Comparative Cognition By Olmstead Kuhlmeier – Test Bank

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Comparative Cognition By Olmstead Kuhlmeier – Test Bank

chapter 6

Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 38
22.
Which
of
the
following
has
a
detrimental
effect
on
a
bird’s
ability
to
locate
its
cache
site?
a)
Removal
of
a
landmark
immediately
beside
the
cache
site.
b)
Removal
of
a
landmark
1
meter
away
from
the
cache
site.
c)
Changing
the
appearance
of
a
landmark.
d)
Searching
for
the
cache
site
at
a
different
time
of
day.
23.
Place
cells
in
the
hippocampus
a)
increase
their
firing
rate
when
a
rat
is
in
a
particular
location.
b)
mediate
spatial
learning,
at
least
in
rats.
c)
are
disrupted
when
animals
try
to
locate
a
cue
in
a
spatial
environment.
d)
decrease
their
firing
rate
when
spatial
navigation
declines.
24.
Homing
in
pigeons
probably
does
NOT
depend
on
which
of
the
following
mechanism?
a)
Olfactory
sense.
b)
Sun
compass.
c)
Landmark
orientation.
d)
Counting
the
number
of
wingbeats
since
departure.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 39
1.
Which
of
the
following
is
an
example
of
periodic
timing?
a) A
rat
pressing
a
lever
after
a
light
has
been
on
for
10
seconds
b) A
hummingbird
repeatedly
returns
to
feed
at
an
artificial
flower
that
is
replenished
with
nectar
every
10
minutes
c) A
carnivore
returns
every
evening
at
dusk
to
a
site
at
which
voles
emerge
d) A
monkey
touches
a
green
square
after
a
10
second,
but
not
a
20
second
tone
2.
In
an
interval
timing
task,
responses
to
______
time
intervals
occur
with
more
variability
than
responses
to
_______
time
intervals.
a) longer,
shorter
b) experienced,
unexperienced
c) cyclical,
periodic
d) asymmetric,
symmetric
3.
You
train
your
pet
pigeon,
Sparky,
to
peck
a
red
light
for
food
after
a
5,
2
second
tones.
You
also
train
him
to
peck
a
green
light
after
10,
2
second
tones.
Now,
interspersed
within
these
trials,
you
play
1,
10
second
tone.
What
will
Sparky
likely
do?
a) peck
the
red
light
b) peck
the
green
light
c) he
will
peck
a
third,
white
light
d) he
will
not
respond
4.
Which
of
the
following
models
of
interval
timing
posits
a
pacemaker
that
emits
pulses
at
a
constant
rate,
which
are
accumulated
across
a
to-­‐be-­‐timed
event?
a) The
Oscillator
Model
of
Timing
b) The
Behavioral
Model
of
Timing
c) The
Information
Processing
Model
of
Timing
d) The
Pulse
Decay
Model
of
Timing
Chapter 6
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 40
5.
Which
of
the
following
statements
is
most
correct?
a) In
humans,
by
early
childhood,
the
approximate
number
system
is
replaced
by
symbolic
number
systems
b) The
approximate
number
system
is
likely
not
related
to
later
formal
mathematical
ability
in
humans.
c) The
study
of
the
approximate
number
system
is
limited
in
that,
to
date,
it
has
only
been
studied
in
Western,
industrialized
cultures.
d) The
responses
of
adult
humans
on
number
estimation
tasks
show
characteristics
of
Weber’s
Law
6.
The
‘set
size
signature’
refers
to
the
finding
that:
a) When
sets
consist
of
objects
that
differ
in
appearance
(e.g.,
size)
numerical
estimation
becomes
more
variable.
b) When
discriminating
between
small
quantities,
performance
is
determined
by
the
size
of
the
arrays.
c) Human
infants
can
discriminate
larger
sets
of
objects
than
every
nonhuman
animal
tested
thus
far.
d) Across
human
languages,
words
typically
exist
for
certain
sets
of
objects
(e.g.,
3
objects
are
‘a
few’
in
English).
7.
