Essentials Of Sociology  A Down To Earth Approach 10th Edition by James M. Henslin – Test Bank

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Essentials Of Sociology  A Down to Earth Approach 10th Edition by James M. Henslin   –

Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 6    Deviance and Social Control

6.1    True/False Questions

 

1) Sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people, including violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Knowledge

2) Sociologically, an act cannot be classified as deviance if it does not cause physical or emotional harm to another individual.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Application

3) Human sexuality illustrates how a group’s definitions of an act, and not the act itself, determines whether or not it is considered deviant.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 155

Skill: Knowledge

4) Shaming is MOST effective as a sanction when it is used by a formal organization such as a court of common pleas or other public tribunal.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Comprehension

5) The theory of differential association suggests that people who associate with certain groups receive an “excess of definitions” about either deviance or conformity.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 157

Skill: Application

6) Labeling theory, differential association theory, and control theory all represent the conflict perspective.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 157-159

Skill: Comprehension

7) Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop with their respective groups and society.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 159

Skill: Knowledge

8) Stripping an individual of his or her identity as a group member is an example of using a degradation ceremony to brand someone as an outsider.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 160

Skill: Application

9) By employing techniques of neutralization, even the most dedicated deviants can view themselves as conformists.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 161

Skill: Knowledge

10) Functionalists believe deviance has no useful purpose in society and only contributes to social chaos.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 163

Skill: Knowledge

11) Based on strain theory, there are four deviant models of adaptation and one mode considered to be socially acceptable.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 163-164

Skill: Comprehension

12) Based on the research of Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, the reasons urban youth join gangs include recreation, leisure, and to protect the community.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 166

Skill: Knowledge

13) The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 166-167

Skill: Comprehension

14) Crime “in the suites” (white-collar crime) actually costs the American taxpayer more in terms of dollars lost than “crime in the streets.”

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 167

Skill: Knowledge

15) Violent crime in America is rather consistent from state to state in terms of the number of incidents and ratio of incidents to the state’s population.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 167

Skill: Knowledge

16) Functionalists would contend that the growing crime rates among women are the result of changing social classes and gender roles giving women greater access to illegitimate opportunities.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 168

Skill: Comprehension

17) Although African Americans are disproportionately represented in the state prison population, the majority of prisoners are white.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 170

Skill: Knowledge

 

18) The chances of receiving the death penalty are greatly affected by geography (where the murder took place), social class, and gender.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 174

Skill: Comprehension

19) According to Thomas Szasz, the medicalization of deviance has led to more accurate understanding of the causes of deviance.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 178

Skill: Knowledge

20) Because deviance is inevitable, the more important focus is to find ways to protect people from harmful deviant acts, to find ways to tolerate behavior that is not harmful, and to develop a system of fair treatment for deviants.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 180

Skill: Comprehension

6.2    Multiple Choice Questions

1) Napoleon Chagnon’s visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

  1. A) nonconforming behavior
  2. B) the need for social sanctions
  3. C) the cultural relativity of deviance
  4. D) the need for absolute standards in defining deviance

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 153-154

Skill: Application

2) Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.

  1. A) ethics
  2. B) values
  3. C) folkways
  4. D) crimes

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Knowledge

3) The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?

  1. A) It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
  2. B) The nature of one’s behavior is the most important aspect in determining deviance.
  3. C) Deviance is most related to functionalism because it creates a dysfunction for society.
  4. D) Deviance is analogous to mental illness.

Answer:   A

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Evaluation

4) The relativity of deviance is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

  1. A) structural functionalism
  2. B) symbolic interactionism
  3. C) the conflict perspective
  4. D) the neo-conflict perspective

Answer:   B

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Comprehension

5) Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.

  1. A) master status
  2. B) role
  3. C) stigma
  4. D) sanction

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Comprehension

6) A group’s usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.

  1. A) social control
  2. B) sanction
  3. C) social order
  4. D) social guideline

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Knowledge

7) What is a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

  1. A) social solidarity
  2. B) the social imperative
  3. C) social control
  4. D) social bond

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Comprehension

8) Why did the “XYY” chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior?

  1. A) It was discovered there are no longer any XYY chromosome configurations among men.
  2. B) Research did not support the theory.
  3. C) The work of the theorist who proposed the theory was plagiarized.
  4. D) The theory only explains deviant and criminal behavior among females.

Answer:   B

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Analysis

9) Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.

  1. A) positive sanction
  2. B) negative sanction
  3. C) degradation ceremony
  4. D) shaming

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Application

10) Explanations for deviance that focus on genetic predispositions to explain why individuals commit deviant acts are MOST aligned with which discipline?

  1. A) sociobiology
  2. B) sociology
  3. C) psychology
  4. D) anthropology

Answer:   A

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Comprehension

11) Which of the following theories of deviance is LEAST associated with sociobiology?

  1. A) intelligence theory: low intelligence leads to deviant and criminal behavior
  2. B) social learning theory: we learn deviance from our peers
  3. C) XYY” theory: the extra Y chromosome in males causes criminal behavior
  4. D) body type theory: people with muscular bodies are prone to be criminals

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 156-157

Skill: Application

12) The two disciplines that would be MOST concerned with addressing qualities within the individual to explain deviant behavior are ________ and ________.

  1. A) anthropology; sociology
  2. B) sociology, psychology
  3. C) sociobiology; psychology
  4. D) criminology; political science

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 157

Skill: Comprehension

13) The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an “excess of definitions” of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.

  1. A) conflict theory
  2. B) social control theory
  3. C) strain theory
  4. D) differential association theory

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 157

Skill: Application

14) Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.

  1. A) Robert K. Merton
  2. B) Frank Tannenbaum
  3. C) Walter Reckless
  4. D) Edwin Sutherland

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 157

Skill: Knowledge

15) Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

  1. A) functional
  2. B) conflict
  3. C) symbolic interactionist
  4. D) neo-conflict

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 157

Skill: Comprehension

16) Based on differential association theory, what is the MOST likely background shared by juvenile delinquents?

  1. A) They come from regions populated by large numbers of minorities.
  2. B) They are concentrated in urban areas with a population over 25,000.
  3. C) They are common in families living in poverty.
  4. D) They are from families that have a history of being involved in crime.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 158

Skill: Application

17) Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?

  1. A) rationalization theory
  2. B) judgment theory
  3. C) self-control theory
  4. D) control theory

Answer:   D

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 158

Skill: Knowledge

18) The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.

  1. A) Travis Hirschi
  2. B) Jackson Toby
  3. C) Walter Reckless
  4. D) Ivan Nye

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 159

Skill: Knowledge

19) According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?

  1. A) When we fear punishment from authorities such as parents or the court system.
  2. B) In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.
  3. C) When they are applied to members of the middle or upper classes.
  4. D) In situations where there is a strong police presence.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 159

Skill: Application

20) Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie’s decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

  1. A) pushes
  2. B) inner control
  3. C) formal control
  4. D) pulls

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 159

Skill: Application

21) The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.

  1. A) strain
  2. B) control
  3. C) labeling
  4. D) differential association

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 159

Skill: Comprehension

 

22) In which of the following settings would shaming be LEAST effective?

  1. A) a family
  2. B) a close knit society, such as the Amish
  3. C) a small religious cult
  4. D) a large inner-city neighborhood

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 160

Skill: Application

23) Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.

  1. A) sanctions
  2. B) profiling
  3. C) degradation ceremonies
  4. D) stereotyping

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 160

Skill: Application

24) The term degradation ceremony was coined by sociologist ________.

  1. A) Harold Garfinkel
  2. B) Erving Goffman
  3. C) Talcott Parsons
  4. D) Herbert Spencer

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 160

Skill: Knowledge

25) In The Scarlet Letter, why was Hester Prynne required to wear a scarlet “A” on her dress?

  1. A) Sociologically, this served as a negative sanction and an example of shaming.
  2. B) Psychologically, it provided her the opportunity to face what she had become.
  3. C) It indicated she was at the head of her class in what she had done.
  4. D) It was a “badge of honor” that many other women wished they could achieve.

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 160

Skill: Application

26) In an effort to resist the label of “deviant,” most people will develop rationales to justify their deviant acts. Sykes and Matza refer to these rationales as ________.

  1. A) ideologies
  2. B) techniques of neutralization
  3. C) strategies of justification
  4. D) labeling

Answer:   B

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 161

Skill: Comprehension

 

27) Matthew and Ryan are devout Christian Fundamentalists and believe that homosexuality is against God’s will and that homosexuals deserve to be punished. They spend a couple of evenings each week in gay bashing activities that include physical violence and verbal assaults. Based on their rationalization, which technique of neutralization is MOST applicable for Matthew and Ryan to maintain positive self-images?

  1. A) denial of a victim
  2. B) denial of injury
  3. C) denial of responsibility
  4. D) condemn the condemner

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 161

Skill: Application

28) When Anthony worked as a prison counselor, he would often ask property offenders why they committed the crime. The overwhelming response was, “I had to feed my family.” How would Sykes and Matza classify this response?

  1. A) denial of responsibility
  2. B) appeal to higher loyalties
  3. C) condemnation of the condemners
  4. D) denial of injury

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 161

Skill: Application

29) The early sociologist who argued that deviance might be functional for society was ________.

  1. A) Max Weber
  2. B) Henri Saint Simon
  3. C) Emile Durkheim
  4. D) Karl Marx

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 163

Skill: Knowledge

30) Which type of sociologists would consider deviance to be a natural part of society?

  1. A) functionalists
  2. B) symbolic interactionists
  3. C) conflict theorists
  4. D) neo-conflict theorists

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 163

Skill: Application

31) All of the following theories follow the principles of symbolic interactionism EXCEPT for which one?

  1. A) differential association theory
  2. B) control theory
  3. C) labeling theory
  4. D) strain theory

Answer:   D

Diff:3            Page Ref: 163

Skill: Application

 

32) The  ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.

  1. A) illegitimate opportunity
  2. B) strain
  3. C) labeling
  4. D) control

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 163

Skill: Knowledge

33) According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.

  1. A) anomie
  2. B) latent dysfunction
  3. C) mass hysteria
  4. D) retreatism

Answer:   A

Diff:2            Page Ref: 163

Skill: Comprehension

34) John desires the best things in life—a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?

  1. A) a ritualist
  2. B) a conformist
  3. C) a rebel
  4. D) an innovator

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 164

Skill: Application

35) Based on Merton’s typologies, what do drug addicts, the homeless, nuns living in a convent, and monks living in a monastery have in common?

