Cognitive Neuroscience The Biology of The Mind 4th Edition By Mangun – Ivry – Test Bank

$25.00

Category:

Description

Purchase for Download full PDF With answers

 

 

Cognitive Neuroscience The Biology of The Mind 4th Edition By Mangun – Ivry – Test Bank

Chapter 6: Object Recognition
MULTIPLE CHOICE
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Describe the roles of the ventral (occipitotemporal) and dorsal (occipitoparietal) streams
2. Understand how studies with lesion patients can inform our understanding of normal and abnormal
object recognition
3. Identify neural regions that play a central role in object recognition
4. Describe neurons in the temporal and parietal lobes in terms of their physiological properties and
relationship to the visual system
5. Describe and differentiate between various neuropsychological impairments, including various
agnosias, ataxias, and alexia
6. Understand object constancy, view dependency, and view invariance
7. Differentiate between “grandmother cell” and ensemble theories of recognition
8. Define and provide examples of category-specific deficits
9. Describe evidence for the specialization of the FFA for face processing
10. Describe evidence for the specialization of the PPA for processing information about spatial relations
11. Describe and distinguish between analytic and holistic processing
12. Describe and distinguish between encoding and decoding models in fMRI
13. Discuss potential uses of “mind reading” technologies
1. The term associative agnosia is reserved for patients who
a. have perceptual impairments due to problems with the ventral stream.
b. cannot recognize objects despite having normal perceptual representations.
c. have perceptual impairments due to problems with the dorsal stream.
d. cannot recognize objects due to compromised perceptual representations.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
2. A patient like G.S. who had visual object agnosia would have difficulty in identifying an object unless
a. the object had been familiar to him prior to his brain injury.
b. he was asked to describe the object’s use rather than its specific name.
c. he was permitted to touch the object before making a response.
d. the object was presented in the contralesional side of the visual field.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
3. When her telephone rings, a patient who has been diagnosed with visual object agnosia immediately
picks up the receiver and answers it correctly. Why doesn’t this person show any signs of an object
recognition deficit in this scenario?
a. The patient can still recognize extremely familiar objects, such as her own belongings.
b. The patient is impaired only in the recognition of faces, not other classes of objects.
c. The patient can use the sound of the ringing telephone to cue its recognition.
d. The patient can recognize objects as long as they remain stationary.
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Applying
4. When a picture of a hammer is placed in front of Patient H, she is unable to identify it. How can you
determine if her difficulty is in recognizing the object or in simply remembering its name?
a. Ask her to demonstrate its use rather than identifying it.
b. Ask her to close her eyes before attempting to name it.
c. Ask her to copy the picture of the object instead of naming it.
d. Ask her to trace the outline of the object instead of naming it.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Applying
5. Anatomical outputs from the occipital lobe follow two major axon bundles that terminate in the
________ and ________.
a. anterior parietal lobe ; posterior frontal lobe
b. posterior frontal lobe ; inferior temporal lobe
c. inferior temporal lobe ; posterior parietal lobe
d. posterior parietal lobe ; anterior parietal lobe
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
6. With regard to the two main output pathways from the occipital lobe, ________ is to ________ as
dorsal is to ventral.
a. “where” ; “what” c. “who” ; “what”
b. “what” ; “where” d. “what” ; “who”
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Understanding
7. The “what” versus “where” distinction is supported by single-cell recording studies showing that
neurons in the ________ lobes have receptive fields that are almost always located in the fovea, where
high-acuity vision takes place.
a. anterior occipital c. posterior parietal
b. inferior temporal d. superior temporal
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
8. During a single-cell recording study, you locate a neuron in one of the two main output pathways from
the occipital cortex that has a large receptive field in the central part of the visual field. The cell
probably lies inside the ________ pathway and is specialized for ________.
a. dorsal ; object recognition c. parietal ; spatial layout
b. ventral ; spatial layout d. temporal ; object recognition
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 3 MSC: Understanding
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
9. Eliminating a gnostic unit would
a. slightly disrupt recognition of a region of space.
b. slightly disrupt recognition of a complex object.
c. completely disrupt recognition of a region of space.
d. completely disrupt recognition of a complex object.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Applying
10. Which of the following is NOT a problem with the idea that single neurons encode the mental
representations for all possible complex visual stimuli?
a. Loss of any single visual recognition neuron would have too great an impact on
perception.
b. These single neurons would have to adapt as the objects they respond to change over time.
c. There is no neurophysiological evidence that visual cells respond to specific types of
stimuli.
d. This approach cannot explain how we recognize novel objects.
