-term memory seems not to be similarly vulnerable.
c. long-term memory has a limited capacity, whereas working memory does not.
d. the contents of working memory depend on the content of one’s current thinking, but the contents of long-term memory do not.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Updating the Modal Model

OBJ:   6.1                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The modal model asserts that information processing involves at least two kinds of memory: working memory and long-term memory (LTM). Working memory
a. has the same capacity to hold items as LTM.
b. differs from LTM in how easily one can access the stored items.
c. uses the same rehearsal mechanisms as LTM.
d. has no discernible effect on functioning outside the laboratory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.1                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The modal model asserts that information processing involves at least two kinds of memory: working memory and long-term memory. Long-term memory is
a. theoretically unlimited in capacity.
b. the active component of working memory.
c. not susceptible to forgetting.
d. limited in duration.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.1                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to the modal model of memory, words presented early in a list are easier to remember than words presented later because
a. they are still residing in working memory at the time of the test.
b. participants are particularly alert at the beginning of the list presentation.
c. the early words receive more of the participants’ attention than the later words.
d. the early words suffer from less interference than the later words.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.1 | 6.3          MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is the best analogy for long-term memory storage?
a. a work bench
b. a storage container, like a box
c. a busy librarian
d. a loading dock outside a warehouse

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   The Links among Acquisition, Retrieval, and Storage     OBJ:   6.1

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a modern change to the modal model of memory?
a. Sensory memory is not emphasized.
b. Short-term memory is now called working memory.
c. Working memory refers to a process more than a storage system.
d. Working memory and long-term memory are considered the same construct.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Updating the Modal Model

OBJ:   6.2                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The modal model has seen some revision in recent years, but a few key components remain. Which of the following is NO LONGER an accepted aspect of the modal model?
a. Working memory is used only for temporary storage of information.
b. Working memory and long-term memory are considered separate memory processes.
c. Working memory is fragile and easily disrupted.
d. Working memory is limited in capacity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Function of Working Memory

OBJ:   6.2                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Working memory (WM) has been likened to a desk space that holds the current information for a short period of time. This analogy is problematic in what way?
a. The desk analogy is too static: WM is capable of more than simply short-term storage.
b. WM is more like a filing cabinet with a specific number of slots into which information can be put.
c. The size of WM varies across individuals, but a desk never changes size.
d. There is no problem with this analogy.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Function of Working Memory

OBJ:   6.2 | 6.5          MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Free recall refers to
a. word association within a list of words.
b. recalling words from a list in any order.
c. recognizing words from a list.
d. memory that requires few attentional resources.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.3                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When asked to recall a list of 25 words, participants are likely to remember only some of them. The words they can recall are likely to include
a. approximately the last 12 words on the list.
b. the first few words on the list and also approximately the last 6 words on the list.
c. approximately the first 12 words on the list.
d. words drawn from positions scattered throughout the list.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.3                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Jose is asked to remember the order of a previously presented list of words. Compared to an immediate recall test, what effect would you expect a 20-second delay of white noise to have on memory performance?
a. It would have no effect on memory, compared to an immediate recall test.
b. It would decrease memory for early words and improve memory for words presented later in the list.
c. It would improve memory for early words.
d. It would improve memory for recently presented words.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In list-learning experiments, participants’ performance in the pre-recency portion of the curve will be improved by
a. employing more common, familiar words.
b. presenting the list of words more quickly.
c. employing a longer list of words.
d. distracting participants for a moment just after the list’s end.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.4                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A sudden, loud noise often has the impact of distracting participants long enough to clear the contents of working memory. Imagine that participants hear a list of the names of 20 different fruits, followed by an unexpected loud noise. The effect of the noise will be
a. a diminished primacy effect but no impact on how well the other words in the list are remembered.
b. diminished performance for the entire list.
c. a diminished recency effect and a diminished primacy effect but no impact on how well the other words on the list are remembered.
d. a diminished recency effect but no impact on how well the other words in the list are remembered.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. An experimenter reads a list of 30 words to a group of participants at the rate of one word per second. This is immediately followed by a free-recall test. A second group of participants hears the same 30 words presented at the faster rate of two words per second. We should expect that the group hearing the slower presentation will show improved memory performance for the
a. pre-recency portion of the list, but there will be no impact on the recency effect.
b. words at the end of the list and diminished performance for the pre-recency portion of the list.
c. entire list.
d. words at the list’s end, but there will be no improvement for the words earlier in the list.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Early estimates of working-memory capacity relied on the digit-span task. The data indicate working memory capacity to be ________ items.
a. 10 to 14 c. around 20
b. 2 or 3 d. around 7

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Function of Working Memory

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A participant who is asked to recall a series of numbers chooses to think about the numbers as though they were years (e.g., 1, 9, 9, 7 becomes “The year I turned 16”). The participant is organizing information into the memory unit known as a(n)
a. sentence. c. image.
b. chunk. d. package.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Function of Working Memory

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. When thinking of a list of digits in terms of racing times, one person is found to report up to 79 digits. This suggests that this person
a. has a larger working memory than most other participants.
b. is well practiced at memory retrieval.
c. can remember this information due to a unique chunking strategy.
d. does not show the primacy or recency effect.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Function of Working Memory

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT correlate with working-memory capacity?
a. reading ability
b. reasoning skills
c. following directions
d. making an eye movement toward a cue

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Function of Working Memory

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. When recalling a list of letters (e.g., T, O, D, F, P, A, E, G ), participants may group the letters into syllables for future recall (e.g., TO, DIF  ). Which of these answers is a potential problem for this strategy?
a. The chunking process requires resources, and this makes rehearsal more difficult.
b. The process of converting letters into syllables uses resources that often interfere with memory recall.
c. Syllables are often nonsensical, and so they can disrupt the recall task.
d. The use of syllables extends the primacy and recency effects.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Function of Working Memory