On
one
test
trial,
you
present
a
rhesus
macaque
with
one
object,
and
then
place
an
occluding
screen
in
front
of
it.
You
then
place
a
second
object
behind
the
screen
while
the
monkey
watches.
You
remove
the
screen
to
reveal
the
two
objects.
On
a
second
trial,
you
do
the
same
actions;
however
now,
three
objects
are
revealed.
On
each
trial,
the
monkey’s
behavior
after
the
screen
is
removed
is
observed.
You
test
several
monkeys
in
this
manner.
Based
on
previous
studies,
you
are
likely
to
find
that:
a) The
monkeys
tend
to
look
longer
when
three
objects
are
revealed
than
when
two
objects
are
revealed.
b) The
monkeys
tend
to
look
longer
when
two
objects
are
revealed
than
when
three
objects
are
revealed.
c) The
monkeys
are
more
likely
to
leave
the
testing
area
when
three
objects
are
revealed
than
when
two
are
revealed.
d) The
monkeys
are
more
likely
to
leave
the
testing
area
when
two
objects
are
revealed
than
when
two
are
revealed.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 41
8.
All
of
the
following
are
examples
of
numbers
that
are
represented
on
the
ordinal
scale
except:
a) a
ranking
of
ten
people
based
on
their
height
in
inches
b) a
list
of
baseball
players
that
includes
their
jersey
numbers
c) a
set
of
standardized
test
scores
from
ten
students
d) an
ordering
of
birds
based
on
their
plumage
length
9.
One
particular
region
of
the
brain
that
appears
to
play
an
important
role
in
the
processing
of
magnitude
is
the
a) Inferior
frontal
sulcus
b) Sylvian
fissure
c) Superior
temporal
sulcus
d) Intraparietal
sulcus
10.
The
‘object-­‐tracking
system’
refers
to
a
system
that
a) uses
echolocation
to
track
the
movements
of
prey
b) uses
a
small
number
of
mental
‘indexes’
that
‘point’
to
individual
objects
and
enable
observers
to
keep
track
of
them
as
they
move
in
and
out
of
view
c) uses
the
approximate
number
system
to
‘index’
individual
objects
that
move
in
and
out
of
view
d) uses
the
average
(mean)
number
of
objects
to
represent
a
set
of
objects
that
moves
in
and
out
of
view

 

chapter 7

1.
Handling
is
a)
the
time
it
takes
to
transport
food
back
to
a
home
base.
b)
the
energy
it
takes
to
transport
food
back
to
a
home
base.
c)
the
time
and
energy
it
takes
to
extract
the
food
from
its
source.
d)
the
time
and
energy
it
takes
to
find
the
food.
2.
Which
theory
takes
into
account
group
foraging?
a)
Marginal
value
theorem.
b)
Ideal
free
distribution
model.
c)
Optimal
foraging
theory.
d)
Collective
decision
making
model.
3.
Which
of
the
following
is
not
true
regarding
the
matching
law?
a)
It
is
the
rate
of
responding
on
one
alternative
matches
the
rate
of
reinforcement
for
that
alternative.
b)
It
explains
choice
behavior
when
responding
for
each
alternative
requires
a
different
amount
of
effort.
c)
Bias
can
cause
choice
behavior
to
deviate
from
the
matching
law
d)
It
explains
choice
behavior
when
there
is
a
delay
between
the
response
and
the
reinforcer.
4.
According
to
the
matching
law,
which
statement
describes
undermatching?
a)
Subjects
appear
less
sensitive
to
reinforcement
payoffs
than
predicted.
b)
Undermatching
declines
with
increased
training.
c)
Increasing
the
cost
of
switching
from
one
response
option
to
the
other
minimizes
undermatching.
d)
Subjects
appear
more
sensitive
to
reinforcement
payoffs
than
predicted.
5.
A
sunk
cost
is
a)
a
negative
payoff.
b)
when
the
energy
gained
is
less
than
the
energy
spent.
c)
money
that
has
been
spent
on
an
investment.
d)
all
of
the
above.
Chapter 7
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 43
6.