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Understanding
11. According to ensemble theories of object recognition, it is possible to confuse similar-looking objects
because
a. objects that appear similar activate overlapping networks of cells.
b. similar-looking objects activate the same grandmother cell.
c. cells in the extrastriate cortex have large receptive fields and therefore low spatial
resolution.
d. object constancy prevents the visual system from encoding fine details about objects.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Understanding
12. Pohl (1973) conducted a study of the “what” and “where” pathways in brain-lesioned monkeys using
two different tasks: a landmark discrimination task, which required a visuospatial judgment, and an
object discrimination task, which required object recognition. He found that monkeys with temporal
lobe lesions became severely impaired in learning the ________ task but not the ________ task.
Monkeys with posterior parietal lesions showed the ________ pattern of performance.
a. object discrimination ; landmark discrimination ; same
b. landmark discrimination ; object discrimination ; same
c. object discrimination ; landmark discrimination ; opposite
d. landmark discrimination ; object discrimination ; opposite
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
13. The patient D.F., studied by Goodale and Milner (1982), had severe problems with object recognition.
When presented with a circular block into which a slot had been cut,
a. D.F. was able to insert a card into the slot when asked to do so, even though she was
unable to follow the instruction to orient the card so that it would fit.
b. D.F. was able to orient the card so that it would fit into the slot but was not able to insert
the card into the slot when asked to do so.
c. D.F. was unable to deduce that this object could be used to contain slips of paper upon
touching it.
d. D.F. was able to deduce that this object could be used to contain slips of paper but was
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
unable to provide a name for the object upon touching it.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 5 MSC: Remembering
14. A role of the dorsal visual system in computing the way in which a movement should be produced
argues for a dichotomy between
a. “why” and “where”. c. “what” and “how”.
b. “where” and “what”. d. “how” and “why”.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Understanding
15. Optic ataxia is an inability to
a. name familiar objects.
b. read, acquired as an adult.
c. recognize familiar visual objects.
d. use visual information to guide movements.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
16. Optic ataxia is to associative visual agnosia as ________ lesions are to ________ lesions.
a. posterior parietal ; superior temporal c. dorsal pathway ; ventral pathway
b. inferior parietal ; posterior temporal d. ventral pathway ; dorsal pathway
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 5 MSC: Understanding
17. ________ is the ability to recognize an object under many different viewing conditions and in many
different contexts.
a. Ensemble coding c. Apperceptive agnosia
b. Object constancy d. Repetition suppression
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
18. An undercover agent notices a green car parked outside her apartment building when she leaves for
work at 8:00 a.m. Later she notices the same car in a store parking lot and becomes suspicious that she
is being followed. The agent’s ability to recognize the car under these two different circumstances is
an example of
a. viewer-centered object recognition. c. perceptual categorization.
b. object constancy. d. property-based organization.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Applying
19. Which of the following is NOT a major reason why the visual information reflected by an object will
vary over different viewings?
a. Objects can be viewed from multiple orientations.
b. Objects are seen in the context of other objects, and they may partially occlude one
another.
c. Objects are associated with view-dependent major axes.
d. Objects can be viewed under different illumination conditions.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Understanding
20. The statement “recognition of a visual pattern at a later time occurs only if you can match the stimulus
to its exact stored representation” is most consistent with which theory of pattern perception?
a. view-dependent c. recognition-by-parts
b. object-centered d. semantic categorization
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Understanding
21. One limitation of view-dependent theories of object recognition is that
a. objects can be seen without a particular view.
b. separate templates must be generated and stored for each different view of a given object.
c. this approach argues that recognition depends on decomposing a scene or object into its
constituent parts.
d. this approach is based on the idea that object recognition depends on the detection of
invariant stimulus properties, such as symmetry.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Understanding
22. According to ________ theories of object recognition, when one sees an object such as a bicycle,
recognition depends on the ability to detect properties that do not depend on specific viewing
conditions.
a. view-invariant c. feature-analysis
b. viewer-centered d. perceptual-categorization
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Understanding
23. In fMRI studies, when a stimulus is repeated, the BOLD response can be ________ for the second
presentation compared to the first. This is known as the ________.
a. lower ; repetition enhancement effect
b. lower ; repetition suppression effect
c. higher ; repetition enhancement effect
d. higher ; repetition suppression effect
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
24. With regard to perception, the term feature refers to
a. the most important aspect of a figure, such as its identity or name.
b. a complex pattern of sensory stimulation, such as a face or word.
c. any combination of elements that requires attention for processing, such as the conjunction
of color and shape.
d. a fundamental component of a visual pattern, such as edge orientation or color.
