Essentials Of Physical Anthropology 3rd Edition By Clark Spencer Larsen -Test Bank

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Essentials Of Physical Anthropology 3rd Edition By Clark Spencer Larsen -Test Bank

CHAPTER 06: Biology in the Present: The Other Living Primates

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The dental pattern of Old World higher primates is:
a. 2-1-2-3. c. 2-2-2-3.
b. 2-1-3-3. d. 2-2-3-3.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Dietary plasticity                            MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. High, pointed crowns indicate a diet of:
a. fruit. c. meat.
b. leaves. d. insects.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   What is a primate?                          MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Living lemurs are found only in:
a. Asia. c. South America.
b. Africa. d. Madagascar.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following are prosimians?
a. baboons c. lemurs
b. gibbons d. tamarins

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The two suborders of primates are:
a. platyrrhine and catarrhine. c. pongidae and hominidae.
b. prosimians and anthropoids. d. tarsiers and anthropoids.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. While at the zoo you see an exhibit with a small group of primates and notice they have wet, snout-like noses. This indicates a species of:
a. prosimian, because they retain the rhinarium not found in other mammal species.
b. anthropoid primate, because they retain the rhinarium commonly found in other mammal species.
c. platyrrhine primate, because their nostrils do not point downward.
d. strepsirhini that retain a rhinarium found only in prosimian primates.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Modern primates are characterized by arboreal adaptations, including:
a. opposable thumbs.
b. a precision grip.
c. short digits.
d. an expanded reliance on sense of smell.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the physical adaptations that all primates share           TOP:    Arboreal adaptation

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Primates’ enhanced sense of vision stems from:
a. the fact that their eyes are rotated forward.
b. their tendency toward nocturnality.
c. their color vision.
d. both a. and c.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the physical adaptations that all primates share

TOP:   Primates have enhanced senses of vision                        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Low, rounded cusps indicate a diet of:
a. fruit. c. insects.
b. meat. d. leaves.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Primates have evolved different dental specializations and functional emphasis

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Primate females:
a. invest less in their offspring than do many other mammals.
b. give birth to more offspring than do most other mammals.
c. give birth to fewer offspring than do many other mammals.
d. give birth to twins regularly.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how parental investment and brain size are related in primates

TOP:   Parental investment                        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The suborder prosimians includes:
a. only nocturnal species. c. diurnal and nocturnal galagos.
b. only diurnal species. d. diurnal and nocturnal lemurs.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Anthropoids include:
a. monkeys and apes, including humans. c. tarsiers, monkeys, and apes only.
b. African and Asian apes only. d. lemurs, lorises, galagos, and tarsiers.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The cladistic classification of apes and humans:
a. includes three subfamilies within hominids: pongines, gorillines, and hominines.
b. uses the term hominid to describe only humans and their ancestors.
c. divides hominoids into hylobatids, pongids, and hominids.
d. includes tarsiers, lemurs, and lorises.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Distinguish the issues involved with taxonomic classification of living primates

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Relative to other primates, prosimian adaptations include:
a. an enlarged olfactory bulb and enlarged scent glands.
b. a larger brain.
c. a reduced number of teeth.
d. smaller eye orbits.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology

TOP:   Primates have a reduced sense of smell                          MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Anthropoids differ from prosimians in that they:
a. have more teeth.
b. have better color vision.
c. are less dimorphic sexually.
d. have a smaller brain relative to body size.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Prehensile tails are:
a. present in catarrhine primates. c. present only in some platyrrhines.
b. present in most primates. d. made strictly of muscle.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the skeletal differences between primates that are quadrupedal, bipedal, and suspensory      TOP:    The haplorhines                         MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. Colobine primates:
a. are mostly frugivorous.
b. are usually terrestrial.
c. have specialized digestive anatomy for eating leaves.
d. are referred to as “cheek pouch” monkeys.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain the differences between New World monkeys and Old World monkeys

TOP:   The haplorhines                              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The suborder prosimians includes:
a. New World and Old World monkeys.
b. lemurs, lorises, galagos, and tarsiers.
c. great apes and lesser apes.
d. lemurs, lorises, and Old World monkeys.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Arboreal adaptation is:
a. adaptation to life in the trees. c. adaptation to life in the savanna.
b. the ability to brachiate. d. the ability to move on four limbs.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   List the three main primate tendencies defined by Le Gros Clark