Which
of
the
following
explains
why
some
animals/humans
do
not
exhibit
loss
aversion?
a)
Risk
sensitivity.
b)
Sunk
cost
fallacy.
c)
Motivational
state.
d)
Availability
heuristic.
7.
If
an
experiment
were
set
up
to
test
ecological
rationality
in
rats
using
a
patch
choice
paradigm,
which
of
the
following
options
would
be
presented
on
a
trial?
a)
pressing
the
green
lever
produces
2
pellets
after
2
seconds
and
pressing
the
blue
lever
produces
4
pellets
after
4
seconds.
b)
pressing
a
lever
produces
2
pellets
after
2
seconds.
Pressing
the
lever
again
produces
2
pellets
after
2
seconds;
however,
if
the
rat
waits
2
more
seconds
without
pressing,
they
will
receive
2
more
pellets.
c)
pressing
the
green
lever
produces
2
pellets
after
2
seconds
and
pressing
the
blue
lever
produces
4
pellets
after
2
seconds.
d)
pressing
a
lever
produces
2
pellets
after
2
seconds;
however,
if
the
rat
waits
2
seconds
without
pressing,
they
may
or
may
not
get
4
more
pellets.
8.
Which
of
the
following
is
true
regarding
emotional
decision
making?
a)
Somatic
markers
emerge
in
the
dorsolateral
prefrontal
cortex.
b)
Emotional
states
guide
behavioral
choices.
c)
Emotions
lead
to
inappropriate
decision
making.
d)
Bodily
reactions
that
inform
decision
making
are
innate.
9.
Computation
of
utility
is
mediated
in
the
a)
ventral
striatum.
b)
orbitofrontal
cortex.
c)
dorsal
striatum.
d)
ventral
medial
prefrontal
cortex.
10.
The
codes
reward
value
and
the
performs
cost/benefit
analyses.
a)
anterior
cingulate
cortex;
orbitofrontal
cortex.
b)
ventral
striatum;
dorsal
striatum
c)
orbitofrontal
cortex;
anterior
cingulate
cortex
d)
dorsal
striatum;
ventral
striatum
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 44
11.
In
a
choice
experiment,
pigeons
are
trained
to
peck
a
key
for
a
food
reward
on
different
schedules
of
reinforcement.
Pecking
key
A
delivers
reinforcement
on
a
VR
24
schedules
and
key
B
delivers
reinforcement
on
a
VR
8
schedule
of
reinforcement.
How
would
the
animals
allocate
their
responses
over
a
5-­‐min
period?
a)
They
should
respond
exclusively
on
key
B.
b)
They
should
respond
initially
on
key
A
but
then
respond
equally
on
both
keys
as
that
would
maximize
the
rate
of
reinforcement.
c)
They
should
respond
exclusively
on
key
A.
d)
They
should
make
three
times
as
many
responses
on
key
B
as
on
key
A.
12.
Humans
were
trained
in
a
decision
making
task
to
push
a
right-­‐hand
button
t
receive
an
immediate
small
reward
(one
chocolate
after
a
0
second
delay)
or
a
left-­‐
hand
button
to
receive
a
delayed
large
reward
(5
chocolates
after
a
variable
delay).
The
delay
to
the
larger
reward
was
varied
from
0
seconds
to
2
minutes
across
120
trials.
Then
the
delay
to
the
large
reward
was
kept
constant
at
0
seconds
and
the
value
of
the
large
reward
was
varied
from
1
to
12
chocolates
across
120
trials
(10
trials
with
each
value
of
the
large
reward).
The
first
subject
showed
a
consistent
preference
for
the
immediate
small
reward.
This
probably
indicates
that
the
participant
a)
is
impulsive.
b)
has
a
right-­‐hand
bias.
c)
has
good
self-­‐control.
d)
developed
an
aversion
to
smarties
over
the
experiment.
13.
The
course
readings
describe
an
experiment
by
Kacelnik
(1984)
that
examined
quantifiable
loading
curves
for
starling
parents
feeding
their
young.
