Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David -Test Bank

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Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior 3rd Edition by David -Test Bank

Chapter 6: Somatic and Dissociative Disorders

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A psychologist reviews a client’s records. “This individual’s issue is that a part of her consciousness—her memory—has split off from the rest of her consciousness, even though there is no evidence of brain damage.” The psychologist is describing a person with a(n) ____.
a. organic brain disorder
b. anxiety disorder
c. somatoform disorder
d. dissociative disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which of the following is indicative of a dissociative disorder?
a. motor or sensory symptoms incongruent with any neurological or medical disorder
b. a separation of part of a person’s consciousness or identity
c. falsifying symptoms of amnesia
d. the ability to only remember certain details of an incident

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. In a classroom presentation, Kato reports, “Dissociative disorders are nonpsychotic conditions in which people develop physical problems even though there is no physiological cause. They are very rare.” What error has Kato made?
a. Dissociative disorders do not involve physical problems.
b. Dissociative disorders are physiologically caused.
c. Dissociative disorders are psychotic conditions.
d. Dissociative disorders are very common.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Children and adolescents are rarely affected by the dissociative disorder known as ____.
a. depersonalization c. dissociative fugue
b. dissociative amnesia d. dissociative identity disorder

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders (table 6.5)

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The symptoms of dissociative disorders generally become known through ____.
a. clinical observation c. self-reports
b. complaints by a patient’s family members d. psychological testing

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which type of dissociative amnesia disorder is correctly paired with its chief characteristic?
a. generalized amnesia—partial loss of memory for a short period of time
b. localized amnesia—loss of all memory for a short period of time
c. systematized amnesia—inability to recall events between a specific time in the past and the present
d. selective amnesia—memory loss associated with fleeing a stressful event and developing a new identity

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which form of dissociative amnesia involves the inability to remember only certain details of an incident and is quite commonly claimed by individuals charged with homicide?
a. selective amnesia c. dissociative fugue
b. continuous amnesia d. localized amnesia

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Pedro has the most common form of dissociative amnesia. He was a witness to his father’s murder but has no memory of the event. This illustrates ____.
a. depersonalization c. localized amnesia
b. fugue d. generalized amnesia

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Jane Doe had total memory loss of her previous life. Even when her parents identified her when she appeared on television, she claimed she could not remember them as her parents. Jane illustrates ____.
a. dissociative amnesia c. selective amnesia
b. localized amnesia d. systematized amnesia

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Repressed memories that surface after many years, often within the context of therapy, are generally believed to involve ____.
a. overprotective, smothering parents
b. overwhelming or threatening trauma in childhood
c. excessive intellectual and tactile stimulation early in childhood
d. a childhood in which the family moved at least once a year

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Jerald wakes up in New Jersey, some four hundred miles from his home in New Hampshire. He cannot remember how he got there, and he has no memory of his former life. He establishes a new identity in New Jersey. This illustrates ____.
a. dissociative identity disorder c. depersonalization disorder
b. localized amnesia d. dissociative fugue

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Dante is a middle-aged man with a history of depression. Recently, he has been diagnosed with dissociative fugue. He adopts a completely new identity while staying in his hometown. His amnesia lasts only a short time. What aspect of this case is unusual for dissociative fugue?
a. It is unusual for depression to be associated with dissociative fugue.
b. It is unusual for fugue to involve a completely new identity.
c. It is unusual for people with fugue to remain in their hometown.
d. It is unusual for dissociative fugue to last only a short time.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Research by Pezdek, Blandon-Gitlin, and Gabbay (2006) on false memories points out that ____.
a. only plausible information can be planted in someone’s memory
b. parents or therapists can unintentionally plant or strengthen implausible memories
c. it is easier to plant implausible memories than plausible memories
d. it is almost impossible to plant false memories