TOP:   Arboreal adaptation—primates live in trees and are good at it

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. You are reading a scientific paper regarding the relationships of the anatomical and behavioral characteristics of chimpanzees and their implications for early hominid evolution. You note that the authors refer to human ancestors as hominids. This implies that the researchers are relying on:
a. cladistic classifications of chimpanzees and humans, as this is most appropriate for their research.
b. anatomical classifications of chimpanzees and humans, as this is most appropriate when looking at adaptation and anatomy.
c. genetic classification of chimpanzees and humans, hence their use of the term hominid to describe human ancestors.
d. both b. and c.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Distinguish the issues involved with taxonomic classification of living primates

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In class your professor shows you an MRI scan of a primate brain. The professor points out the relatively large size of the olfactory bulb beneath the frontal lobe. This suggests to you that this:
a. primate exhibits a derived trait for an enhanced sense of smell, since this trait is not commonly observed in mammal species.
b. is a species of anthropoid because it has an increased reliance on vision.
c. primate must be a species of prosimian, as that suborder of primates relies heavily on the sense of smell for many aspects of daily life.
d. species is nocturnal.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In your primate anatomy lab you are shown the mandible (lower jawbone) of a species of primate. While looking at the teeth you notice a large space between the canine and first premolar. In your lab book you note that this:
a. is likely the lower jaw of a human, due to the potential presence of a canine-premolar honing complex.
b. may be a species of Old World monkey or ape, as the space in the teeth of the mandible suggests the presence of a canine-premolar honing complex.
c. is likely the lower jaw of a human, given the presence of a nonhoning chewing complex.
d. may be a species of Old World monkey or ape, as the space in the teeth suggests the presence of a nonhoning chewing complex.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Primates have evolved different dental specializations and functional emphasis

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular monkey you are watching uses its hands, feet, and tail to grasp branches while moving throughout the trees in its enclosure. This is most likely a(n):
a. Old World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.
b. lesser ape, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.
c. New World monkey, because these are the only monkeys that live in trees.
d. New World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the differences between New World monkeys and Old World monkeys

TOP:   The haplorhines                              MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A skull with a foramen magnum positioned at the back of the skull belongs to:
a. an individual that is fully bipedal, such as a human.
b. an individual that is fully quadrupedal, such as a dog.
c. an individual that is fully quadrupedal, such as a human.
d. none of the above (this trait is observed only in prosimians).

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the skeletal differences between primates that are quadrupedal, bipedal, and suspensory      TOP:    The haplorhines                         MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. The typical dental formula of lorises and lemurs is:
a. 2 / 1 / 3 / 3. c. 2 / 1 / 3 / 2.
b. 1 / 1 / 3 / 3. d. 2 / 1 / 2 / 3.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Dietary plasticity—primates eat a highly varied diet, and their teeth reflect this adaptive versatility     MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The typical catarrhine dental formula is:
a. 1 / 1 / 2 / 3. c. 2 / 1 / 2 / 3.
b. 2 / 1 / 3 / 3. d. 3 / 1 / 2 / 3.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Dietary plasticity—primates eat a highly varied diet, and their teeth reflect this adaptive versatility     MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. The rhinarium is present in:
a. baboons. c. ring-tail lemurs.
b. gorillas. d. howler monkeys.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The Y-5 molar morphology is present in:
a. colobus monkeys. c. lemurs.
b. chimpanzees. d. howler monkeys.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Relative to body size, primate brain size is:
a. proportional to human brain size.
b. more or less the same in large and small primates.
c. smaller than in other large mammals.
d. larger among great apes than among other primates.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how parental investment and brain size are related in primates

TOP:   Parental investment                        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The increased brain size observed in the order Primates:
a. results in extended periods of nursing and development to accommodate increasing behavioral complexity.
b. results in shorter developmental periods to accommodate the necessary energy expenditures of larger brain size.
c. demonstrates the importance of intelligence in primate evolution.
d. both a. and c.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how parental investment and brain size are related in primates

TOP:   Parental investment                        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Dietary plasticity in primates refers to:
a. eating a wide variety of foods.
b. lack of diversity of diets over time.
c. diets composed of a variety of red meats.
d. diets composed of a variety of fruits.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   List the three main primate tendencies defined by Le Gros Clark

