Essentials of Life Span Development 3rd Edition by John Santrock – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Essentials of Life Span Development 3rd Edition by John Santrock – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

CHAPTER 5: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. The Reggio Emilia approach is a(n):
  2. nutrition program for young children.
  3. educational program for young children.
  4. program for training kindergarten and elementary school teachers.
  5. parenting education program.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 139

 

  1. Her pediatrician has just told Sandra that her 4-year-old son, Manuel, has gained 6 pounds in the last year. Sandra should:
  2. be alarmed, because this is too much weight gain.
  3. be concerned, because this is too little weight gain.
  4. be positive and change Manuel’s diet.
  5. be content that this is normal for Manuel’s age.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 140

 

  1. During early childhood, on average, girls are _____ than boys.
  2. much lighter
  3. more fair
  4. slightly smaller
  5. considerably taller

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 140

 

  1. By the end of early childhood, girls have more _____ tissue than boys.
  2. fatty
  3. muscle
  4. epithelial
  5. nervous

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 140

 

  1. When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children around the world, we know that there are:
  2. congenital differences.
  3. ethnic differences among them.
  4. no visible differences.
  5. cases of hyperthyroidism.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 140

 

  1. What have been found to be the two most important contributors to height differences among children worldwide?
  2. Nationality and culture
  3. Education and exercise
  4. Prenatal care and emotional challenges
  5. Ethnic origin and nutrition

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 140

 

  1. Who among the following 5-year olds is MOST likely to be the tallest?
  2. Timothy, White boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and later-born
  3. Tina, White girl, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn
  4. Tyrone, African American boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn
  5. Tucker, African American boy, rural, lower-socioeconomic-status, and later-born

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 140

 

  1. Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is true?
  2. The development that occurs inside the brain ends at the onset of adolescence.
  3. By the time a child is 3 years of age, the brain is 25 percent of its adult size.
  4. The overall size of the brain does not increase dramatically from ages 3 to 15.
  5. The brain of a 5-year-old is 60 percent the size of an adult brain.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 141

 

  1. Which of the following plays a key role in planning and organizing new actions and maintaining attention to tasks?
  2. Amygdala
  3. Hippocampus
  4. Prefrontal cortex
  5. Cerebellum

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 141

 

  1. _____ is a process in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells.
  2. Centration
  3. Myelination
  4. Tropism
  5. Neurogenesis

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 141

 

  1. One of the major changes in brain development between the ages of 3 and 15 involves an increase in the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system. This change is brought about by _____.
  2. centration
  3. myelination
  4. tropism
  5. neurogenesis

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 141

 

  1. Which of the following are nerve fibers that carry signals away from the cell body?
  2. Neurotransmitters
  3. Synapses
  4. Dendrites
  5. Axons

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 141

 

  1. Scientists have found that there are _____ the brains of children between the ages of 3 and 15.
  2. dramatic changes in local patterns within
  3. phenomenal increases in the overall size of
  4. insignificant anatomical changes in
  5. marked deceleration of growth in

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 141

 

  1. Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the _____ lobe areas of the brain.
  2. temporal
  3. parietal
  4. frontal
  5. occipital

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 141

 

  1. Toby is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping around. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he fidgets and wiggles. It is especially frustrating to his parents when Toby does not sit still through dinner. Which of the following should Toby’s parents do?
  2. Have him tested for attention deficit disorder
  3. Start him on a behavior modification program
  4. Provide structured, cognitively challenging activities for Toby to develop his attention span
  5. Be assured that his behavior is normal for his age

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 141

 

  1. When 4- and 5-year olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they are demonstrating their:
  2. cognitive skills.
  3. fine harboring skills.
  4. gross motor skills.
  5. reflective skills.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 141-142

 

  1. Fred and Wayne are 4-year-olds and friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that these activities will:
  2. help the boys develop gross motor skills.
  3. stop when their brains become better myelinated.
  4. be temporary as they will not be friends for long.
  5. help the boys overcome narcolepsy.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 141-142

 

  1. Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as _____ is to _____.
  2. jumping; writing
  3. running; swimming
  4. laughing; shouting
  5. hopping; walking

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 141-142

 

  1. Debra is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She is always trying out what her parents consider to be hair-raising stunts. She also loves races and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of:
  2. 1-year-olds.
  3. 2-year-olds.
  4. 3-year-olds.
  5. 5-year-olds.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 142

 

  1. Three-year old Ashley is putting a jigsaw puzzle together, and, as is typical of her age, she:
  2. places the pieces awkwardly.
  3. is focused and excels at the task.
  4. cannot identify the correct sections.
  5. is precise in joining the bits.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 142

 

  1. Four-year old Nathan is good at stacking his playing blocks to make tall structures. However, he still knocks them over occasionally. Which of the following is the MOST likely reason for this?
  2. His gross motor skills are deficient.
  3. He tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other, upsetting those already stacked.
  4. His coordination skills are not developing normally for his age.
  5. He is showing signs of dyslexia.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 142

 

  1. Which of the following can raise cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease?
  2. Omega-3 fatty acid
  3. Unsaturated fat
  4. Saturated and trans fat
  5. Protein

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 142

 

  1. Which of the following should be minimized in order to improve the eating behavior of children?
  2. Competing activities
  3. A predictable schedule
  4. Eating healthy food yourself
  5. Making mealtimes pleasant occasions

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 143

 

  1. Which of the following determines the categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight?
  2. Weight
  3. Average calories consumed daily
  4. Waist-to-hips ratio
  5. Body mass index

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 143

 

  1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only children and adolescents at or above the _____ percentile are classified as obese.
  2. 97th
  3. 95th
  4. 90th
  5. 88th

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 143

 

  1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a person with a BMI at the 90th percentile is:
  2. obese.
  3. overweight.
  4. at risk of being overweight.
  5. underweight.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 143

 

  1. Gina, 6, has a BMI in the 95th percentile. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, she would be classified as:
  2. obese.
  3. overweight.
  4. at risk for being overweight.
  5. not at risk for being overweight.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 143

 

  1. Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?
  2. Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at risk of being overweight at age 12.
  3. There is no indication that overweight young children will become overweight adults.
  4. Obesity is not linked to type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes in children.
  5. In 2005, the United States had the highest rate of child obesity in the world.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 143

 

  1. Guidelines recommend that preschool children engage in _____ of physical activity per day.
  2. half an hour
  3. two hours
  4. one hour
  5. four hours

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 143

 

  1. Which of the following is a factor in increasing the physical activity of preschool children?
  2. Family members watching sports on TV together
  3. Parents’ perception that it is safe for their children to play outside
  4. Participating in sedentary outdoor play
  5. Incorporation of an “observe and learn” activity curriculum

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 144

 

  1. The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:
  2. heart disease.
  3. malnutrition.
  4. motor vehicle accidents.
  5. domestic violence.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 144

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding parental smoking is true?
  2. Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.
  3. Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in the home.
  4. Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are no more likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking homes.
  5. Parental smoking is the leading cause for death in young children in the United States.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 145

 

  1. Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are more likely to develop _____ than are children in homes where no one smokes.
  2. tuberculosis
  3. emphysema and hacking cough
  4. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  5. wheezing and asthma

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 145

 

  1. Which of the following can be modified to create conditions that enhance the child’s safety and reduce the likelihood of injury?
  2. Decrease home/school partnerships
  3. Reduce playground hazards
  4. Reduce pool fencing
  5. Reduce frequent parent protective behaviors

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 145

 

  1. Deaths in young children due to HIV/AIDS especially occur in countries:
  2. in the northern hemisphere.
  3. with high rates of poverty and low levels of education.
  4. where other common children’s health problems like malnutrition do not exist.
  5. where the society is affluent.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 145

 

  1. Many of the deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by a reduction in:
  2. nutrition.
  3. sanitation.
  4. poverty.
  5. education.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 145

 

  1. The second Piagetian stage of development is the preoperational stage, which lasts from approximately _____ years of age.
  2. 1 to 3
  3. 2 to 7
  4. 4 to 10
  5. 5 to 12