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Are reports of formerly repressed memories authentic?
a. Research suggests that they are authentic in 80 to 90 percent of cases.
b. Research suggests that they are authentic in about half of all cases.
c. Research suggests that such memories are primarily the result of mass media reporting.
d. At this point in time, it is not clear how many cases of repressed memory are authentic.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Teresa has an intense and terrifying feeling that she is no longer real and that she is looking at herself and the world from a distance. These feelings have caused major impairments in her work and personal life The most likely diagnosis is ____.
a. dissociative amnesia c. somatoform disorder
b. dissociative identity disorder d. depersonalization disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Colleen has been diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. Which symptoms should be present?
a. Vague and diverse physical complaints such as nausea and headache
b. An inability to remember events just before and during a crisis
c. Travel to another town and the establishment of a new identity
d. Perceptions that her body and her environment are unreal

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Depersonalization disorder differs from other dissociative disorders in that it ____.
a. is caused by neurological damage
b. involves total loss of memory of one’s past
c. is the most common dissociative disorder
d. is rarely related to stressful events

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Caitlyn has been diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. We can presume that she would make which statement?
a. “I must be going crazy because it appears as if that my body is distorted and unreal.”
b. “I can remember going into the house when it was on fire, but I cannot remember getting out.”
c. “I found myself in a new city with a new identity and no recollection of who Caitlyn was.”
d. “I have strange feelings when people seem to know me but call me by the name Caitlyn; I don’t even know who they are talking about.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which statement about the validity of repressed memories is accurate?
a. Because hypnosis is often used, we can be fairly certain they are valid memories.
b. Determining the validity of memories dating from an early age is very difficult.
c. In almost every case, repressed memories of sexual abuse are fabricated.
d. Because people do not forget other traumatic events the memories must be repressed.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Maria, an adolescent with a history of sleepwalking, is diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). She was severely abused as a child and, in response, has developed three distinct personalities. She has no gaps in her memory. What aspect of Maria’s case is unusual for DID?
a. That she was severely abused as a child
b. That she has a history of sleepwalking
c. That she has more than two personalities
d. That she has no gaps in her memory

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Fleeting depersonalization episodes are more prevalent in ____.
a. young children c. college students
b. older adults d. artists

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which statement about the development of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is accurate?
a. Child abuse is frequently reported as the trigger for the disorder.
b. The start of the disorder is usually unrelated to family stresses.
c. The disorder usually cannot be detected until middle age.
d. Characteristics of individuals diagnosed with DID have remained stable over time.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The hypothesized origin of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is that it is ____.
a. due to a biochemical imbalance in neurotransmitters
b. a modeled reaction
c. a form of malingering
d. a defense against intensely painful experiences

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The post-traumatic model (PTM) of dissociative disorders is based on which perspective?
a. biological c. psychological
b. sociocultural d. behavioral

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Young asks these questions of a child: “Do you ever sort of space out? Does it ever happen that time goes by and you can’t remember what you were doing during that time? Do you ever do things that surprise you and you later stop and ask yourself why you did that?” What problem is Dr. Young investigating?
a. conversion disorder c. dissociation
b. somatization disorder d. panic disorder

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A friend of yours asks, “Isn’t it easy to tell when a person is faking the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder?” What would be an accurate answer?
a. “No, because there is no way to accurately determine the existence of multiple personalities.”
b. “Yes, you can give them personality tests, those can’t be faked.”
c. “Yes, diagnosis is usually done after hypnosis, when people are most truthful.”
d. “Yes, differences in EEG tracing prove who is showing a different personality and who is not.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. According to the sociocognitive model (SCM) of dissociative identity disorder (DID), the disorder develops ____.
a. as the result of extreme abuse in early childhood
b. as the result of unethical therapeutic practices
c. through a biological predisposition
d. by learning about from the mass media

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Hart is a psychoanalyst treating a patient with dissociative identity disorder. He will probably explain the loss of memory in his patient as being due to ____.
a. the attention the patient receives for being so forgetful
b. excessive id control and a lack of superego
c. equally weak ego and id
d. extreme repression in the face of intense anxiety

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Harvey is diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. His mother severely abused him from the time he was six years old. The first of his personalities developed around seven. According to his psychoanalyst, the development of separate personalities served the purpose of ____.
a. providing substitute significant others to replace an unacceptable parent
b. taking the pain of the abuse so that his core personality would survive
c. helping Harvey to remember his mother’s viciousness when he grew older
d. getting Harvey additional attention from family members