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. When using the digit-span task, the capacity of working memory is estimated to be
a. approximately one chunk.
b. approximately three chunks.
c. approximately seven chunks.
d. unlimited.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Digit Span      OBJ:   6.5

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The operation span of working memory measures the
a. number of letters that working memory can store.
b. number of sentences that working memory can store.
c. rate of transfer of information from working memory into long-term memory.
d. efficiency with which working memory operates when it is working.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Operation Span

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Peter has a higher working memory capacity than Josh. Given previous correlational evidence, who would you expect performs better on intelligence tests?
a. Peter c. We cannot tell.
b. Josh d. They are equally intelligent.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Operation Span

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Current theory suggests that the central executive may be
a. used to temporarily store information so that it can then be processed at a later time by the rehearsal loop.
b. another name for various cognitive resources.
c. merely another lower-level assistant.
d. a kind of guidebook for how to “run a program” in the brain.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   A Closer Look at Working Memory

OBJ:   6.6                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The central executive is NOT
a. multipurpose. c. reliant on “helpers.”
b. task-specific. d. akin to executive control.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Working-Memory System

OBJ:   6.6                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The helper that stores visual materials is called the
a. visuospatial buffer. c. visuocentral executive.
b. rehearsal loop. d. spatial image icon.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Working-Memory System

OBJ:   6.6                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Within working memory, “helpers” like the visuospatial buffer and articulatory rehearsal loop
a. can take over some of the lower-level analyses ordinarily performed by the central executive.
b. can provide verbal, but not visual, analysis of the memory items.
c. provide short-term storage of items likely to be needed soon by the central executive.
d. preserve the items to be remembered in their initial sensory form (e.g., visual stimuli are preserved as visual images).

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Working-Memory System

OBJ:   6.6                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. You are watching TV when a commercial advertising a new pizza place in town comes on. You decide you want pizza and try to memorize the phone number given in the commercial. Just as you are about to dial, your cell phone rings and you talk on the phone for a few minutes. What is most likely to happen after you finish your call?
a. You definitely remember the phone number for the pizza place, so you call and order.
b. Out of habit, you call your favorite pizza place (whose number you have memorized), forgetting you wanted to try the new place.
c. You think you remember the number and try calling, and you are correct.
d. You have forgotten the phone number and must rewind your DVR to retrieve it.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Two Types of Rehearsal

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Participants in an experiment were asked to keep track of the most recent word they had heard that started with a “G.” Therefore, participants should report “gravy” after hearing the sequence “girl, grump, hat, scissors, whistle, pen, radio, bed, foot, glass, lantern, gravy.” Later, participants are asked to report back all the “G ” words they heard. Then we would expect
a. good recollection of all the words because participants were able to concentrate their attention on the task and rehearsed only one word at a time.
b. poor recollection of all the “G ” words because the situation invites maintenance rather than elaborative rehearsal.
c. good recollection of “grump,” since this word was in the participants’ thoughts for a long time (while they were waiting for “glass”).
d. poor recollection of the early words in the list but good recollection of the words in the middle of the list.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Two Types of Rehearsal

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The strategy of maintenance rehearsal involves
a. the repetition of the items to be remembered and the simultaneous consideration of the items’ meaning.
b. a focus on the associations between the items to be remembered and other thoughts and ideas.
c. paying attention to the order of items, independent of their meaning.
d. the repetition of the items to be remembered, with little attention paid to what the items mean.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Two Types of Rehearsal

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. For most recall tests, the transfer of items into long-term storage is best facilitated by ________ rehearsal.
a. maintenance c. recency
b. elaborative d. primacy

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Two Types of Rehearsal

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Week after week, Solomon watched his favorite TV show. He never planned to memorize the characters’ names and he never took any steps to memorize them. Nonetheless, he soon knew them all. This sort of learning is called
a. elaborative. c. accidental.
b. intentional. d. incidental.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following exemplifies the memory effects of repeated exposure without intention to remember?
a. Irv is unable to describe the appearance of his wristwatch even though he has owned it for years and looks at it many times each day.
b. Mary is unable to recall the name of her first-grade teacher.
c. Tony is unable to remember his high school algebra even though he did well in his algebra courses.
d. Samantha has managed, with some effort, to learn the names of all of her classmates.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Based on the composite depth of processing data presented in this book, how does the intention to memorize influence how well we learn?
a. It influences learning only with shallow processing.
b. It influences learning only with deep processing.
c. The intention to memorize adds nothing to our ability to learn.
d. It improves our ability to learn, regardless of the depth of processing.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following groups is most likely to remember the material it is studying?
a. Group 1 intends to memorize a series of words and, while studying, repeats the words mechanically over and over again.
b. Group 2 intends to memorize a series of words and, while studying, pays attention to the exact appearance of the words.
c. Group 3 has no intention of memorizing the words and searches the list for spelling errors.
d. Group 4 has no intention of memorizing the words and attempts to determine how the words are related to one another.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.7 | 6.8          MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. The intention to learn new material
a. leads participants to focus on the meaning of the material to be learned.
b. requires participants to repeat the material over and over again.
c. leads participants to employ maintenance rehearsal.
d. leads participants to approach the material in the fashion they think best for memorization.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.7 | 6.8          MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. As a general rule, the intention to learn
a. usually leads to worse learning than incidental learning.
b. has a direct effect on learning.
c. leads all people to adopt the same memory strategies.
d. has an indirect effect on learning.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.7 | 6.8          MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. A student wishes to memorize an essay so that he will be able to recall the essay’s content later on. Which of the following is likely to be LEAST helpful to him?
a. making certain that he understands the argument contained within the essay
b. thinking about why the essay is organized in the way that it is
c. reading the essay aloud over and over again
d. trying to construct a paraphrase of the essay’s content

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Understanding and Memorizing

OBJ:   6.7                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Reading your notes, or the textbook, over and over again is NOT recommended as a study strategy because
a. it is an elaborate way to learn information.
b. it encourages deep processing.
c. it is a passive form of learning.
d. you should also be using a highlighter to identify important material.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Cognitive Psychology and Education

OBJ:   6.7 | 6.8          MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Data indicate that, all things being equal, recall performance will be best if materials are encoded with ________ processing.
a. shallow c. deep
b. intermediate d. sensory

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.8                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a question that leads to deep processing?
a. What is the meaning of the word “tantalizing”?
b. Are there more vowels or more consonants in the word “brain”?
c. Can you think of a word that rhymes with “elephant”?
d. How many syllables are there in the word “convenient”?