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
25. Which of the following visual object properties best illustrates the concept of a visually invariant
property?
a. the context in which an object appears
b. shading on an object’s surface
c. the major and minor axes of an object
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
d. the spatial orientation of an object
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Understanding
26. After suffering from a focal brain injury, a patient has difficulty in recognizing visually presented
objects, despite normal acuity and color perception. Notably, she has severe difficulty in judging
whether two pictures, each showing a different view, represent the same object. What is the most
probable diagnosis?
a. apperceptive agnosia c. synesthesia
b. associative agnosia d. prosopagnosia
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 6 | LO 8 MSC: Applying
27. Warrington (1985) proposed an anatomical model of the cognitive operations necessary to explain
object recognition. The first stage in this model involves the detection and categorization of visually
invariant information, which occurs in the ________ hemisphere; the second stage involves the
semantic categorization of visual input, which occurs in ________ hemisphere(s).
a. left ; the right c. right ; the left
b. left ; both the left and right d. right ; both the left and right
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Remembering
28. Generally, in anatomical studies of object recognition deficits, ________ posterior lesions are
associated with ________ agnosia.
a. left hemisphere ; apperceptive c. right hemisphere ; apperceptive
b. left hemisphere ; associative d. right hemisphere ; associative
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 5 | LO 8 MSC: Remembering
29. According to Warrington’s model, patients with left posterior lesions should be particularly impaired
in
a. recognizing the visually invariant properties of objects.
b. linking functionally associated visual inputs.
c. matching different views of an object as representing the same item.
d. segmenting a complex drawing into its component parts.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 5 MSC: Understanding
30. A patient who has difficulty matching pictures of the same object taken from different vantage points
may be showing which dysfunction?
a. anomia c. apperceptive agnosia
b. alexia d. associative agnosia
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
31. Which of the following statements does NOT explain why some patients are visually agnosic for living
(animate) things versus nonliving (inanimate) things?
a. Knowledge about different categories of objects may be represented in different parts of
the brain.
b. Inanimate objects may activate kinesthetic representations that animate objects do not.
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
c. Animate objects may share more visual features than inanimate objects.
d. There are more familiar animate objects in the environment than inanimate objects.
ANS: D DIF: Difficult
REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 8 MSC: Understanding
32. Humphreys and Riddoch (1994) described a patient with a syndrome they called integrative agnosia,
which was characterized by difficulty in
a. linking visual percepts to long-term knowledge about objects.
b. combining parts of objects into coherent whole percepts.
c. drawing and copying pictures of objects.
d. matching different views of an object as representing the same item.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 | LO 6 MSC: Remembering
33. A person with apperceptive visual agnosia has difficulty in recognizing drawings of familiar objects,
such as an apple. If she were asked to imagine an apple rather than to inspect a picture of an apple, you
would expect to find that
a. she can generate visual images normally because agnosia does not affect internally
generated information.
b. she has great difficulty in generating visual images as well as visual perception because
the two skills share common brain regions.
c. she can generate visual images correctly and easily, but she cannot recognize them
because of a memory deficit.
d. she has great difficulty with generating images of faces but not other kinds of objects.
ANS: B DIF: Medium
REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 5 MSC: Understanding
34. ________ is to ________ as face recognition is to object recognition.
a. Agnosia ; prosopagnosia c. Alexia ; agnosia
b. Prosopagnosia ; agnosia d. Agnosia ; alexia
ANS: B DIF: Medium
REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 5 | LO 8 MSC: Understanding
35. Why do people fail to notice when the mouth and eyes of an inverted face remain upright?
a. Humans do not perceive eyes or mouths in faces.
b. The overall configuration remains the same.
c. They have apperceptive agnosia.
d. They have prosopagnosia.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 11 MSC: Understanding
36. Patients with prosopagnosia typically have difficulty recognizing
a. the faces of famous people but not those of their family.
b. the faces of their family but not those of their friends.
c. the faces of their friends but not those of famous people.
d. the faces of both their friends and famous people.
ANS: D DIF: Medium
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Understanding
37. A major source of evidence against the idea that faces are processed in a special brain region in
humans is that the candidate region
a. is used to process a variety of perceptual stimuli in nonhuman primates.
b. is also involved in processing highly familiar places.
c. is recruited when people have to make discriminations among highly familiar stimuli.
d. varies significantly in location from person to person.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Understanding
38. When a person who has learned to read proficiently subsequently develops reading problems as a
result of brain injury, this deficit is called
a. acquired agraphia. c. acquired alexia.
b. apperceptive agnosia. d. apperceptive ataxia.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 5 MSC: Remembering
39. Prosopagnosia is to alexia as ________ is to ________.
a. face recognition ; reading c. writing ; reading
b. reading ; face recognition d. reading ; writing
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 5 MSC: Understanding
40. Which of the following is a brain region that would likely be implicated in processing spatial relations
in an outdoor scene?