  1. A) They all conformists.
  2. B) They are all retreatists.
  3. C) They are all rebels.
  4. D) They are all ritualists.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 164

Skill: Application

36) According to Cloward and Ohlin, what is the underlying cause of deviance and delinquency in unstable slums of a city?

  1. A) illegitimate opportunity structures
  2. B) the racial composition of the city
  3. C) a rival struggle for power
  4. D) unethical police behavior

Answer:   A

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 165

Skill: Comprehension

 

37) Cloward and Ohlin addressed the street hustler as a role model for youth and the methods used to earn easy money through a life of crime. What did they call this career path of delinquency?

  1. A) containment theory
  2. B) social bond theory
  3. C) the theory of differential association
  4. D) illegitimate opportunity structure

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 165

Skill: Knowledge

38) The term white-collar crime was coined by sociologist ________ to refer to crimes that people of respectable social status commit in the course of their occupation.

  1. A) Robert Merton
  2. B) Frank Tannenbaum
  3. C) Erving Goffman
  4. D) Edwin Sutherland

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 166

Skill: Knowledge

39) All of the following acts qualify as white-collar crime EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) a bank teller robbing the First National bank
  2. B) bribing a police officer to refrain from writing a speeding ticket
  3. C) an executive writing off the corporation’s million-dollar fine as investment capital
  4. D) a businessperson classifying parking tickets as job hunting expenses on an income tax return

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 166

Skill: Comprehension

40) According to sociologist Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, boys in urban areas are motivated to join gangs for a number of reasons. Which of the following reasons LEAST qualifies as one of the reasons Jankowski discovered why urban youth join gangs?

  1. A) to escape broken homes
  2. B) access to money
  3. C) to help the community
  4. D) recreational opportunity

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 166

Skill: Knowledge

41) Based on the 2011 edition of the Statistical Abstract in the United States, the state with the lowest rate of violent crime in America is ________, while the state with the highest rate of violent crime is ________.

  1. A) Wyoming; New York
  2. B) Montana; New Jersey
  3. C) Colorado; California
  4. D) Maine; Nevada

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 167

Skill: Knowledge

 

42) The crime with the highest increase among women between 1992 and 2009 was ________.

  1. A) drug offenses
  2. B) stolen property
  3. C) bank robbery
  4. D) murder

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 168

Skill: Knowledge

43) Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?

  1. A) the functionalist perspective
  2. B) the conflict perspective
  3. C) the symbolic interactionist perspective
  4. D) the structuralist perspective

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 168-169

Skill: Application

44) How would conflict theorists classify migrant workers, seasonal employees, and members of the workforce who are subject to layoffs?

  1. A) bourgeoisie
  2. B) proletariat
  3. C) petty bourgeoisie
  4. D) working poor

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 169

Skill: Application

45) What are the two MOST significant “anchors” that insulate a person from a life of crime and imprisonment?

  1. A) a good lawyer and big expense account
  2. B) neighborhood and income
  3. C) race and ethnicity
  4. D) marriage and education

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 170

Skill: Knowledge

46) What is the MOST common martial status found among inmates in U.S. state prisons?

  1. A) married
  2. B) divorced
  3. C) widowed
  4. D) never married

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 171

Skill: Knowledge

47) The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________.

  1. A) reimprisonment
  2. B) recidivism
  3. C) three-strike law
  4. D) criminal justice

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 173

Skill: Knowledge

48) Of the following, the crime with the highest recidivism rate within three years of release from prison is ________.

  1. A) murder
  2. B) rape
  3. C) drug violations
  4. D) car theft

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 173-174

Skill: Knowledge

49) A serial killer has recently been convicted of the charges brought against him. In which state is he MOST likely to receive the death penalty?

  1. A) New York
  2. B) Michigan
  3. C) Texas
  4. D) North Dakota

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 176

Skill: Application

50) Because of ________, deviance is often seen as mental sickness rather than problematic behavior.

  1. A) capital punishment
  2. B) reactions to deviance
  3. C) the symbolic interactionist approach
  4. D) the medicalization of deviance

Answer:   D

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 178

Skill: Comprehension

51) How did psychiatrist Thomas Szasz describe mental illness?

  1. A) He believed mental illness and homelessness were two sides of the same coin.
  2. B) He said mental illness was neither mental nor an illness.
  3. C) He embraced Freudian psychology as being the best explanation for mental illness.
  4. D) He believed mental illness was the cause of most deviance, delinquency, and crime.

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 178

Skill: Knowledge

52) How a society treats its deviants is one measure of how humane it is. What would an examination of prisons and mental hospitals in the United States suggest regarding this standard?

  1. A) The United States is the most humane society in the world.
  2. B) Prisons are a last resort in dealing with deviants.
  3. C) S. prisons emphasize prisoner rehabilitation and mental hospitals cure the mentally ill.
  4. D) They are both used as warehouse for the unwanted.

Answer:   D

Diff: 6         Page Ref: 179-180

Skill: Evaluation

6.3    Short Answer Questions

1) Why is the relativity of deviance MOST aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective?

Answer:   Deviant acts often take the form of symbols that convey meaning. This meaning is a matter of interpretation, which is the fundamental basis of symbolic interactionism, that is, the symbols and the meanings they convey. Whether the act is deviant or not is often a matter of small group interaction.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Knowledge

2) What is the relativity of deviance?

Answer:   The relativity of deviance refers to the fact that different groups have different norms and what is deviant in one group is not necessarily deviant in another.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Comprehension

3) What is the relationship between norms and social order?

Answer:   Without norms there would be no social order, only chaos.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Application

4) What is the major difference between psychological and sociological theories in explaining deviance?

Answer:   Psychological theories examine the cause of deviance originating within the individual. Sociological theories examine the cause of deviance originating from outside the individual.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 157

Skill: Application

5) In control theory, what is the difference between inner and outer controls?

Answer:   Inner controls include our internalized morality, conscience, religious principles, ideas of right or wrong, fear of punishment, and feelings of integrity. Outer controls include people and agencies that influence us not to deviate such as family, friends, and the police.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 159

Skill: Evaluation

6) Based on control theory, what are the four qualities that determine one’s bond with society?

Answer:   (1) attachment;
(2) commitment;
(3) involvement;
(4) belief

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 159

Skill: Knowledge

7) What is the purpose of a degradation ceremony?

Answer:   It brands someone as an outsider, strips them of their personal identity, and forces them to account for their behavior.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 160

Skill: Knowledge

8) What was the single greatest difference that explains why members of their community perceived the “Roughnecks” and “Saints” differently?

Answer:   The social class of the two groups was the greatest difference, as the Saints were from “respectable” middle-class families and the Roughnecks were from “less respectable” working-class families.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 162

Skill: Application

9)   Why is conformity considered the only nondeviant mode of adaptation?

Answer:   Conformity is the only mode of adaptation that involves both an acceptance of cultural goals and an acceptance of institutionalized means to achieve them.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 163

Skill: Evaluation

 

10) According to Merton’s strain theory, what are the four typologies of adaptation that qualify as being deviant?

Answer:   (1) innovation;
(2) ritualism;
(3) retreatism;
(4) rebellion

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 164

Skill: Knowledge

11) Why does illegitimate opportunity structure qualify so well as an explanation of deviance in the urban slums?

Answer:   lack of employment, perceptions of what is available for work being beneath the dignity of the individual, “hustlers” (pimps, prostitutes, drug dealers, and others) becoming role models for youth, availability of temptations of all kind, and lack of social structure and social control

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 165-166

Skill: Analysis

12) Based on the research of Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, what are the primary reasons urban male youth join gangs?

Answer:   Urban male youth join gangs primarily to gain access to money, to have recreation including girls and drugs, to maintain anonymity when committing crimes, for protection, and to protect their local communities from outsiders.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 166

Skill: Knowledge

13) How has criminal behavior among women changed in recent years, based on statistics from 1992 and 2009?

Answer:   Rates of at least twelve types of crimes committed by women have increased in percentage; nine of those crimes have had a double digit increase.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 168

Skill: Evaluation

14) What are the three components that make up the criminal justice system?

Answer:   (1) the police;
(2) the court system;
(3) the prison system

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 168

Skill: Knowledge

15) What are the three classifications of workers based on the conflict perspective?

Answer:   (1) the capitalist class;
(2) the working class;
(3) the working poor

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 169

Skill: Knowledge

16) Define recidivism and identify the recidivism rate for violent offenders three years after they have been released from prison.

Answer:   The recidivism rate is the percentage of former inmates who are rearrested. For violent offenders three years after their release from prison, two out of three (62 percent) are rearrested and about half (52 percent) are reincarcerated.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 173-174

Skill: Knowledge

17) Since the new laws governing the death penalty were enacted following Furman v. Georgia, what is the breakdown of the offenders executed based on race?

Answer:   Since then, 65 percent of those put to death have been white and 35 percent African American.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 174-175

Skill: Knowledge

18) What is the major difference between serial killers and mass murderers?

Answer:   Both serial killers and mass murderers kill a number of people. Serial killers extend their killing spree over a period of time while mass murderers do their killing at one time.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 175

Skill: Analysis

19) How did Thomas Szasz characterize mental illness?

Answer:   Szasz said that mental illness was neither mental nor illness but problem behaviors associated with poor coping skills.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 178

Skill: Application

20) How is homelessness related to mental illness?

Answer:   Homelessness and mental illness are reciprocal. Mental illness can cause homelessness, and living on cold, hostile streets can lead to unusual thinking and behaviors.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 179

Skill: Knowledge

 

6.4    Essay Questions

1) How would a sociologist define deviance? How does the sociological definition of deviance differ from commonly held assumptions about deviance?

Answer:   Deviance is defined as a violation of a group’s norms. Using this definition means that what people consider deviant varies from one culture to another, and from group to group within a society. Because deviance is relative, it is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act that make something deviant. People can also be considered deviant because of their attributes that violate the norms of ability, norms of appearance, and involuntary membership in some groups. Commonly held definitions of deviance attach moral judgments to acts considered deviant. Sociologists only stress differences in behavior without making such judgments.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 154

Skill: Synthesis

2) Why are sanctions an important part of understanding deviance?

Answer:   Sanctions are expressions of disapproval of deviance (negative sanctions) or rewards for conforming to norms (positive sanctions). Both positive and negative sanctions can be formal or informal. In general, the more seriously a society values a norm, the harsher the penalty for its violation and the more formal its application. Positive sanctions are given for conformity to norms but because conformity is expected by members of society, one must usually exceed expectations to achieve formal recognition. Society guides the behavior of members of society by publicizing negative sanctions, through the media, by issuing fines, various degradation ceremonies, and shaming. Society encourages conformity through public recognition and formal and informal awards.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Application

3) Discuss three theories, either rejected or commonly accepted, that have used biological explanations to explain deviance.