TOP:   Dietary plasticity                            MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. African monkeys, including Miss Waldron’s red colobus, are:
a. among the most endangered animals due to human exploitation of resources.
b. a healthy population living in a subtropical environment.
c. not highly adaptable to changing environments but do well in zoos.
d. among the most endangered animal species due to disease.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Assess why Miss Waldron’s red colobus is extinct or nearly extinct and brainstorm ways to prevent other species of primates from becoming endangered

TOP:   Anthropology matters: primates in peril: Miss Waldron’s colobus

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A feature unique to human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is:
a. the presence of a canine-premolar honing complex.
b. a canine that shows no wear on any surface.
c. the Y-5 cusp pattern.
d. a canine that shows wear on the tip.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Primates have evolved different dental specializations and functional emphasis

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The eminent British anatomist Sir Wilfrid E. Le Gros Clark (1895–1971) identified three prominent tendencies. They are:
a. the presence of a rhinarium, increased mobility, and an opposable thumb.
b. increased mobility, arboreal adaptation, and brachiation.
c. arboreal adaptation, parental investment, and the presence of dietary plasticity.
d. the presence of a rhinarium, forward-facing eyes, and increased parental care.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   List the three main primate tendencies defined by Le Gros Clark

TOP:   What is a primate?                          MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Old World monkeys have:
a. Y-5 molars. c. bilophodont molars.
b. two sets of molars. d. one-inch molars.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Primates have evolved different dental specializations and functional emphasis

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Strepsirhines have a special lower incisor called a:
a. bilophodont. c. diastema.
b. two-ridge tooth. d. tooth comb.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Primates have evolved different dental specializations and functional emphasis

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Preadaptation is:
a. the series of apparent adaptations that are never actually used.
b. the use of an anatomical feature in a way unrelated to the feature’s original function.
c. an anatomical feature used in the manner for which it was originally selected.
d. a phenomenon that occurs before natural selection can occur.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the physical adaptations that all primates share

TOP:   Primates have a versatile skeletal structure                                MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Primates have long growth and development periods because:
a. they are like other mammals in taking a long time to develop to sexual maturity.
b. on average they are smaller bodied than most other mammals.
c. they have higher intelligence and larger brains relative to other animals.
d. the areas of the brain associated with smell and hearing are expanded in primates.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how parental investment and brain size are related in primates

TOP:   Parental investment                        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Among all primates, humans have the:
a. largest body relative to other animals.
b. greatest level of biological adaptability.
c. largest body size.
d. largest brain relative to body size.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how parental investment and brain size are related in primates

TOP:   Parental investment                        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The cladistic approach to primate classification is:
a. based on the use of anatomical and genetic evidence to establish ancestral relationships.
b. based on direct observation of phenotypes only.
c. also called the gradistic method of classification.
d. based on levels of anatomical complexity, without consideration of ancestor-descendent relationships.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Distinguish the issues involved with taxonomic classification of living primates

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The cladistic primate classification includes:
a. anthropods and haplorhines. c. strepsirhines and haplorhines.
b. hominoids and chordata. d. pongidae and omomyidae.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Distinguish the issues involved with taxonomic classification of living primates

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Among all primates humans have the:
a. largest olfactory bulb.
b. greatest sense of hearing.
c. most developed vision.
d. most elaborate connections between different regions of the brain.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how parental investment and brain size are related in primates

TOP:   Parental investment                        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Phylogeny refers to:
a. evolutionary relationships that are based on shared characteristics including physical traits, genetics, and behavior.
b. the fundamental anatomical features in primates that reflect their high degree of diversity.
c. primates’ ability to get around in trees using an unusually wide range of motions involving the limbs and trunk.
d. a set of behaviors and anatomical characteristics that is unique to mammals adapted to life in the trees.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Distinguish the issues involved with taxonomic classification of living primates

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The variation in living primates provides models for understanding:
a. the uses of anatomical and genetic evidence.
b. morphology, behavior, and adaptation in the evolutionary past.
c. alternative forms of classification.
d. levels of anatomical complexity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates?     MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A strepsirhine has a:
a. wet nose, a snout, downward-facing nostrils, and longer hind limbs than forelimbs.
b. snout, downward-facing nostrils, and longer forelimbs than hind limbs.
c. wet nose, a snout, a tooth comb, and a grooming claw.
d. tooth comb, a grooming claw, and ischial callosities.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology                                TOP:              The strepsirhines

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Primates are characterized by:
a. forward-facing eyes, varied diet, and nonviolent behavior.
b. arboreal adaptation, dietary plasticity, and male dominance.
c. docility, toolmaking, and parental investment.
d. arboreal adaptation, dietary plasticity, and parental investment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   List the three main primate tendencies defined by Le Gros Clark