a. the fusiform place area (FPA)
b. the parahippocampal place area (PPA)
c. the fusiform face area (FFA)
d. the parahippocampal face area (PFA)
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 10 MSC: Remembering
41. A researcher wishes to investigate the visual processing of bodies in the human brain using TMS.
Where should he or she stimulate?
a. on the border of the occipital and temporal lobes
b. on the border of the occipital and parietal lobes
c. on the border of the temporal and parietal lobes
d. on the border of the parietal and frontal lobes
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 8 MSC: Applying
42. Which of the following factors does NOT restrict our ability to decode information from the brain?
a. the spatial resolution of our equipment
b. the duration of the thought to be decoded
c. the accuracy of the model for how the brain encodes information
d. the BOLD signal being small for single events
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Mind Reading
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Understanding
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
43. To create an effective encoding model of the brain’s visual activity, what properties should be used to
model V1 voxel activity?
a. semantic properties c. face properties
b. receptive field properties d. place properties
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Mind Reading
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Applying
44. Which characteristic of brain activity is promising for the potential to decode dreams in the future?
a. Activity patterns during perception resemble those generated when people imagine the
same object.
b. Activity levels during perception resemble those generated when people imagine the same
object.
c. Activity patterns in V1 resemble patterns in the temporal lobe.
d. Activity levels in V1 resemble levels in the temporal lobe.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Mind Reading
OBJ: LO 13 MSC: Applying
45. When patients in vegetative states show typical brain activity after being asked to imagine something,
how do we know this is not automatic priming?
a. The patient’s eyes are open.
b. These patients do not show priming.
c. The patient responded with volition.
d. The patient’s brain would not be active if automatic priming was occurring.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Mind Reading
OBJ: LO 13 MSC: Understanding
TRUE/FALSE
1. Selective damage to the primary visual cortex typically leads to visual agnosia.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 5 MSC: Remembering
2. The dorsal visual pathway is associated with the parietal lobe.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
3. The results of most single-cell studies of temporal lobe neurons support the gnostic unit hypothesis.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 7 MSC: Remembering
4. A major distinction in the study of visual agnosia is that between apperceptive agnosia and associative
agnosia.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
5. Patients with associative agnosia can typically describe the functions of objects if they are given the
names of the objects verbally.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
6. Category-specific deficits may be an emergent property of the fact that different kinds of information
are needed to recognize living and nonliving objects.
ANS: T DIF: Easy
REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Remembering
7. Synesthesia is a deficit in the ability to recognize faces that cannot be directly attributed to
deterioration in intellectual function.
ANS: F DIF: Easy
REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Remembering
8. The fusiform face area is part of the dorsal stream.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 9 MSC: Remembering
9. Three primary localized regions include face, place, and clothes areas.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 9 | LO 10 MSC: Remembering
10. An encoding model of brain activity predicts brain activity from a given stimulus.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Mind Reading
OBJ: LO 12 MSC: Remembering
SHORT ANSWER
1. Describe the visual system’s dorsal and ventral pathways. In your answer, describe the kinds of
information that are processed in each pathway and the lobes of the brain that are involved. Give an
example of an experiment discussed in class or your text that supports this distinction in the visual
system.
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 2 | LO 3 MSC: Analyzing
2. How do receptive fields of cells in the ventral and dorsal streams differ? How do these characteristics
support the functions of the ventral and dorsal streams?
ANS:
Answer will vary.
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
DIF: Medium REF: Multiple Pathways for Visual Perception
OBJ: LO 1 | LO 4 MSC: Evaluating
3. You, a neurologist, have just met a patient who suffered a stroke last year and is having trouble
identifying objects. Could this person be experiencing visual agnosia? What tasks could you ask the
patient to perform to help you determine the source of the problem?
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Failures in Object Recognition: The Big Picture
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Analyzing
4. Why is object constancy a difficult computational problem for the visual system? Describe some
potential changes that can occur when we view the same object under different circumstances. How do
view-dependent and view-invariant approaches to perception explain object constancy?
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Easy REF: Computational Problems in Object Recognition
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Analyzing
5. There is some evidence for a double dissociation between agnosia for animate (living) things
compared to inanimate (nonliving) things. Does this mean that there are distinct brain systems for
representing these two categories? Why or why not?
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 8 MSC: Evaluating
6. Explain a category-based and property-based organization of semantic knowledge. Discuss evidence in
favor of each account.