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. In the _____ stage, children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
  2. concrete operational
  3. sensorimotor
  4. preoperational
  5. formal operational

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. According to Piaget, in the _____ stage, the young child’s cognitive world is dominated by egocentrism and magical beliefs.
  2. preoperational
  3. sensorimotor
  4. concrete operational
  5. formal operational

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. Mentally adding and subtracting numbers are examples of _____.
  2. hypotheses
  3. symbolic functions
  4. operations
  5. reflex actions

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. Patricia, 6, loves to decorate books by drawing pictures and putting in words to describe them. Her ideas are more balanced now. She has started to analyze and understand things. However, she is egocentric and holds what her parents describe as “magical beliefs.” Patricia is in Piaget’s _____ stage of development.
  2. sensorimotor
  3. concrete operational
  4. formal operational
  5. preoperational

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 146

 

  1. Piaget’s preoperational stage is so named because he believed that children at this age:
  2. do not yet perform reversible mental actions.
  3. cannot yet form stable concepts.
  4. are unable to reason.
  5. cannot operate electronic devices like TVs.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. In the _____ substage, children use scribble designs to represent people, houses, cars, clouds, and so on.
  2. formal operational
  3. intuitive thought
  4. concrete operational
  5. symbolic function

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. During the _____ substage children begin to use language more effectively and engage in pretend play.
  2. formal operational
  3. intuitive thought
  4. symbolic function
  5. concrete operational

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. Three-year-old Betty’s favorite pastime is scribbling designs. She says the drawings represent her parents, cat, bicycle, and home. This indicates that Betty is in the _____ substage of Piaget’s preoperational stage.
  2. symbolic function
  3. intuitive thought
  4. operational
  5. sensorimotor

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 146

 

  1. Three-and-a-half-year-old Ruth draws a picture with lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. “It’s a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains to her teacher. Which of the following does this explain?
  2. Animism
  3. Conservation
  4. Intuitive thought
  5. Symbolic function

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 146

 

  1. The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is known as _____.
  2. animism
  3. empathy
  4. egocentrism
  5. symbolism

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. While talking with his grandmother on the phone, five-year old Danny suddenly exclaims, “Oh, look at that pretty bird!” When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Danny says, “Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!” He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:
  2. animism.
  3. egocentrism.
  4. intuitive thought.
  5. symbolic function.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 146

 

  1. A young child might be heard saying, “That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down.” The child’s belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as _____.
  2. egocentrism
  3. conservation
  4. animism
  5. kineticism

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 147

 

  1. “My computer doesn’t like me—it keeps eating my pictures,” says 3-year old Kimberly. This is an example of:
  2. animism.
  3. intuitive thinking.
  4. conservation.
  5. egocentrism.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 147

 

  1. The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the use of:
  2. reversible mental actions.
  3. egocentric views.
  4. primitive reasoning.
  5. symbolic thought.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 147

 

  1. Ethan, age 4, reasons that every time he sees a lightning bolt in the sky, angels are turning on their flashlights. Ethan’s primitive reasoning about lightning is characteristic of:
  2. symbolic function.
  3. intuitive thought.
  4. egocentrism.
  5. centration.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 147

 

  1. Which of the following is a second substage of preoperational thought?
  2. Formal operational
  3. Intuitive thought
  4. Concrete operational
  5. Symbolic function

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 147

 

  1. Piaget called the second substage in preoperational thought “intuitive” because of the absence of the use of _____ in children in that stage.
  2. symbolic function
  3. primitive reasoning
  4. centration
  5. rational thinking

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 147

 

  1. In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:
  2. do not change an object’s basic properties.
  3. affect an object’s inherent features.
  4. determine the total volume needed for a given task.
  5. must be considered before the characteristics of an object can be determined.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 147

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?
  2. Conservation requires centration.
  3. Centration is due to lack of conservation.
  4. Centration is reflected in lack of conservation.
  5. Conservation is independent of centration.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 147

 

  1. Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne’s cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair for his sister to get so many cookies when he only has one. Juan is showing a lack of:
  2. constancy.
  3. conservation.
  4. intuition.
  5. symbolic function.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 147-148

 

  1. In Piaget’s theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates:
  2. that the child is at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
  3. that the child is unable to think fluidly.
  4. centration.
  5. rational thought.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 148

 

  1. According to Rochel Gelman, _____ is especially important in explaining conservation.
  2. the age of the child
  3. heredity
  4. attention
  5. intuition

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 149

 

  1. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for:
  2. a young adult’s cognitive development achieved through interaction with children.
  3. the variety of work that a child can do with ease at a particular stage of cognitive development.
  4. how the environment and a child’s genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
  5. the range of tasks difficult for a child to master alone but that can be learned with help from adults.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 149

 

  1. A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:
  2. the toddler has mastered all the skills necessary.
  3. parents or teachers do not interfere.
  4. the task is more difficult than the child can do alone.
  5. the toddler uses no help from a parent or teacher.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 149

 

  1. Kevin is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support, but he can walk out into the middle of the room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Kevin’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?
  2. Kevin learning to run after he has mastered walking by himself
  3. Kevin going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk by himself
  4. Kevin walking alone by holding onto a piece of furniture with his hands
  5. Kevin learning to walk by having his parents hold one of his hands

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 149

 

  1. Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through:
  2. self-discovery.
  3. social interaction.
  4. reorganization of existing knowledge.
  5. transforming previous knowledge.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 149

 

  1. Sharon, 3, can solve 4-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own, but needs her parents’ help to solve 6-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?
  2. Sharon moving on to 10-piece puzzles
  3. Sharon solving a 6-piece puzzle on her own
  4. Sharon helping her 2-year old brother with 4-piece puzzles
  5. Sharon mastering 4-piece puzzles

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 149-150

 

  1. Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through:
  2. self-discovery.
  3. social interaction.
  4. reorganization of existing knowledge.
  5. transforming previous knowledge.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 149

 

  1. Which of the following did Vygotsky call the “buds” or “flowers” of development?
  2. Tasks a child can accomplish independently
  3. Intuitive thinking and rational thinking
  4. A child’s cognitive skills in the process of maturing
  5. A child’s gross motor skills that are fully developed

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 150

 

  1. When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw these supports. This shows the adults’ involvement in the children’s:
  2. zone of proximal development.
  3. development of conservational abilities.
  4. enhancement of intuitive reasoning.
  5. process of centration.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 150

 

  1. Which of the following refers to teachers’ adjustment of their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student?
  2. Accommodation
  3. Regulation
  4. Scaffolding
  5. Assimilation

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 150

 

  1. Over the past week, Walter has been trying to learn to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother was holding his hands and working his fingers through the process, but now that Walter’s gotten better at it, she only guides him verbally. Which of the following is this an example of?
  2. How heredity shapes cognitive development
  3. Intuitive reasoning
  4. Scaffolding
  5. Conservation

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 150

 

  1. When four-year-old Jared plays, he often talks to himself. This form is self-talk is used for self-regulation. Developmentalists call this:
  2. mindstream.
  3. self-articulation.
  4. lisping.
  5. private speech.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 150

 

  1. After a while self-talk becomes second nature to children, and they can act without verbalizing, thus creating a form of _____ which becomes their thoughts.
  2. mindstream
  3. inner speech
  4. lisping
  5. private speech

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 150

 

  1. Which of the following describes what Lev Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?
  2. Thought and language are merged early in development and later separate.
  3. Thought depends on language, so they are merged throughout development.
  4. Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
  5. Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 150

 

  1. In the development of language and thought:
  2. internal speech precedes private speech.
  3. internal and external speech develop simultaneously.
  4. external speech precedes internal speech.
  5. external speech develops after internal speech.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 150

 

  1. Vygotsky argued that _____ represents an early transition toward becoming more socially communicative.
  2. mindstream
  3. inner speech
  4. lisping
  5. private speech

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 150

 