TOP:   What is a primate?                          MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Brachiation refers to:
a. using the forelimbs to move from tree limb to tree limb.
b. quadrupedal locomotion including the use of a tail.
c. clinging and leaping locomotion in an arboreal environment.
d. bipedality in nonhumans.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the skeletal differences between primates that are quadrupedal, bipedal, and suspensory      TOP:    The haplorhines                         MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. Catarrhines’ nostrils are:
a. far apart and face sideways.
b. close together and face downward.
c. large due to their heightened sense of smell.
d. wide and include a large nasal sinus.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the differences between New World monkeys and Old World monkeys

TOP:   The haplorhines                              MSC:  Remembering

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the arboreal adaptation of primates and include specific anatomical characteristics.

 

ANS:

Primates have a versatile skeletal structure that facilitates life in the trees. For example, their five functionally distinct vertebrae—cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal—contribute to mobility and flexibility. Their opposable thumbs enable primates to grip branches and thus to climb or swing. Primates’ enhanced sense of touch is facilitated by the dermal ridges at the ends of their fingers and toes and by their having nails instead of claws. Primates’ enhanced sense of vision includes depth perception, which results from the convergence of their eyes, and color vision, an adaptation crucial for spotting prey in vegetation.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Describe the physical adaptations that all primates share

TOP:   Arboreal adaptation                        MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Discuss the primate parental investment in terms of success in natural selection. What are the most important aspects of primate parenting and what is their value to socialization?

 

ANS:

Primates have relatively few offspring at a time, typically single births with relatively long gaps between them. For this reason, they are able to invest more time in parenting infants and juveniles than do other mammals. Extended periods of nursing and of development correspond to primates’ large brains and behavioral complexity. Primates must encourage their young to respond flexibly to varying ecological, demographic, and social conditions.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Explain how parental investment and brain size are related in primates

TOP:   Parental investment                        MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Discuss the diversity of the dentition among primates. Pay particular attention to how form follows function with regard to dental morphology and diet.

 

ANS:

Primate dentition reflects retention of multiple tooth types and a reduced number of teeth relative to other taxa. Primates have generalized mammalian molars that serve to grind and crush food. Specialized attributes of primate molars include high, pointed cusps for puncturing and crushing insects, particularly among prosimians and other small primates. Folivorous primates tend to have crests on their molars for shearing leaves. The bilophodont pattern on the crests of the lower molars in Old World monkeys corresponds to leaf eating. By contrast, the apes’ Y-5 pattern of low-crowned, rounded lower molars is well suited for crushing and pulping fruit. Most primates have incisors that are flat and used to prepare food before it is chewed by premolars and molars. However, lemurs and lorises have a tooth-comb adaptation with a unique morphology of the lower incisors and canines. This is used for scraping tree resins and other foods and for grooming fur. Canines in primates may be small and incisor-shaped as in humans, or projecting and pointed as in monkeys and apes. The canine-premolar honing complex creates a continuously sharpened edge on each of the two teeth and is useful for slicing leaves. In addition to its masticatory function, the upper canine may be very large, especially among Old World monkeys and apes, and used for social signaling and as a warning to potential predators.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Characterize the variation in primate teeth and the reasons for this variation

TOP:   Dietary plasticity                            MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Discuss the anatomical differences between prosimians and anthropoids. How do these anatomical differences influence behavior and socialization among the respective primate groups?

 

ANS:

Prosimians tend to have a more developed sense of smell than anthropoids do, owing to a relatively large olfactory bulb and the presence of a wet rhinarium and other olfactory structures. Prosimians are generally nocturnal and have special adaptations for night vision, including large eyes with a reflective layer. Most anthropoids are diurnal and have smaller, more forward-facing eyes and a larger vision center in the brain; most have color vision and a fovea that permits better fine-detail vision during the day. Prosimians’ sense of touch is less developed than anthropoids’, as are their power or precision grips; some prosimians have claws. Some have more teeth than anthropoids do, owing to a more specialized diet. Because of their smaller brains and quicker periods of infant development, prosimians tend to be less intelligent than anthropoids.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Compare and contrast the two suborders of primates (prosimians and anthropoids) in terms of body form, body size, and dental morphology

TOP:   What are the kinds of primates? | The strepsirhines         MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Discuss the anatomical differences of the skeleton between (bipedal) humans and (quadrupedal) apes.