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A psychologist explains a disorder as follows. “The disorder develops because, in the face of overwhelming stress, the person has the capacity to dissociate and wall off the traumatic experience. This happens when there is no support in the family.” The psychologist probably holds a ____ perspective on ____.
a. behavioral; dissociative identity disorder
b. behavioral; somatoform disorder
c. psychodynamic; hypochondriasis
d. psychodynamic; dissociative identity disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. According to psychodynamically-oriented thinkers, traumatic events alone do not produce multiple personalities. There must also be a ____.
a. capacity to dissociate c. lack of id
b. lack of superego function d. model for this behavior

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Kim believes that increases in the frequency of diagnosing dissociative identity disorder have occurred because of iatrogenic effects. Which argument would Dr. Kim most likely use?
a. EEG patterns are consistently different when those diagnosed with the disorder experience different personalities.
b. Therapists tend to see the disorder as a way of escaping from unpleasant interpersonal situations.
c. Reports of child abuse cannot be influenced by instructions or expectations.
d. Most therapists who diagnose the disorder use hypnosis and other memory retrieval methods that rely on suggestion.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders (see figure 6.4)

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. What mental health problem is typically associated with both dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue?
a. depression c. schizophrenia
b. stress d. alcohol abuse

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Displays of multiple role enactments and social reinforcement are both key concepts in which explanation for dissociative disorders?
a. psychodynamic c. sociocognitive
b. family systems d. iatrogenic

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What is a particular concern when using hypnosis with clients who have dissociative disorders?
a. It may cause severe trauma for the client.
b. It may result in further repression of emotions and memories.
c. It may create personalities in suggestible clients.
d. It may uncover too many hidden personalities.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Abdullah’s new patient is diagnosed with dissociative fugue. Rather than doing in-depth psychotherapy, the doctor prescribes an antidepressant and provides emotional support. Why would Dr. Abdullah respond this way?
a. The doctor probably sees the condition as iatrogenic.
b. The doctor probably agrees with the psychodynamic perspective.
c. The doctor probably knows that dissociative fugue is a hopeless condition that is untreatable.
d. The doctor probably knows that dissociative fugue goes away spontaneously and that depression is the only significant treatable symptom.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which symptoms are often found in association with dissociative fugue and amnesia?
a. stress and depression c. hypochondriasis and phobia
b. conversion disorder and hysteria d. depression and mania

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The cognitive approach to treating depersonalization disorder would emphasize the use of ____.
a. hypnosis to uncover the unconscious conflicts that are responsible
b. focus on “normalizing” minor dissociative reactions and thoughts
c. antianxiety and antidepressant medication
d. systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling, and virtual reality

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Treatment of individuals with dissociative identity disorder tends to ____.
a. be completely successful
b. have little effect on the disorder
c. increase the risk of suicidality
d. reduce but not cure symptoms

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Newman used hypnosis to help Marianne return to her childhood and uncover a hidden trauma that might be causing her symptoms. Dr. Newman’s therapeutic orientation is probably ____.
a. humanistic/existential c. psychodynamic
b. cognitive d. behaviorist

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Donna is diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder. She can expect that her therapist will first address ____.
a. traumatic memories c. reintegration
b. final fusion d. safety issues

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. What is the final step in treating dissociative identity disorder (DID)?
a. fusing and completely integrating the individual personalities
b. integrating all personalities such that they work together
c. giving the client permission to see the personalities as different aspects his/her personality
d. having the client incorporate each personality appropriately into daily life

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Joshua is a rehabilitation counselor whose job is to help people with disabilities become employed in an appropriate occupation. Joshua is concerned that there has been an increase in the number of people feigning physical injuries in order to receive government disability payments. What concept best identifies Joshua’s concern?
a. factitious disorder c. moral anxiety
b. malingering d. collaborative empiricism

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which of the following is a somatic symptom disorder?
a. generalized anxiety disorder
b. dissociative identity disorder
c. functional neurological symptom disorder
d. depersonalization disorder