  1. Michelle, 4, talks to herself frequently, especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Michelle is:
  2. engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
  3. likely to be socially competent.
  4. functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD).
  5. engaging in scaffolding.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 150

 

  1. Amy, age 3, walks by her grandmother’s collection of glass animals and says, “Those are a ‘no-no’; don’t touch.” It would appear that Amy is using _____ to regulate her own behavior.
  2. mindstream
  3. intuitive reasoning
  4. private speech
  5. symbolic function

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 150

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications?
  2. IQ should be assessed to test a child’s learning capabilities.
  3. A child should learn on his/her own to realize his capabilities.
  4. A child’s use of private speech reflects immaturity and egocentrism.
  5. Teaching should begin toward the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 151

 

  1. Which of the following scenarios best represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?
  2. A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.
  3. An instructor helps students with laboratory work, showing them how to do things the students cannot yet do.
  4. A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and assesses their learning capabilities.
  5. An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to evaluate their mental abilities on varying subjects.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 151

 

  1. Which of the following educational strategies would Vygotsky say should be incorporated into the classroom?
  2. Making each child responsible for his/her work, without relying on peers or teachers for support
  3. Formal, standardized tests to assess children’s learning
  4. Discouraging distractions like self-talk or private talk
  5. Offering just enough assistance to the child to accomplish the task

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 151

 

  1. “Tools of the Mind” is a program that is grounded in _____ theory of cognitive development.
  2. Vygotsky’s
  3. Erikson’s
  4. Sternberg’s
  5. Piaget’s

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 151

 

  1. In a “Tools of the Mind” classroom, _____ has a central role.
  2. nutrition
  3. didactic lecture
  4. dramatic play
  5. abstract presentation

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 151

 

  1. Tale is in a “Tools of the Mind” classroom. His teacher guides him to plan his own message by drawing a line to stand for each word he says. Tale then repeats the message, pointing to each line as he/she says the word. Finally, Tale writes on the lines, trying to represent each word with some letters or symbols. This process is called:
  2. model drawing.
  3. scaffolding writing.
  4. word visualizing.
  5. positive role-play.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 152

 

  1. Vygotsky’s view of the importance of _____ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.
  2. autonomy
  3. sociocultural influences
  4. economic status of teachers
  5. scaffolding

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 152

 

  1. Which of the following statements about Vygotsky’s theory is true?
  2. Cognition primarily directs language development.
  3. Language has a minimal role in shaping thought.
  4. Language plays a powerful role in shaping thought.
  5. Education merely refines the child’s cognitive skills that have already emerged.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 152

 

  1. In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from:
  2. the individual to collaboration.
  3. collaboration to sociocultural activity.
  4. construction to discovery.
  5. socializing to operational thought.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 152-153

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?
  2. Vygotsky was specific about age-related changes and generalized all individuals.
  3. Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking.
  4. Vygotsky particularly described how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development, which is highly subjective.
  5. Vygotsky laid no emphasis on guidance which plays an important role in learning.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 153

 

  1. _____ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
  2. Salient
  3. Relevant
  4. Executive
  5. Sustained

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 153

 

  1. _____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.
  2. Salient
  3. Relevant
  4. Executive
  5. Sustained

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 153

 

  1. A police officer visits Ben and Heather’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Heather tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Heather obviously paid more attention to what was _____.
  2. salient
  3. relevant
  4. habituated
  5. intended

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 153

 

  1. A police officer visits Timothy and Evelyn’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Timothy tells his parents all about the safety rules the officer discussed. Timothy obviously paid attention to what was _____.
  2. salient
  3. relevant
  4. habituated
  5. superfluous

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 153

 

  1. After the age of _____, children attend more efficiently to the dimensions of the task that are relevant.
  2. 3 or 4
  3. 4 or 5
  4. 6 or 7
  5. 5

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 153

 

  1. When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment, exhibiting a lack of:
  2. conservation.
  3. attention to the salient.
  4. centration.
  5. planfulness.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 153

 

  1. In Central European countries, such as Hungary, kindergarten children participate in exercises designed to improve their _____. An eye-contact exercise, in which the teacher sits in the center of a circle of children and each child is required to catch the teacher’s eye before being permitted to leave the group, is an example of an exercise to improve _____.
  2. hand-to-eye coordination
  3. attention
  4. social skills
  5. creativity

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 153

 

  1. In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to _____ if there is no rehearsal of the information.
  2. 30 seconds
  3. 15 minutes.
  4. 5 hours
  5. 2 days

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 154

 

  1. Irene is taking a test where she hears a random list of numbers, which she is then asked to repeat in the right order. Irene is having her _____ memory tested.
  2. recognition
  3. implicit
  4. procedural
  5. short-term

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 154

 

  1. Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means:
  2. preparing for a memory-span test.
  3. doing mental exercises daily to keep the mind sharp.
  4. repeating information after it has been presented.
  5. taking regular memory-span tests.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 154

 

  1. Research with the memory-span task suggests that:
  2. short-term memory increases during early childhood.
  3. long-term memory reaches maturation by early childhood.
  4. memory span depends on one’s ethnic origin.
  5. heredity is a major factor affecting memory.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 154

 

  1. In a study comparing the memory spans of preschool and elementary school children, the latter group consistently scored better. This apparent increase in memory span with age could be explained partly by how:
  2. the peer group plays a part in short-term memory.
  3. older children rehearse the digits more than younger children do.
  4. elementary schools practice scaffolding.
  5. memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 154

 

  1. Six-year-old Shirley, a witness to a robbery, was asked to testify at the trial. The defense argued that her testimony would be invalid because:
  2. at her age, she has no long-term memories.
  3. her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
  4. she is more likely to embellish her memories.
  5. children cannot recall details of events sequentially.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 155

 

  1. Several operations, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and may also be connected to theory of mind development are known as:
  2. operational thought.
  3. instrumental activities.
  4. executive functioning.
  5. intuitive reasoning.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 156

 

  1. A group of children were put through a task where they were asked to say the word “night” when they see a picture of a sun, and the word “day” when they see a picture of a moon and stars. This is an example of a(n) _____ function, which describes several functions—such as inhibition and planning—that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior.
  2. executive
  3. social
  4. recall
  5. dynamic

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 156

 

  1. The theory of _____ refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
  2. self-awareness
  3. recognition
  4. mind
  5. consciousness

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 157

 

  1. With regard to perception, by _____ years of age, a child recognizes that another person will see what is in front of his/her own eyes instead of what is in front of the child’s eyes.
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 157

 

  1. Alan, who is 18 months old, hates spinach but says “Yum!” when he sees his mother eating her favorite spinach casserole. This indicates that:
  2. he will also like spinach when he grows up.
  3. he recognizes that someone else may have different desires from his own.
  4. he has started to recognize false beliefs.
  5. he has started to understand that people can have ambivalent feelings.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 157

 

  1. The realization that people can have false beliefs develops in a majority of children by the time they are _____ years old.
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 158

 

  1. One of the disadvantages of “false-belief tasks” as indicators of understanding the thoughts of children is that:
  2. the false-belief task is a complicated one that involves a number of factors.
  3. this kind of task has at least four possible outcomes.
  4. the false-belief tasks are too simple.
  5. it is only by the preschool years that children have a deepening appreciation of the mind itself.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 158

 

  1. It is only by age 7 that children begin to recognize all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. there can be more than one correct opinions on an issue.
  3. people’s behaviors do not necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings.
  4. people have different interpretations of the same event.
  5. people can have ambivalent feelings.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 158

 

  1. Pointing to a tree, young Leo says, “Bird flied away.” Leo’s interesting but incorrect use of the “-ed” word ending shows that he is trying to learn the _____ rules of language.
  2. phonological
  3. morphological
  4. pragmatic
  5. syntactic

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 159

 

  1. Jean Berko’s experiment involving “wugs” demonstrated that the young children who took part in the experiment knew:
  2. the phonological rules.
  3. the rules of syntax.
  4. the pragmatic rules.
  5. the morphological rules.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 159

 