 

ANS:

In humans, the foramen magnum is on the bottom of the skull. In quadrupedal animals, such as apes, it is toward the back of the skull. Humans have much longer legs than arms, while apes have the reverse. In humans, the pelvis is short and broad. In apes, it is long and directed to the back of the body. The reorientation of the pelvis in humans also results in a different orientation and function of the gluteal muscles, which attach across the hip joints and abduct the legs when the legs are extended. The gluteal muscles also rotate the thigh inward, providing stable support for a biped while all the weight is supported by one leg during the swing phase of walking. In apes, the gluteal muscles extend the legs at the hip.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Describe the skeletal differences between primates that are quadrupedal, bipedal, and suspensory      TOP:           Biology in the present                     MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Evaluate and explain the evidence for the phylogenetic relationship between humans and other primates.

 

ANS:

In both the cladistic and traditional methods of taxonomy primates are related. In cladistics the order Primates is divided into two clades, the Strepsirhini and the Haplorhini. The Strepsirhini have the more primitive or ancestral characteristics while the Haplorhini have more derived traits. It is the derived traits that establish the differences and the primitive traits that demonstrate the ancestral relationship. Using figure 6.18 showing a classification of the order Primates to humans the student can determine several of the traits that support their phylogenetic positions.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Distinguish the issues involved with taxonomic classification of living primates

TOP:   Biology in the present                     MSC:  Evaluating

 

CHAPTER 07: Primate Sociality, Social Behavior, and Culture

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Diversity in primate societies means that primates:
a. express themselves socially through a wide range of behaviors.
b. encompass a variety of species with similar behaviors.
c. can be classified into particular species exhibiting one type of behavior.
d. are just as diverse in their behavior as are humans.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain what it means when primatologists say that primate societies are diverse

TOP:   Primate societies: diverse, complex, long-lasting             MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Primate societies are complexly organized. This means:
a. several species of primates coexist socially.
b. within any primate group, individuals representing different kinships, ranks, ages, and sexes often form alliances.
c. some primate societies are male only.
d. some primate societies are female only.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain what it means when primatologists say that primate societies are diverse

TOP:   Primate societies: diverse, complex, long-lasting             MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Many primate societies are complexly organized, enabling their members to form alliances,

including by:

a. rank. c. kinship.
b. age. d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain what it means when primatologists say that primate societies are diverse

TOP:   Primate societies: diverse, complex, long-lasting             MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Natural selection generally favors behaviors that:
a. increase body size. c. limit population size.
b. increase brain size. d. enhance survival and reproduction.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   Primate societies: diverse, complex, long-lasting             MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Primatologists:
a. explore the relationships between specific social behaviors and reproductive fitness.
b. study only physical aspect of primates.
c. study cultural anthropology.
d. know nothing of primate bones.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   Primate social behavior: enhancing survival and reproduction

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Sexual dimorphism:
a. refers to the mating rites of primates.
b. concerns differences in body size and canine size.
c. refers primarily to male and female social hierarchy.
d. is the study of sexual intercourse between primates.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape

TOP:   Primates’ social behavior: enhancing survival and reproduction

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Sexual dimorphism:
a. relates to sexual courtship rituals in primates.
b. is the study of sexual intercourse between primates.
c. tends to be lower than in groups where males disperse and compete with unrelated males.
d. determines male and female social hierarchy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape

TOP:   Primates’ social behavior: enhancing survival and reproduction

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Polygynous:
a. means “many marriages.”
b. means “many offspring.”
c. refers to a social group that includes one female and several males.
d. refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offspring.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Primate residence patterns              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Polyandrous:
a. refers to a social group that includes one reproductively active female and several adult males and their offspring.
b. refers to a social group that includes one female and several males.
c. means “many offspring.”
d. refers to a social group that includes one adult male and several adult females and their offspring.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Primate residence patterns              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Monogamous refers to:
a. a social group that is dominated by a single sex.
b. a social group that includes an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring.
c. primates that live exclusively as a nuclear family.
d. a primate social group that includes an adult male and several adult females with their offspring.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Primate residence patterns              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Sexual selection is best defined as:
a. the physical competition for access to females.
b. the competition for resources to access females.
c. natural selection in one sex caused by a trait’s attractiveness to members of the opposite sex.
d. selection of males by females on the basis of disposition, physical appearance, and hierarchical position.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape                        TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Grooming involves:
a. the development of alliances between females only.
b. the development of alliances between males only.
c. bonding between individuals of the same rank, picking through the skin and hair of another individual.
d. bonding between two members of a social group, calming or appeasing the primate being groomed if he or she has a higher dominance.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain why primates cooperate and provide at least one specific example of this behavior