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Incidental Learning, Intentional Learning, and Depth of Processing

OBJ:   6.8                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Deep processing may lead to improved memory performance because it facilitates retrieval. How exactly does this happen?
a. Deep processing forms many connections between the current item and previous knowledge.
b. Deep processing causes items to be kept in working memory.
c. Deep processing encourages the use of mnemonics.
d. Deep processing forms fewer retrieval paths, making the correct path easier to access.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Role of Meaning and Memory Connections

OBJ:   6.8 | 6.9          MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. A participant is trying to memorize the word “parade.” To help herself, she thinks about the word within a complicated sentence: “From their third-floor apartment, they had a great view of all the bands, the cowboys, and the floats in the Thanksgiving parade.” This learning strategy will produce
a. fine memory performance, but similar performance could be achieved with simpler sentences as long as they require the participant to think about the meaning of the word.
b. poor memory performance because the complicated sentence draws attention away from the target word.
c. excellent memory performance because the sentence involves a great deal of maintenance rehearsal.
d. excellent memory performance because the strategy requires attention to meaning and provides many memory connections.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Role of Meaning and Memory Connections

OBJ:   6.8 | 6.9          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following most accurately represents the probability an item will be retained (most likely > least likely)?
a. deep > shallow > maintenance > deep elaborate
b. deep elaborate > deep > shallow > maintenance
c. maintenance > shallow > deep > deep elaborate
d. deep > deep elaborate > shallow > maintenance

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Elaborate Encoding Promotes Retrieval

OBJ:   6.8                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Imagine you are shown the word “DOG” and asked one of the following questions about that word. According to the principles of elaborative encoding, which of the following questions is going to lead to the best memory performance?
a. Does it fit into the sentence, “The ________ wags his tail”?
b. Does it contain an “A”?
c. Does it fit into the following sentence: “The speeding car swung around the corner, music blaring, and screeched to a halt before seeing the ________”?
d. Does it rhyme with “LOG”?

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Elaborate Encoding Promotes Retrieval

OBJ:   6.8                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A physician has just read an article about a recently invented drug. Which of the following is LEAST important in determining whether the physician will remember the article later on?
a. The physician read the article carefully to determine whether it was persuasive.
b. The physician realized how suggestions within the article could be integrated with other things she already knew.
c. The physician expected to need the information later on and therefore employed a maintenance memorization strategy that she believed had helped her memorize material in the past.
d. The physician quickly saw that the new drug might have multiple uses, so she thought about several circumstances in which she might use it.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Understanding and Memorizing

OBJ:   6.8 | 6.9 | 6.10                                           MSC:              Applying

 

  1. It is difficult to predict what an individual will remember for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
a. individuals will engage in a variety of mnemonic techniques, some more successful than others.
b. memory acquisition depends on previous knowledge, and everyone has different knowledge.
c. encoding strategies should be adjusted to match testing strategies, but individuals do not always know what the testing strategy will be.
d. it is difficult to test memory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Study of Memory Acquisition

OBJ:   6.8 | 6.9 | 6.10                                           MSC:              Evaluating

 

  1. Which of these is LEAST important for memory acquisition?
a. memory connections c. organization
b. shallow processing d. understanding

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Study of Memory Acquisition

OBJ:   6.8 | 6.10        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A helpful analogy for the encoding and retrieval process in long-term memory is
a. cataloguing. c. collating.
b. stacking. d. rummaging.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Meaning and Memory Connections

OBJ:   6.9                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. If a participant is asked to remember a previously experienced event, the relevant memory must be accessed via
a. deep processing. c. a retrieval path.
b. elaborative processing. d. the memory index.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Meaning and Memory Connections

OBJ:   6.9                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In general, any technique designed to improve memory is referred to as
a. a mnemonic strategy. c. the method of repetition.
b. the method of loci. d. memory rehearsal.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Mnemonics    OBJ:   6.10

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In a peg-word system, participants help themselves memorize a group of items by
a. forming an elaborate sentence about each of the items to be remembered.
b. associating each item with some part of an already memorized framework, or skeleton.
c. naming the items to themselves over and over again.
d. placing each item in its appropriate semantic category.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Mnemonics    OBJ:   6.10

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Although mnemonics can be helpful for remembering a small number of specific items (like a grocery list), they do have some drawbacks. One such problem is that
a. using a mnemonic involves a trade-off of attention so that less attention is available for making the many memory connections that can help one understand the material.
b. mnemonics only work when remembering up to seven items.
c. mnemonics are particularly difficult to remember when specific information is being tested.
d. the recall of all items by mnemonics is slow.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Mnemonics    OBJ:   6.10

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Is memory for complex scenes similar to memory for words?
a. Yes; they both require mnemonics for successful retention.
b. Yes; organization facilitates memory for both types of stimuli.
c. No; complex scenes require different memory strategies than simple words.
d. No; they are dependent on different parts of the brain.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Understanding and Memorizing