Answer:   (1) Men are more likely to commit violent crimes than women are because of genetic selection over the course of millennia. Men required little effort to pass on their genes compared to women, who had to nurture the children they bore. For this reason, women with characteristics of empathy, self-control, and less risk-taking were more likely to raise female children successfully, and these children carried on the same characteristics. Such genetic selection led to the gender crime differences we see today.
(2) The “XYY” theory: An extra Y chromosome in males was believed to lead to violent behavior. This theory was an early explanation for men more likely becoming criminals., but it fails to explain violent behavior in women.
(3) It was believed that boys with “squarish, muscular” bodies were more likely to commit street crime, such as muggings, rapes, and burglary. Today, it is understood that all types of crimes are committed by offenders representing all body types.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 156-157

Skill: Comprehension

4) How do biological and psychological theories of deviance differ from sociological theories? What are some of the major theories aligned with these disciplines?

Answer:   Biologists and psychologists explain deviance by looking at the characteristics within the individual.  Biologists focus on genetic dispositions, while psychologists focus on personality disorders. In contrast, sociologists look for explanations outside the individual and focus on the social factors that influence some people rather than others to break the norms. Biological explanations of crime include theories of violent crime and gender, “XYY” chromosome theory, and body type theory. Psychological theories include antisocial and personality disorder theories. Sociological theories include differential association theory, labeling theory, strain theory, and others.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 156-163

Skill: Evaluation

5)    Briefly explain the focus of differential association, control, and labeling theories in the explanation of deviance.

Answer:   Differential association theory is based on the idea that people learn to deviate through associating with others who deviate from the norms. Control theory, in contrast, is based on the idea that everyone is drawn to commit deviant acts, but most of us conform because of an effective system of inner and outer controls. People who have less effective controls deviate. Labeling theory focuses on the significance of reputations, how they help set us on paths that propel us into deviance or that divert us away from it. All three theories are aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 157-159

Skill: Comprehension

6) What are the five techniques of neutralization identified by Gresham Sykes and David Matza? Provide an example of each.

Answer:   (1) Denial of responsibility. Jennifer was encouraged by her roommate to attend a party. Jennifer really didn’t want to go, but finally consented. When she failed the sociology exam the next day because she did not study, she blamed her roommate.
(2) Denial of injury. Alice just stole a laptop computer from someone living in her dorm. Alice believes the victim can simply buy a new one after her insurance company reimburses her.
(3) Denial of a victim. Fundamentalist Christians occasionally go gay bashing and justify it because gays are sinners and deserve to be punished.
(4) Condemn the condemners. When stopped for speeding, Patrick responded to the officer, “Weren’t you ever in a hurry to get somewhere? Did you get a ticket?”
(5) Appeal to higher loyalty. When Keith was asked why he committed the house burglaries, he said it was “to feed my family.”

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 161

Skill: Application

7) According to Durkheim, list three main functions that deviance provides for society. Provide an example or illustration of each.

Answer:   (1) Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms. When an offender is brought to justice it reminds everyone of the law or moral code of a culture. Police officers remind us of the speed limit when we are observed exceeding it excessively.
(2) Deviance promotes social unity. During a rally by the Ku Klux Klan in 1995, faculty, students, and community members gathered together at the university to protest the speeches and sign a group statement advocating multicultural unity.
(3) Deviance promotes social change. Homosexuality was once punishable by death in the colonies. Today there are advocate organizations and special events for gays and lesbians.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 163

Skill: Application

8) In terms of cultural goals and means to attain them, describe each of the five modes of adaptation that Merton outlined in strain theory.

Answer:   Merton identified five different modes of adaptation that individuals use in responding to society’s approved cultural goals and society’s approved means to achieve them.
(1) The conformist is considered as the only non-deviant because he or she accepts society’s goals and society’s means to achieve them. The other four modes of adaptation are considered as being deviant.
(2) The ritualist accepts the means to achieve goals and in many respects is a model citizen but rejects the approved cultural goals. The goals may be out of reach or simply not the prime focus of the individual’s efforts.
(3) The retreatist rejects both the culturally approved goals and the culturally approved means to achieve them.
(4) The rebel rejects either the approved goals or the means to achieve them (or both) but substitutes a goal or means in their place.
(5)The innovator accepts culturally approved goals but rejects the approved means to achieve them.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 164

Skill: Knowledge

9) Based on the research of Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, what are the primary reasons urban male youth join gangs?

Answer:   According to sociologist Martín Sánchez-Jankowski, boys in urban areas are motivated to join gangs for a number of reasons.  After following gangs of all types for over ten years, Sánchez-Jankowski found that the motive for boys joining a gang was not because of living in a broken home or seeking a substitute family, but rather to gain access to money, to have recreation (girls and drugs), to maintain anonymity in community crimes, to get protection, and to help the community. In some of the neighborhoods, gangs protect residents from outsiders and the boys saw the gang as an alternative to the dead-end, which they considered jobs held by their parents.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 166

Skill: Application

10) Discuss how conflict theorists explain deviance.

Answer:   Conflict theorists take the position that the group in power ensures that its definitions of deviance are those that are accepted by mainstream society. Conflict theorists maintain that the law is an instrument of oppression and exploitation. The law is used to maintain the privilege of the few over the many. Because the marginal working class have little income and are desperate, they commit highly visible property crimes. The elites manipulate the criminal justice system and use it to punish the crimes of the poor and divert their own criminal activities away from this punitive system.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 168-170

Skill: Comprehension

11) What are some common characteristics, outlined in the text, shared by the American prison population?

Answer:   (1) Most prisoner inmates are young men, under age 35.
(2) Almost 40 percent of all prison inmates are African Americans.
(3) Most prison inmates are single.
(4) More than 90 percent of all prison inmates are male.
(5) Most prison inmates do not have a college education.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 170-171

Skill: Knowledge

12) What are the similarities and differences between serial killers and mass murderers? Why do each of these groups present such a potential danger to society?

Answer:   Serial killer and mass murderers both kill multiple victims. Serial killers commit independent acts where they kill one or two victims at a time over an extended period and often do so for some ritualistic purpose, such as to rid the world of prostitutes. Mass murderers kill multiple victims but do so at the same time. Both types of killers pose unique threats to the public. Serial killers may be very charming and charismatic and show no visible sign of their potential as victimizers. Ted Bundy is an example of such an individual. Mass murderers often “snap” and react in a violent rage of killing coworkers, family members, or others with whom they regularly interact. They do so without warning and the ultimate cause of their provocation may be distantly removed from the actual act.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 175

Skill: Evaluation

13) Discuss capital punishment and bias. Who is most commonly sentenced to the death penalty? How do factors such as geography, social class, gender, and race or ethnicity affect the likelihood that a defendant will be given the death penalty?

Answer:   Since 1977, 65 percent of those who received the death penalty were white or Latino, and 35 percent were African American. African Americans and Latinos who killed whites are more likely to receive the death penalty, as are people with little education. Those who commit murder in Texas, Virginia, or Oklahoma are more likely to be executed. Rich people and women are sentenced to death at significantly lower rates than poor people and men.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 175-176

Skill: Comprehension

14) Discuss the medicalization of deviance and how Thomas Szasz would respond to this concept.

Answer:   The medicalization of deviance is transforming all deviance to a medical matter to be treated by physicians. By doing so, the deviant can assume the sick role and not be held accountable for his or her actions. They will also be excused from their normal responsibilities and can use medical insurance to find a “cure.” Szasz would oppose the medicalization of deviance. He criticizes mental illness, something that most people would agree is a medical condition, being classified as a medical problem. Szasz argues that mental illnesses are neither mental nor an illness. Rather, they are simply problem behaviors. Some problem behaviors have organic causes and can be treated with drugs. Other forms are the result of people failing to cope well with the challenges of daily life. In other words, individuals may use inappropriate ways to cope with their problems without being deviant in their behavior. His ideas highlight the importance of social experiences as a basis for bizarre behaviors and deviance in general.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 178

Skill: Comprehension

15) Given Durkheim’s theory that deviance is inevitable, why is there a need for a more humane approach to dealing with deviance in the United States?

Answer:   If, as Durkheim suggests, that deviance is inevitable, then one way to measure whether we live in a “good” society is to examine how the society treats its deviants. This treatment includes how we protect people from deviant behaviors that are harmful to themselves and others, how we tolerate deviance that is not harmful, and how we establish fairer systems of treatment for deviants. Based on how the U.S. treats people who are deviant, we can conclude that the United States needs to develop a more humane way of treating people who do not conform to the norms of the society. This is evident by a review of the spiraling prison population, the use of the death penalty, biased reactions to crime by the police and courts, and how people who engage in deviant but harmless behaviors are treated by society.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 179-180

Skill: Synthesis

 

6.5    Open Book Questions

1) In Cultural Diversity around the World: “Human Sexuality in Cross-Cultural Perspective,” the differences between the Zapotec Indians’s ideal and real sexual norms are described. Give an example of the difference between ideal and real sexual norms in American society. How would people in American culture react if the couple did not have mutual orgasm or if one party was actually unfaithful to the other?

Answer:   Ideally, people are supposed to refrain from sexual intercourse until they marry, and then engage in intimate sexual behavior only with their spouse. In reality, the majority of people have sex before marrying, and many, after marrying, have relationships with partners other than their spouse. In American society not reaching mutual orgasm is not unusual. Satisfying the other party, even if not at the same time, is acceptable in most relationships. There is also therapy for problems such as these. Infidelity presents a more serious issue. In some cases, the “victim” will seek out another lover when he or she discovers the unfaithfulness of their spouse. This usually doesn’t solve anything and without professional help and a great deal of forgiveness, the relationship is doomed for divorce. Fortunately, the scorned woman won’t solicit the assistance of her girlfriends to tie up the cheating husband, urinate on him, and then slaughter and eat his favorite hunting dog!

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 155

Skill: Synthesis

2) Why are negative and positive sanctions an important part of understanding deviance?

Answer:   Sanctions are expressions of disapproval of deviance (a negative sanction) or rewards conforming to norms (positive sanction). Both positive and negative sanctions can be either formal or informal. In general, the more seriously a society values a norm, the harsher the penalty for its violation and the more formal its application. Positive sanctions are given for conformity to norms but because conformity is expected by members of society, one must usually exceed expectations to achieve formal recognition. Society guides the behavior of members of society by publicizing negative sanctions, through the media, by issuing fines, various degradation ceremonies, and shaming. Society encourages conformity through public recognition and formal and informal awards.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 156

Skill: Application

3) Why are shaming and degradation ceremonies less effective in urban societies rather than smaller, preindustrial societies?