TOP:   The other side of competition: cooperation in primates   MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Altruistic behavior:
a. is behavior that benefits others while causing a disadvantage to the individual.
b. occurs only between primates that are not relatives.
c. is not a beneficial evolutionary adaptation.
d. is not an advantage of cooperation within a society.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   The other side of competition: cooperation in primates   MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Kin selection refers to:
a. nonaltruistic behavior toward other members of the kin group.
b. altruistic behavior that increases the donor’s inclusive fitness.
c. altruistic behavior that promotes kin-like bonding among nonkin.
d. behavior that increases only the donor’s fitness.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   The other side of competition: cooperation in primates   MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Three key factors that contribute to a female primate’s success at feeding are:
a. speed, agility, and strength.
b. source, quantity, and safety.
c. quality, distribution, and availability of food.
d. cooperation, altruism, and quantity for sharing.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Define the key factors that affect a primate female’s success at obtaining food

TOP:   Getting food: everybody needs it, but the burden is on Mom

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Quality, in reference to food, refers to the:
a. location of food sources.
b. ability to acquire food.
c. storage of food for future consumption.
d. amount of energy and protein a food provides.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Define the key factors that affect a primate female’s success at obtaining food

TOP:   Getting food: everybody needs it, but the burden is on Mom

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Distribution, in reference to food, means the:
a. location of food across the landscape.
b. distribution of primates in a primate group as they forage for food.
c. distribution of food among primates in a group.
d. adjustment in size of a feeding group.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Define the key factors that affect a primate female’s success at obtaining food

TOP:   Getting food: everybody needs it, but the burden is on Mom

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Availability of food:
a. is dependent upon kin selection.
b. can be highly variable, depending on season and rainfall.
c. is determined primarily by the alpha male.
d. is restricted to individuals high up in the dominance hierarchy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Define the key factors that affect a primate female’s success at obtaining food

TOP:   Getting food: everybody needs it, but the burden is on Mom

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The study of primate vocal communication:
a. has been used to understand the language evolution of all primates.
b. has resulted in chimps and gorillas demonstrating an ability to speak.
c. can give us insights into the selective pressures that may have shaped the evolution of language.
d. demonstrates that gossip is not exclusively human.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe how primatologists have studied and translated primates’ calls

TOP:   Vocal communication is fundamental behavior in primate societies

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Variation in predator-specific vocalizations in the monkeys of the Tai Forest includes:
a. stress calls between kin only.
b. mating calls between dominant primates only.
c. two different alarm calls indicating another group of chimpanzees or humans.
d. two different loud alarm calls in response to predators, aerial and terrestrial.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the situations in which primates make audible calls

TOP:   Vocal competition is fundamental behavior in primates  MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Predator-specific vocalizations in Diana monkeys vary based on:
a. the type of predator and the predator’s attack strategy.
b. conditioning in the lab by primatologists.
c. emotional impulses produced randomly and involuntarily.
d. individual factors, as in humans.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the situations in which primates make audible calls

TOP:   Vocal communication is fundamental behavior in primate societies

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Chimpanzee communication involves different combinations of sounds, such as:
a. screams, gnashing, and hissing.
b. grunts, pants, and hoots.
c. howling, hoots, and high-pitched screams.
d. pants, coos, and gurgles.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain the situations in which primates make audible calls

TOP:   Vocal communication is fundamental behavior in primate societies

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Vocalizations enable primates to:
a. communicate as humans do.
b. solve distressing situations among primate groups.
c. name resources and monitor the social group.
d. communicate, but only between members of the same hierarchy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the situations in which primates make audible calls

TOP:   Vocal communication is fundamental behavior in primate societies

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Vocalization in chimp groups:
a. occurs only to communicate a food source.
b. exists only among those high up in the dominance hierarchy.
c. sounds like howls and growls.
d. is unique to specific groups or regions.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain the situations in which primates make audible calls

TOP:   Vocal communication is fundamental behavior in primate societies

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why are primates social in the long term?
a. to reduce stress, promote longevity, and enhance reproductive success
b. to increase relationships between kin for the improvement of the society
c. to emphasize care of the young
d. to develop support for females to increase fecundity