  1. Zelda, 3, is always asking questions like “Where Daddy is going?” and “What Mommy is doing?” This indicates that she is yet to learn the auxiliary-inversion rule and to apply rules of:
  2. pragmatics.
  3. morphology.
  4. syntax.
  5. phonology.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 160

 

  1. By the time they enter first grade, it is estimated that children know about _____ words.
  2. 1,200
  3. 8,000
  4. 14,000
  5. 5,000

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 160

 

  1. Around _____ years of age, children learn to change their speech style to suit the situation.
  2. 6 or 7
  3. 7 or 8
  4. 2 or 3
  5. 4 or 5

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 161

 

  1. Five-year old Donna speaks in shorter, simpler sentences to her baby brother, in a very informal way with friends, and uses a more formal language with her father’s friends. Donna is demonstrating her grasp of:
  2. pragmatics.
  3. morphology.
  4. syntax.
  5. phonology.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 161

 

  1. The foundation of early childhood education is the _____ kindergarten.
  2. child-centered
  3. standardized
  4. academic-centered
  5. achievement-oriented

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 162

 

  1. The _____ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.
  2. child-centered kindergarten
  3. Montessori approach
  4. developmentally appropriate practice
  5. developmentally inappropriate practice

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 162

 

  1. Nurturing is a key aspect of the _____, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his/her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
  2. child-centered kindergarten
  3. Montessori approach
  4. developmentally appropriate practice
  5. Reggio Emilia approach

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 162

 

  1. Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy’s preschool using?
  2. Kindergarten
  3. Rogerian
  4. Montessori
  5. Success-oriented

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 162

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism related to the Montessori approach?
  2. It lays too much emphasis on social interaction.
  3. It does not employ self-corrective materials.
  4. It lays too much emphasis on imaginative play.
  5. It neglects children’s socioemotional development.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 162

 

  1. Educators refer to this type of schooling as _____, which is based on knowledge of the typical progress of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child.
  2. the child-centered kindergarten
  3. developmentally appropriate practice
  4. the Montessori approach
  5. the success-oriented approach

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 163

 

  1. In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children in the United States through:
  2. Maria Montessori Program.
  3. Emancipation Undertaking.
  4. Reggio Emilia Project.
  5. Project Head Start.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 163

 

  1. Early Head Start was established in 1995 to serve children from _____ years of age.
  2. 4 to 5
  3. 2 to 4
  4. 5 to 10
  5. birth to 3

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 163

 

  1. Which of the following is true about Head Start programs?
  2. They only provide for low-income families.
  3. They focus on children of a particular ethnic origin.
  4. They have negative effect on young children’s language development.
  5. They are funded by the private corporate sector.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 163

 

  1. Two current controversies in early childhood education, as given in the text, involve:
  2. curriculum and universal preschool education in the United States.
  3. the quality of inner-city schools and free education to all.
  4. the use of corporal punishment in schools and the use of uniforms.
  5. Christian holidays for all and boarding schools.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 165

 

  1. Competent early childhood programs should focus:
  2. on cognitive development and socioemotional development.
  3. exclusively on cognitive development.
  4. on preoperational skills.
  5. on academics alone.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 165

 

  1. Which of the following was cited by Zigler and his colleagues supporting universal preschool in the United States?
  2. It is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
  3. The quality of inner-city schools has often been found to be of questionable quality.
  4. Research has proven that the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often overstated.
  5. Universal preschool would bring billions of dollars of cost savings because of a diminished need for remedial and justice services.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 165

 

  1. Critics of universal preschool education argue that:
  2. quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
  3. research has not proven that nondisadvantaged children benefit from attending a preschool.
  4. the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often understated.
  5. quality preschool programs increase the likelihood that the child will drop out of school later.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 165

 

  1. According to critics of universal preschool education:
  2. quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
  3. it is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding preschool education for all U.S. 4-year-old children.
  4. preschool programs decrease the likelihood that once children go to elementary and secondary school they will be retained in a grade or drop out of school.
  5. there is too much pressure on young children to achieve and it does not provide any opportunities to actively construct knowledge.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 165-166

 

Identification Questions

 

  1. The substage of preoperational thought in which the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.

Answer: Symbolic function substage

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and the perspective of another.

Answer: Egocentrism

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 146

 

  1. The awareness that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties.

Answer: Conservation

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 147

 

  1. This researcher showed that when the child’s attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve.

Answer: Rochel Gelman

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 149

 

  1. 132. A cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.

Answer: Lev Vygotsky

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 149

 

  1. The range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but that can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children.

Answer: Zone of proximal development

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 149

 

  1. An umbrella-like concept that encompasses a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex.

Answer: Executive functioning

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 156

 

  1. The awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

Answer: Theory of mind

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 157

 

  1. 136. An Italian physician-turned-educator, who at the beginning of the twentieth century crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

Answer: Maria Montessori

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 162

 

  1. Aubrey is in a school that takes into account the typical development of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child. It also emphasizes the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect the child’s interests and capabilities. This view represents a _____.

Answer: developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 163

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Define what Piaget meant by an operation. What would be one task that preoperational children fail at because they lack operations?

Answer: An operation is a reversible mental action that allows children to do mentally what before they could only do physically. Tasks that illustrate lack of operations could be conservation, serration, the three mountain task, etc

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 146

 

  1. Briefly describe the two stages of preoperational thought. Provide an example of children’s thinking at each stage.

Answer: The Piagetian preoperational stage in cognitive development can be divided into two substages: the symbolic function substage and the intuitive thought substage.

The symbolic function substage occurs roughly between the ages of 2 and 4. In this substage, the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present but still suffer from limitations like egocentrism and animism.

The intuitive thought substage occurs between approximately 4 and 7 years of age when children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 146

 

  1. What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)? What are its lower and upper limits? How could you use peer scaffolding to teach children mathematics within the zone?

Answer: The zone of proximal development (ZPD), developed by Lev Vygotsky, consists of the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. The lower limit of the ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 149-150

 

  1. List three ways that Lev Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms.

Answer: Some of the ways that Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms are:

1) Assess the child’s zone of proximal development.

2) Use the child’s ZPD in teaching.

3) Use more-skilled peers as teachers.

4) Place instruction in a meaningful context.

5) Transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 151

 

  1. Briefly state two criticisms leveled against Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development.

Answer: One criticism of Vygotsky’s theory is that Vygotsky was not specific enough about age-related changes. Another criticism is that Vygotsky did not adequately describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 153

 

  1. Describe two reasons for developmental changes in memory span.

Answer: One of the reasons that memory span improves with age is that rehearsal of information is important in increasing short-term memory. Older children rehearse the digits more than younger children do. Speed—especially the speed with which memory items can be identified—and efficiency of processing information are important, too.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 154

 

  1. Identify the factors that can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory.

Answer: Several factors can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory. There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion. Preschoolers are the most suggestible age group in comparison with older children and adults. There are individual differences in susceptibility. Some preschoolers are highly resistant to interviewers’ suggestions, whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestion. Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 155

 

  1. Briefly describe what is meant by a child’s “theory of mind”? What is one way to measure theory of mind?

Answer: Even young children are curious about the nature of the human mind. They have a theory of mind, which refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 157

 

  1. What are the criticisms of the Montessori approach to early education? Based on the text and in class discussion, do you agree with these criticisms?