Answer:   Shaming is more likely to be successful in preindustrial societies and close-knit ones in which the totality of social likeness is what holds the group together. Shaming then is more effective because it is necessary that the person being shamed cares what other people think of him or her. In preindustrial societies, most people are closely connected with all the people around them. Relationships are lifelong and intimate and there are more open lines of communication. Groups are small and everyone has knowledge of other people’s reputations. In industrial societies many people live anonymously, so they could not care less what the strangers around them think about them. There is less emphasis on personal relationships, and society is anonymous and mobile.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 160

Skill: Application

4) List and discuss the five techniques of neutralization identified by Gresham Sykes and David Matza. Why do people utilize these techniques? Provide an example of each.

Answer:   Techniques of neutralization are used by people who engage in deviant acts to maintain a positive self-image and to compensate against the labeling of others. The five techniques of neutralization and an example of each are as follows:
(1) Denial of responsibility: “I only sold drugs because I couldn’t get a regular job. If someone would have hired me, I would have been a model citizen.”
(2) Denial of injury: Denies that anyone was harmed by the act. “I may have stolen social security checks, but I only took checks from rich people. They’ll never miss it.”
(3) Denial of a victim: Asserts that the victim of deviance “had it coming.” Examples of denial of a victim are employed by individuals engaged in gay bashing, people who commit hate crimes, and when individuals commit acts of violence or theft against others who they feel have offended them (or others), such as a shop owner overcharging the public or an exceptionally insensitive professor.
(4) Condemnation of the condemner: The deviant points to the behavior of the individual sitting in judgment of them and asks who holds them accountable for their behavior. A motorist receiving a speeding ticket asks the trooper if he or she was ever in a hurry to get home or a person being audited by the IRS asks the auditor who reviewed his or her taxes.
(5) Appeal to higher loyalty: The deviant received nothing personal from the act, but committed it for the benefit of others. “I sold drugs so I could feed my family.” “I take part in drive-by shootings because the gang needs me.”

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 161

Skill: Synthesis

5) A few years ago President Bill Clinton was accused (several times) for “womanizing” that included a well-publicized tryst with a young White House intern named Monica Lewinsky. How might the president use techniques of neutralization to justify or at least excuse his behavior?

Answer:   The president could rationalize his behavior a number of ways, employing these techniques of neutralization.
(1) Denial of responsibility: “The women accusing me made the first move. They wanted to be with me because of my status.” (It was reported that Miss Lewinsky showed the president her thong when she passed him in the office one day, which started the escalating events.)
(2) Denial of injury: “No one was hurt. It wasn’t as though I forced myself on these women.”
(3) Denial of a victim: This technique is a little more difficult to visualize but someone with an exceptionally powerful ego would argue that these women were not victimized but privileged to have known the president in such an intimate manner.
(4) Condemnation of the condemners: “What middle-aged American male doesn’t want to be popular with the ladies, especially one less than half his age?” In addition, many of the Republicans pointing fingers at the president were documented to have had affairs of their own.                                                                (5) Appeal to higher loyalty: This technique is a bit hard to visualize. I couldn’t possibly think he “did it for the country” or “because Hillary wanted me to.” But at least three of the techniques would have given President Clinton reasons to consider himself a victim of circumstance and not responsible for his behavior.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 161

Skill: Synthesis

6) Symbolic interactionists emphasize the importance of the meanings attributed to behaviors by the actors. What meanings did the “Saints” and the “Roughnecks” give to being apologetic to teachers and police? How did these different meanings result in very different outcomes when members of each group were caught committing crimes?

Answer:   For the Saints, being apologetic was an acceptable form of manipulation of people in authority. Even if their apologies may have been viewed as insincere, their willingness to appear contrite granted them lenient treatment. For the Roughnecks, apologizing, even insincerely, would have been unmanly. Their norms would have required them to confront any authority figure who challenged them. Their hostile reactions to being accused of crimes provoked harsh responses from teachers and the police.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 162

Skill: Evaluation

7) After reading “The Naked Pumpkin Runners and the Naked Bike Riders: Deviance or Freedom of Self-Expression?” develop reasons why it is illegal for the runners and riders to appear naked in public. Discuss reasons why the runners and riders are compelled to display their deviant behavior.

Answer:   The cultural context of 21st-century North America sets the public decency standards to which people in Boulder, Colorado are expected to adhere. The law states that it is illegal to expose genitalia, and “genitalia” has been defined to encompass specific regions of the body that are expected to be covered in public. The runners and riders may be participating in this deviant behavior for a number of reasons. Some of the possibilities include a declaration of freedom, a celebration of youth, an expression of the joy of being alive, a statement of free speech, and a desire to alter public decency standards to embrace a more tolerant level of bodily exposure.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 165

Skill: Evaluation

8) In Down-to-Earth Sociology, “Islands in the Street: Urban Gangs in the United States,” the reasons for joining street gangs are described. How do these reasons apply to strain theory and illegitimate opportunity theory?

Answer:   The reasons for joining gangs identified by Sánchez-Jankowski apply to both strain and illegitimate opportunity theories. Gang membership can be considered a version of innovation (from strain theory). Through gang membership, important advantages are received (e.g., money, recreation, protection, an opportunity to help their community) that are not available to them from conventional sources. Similarly, gang membership provides members illegitimate opportunities to get what they want and need through criminal activities that include drug sales, theft, fencing, and even contract murder.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 166

Skill: Application

9) Figure 6.1 “How Safe Is Your State? Violent Crime in the United States” shows a very diverse crime rate in America by region and state. How does the state rank where your university is located? What are some reasons some states are prone to crime while others are relatively crime free?

Answer:   To find the crime rate of a state, the general category can be found by examining Figure 6.1. A more specific crime rate can be found doing an Internet search of the Uniform Crime Report. Some reasons one state may have a lower crime rate than others:
(1) geographic location;
(2) cultural standards within the region where the state is located;
(3) population density;
(4) population makeup, being more homogeneous or heterogeneous;
(5) and weather.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 167

Skill: Evaluation

10) After reading Cultural Diversity around the World: “Dogging” in England, provide reasons why this behavior is treated lightly in England and would probably be totally unacceptable to the public in the United States.

Answer:
(1) The U.S. and Britain have different cultural beliefs on how sexual relations are to be treated.
(2) No one is being directly harmed or financially burdened by the “dogging field.”
(3) Some in England believe that the participants would have nowhere else to go and could suffer emotionally as a result.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 173

Skill: Evaluation

6.6    Line Art Questions

1) In Table 6.1, “How People Match Their Goals to Their Means,” under the column “Do They Feel the Strain That Leads to Anomie?” the table lists “No” under conformity. What is inherently wrong with this assumption? Provide at least one publicized real-life example to back up your answer.

Answer:   As one’s material possessions become greater in number, expense, and complexity, so do the responsibilities of maintaining them. A Jaguar, for example, is more expensive and complicated than maintaining an economy-priced Ford or Chevrolet. Summer homes along the shore and a ski lodge in the mountains are great for recreational purposes, but these add considerable expense for upkeep, taxes, and use. As our material possessions increase, we don’t just own them, they own us. When these possessions are out of service or in need of maintenance it can be expensive and cause a sense of chaos. A good argument can be made on how the ritualist would actually suffer less strain because the ritualist has abandoned the money motive and an obsession with materialism that has been common among conformists.  Real-life examples of “conformists” who became criminals include Ken Lay of Enron and Martha Stewart for insider trading. Any news article addressing police corruption or bribery of a public official would also serve as an example.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 164

Skill: Synthesis

2) Examine Table 6.2, “Women and Crime: What a Difference a Few Years Make.” What is the problem with using only percentage changes for the crimes? Why would including the actual rate of the crimes specified for women be more descriptive?

Answer:   Car theft is rated as a 65 percent increase. However, for every 100 car thefts in 1992, if two were committed by women, and in 2009 five were committed by women, this would represent a 150 percent increase. Illegal drug use is up only 14 percent. If 40 of every 100 drug offenders were women in 1992, a 14 percent increase would now mean 45 out of 100 drug offenses were committed by women. Looking at the raw numbers also conveys an understanding of the seriousness the change actually presents.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 168

Skill: Analysis

3) Based on Table 6.3, “Inmates in U.S. State and Federal Prisons,” what is the profile of the LEAST likely individual to be a prison inmate?

Answer:   White females over 44 years of age who are married and have some college education are the least likely prison inmates. As the level of education and age increases the probability of being an inmate decreases considerably. The same potential not to be an inmate applies to a white male over 44 years of age who is married with some college as well, but not as significantly.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 171

Skill: Analysis

  • Figure 6.2, “How Much Is Enough? The Explosion in the Number of U.S. Prisoners,” shows the U.S. prison population has increased nearly tenfold since 1970. What are some reasons for this massive increase in the prison population and what are some alternatives to building more prisons?

Answer:   Many analysts believe the massive increase in the prison industry is a “neo-conservative” movement to provide means for industrialists and entrepreneurs to amass greater wealth. If there is any truth to this, it would open a number of viable options to reduce the prison population. Attacking some of the reasons for criminal behavior would be a beginning. Providing opportunities for the homeless, increasing opportunities for minorities, and cleaning up inner city slums may be ways to begin. These efforts would not see immediate results. Adding more prison cells is very expensive and takes resources away from health, education, and other programs needed by all Americans. One question Americans who remember the 1970s can ask themselves is, “Do I feel nine or ten times safer today than I did then?” With nearly ten times more people locked up, they should.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 172

Skill: Analysis

 

5) Based on Figure 6.3, “Recidivism of U.S. Prisoners,” what are some reasons offenders convicted of car theft have the highest recidivism rate and those convicted of murder have the lowest?

Answer:   The number of cars in America is one reason. Car theft is also a low risk offense for the offender in regard to any danger of being harmed during the theft. Car theft also rates as one of the least cleared crimes. Individuals convicted of car theft are likely to receive shorter jail sentences, placing them back in circulation at an early age when they are still in their crime prone years. Offenders convicted of murder receive the longest sentences, which takes them out of society for long periods and, quite often, for life. Those who are released are released later in life when they are past their crime-prone years. In addition, unlike car theft, which has a profit motive, there is seldom a clear, premeditated reason for homicide that would justify its reoccurrence.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 174

Skill: Synthesis
6.7    Matching Questions

Skill: Knowledge

Match the term with the definition.