What
was
the
primary
finding
in
this
study?
a)
The
parents
were
able
to
modify
their
foraging
strategy
for
food
sources
at
longer
distances,
but
did
so
in
a
way
that
was
not
optimal.
b)
The
parents
were
unable
or
unwilling
to
modify
their
foraging
strategy
for
food
sources
at
longer
distances.
c)
The
parents
were
able
to
modify
their
foraging
strategy
for
food
sources
at
longer
distances
and
did
so
in
a
way
that
was
close
to
optimal.
d)
The
parents
were
able
to
modify
their
foraging
strategy
for
food
sources
at
longer
distances
but
did
so
for
varying
reward
structures.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 45
14.
Economic
decisions
regarding
foraging
behavior
are
likely
to
be
made
according
to
which
of
the
following
criteria?
a)
The
cost
to
the
animal
in
terms
of
energy
spent.
b)
Current
environmental
factors
(e.g.,
temperature).
c)
The
variability
of
the
outcome.
d)
All
of
the
above.
15.
Harper
and
his
colleagues
(1982)
set
up
an
experiment
in
which
they
threw
pieces
of
bread
to
ducks
in
the
Cambridge
pond
at
different
rates.
The
purpose
of
this
experiment
was
to
examine
a)
how
animals
distribute
themselves
across
food
sources.
b)
whether
the
super
duck
phenomenon
explains
the
distribution
of
animals
at
different
feeding
sites.
c)
whether
animals
can
make
choices
about
which
food
sources
provide
the
best
payoff.
d)
whether
animals
can
distinguish
the
rate
from
the
amount
of
food
distribution
at
each
feeding
site.
16.
The
matching
law
states
that
a)
the
proportion
of
responses
on
one
alternative
matches
the
reinforcement
rate
of
that
alternative.
b)
the
proportion
of
reinforcement
on
one
alternative
is
determined
by
the
proportion
of
responding
on
that
alternative.
c)
animals
allocate
time
and
energy
resources
according
to
the
payoff
from
each
alternative.
d)
a
and
c.
17.
Optimal
foraging
theory
a)
explains
how
individuals
distribute
themselves
across
food
sources.
b)
applies
primarily
to
central
place
foragers.
c)
states
that
organisms
forage
in
a
way
that
maximizes
net
energy
gain
over
time.
d)
equates
reinforcement
payoff
with
workload.
18.
A
fundamental
assumption
of
optimal
foraging
theory
is
that
a)
net
energy
gain
is
associated
with
fitness.
b)
animals
will
work
harder
for
food
when
dominant
animals
are
present.
c)
predator
animals
are
biased
to
selecting
intermediate-­‐sized
prey.
d)
return
foraging
trips
use
more
energy
than
outgoing
foraging
trips.
Instructor’s Manual for Comparative Cognition: Multiple Choice Questions pg. 46
19.
Marginal
value
theorem
a)
was
developed
to
explain
why
animals
forage
in
patches.
b)
fits
an
optimization
model.
c)
suggests
that
the
decision
to
move
to
a
new
patch
differs
across
species.
d)
assumes
that
animals
know
the
payoff
in
each
patch.
20.
Ecological
rationality
a)
is
based
on
the
idea
that
animals
make
decisions
collectively.
b)
cannot
explain
human
decision
making
outside
of
the
natural
environment.
c)
explains
which
strategy
is
better
in
a
particular
environmental
context.
d)
is
the
best
explanation
for
individual
differences
in
decision
making.
21.
The
Iowa
Gambling
Task
a)
measures
impulsivity
in
lab
rats.
b)
is
used
to
diagnosis
memory
deficits
in
brain
damaged
patients.
c)
reveals
better
decision
making
in
ecological
situations.
d)
shows
that
emotional
decision
making
can
occur
without
conscious
awareness
of
contingencies.
22.
The
Somatic
Marker
hypothesis
a)
suggests
that
decision
making
is
influenced
by
physiological
responses
to
emotional
stimuli.
b)
describes
how
emotions
disrupt
decision
making.
c)
is
commonly
tested
in
animals
foraging
in
the
natural
environment.
d)
represents
the
subjective
value
of
a
behavioral
outcome.