Answer: Critics of the Montessori approach believe that it neglects children’s socioemotional development. For example, although Montessori fosters independence and the development of cognitive skills, it deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child, and between peers. Montessori’s critics also argue that it restricts imaginative play and that its heavy reliance on self-corrective materials may not adequately allow for creativity and for a variety of learning styles.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 162

 

  1. What are the current areas of controversy in early childhood education?

Answer: Two current controversies in early childhood education involve (1) what the curriculum for early childhood education should be, and (2) whether preschool education should be universal in the United States.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 165

CHAPTER 7: PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE AND LATE CHILDHOOD

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. During the elementary school years, children grow an average of _____ inches a year.
  2. 1 to 2
  3. 2 to 3
  4. 5 to 7
  5. 7 to 10

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. On average, children gain _____ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.
  2. 1 to 2
  3. 2 to 3
  4. 5 to 7
  5. 7 to 10

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. During elementary school years, head circumference and waist circumference:
  2. increase in relation to body height.
  3. decrease in relation to body weight.
  4. increase in relation to body weight.
  5. decrease in relation to body height.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is a reflection of:
  2. increased myelination of the central nervous system.
  3. advances in the prefrontal cortex.
  4. an increase in the neurotransmitter dopamine.
  5. a simultaneous process where axons in the brain die off, while dendrites in the brain grow and branch out.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 200

 

  1. Eight-year-old Ella can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paper, something she could not do at age 3. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?
  2. Cortical thickening in the temporal lobe
  3. Increased myelination of the central nervous system
  4. Increased bone ossification
  5. Increased muscle development

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 200

 

  1. In 2009–2010, _____ percent of U.S. 6- to 11-year-olds were classified as obese.
  2. 12
  3. 30
  4. 25
  5. 18

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 201

 

  1. Which of the following is the second leading cause of death in U.S. children 5 to 14 years of age?
  2. Cardiovascular disease
  3. Cancer
  4. Motor vehicle accidents
  5. Drowning

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. The incidence of cancer in children has _____ in recent years.
  2. been linked to obesity
  3. increased dramatically
  4. slightly increased
  5. decreased dramatically

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Which type of cancer is most prevalent in children?
  2. Leukemia
  3. Lung cancer
  4. Brain cancer

d, Skin cancer

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. _____ are characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells.
  2. Blood and bone cancers
  3. All child cancers
  4. Skin and bone cancers
  5. Skin and blood cancers

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Children with cancer:
  2. are rarer today than in the 1960s.
  3. are dying earlier today than in the 1960s.
  4. are surviving longer today than in the past.
  5. are yet to receive the benefits of advancements in cancer treatment.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 202

 

  1. One in every _____ children in the United States develops cancer before the age of 19.
  2. 75
  3. 130
  4. 250
  5. 330

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Lillette, 9, has been diagnosed with _____, a cancer in which the bone marrow manufactures an abundance of abnormal white blood cells, which crowd out normal cells, making her susceptible to bruising and infection.
  2. neuroblastoma
  3. lymphosarcoma
  4. leukemia
  5. clear cell sarcoma

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States, _____ percent received special education or related services in 2008–2009
  2. 5
  3. 14
  4. 20
  5. 32

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 203

 

  1. Which was the largest group of students with a disability to be served by federal programs and receive special education in the 2008-2009 school year?
  2. Students with a learning disability
  3. Students with speech or language impairments
  4. Students with intellectual disability
  5. Emotionally disturbed students

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 203

 

  1. A learning disability:
  2. is primarily the result of environmental disadvantage.
  3. is primarily the result of mental retardation.
  4. is mainly due to cultural or economic disadvantage.
  5. is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 203

 

  1. About _____ as many boys as girls are classified as having a learning disability.
  2. twice
  3. three times
  4. half
  5. one-third

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 204

 

  1. One of the explanations for the gender difference in the identification of learning disabilities is that:
  2. boys have a greater biological vulnerability for learning disabilities.
  3. girls are more likely to be referred by teachers for treatment.
  4. girls’ education is given priority in schools and homes.
  5. learning disability is more difficult to detect in boys.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. _____ children with a learning disability have a reading problem.
  2. Few
  3. No
  4. Most
  5. All

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Sabeen has a severe impairment in reading and spelling ability. Identify the condition that Sabeen has.
  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  3. Dysgraphia
  4. Dyslexia
  5. Dyscalculia

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Marshall writes very slowly and his handwriting is virtually illegible. He also makes numerous spelling errors because of his inability to match up sounds and letters. Which of the following conditions does Marshall suffer from?
  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  3. Dysgraphia
  4. Dyslexia
  5. Dyscalculia

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Sandra, 9, was always behind in class because she could only write very slowly, and even then her painstaking efforts would be virtually illegible and riddled with spelling mistakes. Her teacher referred her to a psychologist who diagnosed her with a learning disability called:
  2. ADHD.
  3. dysgraphia.
  4. dyslexia.
  5. dyscalculia.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Terrence has a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation. This disability is also known as a developmental arithmetic disorder. Identify Terrence’s condition.
  2. ADHD
  3. Dysgraphia
  4. Dyslexia
  5. Dyscalculia

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Samuel, 8, has difficulty in math computation. His physician diagnosed him as suffering from a learning disability called _____, or developmental arithmetic disorder.
  2. dyscalculia
  3. dysgraphia
  4. dyslexia
  5. ADHD

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Research indicates that it is unlikely learning disabilities:
  2. reside in a single, specific brain location.
  3. are due to problems in integrating information from multiple brain regions.
  4. are a result of subtle difficulties in brain structures.
  5. are a result of subtle difficulties in brain functions.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Interventions with children who have a learning disability often focus on improving:
  2. math ability.
  3. right and left brain functioning.
  4. writing skills.
  5. reading ability.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. _____ is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of these characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
  2. ADHD
  3. OCD
  4. PTSD
  5. EMDR

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 204

 

  1. Damon’s teachers frequently complain that he disrupts his kindergarten class by fidgeting and moving about all the time. He does not pay any attention to what is being taught in class and behaves impulsively. Considering the presence of the tell-tale characteristics of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, Damon’s pediatrician diagnosed him with _____.
  2. ADHD
  3. OCD
  4. PTSD
  5. EMDR

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. The number of children diagnosed and treated for ADHD has _____ in recent decades.
  2. increased marginally
  3. increased substantially
  4. decreased marginally
  5. decreased substantially

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 205

 

  1. ADHD occurs _____ more frequently in boys than in girls.
  2. two to three times
  3. four to nine times
  4. ten times
  5. marginally

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 205

 

  1. A number of causes for ADHD have been proposed, including:
  2. high birth weight.
  3. poor discipline at home.
  4. verbal and physical abuse during childhood.
  5. cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 205

 

  1. A recent study revealed that peak thickness of the cerebral cortex occurs _____ in children with ADHD than in children without ADHD.
  2. in adulthood
  3. in infancy
  4. three years later
  5. two years earlier

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 205

 

  1. Which of the following has been found to be better at improving the behavior of children with ADHD in most cases?
  2. A combination of stimulant medication and sedatives
  3. Primarily stimulant medication
  4. Primarily behavior management
  5. A combination of stimulant medication and behavior management

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 205

 

  1. The most recent estimate is that _____ children had an autism spectrum disorder in 2008.
  2. 1 in 88
  3. 1 in 2,500
  4. 1 in 1,000
  5. 1 in 150

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. _____ is a severe developmental disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
  2. Asperger syndrome
  3. ADHD
  4. Autistic disorder
  5. ICF syndrome

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. Jared, 3, was taken to the doctor by his parents who were concerned by his seeming lack of attachment to those around him. Jared hardly spoke at all and spent all day preoccupied with bouncing his ball off a wall. After a thorough investigation, his pediatrician diagnosed him with _____.
  2. Asperger syndrome
  3. ADHD
  4. autistic disorder
  5. ICF syndrome

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 206

 

  1. _____ is a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships.
  2. Asperger syndrome
  3. ADHD
  4. Autistic disorder
  5. ICF syndrome

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. What causes the autism spectrum disorders?
  2. Improper family socialization
  3. A brain dysfunction with abnormalities in brain structure and neurotransmitters
  4. Damage to the prefrontal cortex of the brain
  5. Childhood immunizations

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. Boys are estimated to be _____ more likely to have autism spectrum disorders than girls are.
  2. two to three times
  3. marginally
  4. twice
  5. five times

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 206

 