OBJ:   6.10               MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. The memorizer plays an important role in memory acquisition. Which of the following is LEAST likely to have an effect on long-term memory?
a. prior knowledge of the memorizer
b. the situation in which the memorizer learned the material
c. the rehearsal strategy the memorizer used
d. the IQ of the memorizer

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Contribution of the Memorizer

OBJ:   6.10               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Several researchers have compared brain activity during the learning process for words that were later remembered or forgotten. Which of the following is NOT consistent with their findings?
a. Increased activity in the hippocampus was associated with better retention.
b. Increased activity in the prefrontal cortex was associated with better retention.
c. Exposure to an item is enough for retention.
d. Learning is an active process.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Need for Active Encoding

OBJ:   6.11               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to fMRI evidence, which of the following areas is/are critical to the successful encoding of words?
a. amygdala
b. medial temporal lobe
c. prefrontal cortex
d. medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Need for Active Encoding

OBJ:   6.11               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Researchers have used fMRI to evaluate the neural areas that are correlated with successful memory creation. They measured brain activity during encoding, gave participants a memory test, and then
a. erased their memories.
b. measured neural activity for items that were elaborated.
c. compared active neural areas across men and women.
d. measured neural activity during retrieval.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Need for Active Encoding

OBJ:   6.11               MSC:  Understanding

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Imagine you are staring at a photograph of a man’s face and trying to memorize it for later. Using the modal model, describe how the visual information will be processed and eventually stored in memory.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Updating the Modal Model             OBJ:   6.1 | 6.2

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Why is the term “working memory” now preferred over “short-term memory”?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Function of Working Memory OBJ:   6.2

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Describe the serial position curve and its relevance to the modal memory model. Include in your answer a description of the procedure, traditional findings, and the manipulations that contribute to its significance.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.3 | 6.4          MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Differentiate between the free recall procedure and the operation span task. Relate the differences in procedure to the memory systems each test measures.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Working Memory and Long-Term Memory: One Memory or Two?

OBJ:   6.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Describe and then evaluate Baddeley’s working-memory model. Name two cognitive phenomena that are well explained by the model and one that is not.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Working-Memory System        OBJ:   6.6

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Compare and contrast maintenance and elaborative rehearsal by considering their effects on the creation of memory connections.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Two Types of Rehearsal                 OBJ:   6.7

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Are flashcards an effective way to memorize information? Why or why not?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Entering Long-Term Storage: The Need for Engagement

OBJ:   6.7 | 6.8 | 6.9  MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Your friend is having a hard time in biology and would like some tips on studying for the class. What advice would you give your friend? Include at least three suggestions based on the information you have learned in this chapter.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Role of Meaning and Memory Connections

OBJ:   6.7 | 6.8 | 6.9 | 6.10                         MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Describe how previous knowledge or ideas of the memorizer can impact memory and how this can sometimes lead us to make memory errors.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   The Contribution of the Memorizer

OBJ:   6.10               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Bill is given a list of words to memorize for a later test. While he is encoding the words, his brain activity is measured using fMRI. Describe the patterns of activity you would expect to see in Bill’s brain for words he later remembers and those he later forgets.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   The Need for Active Encoding       OBJ:   6.11

MSC:  Applying

 

Chapter 07: Interconnections between Acquisition and Retrieval

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. When you are trying to access something in long-term memory, you use a
a. parallel search. c. random search strategy.
b. retrieval path. d. serial, exhaustive search.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Learning as Preparation for Retrieval

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. If a memory is like a city you want to travel to and the retrieval paths you use to find the memory are like highways that lead to that city, which is the best strategy for memorizing?
a. build one really big highway, so you are more likely to find the answer later
b. build many highways that travel in many directions, so you have multiple ways to remember it later
c. build toll roads (premium highways) so you can get to the memories as fast as possible with little traffic
d. invest very little in building highways because you never know which highway will be the best road in the future

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Optimal Learning

OBJ:   7.1                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Establishing a memory connection
a. allows you to access Memory X from Memory Y if they are connected but will not help you access Memory Z if it is not connected to Memory X or Y.
b. primes all memory connections so that all memories are quicker to retrieve.
c. can occur only for emotional memories.
d. is better for emotional memories than for other types of memories.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Learning as Preparation for Retrieval

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A researcher hypothesizes that high doses of caffeine can produce context-dependent learning. To confirm this hypothesis, the researcher would need to show that
a. participants learn more effectively if they drink several cups of coffee before studying the material to be learned.
b. participants’ recall performance is improved if they are tested soon after drinking several cups of coffee.
c. participants who drink a lot of coffee are, in general, likely to do better on memory tests.
d. if participants study the material while drinking a great deal of coffee, they will remember the material better if they drink a great deal of coffee while taking the memory test.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Context-Dependent Learning

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In an experiment, participants learned materials in Room A and were tested in Room B. If they were asked to think about Room A just before taking the test, participants
a. performed as well as they would have done had there been no room change.
b. performed worse on the test due to dual-task memory disruption.
c. performed the same as those participants who were not asked to think about Room A.
d. performed better than participants who were tested in Room B and were not asked to think about Room A, but worse than participants tested in Room A.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Context-Dependent Learning

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Evidence for context-dependent learning has been found in all of the following situations EXCEPT
a. underwater and out of water for scuba divers learning words.
b. odors present or absent during learning.
c. reading an article in a noisy or quiet environment.
d. a class lecture in a very cold or hot room.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Context-Dependent Learning

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following observations is most likely an illustration of context-dependent learning?
a. “I haven’t been to Athens in years, but I still remember all the great times I had there!”
b. “Mike has told me his phone number over and over again, but somehow I can’t get it into my head.”
c. “Last month I went to my 20th high school reunion. I saw people I hadn’t thought about for years, but the moment I saw them, I was reminded of the things we’d done together 20 years earlier.”
d. “I spent hours studying in the library last night preparing for my history midterm. And it really paid off; I did a great job on the exam.”