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Category Specificity in Agnosia: The Devil Is in the Details
OBJ: LO 7 | LO 8 MSC: Analyzing
7. It has been suggested that the fusiform gyrus is specialized for processing faces. What are the sources
of evidence for and against this position?
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Easy REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 9 | LO 11 MSC: Analyzing
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
8. What categories of visual stimuli have regions of cortex that are activated when a person views
examples from each category? Describe one approach that can establish a causal role of each region
for perceiving these categories. Why is this evidence that these regions are involved in processing
these categories?
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Processing Faces: Are Faces Special?
OBJ: LO 9 | LO 10 MSC: Evaluating
9. How can researchers use our knowledge of the visual system to maximize the decoding of brain
activity? What factors currently limit decoding performance?
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Mind Reading OBJ: LO 12
MSC: Analyzing
10. How can decoding techniques allow us to communicate with patients in a vegetative state? Include an
explanation of why we know patients are not just showing automatic brain responses.
ANS:
Answer will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Mind Reading OBJ: LO 13
MSC: Analyzing
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
Chapter 7: Attention
MULTIPLE CHOICE
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Describe what attention is and how it was initially studied
2. Identify the brain structures that are involved in attention
3. Discuss key findings with regard to patients who have problems with attention
4. Understand the different models that have been offered to explain how attention operates
5. Identify the neural mechanisms of attention
6. Identify attentional control networks
1. The main deficit in Balint’s syndrome is that patients can focus attention on only
a. contralesional objects. c. one object at a time.
b. ipsilesional objects. d. the foveal part of the visual field.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Introduction
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
2. The term ________ refers to the operations involved when we select for further processing a limited
subset of information from the total information available to us from our sensory systems and stored
mental representations.
a. arousal c. attention
b. vigilance d. cuing
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Introduction
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
3. ________ refers to the ability to choose certain sensory inputs for further information processing while
ignoring others.
a. Vigilance c. Visual search
b. Arousal d. Selective attention
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Introduction
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
4. Attention can be divided into two broad categories:
a. neglect and extinction. c. cortical and subcortical.
b. voluntary and reflexive. d. conscious and unconscious.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Introduction
OBJ: LO 1 MSC: Remembering
5. Which component of attention is associated with the pulvinar?
a. the ability to engage visual attention at a particular location in the visual field
b. the capacity to move the focus of visual attention from one location to another
c. the ability to disengage attention from a particular location in the visual field
d. the ability to locate a conjunction target that is embedded in a field of distracters
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: The Anatomy of Attention
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
6. Injury to which brain structure results in a deficit in moving focused attention from a particular
location in the visual field to another?
a. the posterior parietal lobe
b. the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus
c. the superior colliculus
d. the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Attentional Control Networks
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Understanding
7. Joan is a patient who had a stroke in her right parietal lobe and has extinction as a result of her injury.
When placed in a driving simulator she would be most likely to miss which stimulus when stopped at a
virtual crosswalk and staring straight ahead? (Note: For this question, assume drivers sit on the left
side of the car.)
a. a pedestrian on the driver side
b. a pedestrian on the passenger side
c. a pedestrian on the driver side when a second pedestrian is on the passenger side at the
same time
d. a pedestrian on the passenger side when a second pedestrian is on the driver side at the
same time
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: The Neuropsychology of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Applying
8. Patients with extinction are unable to detect a visual stimulus presented on the contralesional side of
space if
a. the stimulus is presented alone in the visual field.
b. this stimulus is presented at the same time as a stimulus on the ipsilesional side of the
visual field.
c. there is no cue that precedes the stimulus.
d. the stimulus is presented with another at a more lateral position in the contralesional visual
field.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Neuropsychology of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
9. The involuntary failure to attend to sensory stimuli presented on the side of space opposite to the site
of brain injury (in the absence of sensory problems) is called ________ syndrome.
a. agnosia c. blindsight
b. neglect d. hemianopia
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: The Neuropsychology of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
10. The primary functional problem that results from damage to the attentional network and that produces
neglect syndrome is that patients
a. fail to process sensory information from the ipsilesional side of space.
b. fail to process sensory information from the contralesional side of space.
c. cannot disengage attention from information in the ipsilesional side of space.
d. cannot disengage attention from information in the contralesional side of space.
ANS: C DIF: Medium
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
REF: The Neuropsychology of Attention | Attentional Control Networks
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Understanding
11. The observation that extinction is worse when identical, rather than different, stimuli are
simultaneously presented to the ipsilesional and contralesional sides of the visual field indicates that
a. neglected stimuli do not undergo perceptual processing in the absence of focused
attention.
b. neglected stimuli undergo perceptual processing in the absence of focused attention.
c. neglected stimuli can capture attention involuntarily.
d. neglected stimuli are often confused with stimuli that are successfully attended.