  1)  deviance

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 154

2)  social order

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 156

3)  social control

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 156

4)  negative sanction

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 156

5)  positive sanction

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 156

6)  genetic predisposition

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 156

7)  personality disorder

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 157

8)  degradation ceremony

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 160

9)  techniques of neutralization

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 161

10) strain theory

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 163

11) white-collar crime

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 166

12) recidivism rate

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 173

13) capital punishment

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 174

14) serial murder

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 175

15) medicalization of deviance

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 178

1) H; 2) I; 3) M; 4) A; 5) N; 6) D; 7) O; 8) C; 9) G; 10) B; 11) K; 12) E; 13) L; 14) F; 15) J

A)  an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction to a formal one

B)  Robert Merton’s theory based on cultural goals and the institutionalized means to achieve them

C)  an extreme form of shaming, the individual is stripped of his or her identity as a group member

D)  inborn tendencies to commit deviant acts

E)  the percentage of released convicts who are rearrested

F)  the killing of three or more victims in separate events

G)  ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect society’s rules

H)  the violation of rules or norms

I)  a group’s usual and customary social arrangements on which its members depend and which they base their lives

J)  to make deviance a medical matter; a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians

K)  crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations

L)      another term for the death penalty

M) a group’s formal and informal means of enforcing norms

N)  reward or positive reaction for following norms ranging from a smile to a prize

O)  the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms

Chapter 7    Global Stratification

7.1    True/False Questions

 

  • In all places around the world where it is practiced, slavery is a permanent condition.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 185

Skill: Knowledge

  • In a caste system, social stratification is based on ascribed status.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Knowledge

  • When slavery ended in the United States, it was replaced by a racial caste system.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 188

Skill: Knowledge

  • In a class system, there is little opportunity for movement between classes.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 188

Skill: Knowledge

  • The growing interconnections between the world’s wealthiest people have produced a global superclass.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 189

Skill: Knowledge

  • In contrast to most other stratification systems, Karl Marx’s system had only two classes, each depending on the individual’s relationship to the means of production.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 189-190

Skill: Application

  • According to Karl Marx, false class consciousness is a condition in which the workers mistakenly believe they have the power to unite and overthrow the capitalists.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 190

Skill: Comprehension

 

  • Arnold Schwarzenegger’s term as governor of California and Ronald Reagan’s two terms as U.S. president are examples of prestige turning into power.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 191

Skill: Application

  • Melvin Tumin advanced the concept of merit as the primary factor in determining social class.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 192

Skill: Knowledge

  • Gaetano Mosca emphasized that every society is stratified based on power.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Knowledge

  • The key to effectively maintaining social stratification involves the privileged class controlling ideas and information rather than depending on the use of force.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 194

Skill: Knowledge

  • Although it is expensive, coercion is the most effective means by which elites can maintain stratification of their societies.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 194

Skill: Knowledge

  • The term “socialism” describes an intermediate step between capitalism and communism in which social classes are abolished but some individual inequality remains.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 196

Skill: Knowledge

  • The Most Industrialized Nations are almost equally distributed between the Northern and Southern hemispheres of the world.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 197-199

Skill: Application

  • The Least Industrialized Nations account for about 68 percent of the world’s population.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 201

Skill: Knowledge

  • The impetus for colonialism was the advent of the Industrial Revolution.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 201

Skill: Knowledge

  • The maquiladoras are Mexican export plants that import components, manufacture a product, and then export the finished product to the United States, all without import or export taxes.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Knowledge

 

  • In neocolonialism, “mother” nations establish military outposts within the controlled nation to protect their capital investments.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 206

Skill: Application

7.2    Multiple Choice Questions

1) In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the MOST common basis for social stratification has been ________.

  1. A) race
  2. B) income
  3. C) education
  4. D) gender

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 184

Skill: Knowledge

2) A system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.

  1. A) social stratification
  2. B) social networking
  3. C) the diversification of society
  4. D) multiculturalism

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 184

Skill: Knowledge

3) In which of the following societies might slavery MOST likely exist?

  1. A) the pastoral society
  2. B) the agricultural society
  3. C) the industrial society
  4. D) the hunting and gathering society

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 185

Skill: Application

4) What were the three major causes of slavery prior to life in the American colonies?

  1. A) gender, racism, and social class
  2. B) debt, crime, and war
  3. C) gender, politics, and ethnicity
  4. D) racism, religion, and gender

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 185

Skill: Knowledge

5) The fact that some slaves served as tutors in Roman homes indicates that ________.

  1. A) most slaves were women
  2. B) some slaves were children
  3. C) slaves were not always viewed as inferior
  4. D) slaves had darker skin that their masters

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 185

Skill: Comprehension

6) A system of beliefs that justifies a particular social arrangement, such as slavery, is called ________.

  1. A) a constitution
  2. B) class consciousness
  3. C) a caste system
  4. D) an ideology

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 185

Skill: Knowledge

7) Which American sociologist described the years of American colonial slavery when he said that “gradually the entire white South became an armed camp to keep Negroes in slavery and to kill the black rebel”?

  1. A) Benjamin Quarles
  2. B) E. B. Du Bois
  3. C) Booker T. Washington
  4. D) George Washington Carver

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Application

8) What is the basis of India’s caste system?

  1. A) race
  2. B) religion
  3. C) ethnicity
  4. D) education

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Knowledge

9) In some societies, closely related members of the ruling class and the upper class marry to preserve the boundaries between castes, so the superior caste will not be contaminated by the inferior caste. This is a practice known as ________.

  1. A) ritual pollution
  2. B) apartheid
  3. C) endogamy
  4. D) indentured service

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Comprehension

10) Mahatma is a member of India’s Brahman caste. What is Mahatma’s MOST likely occupation?

  1. A) a general in the army
  2. B) a Hindu priest
  3. C) a skilled painter
  4. D) a water boy

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Application

 

11) Raul is a member of the Kshatriya who recently engaged in an intimate act with a member of the Dalit. Raul has seen the error of his ways, however, and wants to make amends for his indiscretions. Which statement BEST explains Raul’s next course of action?

  1. A) Raul will commit to become an indentured servant.
  2. B) Raul will seek the forgiveness of twelve reputable men in his community.
  3. C) Raul will sacrifice his most prized oxen or goats to the gods.
  4. D) Raul will undergo ablution.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 186-187

Skill: Application

12) Social mobility refers to ________.

  1. A) rigid stratification
  2. B) discriminatory practices
  3. C) changing class
  4. D) moving to another location

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 188

Skill: Knowledge

13) In every society in the world, __________ is a basis for social stratification.

  1. A) race
  2. B) gender
  3. C) age
  4. D) education

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 188

Skill: Knowledge

14) What is the significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery and caste?

  1. A) The class system is not based on religion.
  2. B) The class system has fluid boundaries.
  3. C) The class system works in democracies.
  4. D) The class system existed before the other three.

Answer:   B

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 188

Skill: Comprehension

15) Which of the following characteristics is MOST associated with the class system?

  1. A) class distinction for life based on ascription
  2. B) enforced norms of endogamy
  3. C) movement up and down the class ladder
  4. D) ownership of one group of people by another

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 188

Skill: Application

16) In every society in the world, men’s earnings _________.

  1. A)  decrease as they get older
  2. B) are directly related to level of education
  3. C) are greater than women’s earnings
  4. D) depend solely on race

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 189

Skill: Knowledge

17) Bartholomew is one of the 6,000 richest people in the world. He is a part of the________.

  1. A) hegemonic class
  2. B) ruling class
  3. C) global superclass
  4. D) czar class

Answer:   C

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 189

Skill: Comprehension

 

18) If a person were living during Karl Marx’s lifetime and worked at the Smittertown ironworks, Marx would                          consider that person a member of the ________.

  1. A) proletariat
  2. B) lumpenproletariat
  3. C) bourgeoisie
  4. D) middle class

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 189-190

Skill: Application

19) At the steel plant, all minorities hired are assigned to work the battery pits, one of the dirtiest jobs in the mill. Even so, the battery pit workers wear this assignment as a badge of honor and have developed a close social bond that transcends the time they spend at the mill. How would Karl Marx describe their solidarity?

  1. A) The workers are experiencing false class consciousness.
  2. B) The workers are victims of social stratification.
  3. C) The workers’ sense of fairness has been influenced by primogeniture.
  4. D) The workers share class consciousness.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 190

Skill: Application

20) Sally is employed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has a savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. Marx would maintain that Sally has experienced ________.

  1. A) false class consciousness
  2. B) misplaced commitment
  3. C) management ideology
  4. D) class consciousness

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 190

Skill: Application

21) What term would Karl Marx use for today’s workers who mistakenly identify with the capitalists simply because they own a few shares of stock or work as managers of large corporations?

  1. A) class improvisation
  2. B) social solidarity
  3. C) social bond
  4. D) false class consciousness

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 190

Skill: Application

 

22) The ability to control others, even over their objections, is referred to as ________.

  1. A) prestige
  2. B) class
  3. C) status
  4. D) power

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 190

Skill: Knowledge

23) The sociologist who believed that social class is made up of three components—property, power, and prestige—was ________.

  1. A) Max Weber
  2. B) Talcott Parsons
  3. C) Karl Marx
  4. D) Lewis Coser, Jr.

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 190

Skill: Knowledge

24) Which two theorists concluded that the universality of stratification can be explained by the necessity to motivate the most qualified people to fill the most important and demanding positions in a society?

  1. A) Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
  2. B) Max Weber and Emile Durkheim
  3. C) Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore
  4. D) Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 191

Skill: Knowledge

25) According to Melvin Tumin, which of the following high school seniors will MOST likely attend college?

  1. A) the A- student from a decaying urban slum
  2. B) the student who scored the mean on the college entrance exam
  3. C) the C+ student from the upper class
  4. D) the promising student in need of financial aid

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 192

Skill: Application

26) According to Gaetano Mosca, every society is stratified by ________ to ensure that society’s work gets done.

  1. A) wealth
  2. B) power
  3. C) race
  4. D) gender

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Knowledge

27) In his book, The Ruling Class, Gaetano Mosca offered three arguments regarding society and power. All of the following represent his arguments EXCEPT for which one?

  1. A) No society can exist unless it is organized.
  2. B) Leadership means an inequality of power.
  3. C) Human nature is self-centered.
  4. D) People in power use their positions to seize greater rewards for others.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Application

28) What did Karl Marx predict after workers were exploited year after year by the capitalist class?

  1. A) The capitalist society would synthesize into a classless society.
  2. B) A strong middle class would emerge.
  3. C) Workers would abandon their jobs, unionize, and gain the power to negotiate.
  4. D) Workers would revolt against the bourgeoisie and assume control.