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Context-Dependent Learning

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Because of the effects of context-dependent learning, students might find it wise to
a. use mnemonic devices as a study aid.
b. study only when they are entirely sober.
c. focus on their instructor’s intended meaning rather than the exact words.
d. prepare for their examinations under conditions similar to the test conditions.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Context-Dependent Learning

OBJ:   7.2 | 7.10        MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Context has an effect on memory
a. because it interferes with the retrieval paths.
b. only if the information is recalled in the same physical environment where it was learned.
c. because it influences how the person thinks of the material to be remembered.
d. but not on the way a person perceives a memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Context-Dependent Learning

OBJ:   7.2 | 7.10        MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. A participant is asked, “In the list of words I showed you earlier, was there a word that rhymed with ‘lake’?” The participant is likely to be well prepared for this sort of memory test if he or she
a. used maintenance rehearsal when trying to memorize the words.
b. paid attention to the sounds of the words when trying to memorize them.
c. paid attention to the appearance of the words when trying to memorize them.
d. relied on perceptual fluency when studying the words.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Encoding Specificity

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Participants are asked to memorize a list of words. In addition to the words themselves, participants will remember some aspects of the context in which the words appeared. This tendency to remember a stimulus within its context is referred to as
a. background learning. c. implicit memory.
b. multiple encoding. d. encoding specificity.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Encoding Specificity

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements seems to be the best illustration of encoding specificity?
a. Susan is terrible at learning general arguments, although she is excellent at learning more specific claims.
b. Susan has learned the principles covered in her psychology class, but she has difficulty remembering the principles in the context of her day-to-day life.
c. Susan easily learns material that is meaningful but cannot learn material that is abstract.
d. Susan quickly masters new material if she knows some related information, but she has trouble learning new material if the domain is new to her.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Encoding Specificity

OBJ:   7.2                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Theories of spreading activation assume that activating one node will lead to
a. “downstream” nodes also being activated.
b. all connected nodes being activated.
c. a subset of connected nodes being activated.
d. unconnected nodes being suppressed.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Spreading Activation

OBJ:   7.3                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is the level at which a node in a spreading activation model will fire?
a. subthreshold level c. response threshold
b. superthreshold d. activation level

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Spreading Activation

OBJ:   7.3                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Spreading activation models behave much like which biological system?
a. neural networks
b. the parallel processing components of the visual system
c. the cells of the retina
d. the corpus callosum, connecting the two hemispheres

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Spreading Activation

OBJ:   7.3                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Two groups of participants were asked to learn a series of word pairs and were then given a memory test. Both groups were told to remember the second word in each pair and use the first word as an aid to remember the targets. For Group A, the first word was semantically associated with the target word (e.g., dark–light). For Group B, the first word rhymed with the target word (e.g., sight–light). Each group was given hints during the memory test. These hints could be related to meaning (e.g., “Was there a word associated with ‘dark’?”) or sound (e.g., “Was there a word associated with ‘sight’?”). Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Overall, participants in Group A recalled more words than those in Group B.
b. Participants in Group A performed better when given a meaning hint than when given a sound hint.
c. Participants in Group B performed better when given a sound hint than when given a meaning hint.
d. Participants in Group B performed better when given a meaning hint than when given a sound hint.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Retrieval Cues

OBJ:   7.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. “Context reinstatement” refers to
a. improved memory if the materials to be remembered were thought about in a novel context.
b. improved memory if we re-create the context that was in place during learning.
c. improved memory if the mnemonics used have a similar context to the materials to be remembered.
d. impaired memory performance if participants recall the context where the material was learned.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Context Reinstatement

OBJ:   7.4                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Participants are asked to memorize a list of words. The eighth word on the list is “inches,” the ninth word is “meters,” and the tenth word is “feet.” In which of the following situations would the participants be most likely to remember the previous exposure to “feet”?
a. In the memory test, the fourth word tested is “yards,” and the fifth is “feet.”
b. In the memory test, the fourth word tested is “heat,” and the fifth is “feet.”
c. In the memory test, the fourth word tested is “hands,” and the fifth is “feet.”
d. In the memory test, the fourth word tested is “fight,” and the fifth is “feet.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Semantic Priming

OBJ:   7.4                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. A participant is asked to memorize a series of word pairs, including the pair “heavy–light.” The participant is asked later if any of the following words had been included in the list memorized earlier: “lamp,” “candle,” “spark,” and “light.” The participant denies having seen any of these words recently. This is probably because
a. the learning context does not provide adequate support for perceptual encoding.
b. the learning context does relatively little to encourage deep processing.
c. what was memorized was the idea of “light” as a description of weight, not “light” as illumination.
d. the learning context led the participant to think in terms of opposites, while the test context led the participant to think in terms of semantic associates.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Semantic Priming

OBJ:   7.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Steve is shown a list of words, which includes “baby.” He is then asked to list all the words he can remember from the list, but he does not include “baby.” Steve is later asked to identify words and nonwords, and “baby” is presented along with other items. Which of the following patterns is most likely to reflect Steve’s performance on this identification task?
a. Steve will say “baby” is a nonword.
b. Steve will respond more quickly to “baby” than he would to other words.
c. Steve will respond more slowly to “baby” relative to nonwords.
d. Steve’s response time will be about the same to “baby” as to all other items on the test.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Semantic Priming

OBJ:   7.4                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. An investigator asks, “Can you remember what happened last Tuesday at noon while you were sitting in the back room of Jane’s Restaurant?” This is an example of a question relying on
a. recognition. c. procedural memory.
b. implicit memory. d. recall.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Different Forms of Memory Testing

OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is an example of a recognition test?
a. “Which one of these individuals is the person you saw at the party?”
b. “Describe how you spent New Year’s Eve in 1994.”
c. “What is the formula needed for computing the area of a circle?”
d. “What political event does this song remind you of ?”