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A psychologist says, “We know it is a psychological disorder because there are cognitive distortions regarding the physical symptoms, which are not under voluntary control.” What is the psychologist describing?
a. a somatic symptom disorder c. alcoholism
b. an anxiety disorder d. a dissociative disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. What is the primary difference between factitious disorder and malingering?
a. The symptoms in factitious disorder may be deliberately induced while those in malingering are faked.
b. The symptoms in factitious disorder are not produced intentionally, whereas they are in malingering.
c. Both involve faking symptoms but those with factitious disorder are usually more successful than malingerers.
d. The feigning of symptoms in factitious disorder is motivated by economic gain, whereas the motivation in malingering is to get attention.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The chief difference between somatic symptom disorder and factitious disorders is whether the condition is ____.
a. a way of avoiding responsibility or not
b. iatrogenic or not
c. produced by the doctor’s treatment or not
d. deliberately inflicted or not

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Wanda fakes debilitating pain in hopes of receiving a large monetary award from an insurance company. Roberta experiences fever and pain because she has injected herself with bacteria. Wanda’s behavior illustrates ____; Roberta’s behavior illustrates ____.
a. malingering; somatoform disorder
b. malingering; factitious disorder
c. factitious disorder; malingering
d. factitious disorder; somatoform disorder

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. In the movie Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Ferris deliberately fakes his own headaches and stomach pains so that he could avoid going to school. Aside from his irresponsibility, Ferris would best be diagnosed as exhibiting ____.
a. factitious disorder
b. impulse control disorder
c. malingering
d. illness anxiety disorder

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Suppose you are the director of a mental health clinic in a neighborhood where many immigrants from India, China, and Korea live. You could expect that clients coming from these Asian backgrounds would ____.
a. feel that anyone with a somatic symptom disorder is morally weak
b. have almost no somatic symptom disorders
c. believe that any somatic complaints they have come from emotional stress
d. have physical complaints in reaction to stress

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which symptom is necessary for a diagnosis of illness anxiety disorder?
a. invention of physical issues for a purpose
b. a neurological symptom
c. concern with undetected physical illness
d. depression

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Bethany has spent the past ten years in and out of hospitals. She suffers from numerous physical complaints including severe hip, joint, leg, and head pain, and frequent bouts of diarrhea and bloating, and often reports breathing problems. Although numerous doctors and extensive tests revealed no physical problems, Bethany still reports vague symptoms of physical problems. Her problems would best fit a diagnosis of ____.
a. premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
b. somatic symptom disorder
c. illness anxiety disorder
d. body dysmorphic disorder

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Worldwide, the most common forms of somatic symptom disorder symptoms are ____.
a. gastrointestinal complaints and abnormal skin sensations
b. menstrual and abdominal pains
c. abdominal and chest pains
d. body odor and kidney weakness

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Marge has gone to doctors with more than twenty different somatic complaints in the past year and has had surgery four times. She has few anxiety or depressive symptoms, but doctors never satisfy her when they say, “There’s nothing wrong with you physically.” What is unusual about this patient?
a. People with somatic symptom disorders rarely shop around for doctors.
b. People with somatic symptom disorders usually show only one physical complaint.
c. Somatic symptom disorder often includes depression and anxiety.
d. Somatic symptom disorder affects mostly males.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which statement about somatic symptom disorder is accurate?
a. It is a form of dissociative disorder that is typically associated with poor outcomes.
b. It is rarely associated with anxiety, depression, or other psychiatric disorders.
c. It is relatively rare, having a prevalence of only up to 7% of the population.
d. It is more prevalent among educated individuals than among uneducated ones.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

  1. Tulugaq, an Inuit, experiences dissociative-like episodes that are accompanied by extreme excitement. He often performs aggressive and dangerous acts, although he does not remember them. One of his recent episodes was followed by convulsions and he went into a coma for two days. Tulugaq suffers from ____.
a. zar c. piblokto
b. brain fag d. dhat