Answer:   D

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Comprehension

29) One of the effective methods of control employed during the rule of monarchies was the divine right of kings. This was a method of maintaining stratification that falls under the general category of ________.

  1. A) controlling ideas
  2. B) controlling information
  3. C) using technology
  4. D) using superior force

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 194

Skill: Application

30) Of the following methods, which would be the BEST way to preserve a stratification system?

  1. A) demonstrating violation of law through public punishment
  2. B) establishing a well-trained and highly armed police force
  3. C) controlling ideas, information, technology through ideology
  4. D) allowing brute force and coercion to keep dissidents in their place

Answer:   C

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 194

Skill: Evaluation

31) The Acme Corporation has adopted “Tiny Brothers” as a means of controlling employees. What is a “Tiny Brother”?

  1. A) a corporate spy
  2. B) a security camera
  3. C) a security officer
  4. D) a computer spyware program

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 195

Skill: Application

32) Of the following technologies, which does the government have the greatest difficulty controlling?

  1. A) Internet communications and e-mails
  2. B) radio broadcasts
  3. C) syndicated television news programs
  4. D) books, magazines, and newspapers

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 195

Skill: Knowledge

33) In Great Britain, what percentage of the population makes up the elite upper class?

  1. A) 1 percent
  2. B) 4 percent
  3. C) 11 percent
  4. D) 18 percent

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 196

Skill: Knowledge

34) What is the primary way by which the British maintain their class system from one generation to the next?

  1. A) religious doctrine
  2. B) occupational placement
  3. C) educational achievement
  4. D) racial and ethnic background

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 196

Skill: Knowledge

35) What term did Lenin and Trotsky use to describe the intermediate step between the czarist society prior to the revolution and the ideal society they hoped to establish?

  1. A) capitalism
  2. B) communism
  3. C) socialism
  4. D) totalitarianism

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 196

Skill: Knowledge

36) On what factor was the stratification system of the old Soviet Union based?

  1. A) ownership of the means of production
  2. B) elimination of all class distinctions
  3. C) inherited wealth
  4. D) membership in the Communist party

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 196

Skill: Knowledge

37) Which of the following led to the discontinuation of the terms “First World,” “Second World,” and “Third World” to describe global stratification?

  1. A) the Industrial Revolution
  2. B) the end of World War II
  3. C) the breakup of the Soviet Union
  4. D) the emergence of the postindustrial society

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 197

Skill: Knowledge

38) Based on the global stratification model, nations of the former Soviet Union and its former satellites in Eastern Europe are classified as ________.

  1. A) the Most Industrialized Nations
  2. B) the Industrializing Nations
  3. C) the Third World Nations
  4. D) the Least Industrialized Nations

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 198, 200

Skill: Application

 

39) Which of the following nations fails to fit into the stratification typology of Most Industrialized Nations, Industrializing Nations, and Least Industrialized Nations?

  1. A) Kuwait
  2. B) Russia
  3. C) Australia
  4. D) South Africa

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 199

Skill: Application

40) What was the purpose of colonialism as it was practiced by the major European powers during eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries?

  1. A) to exploit the annexed nation’s people and resources
  2. B) to establish a protectorate to preserve the annexed nation’s freedom
  3. C) to form limited partnerships with the annexed nation
  4. D) to establish a new nation-state

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 201

Skill: Knowledge

41) Which concept explains the rise of global stratification as including core nations, semiperiphery nations, periphery nations, and external areas?

  1. A) neocolonialism
  2. B) culture of poverty
  3. C) colonialism
  4. D) world system theory

Answer:   D

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Knowledge

42) Great Britain was one of the first nations in which industrial capitalism developed. According to world system theory, Great Britain would be a ________ nation.

  1. A) semiperiphery
  2. B) periphery
  3. C) core
  4. D) Most Industrialized

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Application

43) The spread of an economic system based on investing to make profits, which is becoming the world’s dominant economic system, is referred to as ________.

  1. A) the globalization of capitalism
  2. B) the capitalization of the world economy
  3. C) the economic colonization
  4. D) the periphery of nations

Answer:   A

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Comprehension

 

44) In world system theory, nations that have been totally left out of the development of capitalism and allowed to stagnate are called ________.

  1. A) semiperiphery nations
  2. B) core nations
  3. C) periphery nations
  4. D) the external area

Answer:   D

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Application

45) Who or what are the maquiladoras?

  1. A) death squads that hunt and kill the beggar children of Brazil
  2. B) elite members of Mexico’s newly emerging industrial capitalists
  3. C) assembly-for-export factories along the Mexican border
  4. D) Mexican migrant workers who cross the border to pick crops in the U.S.

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Knowledge

46) The concept of the maquiladoras was made possible by the passage of the ________.

  1. A) Taft-Hartley Trade Act
  2. B) North American Free Trade Agreement
  3. C) Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  4. D) International Commerce Act of Latin America

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Application

47) John Kenneth Galbraith’s theory of global stratification, referred to as a culture of poverty, is based on a concept first proposed by ________.

  1. A) Frank Tannenbaum
  2. B) John Hanaway
  3. C) Oscar Lewis
  4. D) William Ogden

Answer:   C

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 205-206

Skill: Knowledge

48) Some nations have traditionally been in poverty from one generation to the next, relying on tradition rather than experimenting with new technology that might improve their standard of living. This explanation for global stratification is called ________.

  1. A) culture of poverty
  2. B) world system theory
  3. C) dependency theory
  4. D) theory of undeveloped nations

Answer:   A

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 206

Skill: Application

 

49) What is the major means of control used by the neocolonialists to maintain global stratification?

  1. A) using military occupation as a form of coercion
  2. B) bribing the country’s government officials
  3. C) creating debt along with ever-mounting interest
  4. D) controlling the country’s mass media

Answer:   C

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 206

Skill: Application

50) The Industrialized Nations’ control of the Least Industrialized Nations through debts owed to them, which is referred to as ________.

  1. A) imperialism
  2. B) neocolonialism
  3. C) modernization
  4. D) capitalism

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 206

Skill: Knowledge

51) Why do the ruling elite in the Least Industrialized Nations work so closely with the heads of multinational corporations to develop informal partnerships?

  1. A) to develop the necessary political stability to maintain the partnership
  2. B) to expand the middle class throughout Least Industrialized Nations
  3. C) to increase humanitarian aid to the poor
  4. D) to increase the standard of living of people in poor nations

Answer:   A

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 207

Skill: Evaluation

52) Multinational corporations often funnel money to elites in the Least Industrialized Nations to create a “favorable business climate.” In reality, this term refers to the creation of ________ and ________.

  1. A) open markets; long-term leases
  2. B) government subsidies; massive workforces
  3. C) open markets; low taxes
  4. D) low taxes; cheap labor

Answer:   D

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 207

Skill: Knowledge

53) Who or what are the “Asian Tigers”?

  1. A) the Pacific Rim nations that have a strong capitalist base
  2. B) a group of Marxists opposed to capitalism developing in Southeast Asia
  3. C) the neocolonialists who have exploited the rubber fields of Indonesia
  4. D) a Japanese baseball team that serves as a model for capitalism

Answer:   A

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 207

Skill: Knowledge

 

54) Two countries previously classified as Least Industrialized Nations that are building strong competition with Western nations because of cheap telecommunications and outsourced jobs from multinational corporations are ________ and ________.

  1. A) Vietnam; Indonesia
  2. B) China; India
  3. C) Japan; Brazil
  4. D) Indonesia; Taiwan

Answer:   B

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 208

Skill: Knowledge

7.3    Short Answer Questions

  • What are the three variables that contribute MOST to determining one’s location in a system of social stratification based on class?

Answer:   access to
(1) power;
(2) prestige;
(3) and wealth (property)

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 184

Skill: Knowledge

  • What has been the unique purpose of child slavery in present-day Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia?

Answer:   young boys to race camels

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 184

Skill: Knowledge

  • Based on the classical view, what were the three causes of slavery?

Answer:   (1) debt;
(2) war;
(3) crime

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 185

Skill: Knowledge

  • Why was slavery made inheritable when it was adopted by landowners in the American colonies?

Answer:   to increase its profitability

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Analysis

  • In societies that use a caste system for stratification, what is ablution?

Answer:   a washing ritual to restore purity after superior caste members have contact with a caste member below them

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 187

Skill: Knowledge

  • Does the caste system in India still exist?

Answer:   Although the caste system in India was formally abolished in 1949, elements of the old system still persist in religious ceremonies, social mobility, and educational opportunities.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 187

Skill: Knowledge

 

  • What is the global superclass?

Answer:   The growing interconnections among the world’s wealthiest people have produced a global superclass; one in which wealth and power are more concentrated than ever before. There are only about 6,000 members in this class.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 189

Skill: Knowledge

  • What single factor controlled one’s social class, according to Karl Marx?

Answer:   a person’s relationship to the means of production—tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 189

Skill: Application

  • Who were the lumpenproletariat?

Answer:   people living on the margin of society such as beggars, vagrants, and criminals (as labeled by Marx)

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 190

Skill: Knowledge

  • According to Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, how are highly qualified people motivated to enter high-pressure positions?

Answer:   society offers greater rewards—wealth (income and benefits), power, and prestige

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 191

Skill: Knowledge

  • What prediction was made by Karl Marx regarding the behavior of workers in a capitalist society?

Answer:   they would revolt

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Knowledge

  • What was Gaetano Mosca’s primary argument for the reason why society is stratified?

 

Answer:   Mosca argued that stratification is inevitable because every society must have leadership, which by definition means inequality. Because human nature is self-centered, people in power will use their positions to seize greater rewards for themselves.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Application

  • According to Gerhard Lenski, what was the key to the development of stratification and class differences?

Answer:   The key was the accumulation of surplus goods. Groups fight over the surplus, and the group that wins becomes an elite. This dominant group rules from the top, controlling the groups below it.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 194

Skill: Knowledge

  • Why was the divine right of kings an effective means of maintaining the class differences between nobles and peasants?

Answer:   The divine right of kings is the idea that the king’s authority comes directly from God. The king delegates authority to nobles and clergy who, as God’s representatives, must be obeyed. To disobey is a sin against God; to rebel is to merit physical punishment on earth and eternal suffering in hell. It was effective because peasants would not challenge this ideology.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 194

Skill: Application

 

 

  • What are the two MOST striking characteristics of the British class system?

Answer:   (1) language
(2) education

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 196

Skill: Knowledge

  • What was the primary means of social stratification in the former Soviet Union?