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Different Forms of Memory Testing

OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Familiarity (as opposed to source memory)
a. is essential for adequate performance on a recall test.
b. is established by “relational” or “elaborative” rehearsal.
c. is promoted by deep processing.
d. provides one of the important sources for recognition.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Familiarity and Source Memory

OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Herbert says, “I can’t figure out where I’ve seen that person before, but I know that I have seen her before!” Herbert
a. has an episodic memory for the face but no generic memory for the face.
b. has a sense of familiarity but no source memory.
c. would perform well on a recall test but not on a recognition test.
d. seems to have formed interim associations when he last encountered the face.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Familiarity and Source Memory

OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The fMRI results using a “remember/know” testing procedure suggest that
a. “remember” responses are associated with activity in the rhinal cortex at learning.
b. “know” responses are associated with activity in the hippocampus during learning.
c. “remember” responses are associated with activity in the hippocampal region during learning.
d. “know” responses are associated with anterior parahippocampus activity at learning.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Familiarity and Source Memory

OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In the “remember/know” paradigm, “know” responses are NOT
a. given when the participant knows he or she saw the stimulus before, because he or she can recall details about the context in which it was encountered.
b. given when a participant thinks the stimulus was previously encountered, but he or she cannot remember any contextual details.
c. associated with activity in the parahippocampal area.
d. associated with familiarity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Familiarity and Source Memory

OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. In the brain, familiarity is associated with activity of the ________, while recall is associated with activity of the ________.
a. hippocampus; amygdala c. rhinal cortex; hippocampus
b. hippocampus; rhinal cortex d. frontal lobe; parietal lobe

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Familiarity and Source Memory

OBJ:   7.5                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Lexical decision tasks require participants to
a. remember previously shown items.
b. quickly respond “old” or “new” to pictures of items.
c. provide the meaning of target words.
d. make “word” or “nonword” decisions when presented with letter strings.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Semantic Priming

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When a person experiences familiarity but no accompanying source memory, the effect can be far-reaching but is unlikely to include
a. the person believing that a familiar statement is true, even though he or she cannot remember where he or she heard it.
b. the person inaccurately accusing someone of a crime, merely because that person seems familiar.
c. the person’s preferences changing in favor of the familiar information.
d. explicit recollection of a person’s name or profession.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Implicit Memory

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following tasks is LEAST appropriate as a means of testing implicit memory?
a. lexical decision
b. word-stem completion
c. direct memory testing
d. repetition priming in tachistoscopic recognition

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Memory without Awareness

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Group 1 is shown a series of words (“down,” “right,” and “sad”) and is then asked to read the words aloud. Group 2 is shown a series of words (“up,” “left,” and “happy”) and is then asked to say aloud their antonyms (opposites). If we later test participants’ memories for the words, we will expect better performance for Group 1 if the test involves
a. identification of the words.
b. recall of the words.
c. cued recall of the words.
d. a standard recognition test for the words.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Memory without Awareness

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Abigail saw the stimulus “all________” and was asked to think of a word that began with these letters. This task is called
a. a lexical decision. c. semantic priming.
b. word-stem completion. d. explicit memory.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Memory without Awareness

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT likely to be an influence of implicit memory?
a. Participants know they have encountered the stimulus recently but cannot recall the details of the encounter.
b. Participants have a preference for a familiar stimulus in comparison to other, new stimuli.
c. Participants think a false, made-up phrase that they have heard recently is true.
d. Participants remember the circumstances in which they first encountered a stimulus.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Memory without Awareness

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE for explicit memory?
a. Explicit memory is typically revealed as a priming effect.
b. Explicit memory is usually assessed by direct, rather than indirect, testing.
c. Explicit memory is usually revealed by specifically urging someone to remember the past.
d. Explicit memory is often tested by recall testing or by a standard recognition test.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Memory without Awareness

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following methods is NOT considered evidence of an implicit memory?
a. declaring that George Washington was the first president of the United States
b. successfully riding a bike
c. believing something is true because you have previously heard it
d. classical conditioning

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Hierarchy of Memory Types

OBJ:   7.6                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Like patients with Korsakoff ’s syndrome, H.M. has difficulty with
a. implicit memory tasks. c. familiarity.
b. unconscious memory. d. recall.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   What If…       OBJ:   7.6 | 7.9

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In a lexical decision task, a researcher finds no effect of priming. Which of the following statements is a plausible explanation for this?
a. The researcher neglected to tell the participants that some of the test words had been recently encountered.
b. Some of the test words were high in frequency, but others were quite low in frequency.
c. When the priming words were first presented, participants failed to pay attention to the meaning of the words.
d. Participants initially heard the words via a tape-recorded list but were tested under conditions where the list was visually presented.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Semantic Priming

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following is most like an example of the influence of implicit memory?
a. Alexander was taking a true–false test. He didn’t know the answer to Question 12, so he skipped it.
b. Bill could not remember the answer for the question, but he did his best to reconstruct what the answer might be.
c. Not only did Dave remember the answer, he also remembered where the answer appeared on the textbook page.
d. Marcus was taking a multiple-choice test. He was having a hard time with Question 17, but Option D for that question seemed familiar, so he decided that D must be the correct answer.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   False Fame     OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Because of the influence of implicit memory, participants judge
a. unfamiliar sentences to be more believable.
b. familiar sentences to be more believable.
c. familiar sentences to be more believable, but only if they heard the sentence from a trustworthy source.
d. unfamiliar sentences to be more believable, but only if they have forgotten the source of the familiar sentences.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Implicit Memory and the “Illusion of Truth”