  1. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, enacted in 1975, required that:
  2. all students with disabilities be brought into mainstream schools.
  3. parents of children with disabilities provide home-schooling for their children.
  4. all students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate public education.
  5. a standard curriculum be provided for students with and without disabilities.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a written statement that spells out a program that is specifically tailored for the student with a disability.
  2. tailored education plan (TEP)
  3. individualized education plan (IEP)
  4. exclusive education plan (EEP)
  5. disabilities education plan (DEP)

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. The _____ is a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated.
  2. ideal learning environment (ILE)
  3. special learning environment (SLE)
  4. least discriminating environment (LDE)
  5. least restrictive environment (LRE)

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Jacob is a third-grader and has a disability that has caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third-grade classroom. Jacob has just experienced _____.
  2. transformation
  3. transition
  4. seriation
  5. inclusion

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Sadie has a learning disability and is being educated in the least restrictive environment possible. This means that Sadie:
  2. is given great freedom and few rules.
  3. is placed in as regular a classroom as possible.
  4. has significant input into developing her educational goals.
  5. spends part of her time in a regular classroom and part of her time in a special education classroom.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 207

 

  1. With regard to the cognitive development theory, Piaget proposed that the concrete operational stage lasts from approximately _____ years of age.
  2. 3 to 5
  3. 5 to 7
  4. 7 to 11
  5. 10 to 13

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 208

 

  1. A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay. If the child answers the problem correctly, but cannot use abstract reasoning yet, the child MOST likely is in which stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory?
  2. Sensorimotor stage
  3. Preoperational stage
  4. Formal operational stage
  5. Concrete operational stage

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 208

 

  1. Children who have reached the concrete operational stage are capable of _____, which is the ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension.
  2. centration
  3. seriation
  4. reversibility
  5. classification

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 208

 

  1. Luis is able to organize coins in a row from the largest in size to the smallest. His newfound ability is called _____.
  2. centration
  3. seriation
  4. reversibility
  5. classification

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 208

 

  1. Byron can take sticks of different lengths and put them all in order from shortest to longest. He can also discern that if stick A is longer then B and B is longer than C, then A is longer then C. This ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions is _____.
  2. seriation
  3. transitivity
  4. transduction
  5. classification

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 208-209

 

  1. _____ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _____ develop(s) more rapidly during middle and late childhood.
  2. Long-term memory; short-term memory
  3. Short-term memory; long-term memory
  4. Knowledge; expertise
  5. Expertise; knowledge

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 209-210

 

  1. Compared with novices, experts have:
  2. better overall memory regardless of their area of expertise.
  3. acquired extensive knowledge about a particular content area.
  4. less experiences in their area of expertise.
  5. higher levels of motivation.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 210

 

  1. If the word “win” is on a list of words a child is asked to remember, the child might think of the last time he won a pony race with a friend. This is an example of _____.
  2. rehearsal
  3. organization
  4. inclusion
  5. elaboration

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 210

 

  1. Which of the following is a strategy for improving children’s memory skills?
  2. Avoid repetition of the same instructional information.
  3. Embed memory-relevant language when instructing children.
  4. Motivate children to remember material by memorizing it.
  5. Discourage children from engaging in mental imagery.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 210

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an effective memory strategy?
  2. Encourage elaboration, or more extensive processing
  3. Encourage the use of mental imagery
  4. Encourage memorization rather than understanding of information
  5. Repeat with variation often and link information early

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 210

 

  1. At some point during the early elementary school years, children begin to use _____ more and, according to the fuzzy trace theory, this contributes to the improved memory and reasoning of older children.
  2. verbatim traces
  3. elaboration
  4. verbal traces
  5. gist

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 211

 

  1. According to the fuzzy trace theory, the _____ consists of the precise details of the information.
  2. gist
  3. verbatim memory trace
  4. fuzzy trace
  5. mental imagery

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211

 

  1. Voletta thinks reflectively and reviews, connects, and reflects as a means of evaluating evidence. This means that she is engaging in:
  2. critical thinking.
  3. metacognition.
  4. cognitive monitoring.
  5. control processes.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 211

 

  1. Emily has the ability to think about things in novel and unusual ways; this allows her to come up with unique solutions to problems. This ability is called _____.
  2. logical thinking
  3. analytical thinking
  4. critical thinking
  5. creative thinking

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 211

 

  1. _____ thinking characterizes the kind of thinking that is required on conventional tests of intelligence.
  2. Convergent
  3. Creative
  4. Divergent
  5. Abstract

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:
  2. divergent thinking.
  3. convergent thinking.
  4. expressive thinking.
  5. productive thinking.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 212

 

  1. “What would you do if you could be invisible for a day?” This is an example of a question that has many possible answers and fosters _____ thinking.
  2. divergent
  3. convergent
  4. expressive
  5. productive

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. _____ involves knowing about knowing.
  2. Cognition
  3. Brainstorming
  4. Metacognition
  5. Metadata

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 212

 

  1. Knowledge about memory is known as:
  2. metamemory.
  3. working memory.
  4. implicit memory.
  5. metadata.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 212

 

  1. Megan, 8, has a test tomorrow. “It’s an easy test,” she tells her mother. “I just have to recognize a bunch of stuff on a chart. I finished studying for it yesterday.” Megan is exhibiting her:
  2. brainstorming ability.
  3. creative thinking.
  4. metamemory.
  5. metadata.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 212

 

  1. Michael Pressley believes that the key to education is helping students to:
  2. develop social skills.
  3. learn creativity.
  4. learn a repertoire of strategies for problem solving.
  5. formulate career plans.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 213

 

  1. Mental age (MA) is:
  2. the age that an individual mentally identifies himself at.
  3. the age at which an individual attains cognitive maturity.
  4. an individual’s level of mental development relative to others.
  5. an individual’s age at the time of peak cortical thickness.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 214

 

  1. A person’s mental age divided by chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100 would indicate that person’s:
  2. emotional quotient.
  3. intelligence quotient.
  4. level of mental development relative to others.
  5. cognitive maturity.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Sergio’s mental age is 8, but his chronological age is 9, we would say that Sergio’s IQ is:
  2. average
  3. bellow average
  4. above average
  5. cannot be determined from the information provided.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Who created the concept of intelligence quotient?
  2. Alfred Binet
  3. William Stern
  4. David Wechsler
  5. Robert J. Sternberg

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Sally’s mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally’s IQ is _____.
  2. 75
  3. 100
  4. 108
  5. 133

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find in the overall population?
  2. More people of high intelligence than of low intelligence
  3. More people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence
  4. More people of high intelligence than of moderate or low intelligence
  5. More people of low intelligence than of moderate or high intelligence

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 214

 

  1. Amber is given a Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Her mental age is determined to be 14 and her chronological age is 10. Which of the following can be said about Amber?
  2. Her IQ score is 86.
  3. Her IQ score is about average.
  4. Her IQ score is below the majority of the population.
  5. Her IQ score is above the majority of the population.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. The _____ not only provide an overall IQ score, but they also yield several composite indexes that allow the examiner to quickly determine the areas in which the child is strong or weak.
  2. Wechsler scales
  3. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales
  4. Stanford-Binet tests
  5. Apgar Scales

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of intelligence identified in Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
  2. Cultural intelligence
  3. Practical intelligence
  4. Spatial intelligence
  5. Verbal intelligence

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Although Casey scores only about average on standardized intelligence tests, he is street smart, and has excellent social skills and good common sense. According to Sternberg, he has _____ intelligence.
  2. spatial
  3. practical
  4. analytical
  5. interpersonal

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 215

 

  1. Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that:
  2. intelligence is a general ability.
  3. there are three types of intelligence.
  4. intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.
  5. culture plays an important role in the development of intelligence.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 215-216

 

  1. Howard Gardner suggests that there are _____ types of intelligence.
  2. 4
  3. 6
  4. 8
  5. 11

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to Gardner, Colin has _____ skills.
  2. spatial
  3. intrapersonal
  4. bodily-kinesthetic
  5. naturalist

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
  2. A journalist
  3. A theologian
  4. A botanist
  5. An architect

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 216

 