Answer:   membership in the Communist party

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 196

Skill: Knowledge

  • What was the fourth category of nations added to the Most Industrialized, Industrializing, and Least Industrialized model?

Answer:   the Oil-Rich Nations

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 199

Skill: Knowledge

  • What are the four classifications of nations identified in world system theory?

Answer:   (1) core nations;
(2) semiperiphery nations;
(3) periphery nations;
(4) external areas

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 204

Skill: Knowledge

 

7.4    Essay Questions

1) Define social stratification and discuss the three systems of social stratification.

Answer:   Social stratification is a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige. The three systems of stratification include: slavery, caste, and class.
(1) Slavery is ownership of one group of people by another. Traditionally, slavery was created by debt, war, or crime. But colonial landowners in the New World adopted slavery to fit their economic needs.
(2) The caste system is built on a rigid stratification system based on birth and lasting a lifetime. India is the best example of a caste system.  India has four castes with thousands of subcastes, or jati, as well as a fifth class of “untouchables.” Although the Indian government formally abolished the caste system in 1949, centuries-old practices cannot be eliminated easily, and the caste system remains part of everyday

life in India
(3) The class system features stratification based on one’s power, wealth (property and income), and prestige. Unlike the others, the class system has fluid boundaries and offers social mobility.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 184-188

Skill: Knowledge

2) Discuss the classical causes of slavery, and explain how the justification for slavery was modified by the colonial landowners in the New World.

Answer:   The classical causes of slavery were debt, war, and crime. In the classical view, slavery was not inherited, it allowed slaves some rights, and it was often limited to a specific period of time, especially to satisfy a debt. When colonial landowners adopted slavery, they modified it to fit their needs and make it more profitable. After failing to enslave Native Americans, they turned to Africans being brought to the New World. Slavery in the colonies became lifelong and inheritable, and led to centuries of racism. Accompanying these changes was a new ideology that slaves were inferior to the white colonists, that they were barely human, and that they and their offspring could be sold and traded.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 185-186

Skill: Analysis

3) Although the caste system was abolished by the Indian government in 1949, remnants of it can still be found in Indian society. Why? Please give examples to support your analysis.

Answer:   The caste system was a part of Indian society for centuries. When a system is this ingrained in a culture, it doesn’t disappear quickly. The ceremonies people follow at births, marriages, and deaths are still dictated by caste. The upper castes dread the upward mobility of the untouchables, resulting in (sometimes violent) discrimination. This discrimination extends into the school system—Dalit children are not allowed to attend government schools. If they try to enroll, they are beaten.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 187

Skill: Analysis

4) How does the class system in the United States both resemble and differ from a caste system?

Answer:   Characteristics with which American people are born still influence, if not absolutely determine, their educational, economic, and social opportunities. Although social mobility is possible, people generally occupy the same social class that their parents did. This is most pronounced in the very elite upper classes that attempt to preserve and expand their wealth and power by marrying within their own class, as well as among the poorest classes that have the most limited mobility to escape their ranking in social class. Even though it is most likely that the most elite upper classes and the most handicapped lower classes will live and marry within their respective groups, there is still great potential for mobility based on achievement and individual effort, which is impossible in an actual caste system.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 188

Skill: Analysis

5) All societies use gender as a means of stratification. Discuss the consequences of this gender stratification.

Answer:   In every society of the world, gender is a basis for social stratification. It is not the sole basis for stratifying people in any society, but it cuts across all systems of social stratification—slavery, caste, and class. In every society, men’s earnings are higher than women’s earnings. Most of the world’s illiterate are females. And of the school-age children around the world who do not receive education, two-thirds are girls. (As mentioned in other chapters, in certain geographic areas in which the control of females by males is more evident, practices involving coercion of child brides, child prostitutes, and female circumcision are common.)

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 188-189

Skill: Application

6) How does Weber’s view of social class differ from Marx’s view?

Answer:   Marx felt that social class has only one component, that the only significant dividing line between the classes is their relationship to the means of production. Either people own the means of production, or they do not own the means of production but work for those who do. This relationship determines the class to which they belong. Weber felt that social class is made up of three components—property, power, and prestige.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 189-190

Skill: Analysis

 

7) According to the functionalists, stratification is universal. Discuss the reasons Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore concluded that stratification is inevitable.

Answer:   Davis and Moore maintained that every society must make certain that positions are filled. However, some positions are more important than others and must be filled by the more qualified people in the society. These important positions have more responsibility and require greater accountability. To motivate the more qualified to fill these positions, society must offer greater rewards.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 191

Skill: Application

8) Melvin Tumin pointed out flaws in the functionalist position to explain social stratification. What were his three major arguments?

Answer:   His arguments include the following:
(1) we need independent methods to measure the true importance of positions held by members of society, but these independent methods do not exist;
(2) if stratification works as functionalists predict, we would live in a meritocracy, which we do not;
(3) if social stratification was functional, it should benefit almost everyone, which it does not.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 192

Skill: Application

9) Discuss Gaetano Mosca’s argument for the reason why society is stratified.

Answer:   Mosca argued that every society is stratified by power. He said this was inevitable. The basic premises of Mosca’s argument are as follows:
(1) no society can exist unless it is organized, so there must be organization;
(2) leadership requires inequalities of power, so some lead and some follow;
(3) human nature is self-centered, so people in power will use their greater position to get greater rewards for themselves.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Comprehension

10) Discuss how elites maintain stratification, and point out the benefits and liabilities of each method.

Answer:   Elites can maintain stratification either through force, or through the control of ideology, information, and technology.
(1) Use of force can be very effective. Hitler’s Nazi Germany and Stalin’s Soviet Union are examples of this. But it is also expensive and difficult to maintain, and it becomes more and more difficult as time goes on. Eventually the regime sows the seeds of its own destruction. Nazi Germany is a good example of this; and an objective analysis of Stalin’s regime would also support this premise.
(2) The use of ideology, technology, and information is more efficient and builds within itself. Ideology that says ours is the best government, that this government is all-knowing and all-wise, and that it is here to help you build social solidarity and is passed from one generation to the next. A sense of patriotism subdues revolt. The control of information is an important part of maintaining this ideology. The use of technology also assists the elites. In today’s world, it means the ability to spy on citizens using satellite surveillance, wiretaps, and a host of other means not available to the general public.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 194-195

Skill: Analysis

11) What are the three models of global stratification discussed by the author? Why did the author choose one particular model over the others?

Answer:   (1) The First, Second, and Third World model was once a popular way to describe countries in the scheme of global stratification. Its rankings were based on the economic system of the country (capitalist or socialist) and its method of government (democracy or communist). This model failed to be effective because some democratic nations are more socialist than capitalist, and even the United States has certain elements of socialism. It also infers that First World nations are “best.”
(2) The Developed, Developing, and Underdeveloped model, still used by some, has the same problem. It suggests a hierarchy of maturity, inferring that “developed” nations are highly superior to “underdeveloped” nations.
(3) The Most Industrialized, Industrializing, and Least Industrialized model is favored by the author because it is more neutral and accurate, judging nations on the three primary dimensions of social stratification—property, power, and prestige.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 197

Skill: Analysis

12) Why do the oil-rich countries of the Middle East fail to fit into the classifications of Most Industrialized or Industrializing?

Answer:   The oil-rich countries of the Middle East are not industrialized, but they are extremely wealthy. They purchase much modern machinery and other technologically advanced materials from the Most Industrialized countries, yet almost none of their citizens works at industrial jobs. If countries are classified based on the proportion of citizens that work in industry, the oil-rich countries would be erroneously classified as “Least Industrialized.” So, the author classifies them separately.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 199

Skill: Application

13) Why did President McKinley explain America’s conquest of the Philippines as being motivated by the desire to “educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them”?  How did this approach differ from the European reasons for colonialism?

 

Answer:   America was built on the concept of a democracy. To place other people under its rule, as the Europeans, did would be contrary to American ideals and make the U.S. look hypocritical. By offering these reasons, McKinley made America appear to be a “big brother” and not a conqueror. He also enlisted the support of Christian groups, political elites, and others. The ideology behind the annexation of the Philippines was in many ways similar to what the colonial landowners devised to justify slavery.  The Europeans’ purpose of colonialism, for the most part, was to establish economic colonies—to exploit the nation’s people and resources for the benefit of the “mother” country.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 201, 204

Skill: Evaluation

14) Describe the world system theory of stratification as developed by Immanuel Wallerstein.

Answer:   According to world system theory, industrialization led to four groups of nations:

(1) the core nations: those that were the first to industrialize and that grew rich and powerful, primarily located in Great Britain and western Europe;
(2) the semiperiphery nations: those economies that stagnated because of their dependence upon the core nations for trade, located mostly in the northern Mediterranean;
(3) the periphery nations: those that mainly sold cash crops to the core nations, mostly in central and Eastern Europe;
(4) the external area: including much of Africa and Asia, these nations were left out of the development of capitalism altogether; the current expansion of capitalism has changed the relationships among these groups. Most notably, eastern Europe and Asia are no longer left out of capitalism.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 202

Skill: Comprehension

 

7.5    Open Book Questions

1) Discuss how the ideology of slavery, as it has been practiced worldwide, has changed throughout history.

Answer:   In ancient times, slavery was based on war, crime, or debt. In the case of debt, slavery was not inheritable, did not extend to other members of the family, and did not last a lifetime. Slaves had certain rights and even prestige based on their social location. When slavery was adopted by the colonial landowners in 1619, it became associated with racism. A new ideology reasoned that slaves were inferior to white people, slavery was inheritable, and enslavement lasted a lifetime. Today, although it is officially banned, slavery continues on the Ivory Coast, and in Niger, Sudan, and Mauritania. Children are still used as slaves for work or sex in parts of Africa (particularly Sudan), Asia, and South America. Young boys are enslaved in the Middle East to race camels for citizens of the rich oil-producing nations, though the United Arab Emirates is acting to replace young boys with robots.

Diff: 2           Page Ref: 185-186

Skill: Comprehension

2) Ritual pollution, a concept important to caste systems, may at first seem foreign and offensive to us. But there are many contemporary examples of ritual pollution in our society. Hint: Think of direct or indirect contact with people or objects that has been discouraged, an avoidance that we justify by citing health or safety concerns.