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Participants listen to a series of sentences played against a background of noise. Some of the sentences are identical to sentences heard earlier (without the noise), but other sentences heard in the noise are new. In this setting, participants will perceive
a. the unfamiliar sentences heard as louder than the familiar sentences.
b. the unfamiliar sentences as being clearer than the familiar sentences.
c. the noise as being less loud when it accompanies the familiar sentences.
d. no difference between the unfamiliar and the familiar sentences.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Attributing Implicit Memory to the Wrong Source

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Cindy and Linda are both eyewitnesses to a bank robbery. At the police station, they each select Mike from a police lineup and say, “He’s the thief!” It turns out, though, that Mike has been a customer at the store at which Cindy works while Linda has never before seen Mike. With this background
a. Cindy’s identification is more valuable to the police because she has an advantage of familiarity and context.
b. both identifications are likely to be accurate because face recognition draws on specialized mechanisms that work effectively with both familiar and unfamiliar faces.
c. Cindy’s identification is more valuable to the police because her recognition of Mike will be more fluent than Linda’s, thanks to the previous encounters.
d. Linda’s identification is more valuable to the police because Cindy may have been misled by the fact that Mike seemed familiar because of her other encounters with him.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Attributing Implicit Memory to the Wrong Source

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following statements about processing fluency is NOT accurate?
a. Processing fluency is associated with improved source memory.
b. Exposure to an item can cause it to be processed more fluently in the future.
c. Fluency can lead people to correctly identify an object as familiar.
d. Fluency can lead people to incorrectly identify an object as familiar.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Theoretical Treatments of Implicit Memory

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. If you perceive a stimulus and then later perceive the same stimulus again, you are likely to perceive the stimulus more quickly and more easily the second time. This benefit can be described as a(n)
a. context-dependent memory. c. increase in processing fluency.
b. explicit memory. d. recognition memory.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Processing Fluency

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Participants are asked to read a series of unrelated words out loud. According to the implicit memory hypothesis described in the text, this experience will help the participants
a. if they later try to perceive words synonymous with the words contained on the list.
b. the next time they try to perceive these same words.
c. the next time they try to remember the concepts associated with the words on the list.
d. if they try to recall a series of words related to the words on the list.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Processing Fluency

OBJ:   7.7                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. You are reading The Onion (a satirical news magazine) and see a headline that states “FDA Approves Napalm as Medication,” which you find interesting. Later on you are talking to several friends. One suggests that napalm is very dangerous and the other says it is not all that bad. You have a feeling that you read something about napalm lately and decide to chime in. Given what you know about familiarity, how would you likely respond to your friend’s debate?
a. You would say, “Napalm is definitely dangerous.”
b. You would be more likely to agree with the friend who says napalm is dangerous.
c. You are more likely to think your pro-napalm friend is correct but are unsure as to why you agree with him.
d. You would say, “I read an article in The Onion that says napalm is going to be used for medication. It was a hilarious spoof.”

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Implicit Memory and the “Illusion of Truth”

OBJ:   7.7 | 7.8          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In many circumstances, participants correctly recognize that a stimulus is familiar but they are mistaken in their beliefs about where and when they encountered the stimulus. This error is referred  to as
a. source confusion. c. amnesia.
b. origin error. d. false identification.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Attributing Implicit Memory to the Wrong Source

OBJ:   7.7 | 7.8          MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A friend of yours has recently grown a beard. When you encounter him, you realize at once that something about his face has changed but you are not certain what has changed. We can conclude from this that
a. you detected the decrease in fluency in your recognition of your friend’s face.
b. your memory of your friend’s face is influenced by context-dependent learning.
c. you are displaying an instance of source amnesia.
d. you are being influenced by the fact that there are fewer men with beards than men without beards.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Processing Fluency

OBJ:   7.7 | 7.8          MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What would be the most accurate way to describe familiarity?
a. a feeling triggered by a stimulus
b. a conclusion one draws about a stimulus
c. an effortful and erroneous process
d. a retrieval strategy

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Nature of Familiarity

OBJ:   7.8                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The famous patient H.M. was unable to remember events he experienced after his brain surgery. The surgery apparently produced
a. repression. c. retrograde amnesia.
b. anterograde amnesia. d. infantile amnesia.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Amnesia         OBJ:   7.9

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Mark suffered a blow to the head many weeks ago, causing retrograde amnesia. Which of the following incidences is Mark LEAST likely to remember?
a. facts that he learned in the month after his injury, including the layout of the hospital in which he received care
b. any explicit memory for an event that took place just after his injury
c. specific episodes in the 2 weeks following his injury
d. events that took place just prior to his injury

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Amnesia         OBJ:   7.9

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Theodore has suffered from Korsakoff’s amnesia for the last decade. Theodore is LEAST likely to do which of the following actions?
a. accurately recall events from early childhood
b. hold a coherent conversation lasting many minutes
c. recall events that occurred last month
d. recognize people he met 18 years ago

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Amnesia         OBJ:   7.9

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. H.M. had much of his hippocampus removed to alleviate seizures. An unfortunate side effect was impaired explicit memory, even though later testing revealed his implicit memory was spared. In order to establish a double dissociation, which of the following patients would need to be found?
a. a patient with intact implicit memory and intact explicit memory
b. a patient with an intact hippocampus and explicit memory deficits
c. a patient with intact explicit memory and impaired implicit memory
d. a patient with explicit memory intact and a damaged hippocampus

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Disrupted Episodic Memory, but Spared Semantic Memory