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: The Neuropsychology of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Analyzing
12. When Bisiach and Luzzatti (1978) asked patients with the neglect syndrome to describe their own
mental images of the Italian city in which they lived, the researchers found that
a. these patients demonstrated a deficit in moving attention from one location in their mental
images to another.
b. patients had great difficulty in generating mental images in general.
c. there was no evidence of neglect for internally generated mental images.
d. the patients also neglected the contralesional side of their own mental images.
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: The Neuropsychology of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
13. Patients with neglect have deficits in _________ attention and those with Balint’s syndrome have
deficits in _________ attention.
a. object-based ; scene-based c. visual ; kinesthetic
b. scene-based ; object-based d. kinesthetic ; visual
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
14. In one of the earliest studies of visual attention, Helmholtz (1894) constructed a screen on which
letters were painted at various distances from the center. Following a brief illumination, he found that
a. he could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better than letters outside,
even when his eyes remained at the center of the screen.
b. although he was unable to remember all the letters on the screen, he could be cued to
attend to the top, middle, or bottom row by a tone played just before the illumination.
c. he could perceive letters located within the focus of his attention better than letters outside,
but only if he moved his eyes to bring the letters to the center of his visual field.
d. he could remember all the letters on the screen, demonstrating that visual iconic memory
increases in capacity with attentional focus.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
15. During a particularly boring lecture, you carefully note the time on a clock that is mounted on the side
wall of the classroom while keeping your eyes fixated on the professor’s face. This is an example of
a. covert attention. c. extinction.
b. inhibition of return. d. conjunction search.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
16. The ability to direct attention independently of gaze or eye fixation is called
a. overt attention. c. the attentional spotlight.
b. covert attention. d. visual search.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
17. You are sitting in a coffee shop talking to your best friend while everyone around you talks and music
is playing in the background. The fact that you can attend to your friend and ignore the other sounds
around you is best described by which of the following items?
a. dichotic listening c. the cocktail party effect
b. vigilance d. endogenous cuing
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
18. Your brother sees that you are talking to a friend through a Bluetooth piece in your left ear while the
news is playing out in a room. What is he likely to observe after you hang up?
a. You do not remember anything.
b. You can accurately report the news for the day.
c. You can remember the details of your friend’s conversation.
d. You are equally accurate at reporting what happened in the world today and what your
friend spoke to you about.
ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
19. Which of the following phenomena is the most problematic for a strong early-selection view of
attention?
a. endogenous cuing c. exogenous cuing
b. the cocktail party phenomenon d. intrusion of the unattended
ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
20. ________ is the idea that a stimulus does not have to be completely analyzed before it can be either
selected for further processing or rejected as irrelevant.
a. Sensory arousal c. Early selection
b. Dichotic perception d. Late selection
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
21. In dichotic listening studies, it has been found that a participant usually notices when his or her own
name is embedded in the ignored channel. This finding is considered evidence that
a. selection occurs late in perceptual processing.
b. selection occurs early in perceptual processing.
c. there is a separate cognitive system for name recognition.
d. recognition of familiar stimuli does not require attention.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
22. To explain dichotic listening findings such as the observation that a participant usually notices when
his or her own name is embedded in the ignored channel, Treisman (1969) proposed that
a. unattended information is not completely excluded from higher analysis, but merely
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
attenuated.
b. attention can be explained only in terms of late, rather than early, selection mechanisms.
c. relatively unique types of stimuli, such as names, do not require attention for processing.
d. familiar stimuli that have been learned previously by participants do not require attention
for processing.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
23. Both early- and late-selection models of attention share the idea that
a. a large proportion of incoming sensory information is filtered from further analysis before
meaning is extracted.
b. information is excluded from higher-level processing only after stimuli have been
identified.
c. the human information processing system cannot fully process every piece of information
it receives.
d. semantic encoding and analysis precede selection in information processing.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
24. All of the following describe differences between early-selection and late-selection models of attention
EXCEPT
a. early-selection models argue that selection occurs before semantic analysis of incoming
stimuli.
b. late-selection models argue that human information processing has limited capacity,
whereas early-selection models argue that capacity is unlimited.
c. early-selection models argue that all higher-level information processing requires the use
of attention.
d. late-selection models argue that a stimulus may be categorized or even identified before
selection.