Answer:   Contact between members of very different social classes is usually avoided in our society. Members of higher social classes typically avoid any physical contact with people who appear to be from the lowest social classes. They even avoid being close to them to escape what they may assume to be their offensive odors or germs. They may shun public restrooms to avoid indirect contact (by touching toilet seats, for example) with “lower-class” people. On another level, some people organize their lives to make sure no contact is made with individuals who are mentally ill, are sick or dying, have cancer, have HIV or AIDs, etc.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Synthesis

3) In Mass Media in Social Life, “What Price Freedom? Slavery Today,” the realities of slavery in Sudan and the efforts to buy slaves their freedom are described. Suggest alternative strategies that might be pursued by the citizens or the government of the United States to discourage slavery and free slaves in Sudan.

Answer:   Answers will vary. American citizens could bring pressure on politicians through letter-writing campaigns to intervene, or they could support organizations such as Amnesty International that expose human rights abuses to public view. Private aid agencies and the United States government could offer financial assistance to the Sudanese people in exchange for their abandonment of slavery in favor of other economic and occupational structures.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 187

Skill: Synthesis

4) How is the class system in the United States different from the caste system in India?

Answer:   The caste system in India is based on religion. Moreover, it was very rigid (impossible to move from one caste to another). The caste system limits people’s occupations, interactions, and relationships. The caste system is currently illegal. The U.S. class system is based on economics. There is more mobility in the class system. Individuals can change their social class based on what they achieve or fail to achieve in life. There are no laws that specify people’s occupations on the basis of birth or that prohibit marriage between classes.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 187-188

Skill: Synthesis

5) Apply Gaetano Mosca’s argument to explain stratification in the class you are taking and its relationship to the university’s overall hierarchical structure.

Answer:   Students should consider their class as a part of the university society. It would not exist unless the university was organized. It meets on a specific day(s) and at a specific time in a specific room with a professor who is expected to be there, teach a somewhat structured curriculum, and account for the demonstrated ability of the students. Because of leadership, there is an inequality of power. The professor is more powerful than the student. He or she sets the class procedure. The chair makes demands of the professor, even if it is against the wishes of the professor (such as teaching a class at an inconvenient time or teaching a large class instead of a smaller one). The chair reports to the dean, and so on up the ladder to the board of governors. If not for this power and structure base, students would walk into class whenever it was convenient for them, and take exams whenever it suited them. Professors might not show up, or might simply give students the test schedule and avoid meeting with students except for these dates. In essence, without power, society would be in chaos, including this class.

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 193

Skill: Application

6) Discuss the four ways that elites are able to maintain stratification in a democracy such as the United States. Why is the use of force inefficient in a democratic society?

Answer:   Regardless of the form of government, elites maintain stratification by controlling their society’s institutions, especially political powers, legal processes, law enforcement, and military forces that can be used to make laws and enforce them. Specifically, the four ways that elites maintain stratification include the control of ideas, the control of information, the control of technology, and the use of force.
(1) To control ideas, the elites develop ideologies that justify their positions at the top.
(2) To control information, the elites use the media to shape and censor certain aspects of the message that is released to the public.
(3) To control the new technology, especially through surveillance and monitoring devices, elites are allowed to observe citizens’ activities and communications without their knowledge.                                (4) The use of force in a democratic society is inefficient because people have access to a wide source of information from many sources. Members of a democratic society are also better educated than members of a dictatorship. In a democracy, the people have the power to replace lawmakers who they perceive as being a threat to their freedom. The use of force would not only be contradictory to living in a democracy, but it would also require such a degree of physical presence and violence, such a high number of troops, and such expense, that it would be totally impractical.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 194-195

Skill: Evaluation

7) How are the stratification systems in the United States, Great Britain, and the former Soviet Union similar and different? Why have the stratification systems in the United States and Great Britain endured for centuries, while the system in the old Soviet Union crumbled in about 75 years?

Answer:   In the United States, stratification is based primarily on wealth and material possessions; in Great Britain, it is based on language and education; and in the former Soviet Union, it was based on position in the Communist party. Both Great Britain and the United States have small groups of elites that control most of the wealth and power. In the former Soviet Union, the same type of small group controlled the nation. The system in Great Britain is based on tradition, which has served that nation’s needs as class has done in the United States, at least to a reasonable degree.  In the former Soviet Union, neither the Communist party nor the government served the needs of the people, which accounted for its eventual demise.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 195-197

Skill: Evaluation

8) The author makes an issue over the categorized names given to groups of countries, based on the degree to which they are “industrialized,” as opposed to “developed.” In what ways might industrialization be desirable, and in what ways might it be undesirable?

Answer:   Industrialization is associated with wealth, longer life, higher literacy rates, and better health and healthcare. On the other hand, industrialization is often accompanied by the same changes that are associated with the transition from traditional to nontraditional societies, including a loss of close, personal, multi-dimensional, trusting relationships among people.

Diff: 6           Page Ref: 197, 200

Skill: Evaluation

9) Why was the strategy used by the United States to dominate Central and South American countries considered more ethically acceptable than the colonial strategy used by European countries to dominate African and Middle Eastern countries?

Answer:   European colonialism involved outright military invasion and conquest. The economic domination used by the United States did not usually involve the U.S. military, but government-supported exploitation of other countries by privately owned businesses. The involvement of the U.S. government in this form of conquest and domination was less obvious and less forceful, making it more ethically acceptable, at least on the surface.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 201, 204

Skill: Synthesis

 

10) Thinking Critically, “When Globalization Comes Home: Maquiladoras South of the Border,” compares the low wages in assembly-for-export factories in Mexico to the wages earned by other Mexicans, citizens in other Latin American countries, and individuals in the United States. Why is this situation so difficult to correct?

Answer:   Answers will vary. Americans make as much as $30 an hour, some even more, for the same work performed by Mexicans in the maquiladoras. Mexican workers in the maquiladoras make $4 a day. Compared to what other Mexicans and many people in other Latin American countries make, this is a high salary.  If workers demand higher wages, the corporations simply move their factories to areas where the workers will accept lower wages. The overall problem involves very high levels of inequality among people in different countries and among people within the same country. If greater equality existed, corporations would have little incentive to relocate their factories, and workers would have more power in their relationships with employers.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 204-205

Skill: Analysis

 

7.6    Line Art Questions

1) After examining Table 7.1 “India’s Caste System,” develop a chart showing the caste-like system that existed in the South following the Civil War.

Answer:   Elements in the table might include the following:
(1) Capitalists—plantation owners and wealthy entrepreneurs, also teachers, clergy, and educated members of society;
(2) Managers—European Caucasians who manage plantations or factories for the capitalists;                  (3) Poor Whites—uneducated and lower-class European Caucasians who work fields and factories;
(4) Domestic Negroes—black Americans who were free prior to the Civil War and worked for wages;
(5) Free Negroes—former slaves who now work small plots of land given to them as a part of war reparations or for meager wages in factories;
(6) Carpetbaggers—northern Americans placed in power in the South as a result of the war; also token Negro leaders placed in positions of power.

Diff: 5           Page Ref: 186

Skill: Synthesis

2) Figure 7.2 “Weber’s Three Components of Social Class” demonstrates how property, prestige, and power, when addressed individually, can lead to the other two components of social class. Identify several occupations (or specific individuals) that are inconsistent in holding these components of social class.

Answer:   Answers will vary. Unionized trash collectors may have property, but they often lack both power and prestige. University professors usually have a significant level of prestige, but lack property (especially during the early years of their careers), and have only a limited amount of power, which would be the expertise in their field. Drug dealers will have property and may have power, but they lack what most of society would consider prestige. Organized crime figures (such as the late John Gotti) will have significant amounts of property as well as power, but lack prestige based on the most dominant societal values.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 191

Skill: Knowledge

3) In Table 7.3 “Distribution of the World’s Land and Population,” identify the significant characteristics for each level of the world’s nations.

Answer:   (1) Most Industrialized Nations: capitalistic, developed, possess 16 percent of the world’s people and 31 percent of the earth’s land, enormous wealth, strong international relations, world leaders;
(2) Industrializing Nations: communist and socialist countries, developing, lower incomes and standard of living, illiteracy, poverty, possess 16 percent of the world’s people and 20 percent of the earth’s land;
(3) Least Industrialized Nations: small farms and villages, large families, extreme poverty, day-to-day survival, limited resources, lack of government assistance, slavery, disease, short life span, possess 68 percent of the world’s people and 49 percent of the earth’s land.

Diff: 1           Page Ref: 197

Skill: Knowledge

 

 

 

 

 

 

4) Figure 7.3 “Global Stratification: Income of the World’s Nations” shows the classification of the nations of the world based on their level of industrialization or oil-producing status. After analyzing the nations simply by the color codes, what conclusions can be drawn based on the geographic location of the nations, and in some cases, their history?

Answer:   Many of the Least Industrialized Nations are in the equatorial belt or border it. This suggests that climate may have a bearing on the industrialization of a nation. In some cases, the nations are too arid to support agriculture or too humid for population growth. Many of the Least Industrialized Nations also served as colonies of the Most Industrialized Nations, or they had a significant influence that dominated their development. This would include the countries of Latin and South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia. It is also noteworthy that the Most Industrialized Nations developed in climates that were moderate. This may have been a stimulus to producing more food when the climate permitted it, as well as developing methods to cope with the climate when it presented problems associated with personal comfort and economic production.

Diff: 4           Page Ref: 197, 199

Skill: Analysis

 

7.7    Matching Questions

Skill: Knowledge

Match the term with the definition.

  1)  slavery

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 184

2)  ideology

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 185

3)  jati

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 186

4)  ablution

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 187

5)  social mobility

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 188

6)  class system

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 188

7)  bourgeoisie

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 189-190

8)  proletariat

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 189-190

9)  class consciousness

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 190

10) false class consciousness

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 190

11) power

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 190

12) prestige

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 191

13) meritocracy

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 192

14) divine right of kings

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 194

15) culture of poverty

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 206

A)  a way of life that perpetuates poverty from one generation to the next

B)  in a caste system, a washing ritual to restore purity when members of one caste come into contact with members of another caste

C)  Marx’s term for awareness of a common identity based on one’s position as related to the means of production

D)  Marx’s term for capitalists, those who own the means of production

E)  beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements

F)  a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material goods

G)  the ability to control others, even over their objections

H)  the belief that the king’s authority comes directly from God

I)  movement up or down the class ladder

J)  admiration of an individual or group based on social location or achievements

K)  some individuals own other people

L)      Marx’s term to refer to workers who identify with the interests of capitalists

M) Marx’s term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production

N)  subcastes of India’s four major castes that number about 3,000

O)  a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit

1) K; 2) E; 3) N; 4) B; 5) I; 6) F; 7) D; 8) M; 9) C; 10) L; 11) G; 12) J; 13) O; 14) H; 15) A