OBJ:   7.9                 MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Double dissociations in memory are important because they
a. provide strong evidence for separate memory systems.
b. remain unchallenged by contemporary standards.
c. provided early evidence of the extent of H.M.’s amnesia.
d. suggest that damage to any area of the brain will impact all memory functioning.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Disrupted Episodic Memory, but Spared Semantic Memory

OBJ:   7.9                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Amnesia can provide insight into the role of memory in our everyday lives. For example, if H.M. was having a conversation with a friend and noticed the friend looking off in the distance and smiling, he was most likely to
a. attribute the smile to the funny joke he made a few minutes ago.
b. not know why his friend was smiling.
c. smile back because H.M. had learned to smile when others smiled.
d. forget the conversation immediately, because his attention had been turned to his friend’s smile.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Anterograde Amnesia

OBJ:   7.9                 MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about the role the hippocampus plays in memory?
a. Hippocampus damage is associated with retrograde amnesia.
b. The hippocampus is important only for old memories from months and years back.
c. The hippocampus plays an important role in memory consolidation.
d. Korsakoff patients have little to no damage in hippocampal areas.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Anterograde Amnesia

OBJ:   7.9                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Current evidence indicates that patients suffering from Korsakoff’s amnesia
a. show greater disruption in implicit memory than in explicit memory.
b. suffer from disruption in both implicit and explicit memory.
c. show intact implicit memory with perceptual cues but disrupted implicit memory with conceptual cues.
d. have preserved implicit memory despite severe disruption in explicit memory.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Anterograde Amnesia: What Kind of Memory Is Disrupted?

OBJ:   7.9                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In a classic demonstration, Claparède showed that
a. the behavior of a Korsakoff ’s amnesia patient can be changed by a recent event even though the patient shows no signs of remembering that event.
b. Korsakoff ’s amnesiacs show more severe retrograde amnesia than anterograde amnesia.
c. Korsakoff ’s amnesiacs show an extraordinary ability to recall their plans for the future even though they cannot remember their own pasts.
d. the behavior of a Korsakoff ’s amnesia patient is less well organized than clinicians have theorized.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Anterograde Amnesia: What Kind of Memory Is Disrupted?

OBJ:   7.9                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. If you organized a game of Trivial Pursuit® with a group of Korsakoff patients, which of the following actions is LEAST likely to occur?
a. The patients do very poorly at the beginning.
b. The patients get better if questions are recycled.
c. The patients make up excuses about the source of their knowledge.
d. The patients do well on current events.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Anterograde Amnesia: What Kind of Memory Is Disrupted?

OBJ:   7.9                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. H.M. had part of his hippocampus removed, which left him with
a. anterograde amnesia.
b. retrograde amnesia.
c. both retro and anterograde amnesia.
d. language disabilities.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   What If…       OBJ:   7.9

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Jerry, a lawyer, has read about a case (Jones v. Arizona) that he thinks will help one of his clients. Jerry wants to make sure that he remembers to discuss the case with his client and that he brings up the case in his opening statement in court. His best approach is likely to be to
a. repeat to himself, over and over again, “Don’t forget Jones v. Arizona.”
b. use a mnemonic device, like the peg-word system, and hope that his client and the judge do not think him odd for saying “One is a bun . . .” in court.
c. build multiple retrieval paths between the new case and the situations in which he wishes to use it.
d. put the case book containing Jones v. Arizona on his desk with all of the other books and hope he finds it when his client arrives and when he writes his opening statement.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Optimal Learning

OBJ:   7.10               MSC:  Applying

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Considering the influence of encoding specificity and context dependence on learning and memory, provide three tips for students (or yourself!) who are studying for an upcoming exam.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Learning as Preparation for Retrieval

OBJ:   7.1 | 7.10        MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Your friend asks you what you ate for breakfast yesterday morning. Describe how you might search and retrieve that information by considering a spreading activation network of long-term memories.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Spreading Activation                                 OBJ:    7.3

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. If given a lexical decision task, would you respond faster to the pair “iPod: Music” or “Dog: Rug”? Explain your answer by including

1) a description of the lexical decision procedure.

2) an explanation of semantic priming.

3) a reference to the spreading activation network.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Semantic Priming                            OBJ:   7.4

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Describe the “remember/know” paradigm by answering the following questions:
  2. What is the primary task in this paradigm?
  3. On what mnemonic process does “remembering” depend? What about “knowing”?
  4. What does this paradigm tell us about the nature of memory?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Familiarity and Source Memory     OBJ:   7.5

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Describe the case of H.M. Describe two memory tests that H.M. would not be able to complete and two tasks that he might successfully complete. Based on your knowledge of memory and neuroscience, explain why he would show this pattern of results.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   What If…       OBJ:   7.5 | 7.6 | 7.9  MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Compare and contrast implicit and explicit memory. Include in your discussion a description of the various testing methods that are used to assess each type of memory.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Implicit Memory                             OBJ:   7.6

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Imagine that you are hired at a public relations firm to spread the message that Sour Patch Kids ® are a healthy alternative to vegetables. Using your knowledge of the principles of familiarity, how might you go about convincing people that this is true?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Implicit Memory                             OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Imagine you are on a jury and subjected to conflicting eyewitness testimonies. One individual, Paul, says, “The defendant told me he took the money.” The defendant claims that he is innocent, that Paul is misremembering, and that, in fact, their mutual friend Jake is the one who took the money. Given your knowledge of source memory, describe how this mix-up could occur. As a juror, what would you do in this case?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Implicit Memory | Amnesia            OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Explain the steps that lead to a judgment of familiarity. How might you manipulate those steps to create an illusion of familiarity?

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Nature of Familiarity               OBJ:   7.7

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Argue in favor of or against the statement “Familiarity might be best classified as a conclusion you draw, rather than a feeling.” Back up your thesis by including relevant empirical evidence.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Nature of Familiarity               OBJ:   7.8

MSC:  Evaluating