  1. According to Howard Gardner, successful theologians and psychologists most likely to have high levels of which type of intelligence?
  2. Naturalist
  3. Intrapersonal
  4. Spatial
  5. Bodily-kinesthetic

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Patrick is an experienced farmer who is very good at his job. According to Howard Gardner, which of the following types of intelligence is Patrick most likely to score highly on?
  2. Bodily-kinesthetic
  3. Intrapersonal
  4. Naturalist
  5. Mathematical

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of intelligence identified by Howard Gardner?
  2. Intrapersonal
  3. Analytical
  4. Practical
  5. Creative

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Nathan Brody and many other researchers have observed that people who excel at one type of intellectual task are:
  2. likely to underperform in other tasks.
  3. evidence that the multiple-intelligence approaches are correct.
  4. proof that intelligence is a number of specific abilities.
  5. likely to excel at others too.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 216

 

  1. Which of the following statements about IQ and intelligence is true?
  2. Modifications in environment have no impact on one’s IQ score.
  3. Schooling has been shown to have no influence over intelligence.
  4. IQ scores have been slowly decreasing around the world.
  5. IQ scores have been rapidly increasing around the world.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 218

 

  1. The worldwide increase in intelligence scores that has occurred over a short period of time has been called the:
  2. Binet effect.
  3. Goleman effect.
  4. Flynn effect.
  5. Wechsler effect.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 218

 

  1. The consensus among psychologists that both heredity and environment influence intelligence reflects the _____.
  2. nature-nurture issue
  3. evolutionary psychology perspective
  4. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
  5. theory of social cognition

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 219

 

  1. According to some studies, African American schoolchildren in the United States score, on average, _____ points lower on standardized intelligence tests than non- Latino White American schoolchildren do.
  2. 2 to 5
  3. 10 to 15
  4. 20 to 30
  5. 30 to 40

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:
  2. test predominantly nonverbal skills.
  3. consider the values common to all test takers.
  4. reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.
  5. use only standardized test items familiar to all test takers.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Because of the difficulties in creating culture-fair tests, Robert Sternberg concludes that there are only _____ tests.
  2. culture-reduced
  3. culture-free
  4. culture-biased
  5. culture-neutral

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Paul has an IQ of 60. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. He has no difficulty adapting to everyday life. According to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is:
  2. not mentally retarded.
  3. mildly retarded.
  4. moderately retarded.
  5. severely mentally retarded.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 fall into the _____ category of mental retardation.
  2. mild
  3. moderate
  4. severe
  5. profound

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. About _____ percent of the mentally retarded fall into the mild category.
  2. 89
  3. 6
  4. 3.5
  5. 1

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. What percentage of mentally retarded are considered moderately retarded?
  2. About 89 percent
  3. About 6 percent
  4. About 3.5 percent
  5. Less than 1 percent

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Individuals who are categorized as having moderate mental retardation have an IQ of _____.
  2. 25 to 39
  3. 71 to 100
  4. 55 to 70
  5. 40 to 54

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Less than 1 percent of mentally retarded Americans are considered to be:
  2. mildly mentally retarded.
  3. moderately mentally retarded.
  4. severely mentally retarded.
  5. profoundly mentally retarded.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. About _____ percent of the mentally retarded are in the severe category, with IQs of _____.
  2. 1; 55 to 70
  3. 6; 40 to 54
  4. 3.5; 25 to 39
  5. 10; 15 to 24

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. What percentage of the mentally retarded fall into the classification of the profoundly mentally retarded?
  2. About 1 percent
  3. About 3.5 percent
  4. About 6 percent
  5. About 89 percent

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Which of the following individuals is likely to fall into the profoundly mentally retarded category?
  2. Maria who has an IQ of 65
  3. Sally who has an IQ of 45
  4. Tom who has an IQ of 30
  5. Harry who has an IQ of 20

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Individuals who fall into the profoundly mentally retarded classification:
  2. are able to live independently as adults.
  3. can attain a second-grade level of skills.
  4. learn to talk and accomplish very simple tasks.
  5. need constant supervision.

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Julie has an IQ of 50. She lives in a group home and works at a recycling plant, sorting cans and bottles into bins. Overall, Julie functions at the level of a second-grader. Julie’s level of mental retardation is considered _____.
  2. mild
  3. moderate
  4. severe
  5. profound

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Organic retardation is caused by:
  2. a genetic disorder or brain damage.
  3. being raised by poorly educated parents.
  4. an impoverished intellectual environment.
  5. traumatic experiences in early childhood.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Most people who suffer from organic retardation have IQs that range between _____.
  2. 25 and 60
  3. 40 and 65
  4. 0 and 50
  5. 15 and 65

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Cultural-familial retardation is characterized by:
  2. mild to moderate retardation.
  3. moderate to severe retardation.
  4. severe to profound retardation.
  5. moderate damage to brain tissues.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Children with superior talent for something are called:
  2. gifted.
  3. creative.
  4. perspicacious.
  5. sagacious.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220

 

  1. A child with an IQ of _____ or higher is considered to be gifted.
  2. 90
  3. 100
  4. 120
  5. 130

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Fiona, 10, is an outstanding pianist and has an IQ of 140. Fiona is:
  2. an anomaly.
  3. gifted.
  4. sagacious.
  5. maladjusted.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Ethan is a gifted 14-year-old child who excels academically and has an IQ of 140. In the light of the findings from Lewis Terman’s study of high IQ children, it is likely that Ethan is:
  2. suffering from a mental disorder.
  3. maladjusted.
  4. more mature than others his own age.
  5. at higher risk for emotional problems.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 220

 

  1. Ellen Winner described three criteria that characterize gifted children. Which of the following was NOT one of these criteria?
  2. Precocity
  3. Marching to their own drummer
  4. Easily bored
  5. A passion to master

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 220-221

 

  1. Which of the following is true of giftedness?
  2. Signs of high ability of an individual in a particular area do not manifest themselves at a very young age.
  3. Deliberate practice is not required of individuals who become experts in a particular domain.
  4. Individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support.
  5. Individuals who are highly gifted are typically gifted in many domains.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 221

 

  1. Which of the following is an important characteristic of individuals who become experts in a particular domain?
  2. Low innate ability
  3. An IQ below 70
  4. Intermittent practice
  5. Deliberate practice

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 221

 

  1. By the time children are 11 years old their vocabulary has increased to approximately:
  2. 10,000 words.
  3. 200,000 words.
  4. 40,000 words.
  5. 100,000 words.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. _____ is knowledge about language, such as knowing what a preposition is or the ability to discuss the sounds of a language.
  2. Metacognition
  3. Metalinguistic awareness
  4. Metapragmatics
  5. Morphology

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. _____ allows children “to think about their language, understand what words are, and even define them.”
  2. Metacognition
  3. Morphology
  4. Metapragmatics
  5. Metalinguistic awareness

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Which of the following improves considerably during the elementary school years?
  2. Metalinguistic awareness
  3. Postconventional reasoning
  4. Formal Operational thought
  5. Metapragmatics

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 222

 

  1. Defining words becomes a regular part of classroom discourse, and children increase their knowledge of _____ as they study and talk about the components of sentences, such as subjects and verbs.
  2. morphology
  3. syntax
  4. semantics
  5. pragmatics

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. A process called _____ involves understanding how to use language in culturally appropriate ways.
  2. morphology
  3. syntax
  4. pragmatics
  5. semantics

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 222

 

  1. The _____ approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language learning.
  2. assisted-language
  3. remedial-language
  4. complex-language
  5. whole-language

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 223

 

  1. At Jackson Elementary, children are taught to read by learning to recognize entire words and sentences and to use the context words are used in the text to guess their meaning. Their reading material consists of stories, poems, and later, newspapers and magazines. This school is using the _____ approach to reading instruction.
  2. assisted-language
  3. remedial-language
  4. phonics
  5. whole-language

Answer: d

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 223

 

  1. The _____ approach to reading instruction emphasizes the teaching of basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
  2. whole-language
  3. phonics
  4. balanced-instruction
  5. morphological

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Louise is teaching her son to read by telling him the sound that each alphabet stands for. What approach is she using?
  2. Whole-language
  3. Phonics
  4. Balanced-instruction
  5. Morphological

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Alberta is a school teacher who introduces children to reading by teaching them a rhyme that goes, “A for apple, A says ah; B for ball, B says buh,” and so on. This exemplifies the _____ approach to reading instruction.
  2. whole-language
  3. phonics
  4. information-processing
  5. analytic

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Which of the following statements represents the current thinking among increasing numbers of experts in the field of reading?
  2. Direct instruction in the whole-language approach is a key aspect of learning to read.
  3. Direct instruction in phonics is a key aspect of learning to read.
  4. The whole-language approach and the phonics approach are equally effective in teaching children to read.
  5. The morphological approach has been shown to be the best way to teach reading.