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Analyzing
25. In attention experiments, cues that correctly predict the location of the target are called ________,
whereas cues that predict other locations are called ________.
a. endogenous ; exogenous c. valid ; invalid
b. benefits ; costs d. overt ; covert
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
26. Which of the following phenomena is the most consciously mediated?
a. inhibition of return c. exogenous cuing
b. reflexive attention d. endogenous cuing
ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
27. The process of directing one’s attention to a specific external stimulus is called
a. vigilance. c. orienting.
b. arousal. d. extinction.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
28. One finding demonstrated by the Posner spatial cuing task (1980) is that
a. the focus of attention can be moved separately from eye fixation.
b. valid cues cause a slowing in reaction time to detect targets.
c. invalid cues cause a speeding of reaction time to detect targets.
d. neutral cues produce the greatest change in reaction time.
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
29. The Posner spatial cuing task (1980) showed that cuing participants to the location of an upcoming
target
a. increased reaction time to detect the target.
b. decreased reaction time to detect the target.
c. failed to affect reaction time but did increase detection accuracy.
d. failed to affect either reaction time or detection accuracy.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
30. Results of the Posner spatial cuing task showed that cuing participants to the location of an upcoming
target decreased their reaction time to detect it because attention enhanced perceptual processing for
the target. This finding is most consistent with ________ models of attention.
a. gating c. early-selection
b. bottleneck d. late-selection
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Understanding
31. You are working diligently in the chemistry laboratory when suddenly a small explosion occurs in the
rear of the room, immediately and automatically capturing your attention. This is an example of
a. inhibition of return. c. voluntary orienting.
b. exogenous cuing. d. controlled processing.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Applying
32. On one trial of the Posner spatial cuing task, a flash of light validly cued the location of an upcoming
target and enhanced the participant’s reaction time to detect that target. Which of the following
statements about the participant’s subsequent responding to this location is most accurate?
a. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will also be enhanced.
b. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will be unaffected.
c. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will be inhibited from
now on.
d. Detection of targets that appear in this position on subsequent trials will be temporarily
inhibited.
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Evaluating
33. The observation that participants are actually slower to detect targets that appear at recent previously
attended locations is called
a. attentional fatigue. c. inhibition of return.
b. exogenous cuing. d. pop-out search.
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
34. Alexandra believes that the effects of attention on perception occur very quickly on a fine temporal
scale. Which of the following techniques should she use to investigate the changes in perceptual
processing that may accompany focused attention?
a. CT (computed tomography) c. MEG (magnetoencephalography)
b. PET (positron emission tomography) d. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
35. Techniques such as EEG are particularly well suited to studies of attention. However, one difficulty in
using these techniques is that
a. one must also use a structural neuroimaging technique to isolate the source of attentional
activation to a specific brain structure.
b. one must also use a functional neuroimaging technique to isolate the source of attentional
activation to a specific brain structure.
c. EEG is an expensive and extremely invasive neuroimaging technique.
d. electrical signals in the brain are not affected by the use of focused attention.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Evaluating
36. Hillyard and colleagues (1973) recorded event-related potentials (ERP) from participants while they
performed a dichotic listening task. When comparing the ERPs collected when participants attended to
a given signal to when they ignored this signal, the researchers found that auditory ERPs
a. began later for attended versus unattended signals.
b. began earlier for attended versus unattended signals.
c. were larger for attended versus unattended signals.
d. were smaller for attended versus unattended signals.
ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
37. In ERP studies of performance on the dichotic listening task, Hillyard and colleagues (1973) found
that attended signals are accompanied by a negative-polarity waveform that is relatively large and
peaks at approximately 180 milliseconds after stimulus presentation. This waveform is called the
auditory ________ potential.
a. N1 c. ERF
b. P3 d. sensory
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
38. Directing attention to a visual stimulus produces a positive ERP waveform called the P1 waveform if
participants are
a. overtly, rather than covertly, directing attention.
b. selectively attending to the stimulus based on its location rather than its color.
c. exogenously (externally) cued rather than endogenously (internally) cued to the stimulus.
d. shown a different stimulus in each eye.
ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
39. The P1 ERP is associated most closely with the
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
a. direction of attention to the spatial location of a visually presented object.
b. pop-out of feature-based visual targets in visual search.
c. direction of attention to the specific ear through which a particular signal is presented.
d. increased activity of cells in the primary and secondary auditory cortex.
ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
40. Studies of attention employing the P1 waveform and the N1 waveform suggest that
a. both vision and audition involve a late-selection mechanism.
b. both vision and audition involve an early-selection mechanism.
c. visual attention primarily involves early selection, whereas auditory attention primarily
involves late selection.
d. auditory attention primarily involves early selection, whereas visual attention primarily
involves late selection.
ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Understanding
41. You are looking for a friend who is supposed to meet you in a crowded lecture hall. You know that she
is wearing a bright purple sweater and glasses. Which kind of visual search best describes this
situation?
a. Conjunction search c. Pop-out search
b. Feature search d. Parallel search
ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Applying
42. Visual search for ________ targets requires the use of selective attention, whereas visual search for
________ targets can occur without sequential attention.
a. pop-out ; conjunction c. conjunction ; feature
b. pop-out ; feature d. feature ; conjunction
ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Remembering
43. According to research by Wolfe and colleagues (2000), visual search is slowest when
a. the focus of attention is driven by voluntary, controlled search.
b. the focus of attention is driven by the sensory information.
c. the number of distracters in the display is large.
d. the number of features in the display is large.
ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 5 MSC: Analyzing
44. Your friend is looking for you and sees your face on someone else’s body. This is most likely due to
an error in which attentional system?
a. the ventral system c. Neither a nor b
b. the dorsal system d. Both a and b
ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Attentional Control Networks
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Analyzing
45. You are chasing a tennis ball that has been hit away from you. Which of the following brain areas is
least involved in tracking that stimulus?
a. the parietal lobe c. The inferotemporal cortex
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
b. the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex d. V1
ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Attentional Control Networks
OBJ: LO 6 MSC: Analyzing
TRUE/FALSE
1. Unilateral spatial neglect typically results from damage to the left temporal lobe.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: The Neuroanatomy of Attention
OBJ: LO 2 MSC: Remembering
2. Models of late selection hypothesize that attended and ignored inputs are processed equivalently by the
perceptual system, reaching a stage of semantic analysis.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
3. In exogenous cuing, the orienting of attention to the cue is driven primarily by the participant’s goals.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
4. In visual search tasks, the amount of time it takes to find a target among distracters is independent of
the number of distracters if the target can be identified by a single feature.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
5. Attention can be directed to both spatial and nonspatial features of target visual stimuli.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Models of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
6. ERP studies of visual and auditory attention suggest that early ERP components like the P1 and N1 are
not modulated by the participant’s attentional state.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
7. Spatial attention to one hemifield leads to increased neural activity in the fusiform gyrus in the
ipsilateral hemisphere.
ANS: F DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
8. When spatial attention is introduced to one stimulus in a spatial array, simultaneous presentation of
competing stimuli interferes less compared to the absence of spatial attention.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
9. Extrastriate cortical regions specialized for the processing of color, form, and motion are modulated by
visual attention to these stimulus features.
ANS: T DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention
OBJ: LO 4 MSC: Remembering
SHORT ANSWER
1. What is the difference between voluntary attention and reflexive attention, and between overt and
covert attention? Are the distinctions the same? If not, how do they differ?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention OBJ: LO 2
MSC: Remembering
2. How do early- and late-selection models of attention differ? Propose a dichotic listening experiment
that would provide evidence to distinguish between these two models.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Models of Attention OBJ: LO 4
MSC: Applying
3. Describe the experimental design of a Posner cuing experiment. In your answer, provide definitions
for the terms exogenous cuing, endogenous cuing, valid trial, invalid trial, and inhibition of return.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention OBJ: LO 4
MSC: Understanding
4. Describe the basic findings of the visual search research conducted by Treisman and colleagues. In
particular, describe the difference between a feature search and a conjunction search. Draw a figure
illustrating a typical response-time pattern for the two search types.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: Models of Attention OBJ: LO 4
MSC: Understanding
5. What is the neurological syndrome known as neglect? Describe the typical symptoms and associated
brain regions. How does complete neglect differ from extinction?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Medium REF: The Neuropsychology of Attention
OBJ: LO 3 MSC: Remembering
Cognitive
Neuroscience,
4e,
Gazzaniga,
Ivry,
Mangun,
with
Hernandez
and
Coutanche
6. Can object representations modulate spatial attention? Please describe evidence to support your
answer.
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention OBJ: LO 5
MSC: Remembering
7. Please describe the dorsal and ventral system of attention. What role do they play in neglect?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Easy REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention OBJ: LO 5
MSC: Remembering
8. Describe the subcortical structures involved in attention. Do you think these structures contribute to
voluntary or reflexive attention? Why or why not?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention OBJ: LO 5
MSC: Evaluating
9. Describe the role of attention in perception. What might you conclude based on behavioral studies?
How do studies of the neural substrate inform behavioral results?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Models of Attention OBJ: LO 4
MSC: Evaluating
10. Describe the cortical structures involved in attention. Do you think these structures contribute to
voluntary or reflextive attention? Why or why not?
ANS:
Answers will vary.
DIF: Difficult REF: Neural Mechanisms of Attention OBJ: LO 5
MSC: Evaluating