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   Primate social behavior: enhancing survival and reproduction

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Why are primates social in the short term?
a. to increase female fecundity in dominant females only
b. to increase interaction between sexually mature males and females
c. to establish social relationships to prevent attacks from predators
d. to share food sources

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   Primate social behavior: enhancing survival and reproduction

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is special about primate societies and social behavior?
a. They are not diverse.
b. They welcome newcomers as humans do.
c. They are highly diverse.
d. They share and cooperate as humans do not.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Explain what it means when primatologists say that primate societies are diverse

TOP:   Primate societies: diverse, complex, long-lasting             MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Female reproductive strategies emphasize:
a. bonding with the dominant male monogamously.
b. having one birth per year.
c. having twin births every year.
d. caring for young and ensuring access to food.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape

TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies: males’ differ from females’

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Male reproductive strategies emphasize:
a. competition between males for access to reproductive-age females.
b. avoiding risk-taking behavior.
c. avoiding violence against competitors for female access.
d. engaging in care of young.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape

TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies: males’ differ from females’

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. How do primates acquire food?
a. through cooperation among kin groups, mostly by hunting
b. through a wide variety of food-foraging strategies
c. through a limited set of highly specialized foraging strategies
d. through the use of highly developed material culture

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define the key factors that affect a primate female’s success at obtaining food

TOP:   Getting food: everybody needs it, but the burden is on Mom

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. How do primates communicate?
a. through a system of adaptation that varies among social groups
b. through the use of symbols
c. through speech learned from primatologists
d. through vocalizations that serve a range of functions and contexts

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain the situations in which primates make audible calls

TOP:   Vocal communication is fundamental behavior in primate societies

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Monogamous behavior is characteristic of which of these species?
a. baboon c. orangutan
b. gibbon d. chimpanzee

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Primate residence patterns              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A male and female gibbon that are similar in size likely demonstrate the lack of sexual dimorphism:
a. due to the polygamous social structure in gibbons.
b. as the result of unequal access to resources within their environment.
c. due to decreased competition for mates in a monogamous social structure.
d. which is not related to social structure in gibbons.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape

TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies: males’ differ from females’

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is a rare primate residence pattern found only in orangutans and a few strepsirhines?
a. one-male, multifemale c. multimale, multifemale
b. one-female, multimale d. solitary

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Primate residence patterns              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. All-male groups of nonhuman primates:
a. are often polyandrous, before females join other existing groups.
b. often exist together with multimale, multifemale groups.
c. become permanent groups with rigid ranking systems.
d. do not exist in the wild.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Primate residence patterns              MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Polyandrous residence patterns represent:
a. a social grouping that includes multiple adult males and females.
b. one of the most common patterns in prosimians and Old World monkeys.
c. a social grouping in which males cooperate in parenting activities.
d. a social grouping that includes one male and multiple females.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Primate residence patterns              MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Male primates most often compete for mates while female primates compete for other resources, demonstrating that:
a. reproduction places different energy demands on males and females, resulting in different reproductive strategies.
b. reproduction has similar energy demands for both sexes, so males and females respond accordingly.
c. primates do not vary in their abilities to respond to differing energy requirements.
d. males acquire resources to ensure the survival of their offspring.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape

TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies: males’ differ from females’

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The higher the social rank of a female primate the:
a. lower her access to resources and the lower the survival rate of her offspring.
b. lower her access to resources and the greater the survival rate of her offspring.
c. greater her access to resources, which results in lower birth rates.
d. greater her access to resources, which results in higher birth rates.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Define the key factors that affect a primate female’s success at obtaining food

TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies: males’ differ from females’

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Male primates compete for access to females and to maintain social groupings through all of the following social strategies EXCEPT:
a. infanticide.
b. vocalizing through loud territorial calls.
c. fighting to maintain dominance of a one-male, multifemale group
d. forming long-term cooperative relationships with multiple females.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape

TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies: males’ differ from females’

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Altruistic behavior benefits others while being a disadvantage to the altruistic individual. Which of the following reasons does NOT explain why it exists in primate societies?
a. Altruistic behavior is not directed randomly but toward related individuals.
b. Altruistic behavior is an example of kin selection.
c. Altruistic behavior is likely to be observed in groups where there is high genetic relatedness among individuals.
d. Altruistic behavior is the random effect of living in a complex social species.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   The other side of competition: cooperation in primates   MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Sociality among primates is likely the result of which of the following selective pressures?
a. predation c. adaptive radiation
b. niche competition d. habitat

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   The other side of competition: cooperation in primates   MSC:  Remembering

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Compare and contrast male and female primates in terms of reproductive strategies and competition.