Answer: b

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 223

 

  1. Which of the following is true about second-language learning?
  2. For adolescents and adults, new vocabulary is easier to learn than new sounds or new grammar.
  3. Children’s ability to pronounce words with a native-like accent in a second language typically increases with age.
  4. Sensitive periods for learning a second language are constant across different language systems.
  5. Adults tend to learn a second language slower than children, but their final level of second-language attainment is higher.

Answer: a

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 223-224

 

  1. Which of the following statements about children who are bilingual is NOT true?
  2. Children who are bilingual do better on tests of concept formation than children who speak only one language.
  3. Children who are bilingual are better at analytical reasoning than children who speak only one language.
  4. Children who are bilingual are less conscious of the structure of spoken language than children who speak only one language.
  5. Children who are bilingual have more cognitive flexibility than children who speak only one language.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 223-224

 

  1. Before she started school in the U.S., Mita, daughter of immigrant parents of Indian origin, used to speak only her home language of Hindi fluently. She then learned to speak English in school and attained fluency in both Hindi and English. However, as she grew older, she started to feel ashamed of her roots and has given up speaking Hindi altogether. This phenomenon is called:
  2. subjective bilingualism.
  3. relapsed bilingualism.
  4. subtractive bilingualism.
  5. retractive bilingualism.

Answer: c

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 224

 

 

Identification Questions

 

  1. Tabitha has a learning disability that involves a severe impairment her ability to read and spell. She most likely has _____.

Answer: dyslexia

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 204

 

  1. This is a disability in which individuals consistently show problems in one or more of these areas: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Answer: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 204

 

  1. The concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is as similar as possible to settings of children who do not have disabilities.

Answer: Least restrictive environment (LRE)

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Moira’s teacher asks her to put sticks in order from smallest to largest. The cognitive ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension is known as _____.

Answer: seriation

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 208

 

  1. A theory that states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representation: verbatim memory trace and gist.

Answer: Fuzzy trace theory

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211

 

  1. These theorists proposed the fuzzy trace theory in understanding the development of memory.

Answer: Charles Brainerd and Valerie Reyna

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211

 

  1. This theorist distinguished between convergent thinking and divergent thinking.

Answer: J. P. Guilford

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. Quinn is asked, “How many things can you do with a paper clip?” This kind of question, which can produce many different answers, is a test of _____.

Answer: divergent thinking

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 212

 

  1. If we look at Madeline’s mental age and divided it by her chronological age, and then multiply it by 100, we are calculating her _____.

Answer: intelligence quotient (IQ)

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Apply

Page(s): 214

 

  1. This theorist developed the triarchic theory of intelligence.

Answer: Robert J. Sternberg

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. This theorist described three criteria that characterize gifted children, whether in art, music, or academic domains.

Answer: Ellen Winner

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 220

 

 

Short Answer Questions

 

  1. Discuss height and weight changes that take place during middle and late childhood.

Answer: During the elementary school years, children grow an average of 2 to 3 inches a year until, at the age of 11, the average girl is 4 feet, 10 inches tall, and the average boy is 4 feet, 9 inches tall. During the middle and late childhood years, children gain about 5 to 7 pounds a year.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 199

 

  1. Identify and describe the most common child cancer.

Answer: The most common cancer in children is leukemia, a cancer in which bone marrow manufactures an abundance of abnormal white blood cells, which crowd out normal cells, making the child susceptible to bruising and infection.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 202

 

  1. Briefly describe the three types of learning disabilities. Discuss the various treatment options. Do you think that educators treat learning disabilities appropriately? Provide reasons for your answer.

Answer: Three types of learning disabilities are dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia. Dyslexia involves individuals who have a severe impairment in their ability to read and spell. Dysgraphia is a learning disability that involves difficulty in handwriting. Dyscalculia, also known as developmental arithmetic disorder, is a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 204

 

  1. What are the treatment options available for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Answer: Stimulant medication such as Ritalin or Adderall (which has fewer side effects than Ritalin) is effective in improving the attention of many children with ADHD, but it usually does not improve their attention to the same level as children who do not have ADHD. A meta-analysis concluded that behavior management treatments are effective in reducing the effects of ADHD. Researchers have often found that a combination of medication, such as Ritalin, and behavior management improves the behavior of children with ADHD better than medication alone or behavior management alone, although not in all cases.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 206

 

  1. Discuss what Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) does.

Answer: Until the 1970s, most U.S. public schools either refused enrollment to children with disabilities or inadequately served them. This changed in 1975 when Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, required that all students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate public education. In 1990, Public Law 94-142 was recast as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA was amended in 1997 and then reauthorized in 2004 and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. IDEA spells out broad mandates for services to children with disabilities of all kinds. These services include evaluation and eligibility determination, appropriate education and an individualized education plan (IEP), and education in the least restrictive environment (LRE).

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 207

 

  1. Compare and contrast convergent thinking with divergent thinking.

Answer: Convergent thinking produces one correct answer to a question, characteristic of the kind of thinking on standardized intelligence tests. Divergent thinking produces many answers to the same question and characterizes creativity.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 211-212

 

  1. According to Robert J. Sternberg, which type of intelligence in students is most likely to be favored in conventional schooling?

Answer: According to Robert J. Sternberg, students with high analytic ability tend to be favored in conventional schooling. They often do well under direct instruction, in which the teacher lectures and gives students objective tests. They often are considered to be “smart” students who get good grades, show up in high-level tracks, do well on traditional tests of intelligence and the SAT, and later get admitted to competitive colleges.

Difficulty Level: Easy

Blooms: Remember

Page(s): 215

 

  1. What are the barriers to creating culture-fair tests?

Answer: Most tests tend to reflect what the dominant culture thinks is important. If tests have time limits, that will bias the test against groups not concerned with time. If languages differ, the same words might have different meanings for different language groups. Even pictures can produce bias because some cultures have less experience with drawings and photographs. Because of such difficulties in creating culture-fair tests, Robert Sternberg concludes that there are no culture-fair tests, only culture-reduced tests.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 219

 

  1. Is giftedness a product of heredity or environment? Give one example.

Answer: It is likely that giftedness is a product of both heredity and environment. Individuals who are gifted recall that they had signs of high ability in a particular area at a very young age, prior to or at the beginning of formal training. This suggests the importance of innate ability in giftedness. However, researchers have also found that individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support and years of training and practice. Deliberate practice is an important characteristic of individuals who become experts in a particular domain. For example, in one study, the best musicians engaged in twice as much deliberate practice over their lives as did the least successful ones.

Difficulty Level: Hard

Blooms: Analyze

Page(s): 221

 

  1. What is bilingual education? What are the positive aspects of bilingual education?

Answer: Bilingual education teaches academic subjects to immigrant children in their native language while slowly teaching English. Advocates of bilingual education programs argue that if children who do not know English are taught only in English, they will fall behind in academic subjects. Research supports bilingual education in that (1) children have difficulty learning a subject when it is taught in a language they do not understand, and (2) when both languages are integrated in the classroom, children learn the second language more readily and participate more actively.

Difficulty Level: Medium

Blooms: Understand

Page(s): 224-225