 

ANS:

Males compete physically for access to females. This competition results in selection for both large body size and large canines, with selection for loud vocalization ability in some territorial primates. Some male primates may practice infanticide as a form of reproductive competition, because it suppresses lactation and makes the female sexually receptive to a new male partner more quickly. Female reproduction depends on the successful acquisition of resources for raising infants, usually in competition with other females. Higher-ranked females might gain more resources than lower-ranked females and thus, over their lifetimes, have more surviving offspring.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Describe the differences between males and females in terms of reproductive strategy, social behavior, and body shape                        TOP:   Primate reproductive strategies

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe the range of primate residence patterns. Relate social grouping to food and reproduction.

 

ANS:

Primate social groups are strongly influenced by food availability, environment, and competition. For example, groups break apart if food is scarce and reunite when food availability increases. There are six main types of primate residence patterns. One-male, multifemale groups include one reproductive- age male, several mature females, and their immature offspring. These groups are polygynous; one male has more than one partner. An example is baboons. One-female, multimale groups include one reproductive female, several mature males, and their immature offspring. These groups are polyandrous; one female mates with multiple males. The males often cooperate in parenting. Only some New World monkeys practice this type of social organization. Multimale, multifemale groups consist of many adults (male and female) and their offspring. Both sexes mate promiscuously. Competition for mates is relatively low; many Old World monkeys, some New World monkeys, and chimpanzees fit into this category. All-male groups form in some species. One-male, one-female groups consist of an adult male, an adult female, and their immature offspring. Males generally invest heavily in the young, and mating is generally monogamous. Gibbons, some cebids, and some prosimians are characterized by this grouping pattern. Some primates are solitary with limited interaction between adult males and adult females. Orangutans and a few prosimians are solitary.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Define the six main primate residence patterns

TOP:   Why are primates social? | Getting food: everybody needs it, but the burden is on Mom

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Why are primates social?

 

ANS:

Generally primates that cooperate in social groups are better able to protect themselves from predators. Larger groups have more eyes and ears on guard and can better defend themselves as compared to smaller groups.

Living in social groups provides access to mates and enhances reproductive success. Males and females living in the same group have access to mates. The young in social groups are taught behaviors that reduce stress, promote longevity, and enhance reproductive success.

 

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Explain how primate social behavior is related to fitness and natural selection

TOP:   Why are primates social?                MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What have scientists learned about the function of primate vocalizations and how they relate to the evolution of human language?

 

ANS:

The use of playback experiments has increased our ability to understand the meaning of calls and what primates know about each other. Cheney and Seyfarth used playbacks to demonstrate that vervet monkeys recognize the voices of their own infants as well as the relationships between mothers and particular infants. Primates communicate with subtle, quiet calls in order to mediate social encounters and relationships. They use loud calls for territorial defense and encounters. These calls contain information for listeners. For example, howlers can assess the strength of opposing groups based on vocal cues. Loud calls of chacma baboons reliably indicated the caller’s physical condition.

Many primates have referential calls, particularly predator-specific antipredator calls. Listeners treat all sounds in the forest associated with one type of predator in the same way. For example, a leopard’s growl produces the same response as a leopard alarm-call of a male Diana monkey. Calls can also be used to label events and objects. For example, chimpanzee food grunts vary with type and desirability of food.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   Describe how primatologists have studied and translated primates’ calls

TOP:   Context and meaning of calls and relationship to language

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Describe some examples of learned behavior and cultural traditions among primates.

 

ANS:

Chimpanzee tool use, some forms of social grooming, and vocalizations are specific to groups and regions. For example, only chimpanzees in West Africa crack open nuts with stone and wood hammers. Some groups of chimpanzees in Tanzania have particular forms of social grooming, including the handclasp grooming method. Captive chimpanzees, bonobos, and other apes have some of the rudimentary cognitive abilities necessary to understand human speech. Some individuals like Kanzi have been able to learn symbolic communication systems and are argued to have a form of protogrammar.

 

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Illustrate examples of activities and objects that primatologists believe constitute culture

TOP:   Acquiring resources and transmitting knowledge, culture          MSC:   Remembering