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Monica complains of chest and head pains, amnesia, nausea, and sexual problems. She goes from doctor to doctor, but none can find a physical cause for her complaints. Stephen suddenly becomes blind one day shortly after his boss gives him several stressful deadlines. There is no physiological explanation for his blindness. Monica best illustrates ____, whereas Stephen best illustrates ____.
a. functional neurological symptom disorder; factitious disorder
b. complex somatic symptom disorder with somatization features; illness anxiety disorder
c. illness anxiety disorder; factitious disorder
d. somatic symptom disorder; functional neurological symptom disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Anita’s parents are from India and continue to follow the traditions of that country. Her parents have matched a husband for her, and she is to be married in two weeks. One morning, however, Anita wakes up paralyzed, and has no use of her legs. A thorough medical examination can find nothing physically wrong that would account for Anita’s paralysis. Anita would most likely be diagnosed with ____.
a. illness anxiety disorder
b. factitious disorder
c. malingering
d. functional neurological symptom disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which individual has symptoms that most likely indicate a possible functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder)?
a. Joan, who says her legs have been paralyzed for six months but who shows no muscle atrophy
b. Keith, who goes from doctor to doctor complaining of pains and symptoms in many different parts of his body
c. Lilly, who constantly thinks about the size of her ears and wants plastic surgery to reconstruct them
d. Wes, who has had backaches that have gone on longer than his doctor thinks is reasonable

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. As Will approaches the witness stand, he stops and clutches his throat. He has to leave the courtroom because he is unable to speak. If he has no other symptoms, his condition might be diagnosed as ____.
a. dissociative fugue
b. factitious disorder
c. agoraphobia
d. functional neurological symptom disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Paralysis, anesthesia, and impairment in sight or hearing are common complaints in ____.
a. illness anxiety disorder
b. functional neurological symptom disorder
c. dissociative pain disorder
d. somatic symptom disorder

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Because glove anesthesia does not correspond to the distribution of nerve pathways in the body, it leads to a diagnosis of ____.
a. functional neurological symptom disorder
b. body dysmorphic disorder
c. complex somatic symptom disorder
d. psychogenic pain

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Yassir has been under great stress at work. He tells his doctor that he cannot feel his hand from his wrist to his fingertips. He says it is as though all the feeling in the nerves has been cut off at the wrist. The doctor, knowing how nerves are distributed, will probably see Yassir as having ____.
a. somatic symptom disorder with pain features
b. functional neurological symptom disorder
c. factitious disorder imposed on another
d. illness anxiety disorder

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Sharon frequently causes diarrhea in her three-year-old daughter by feeding her spoiled milk and rotten eggs. When the child is repeatedly hospitalized, Sharon acts like a very worried and caring mother. Because Sharon is not playing the sick role and receives no obvious reward for her behavior, the most appropriate diagnosis is ____.
a. complex somatic symptom disorder with somatization features
b. factitious disorder
c. factitious disorder imposed on another
d. malingering

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Barbie has complained of an unexplained illness for several years. She has had many painful and high-risk surgeries and other treatments, which she has willingly undergone. In fact, she seems to enjoy playing the “sick role.” She gets extremely angry when anyone questions whether she really has an actual physical problem. These symptoms suggest that Barbie suffers from ____.
a. malingering
b. somatic symptom disorder
c. factitious disorder
d. illness anxiety disorder

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Pain is to ____ as paralysis and absence of pain are to ____.
a. functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder); somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain (pain disorder)
b. functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder); illness anxiety disorder
c. somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain (pain disorder); functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder)
d. somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain (pain disorder); illness anxiety disorder

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Barbara is in a car accident and experiences neck pain immediately afterward. Doctors say that any injury to her neck will heal within two weeks of the accident. Nine months later, Barbara begins to visit her doctor weekly, saying the pain is still unbearable and she needs stronger pain medication. What is a reasonable diagnosis?
a. somatic symptom disorder with somatization features
b. depersonalization disorder
c. illness anxiety disorder
d. somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain (pain disorder)

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. “A chronic pattern (at least 6 months) of preoccupation with having or contracting a serious illness despite having minimal or no somatic symptoms” is a definition of ____.
a. functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder)
b. depersonalization disorder
c. illness anxiety disorder
d. body dysmorphic disorder

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Mrs. Klinger has a ten-year history of fearing a heart attack, although no doctor has found anything wrong with her heart. She frequently calls emergency services and lies in bed most days worrying that she will have a coronary. Mrs. Klinger suffers from ____.
a. complex somatic symptom disorder with pain features (pain disorder)
b. functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder)
c. factitious disorder imposed on self
d. illness anxiety disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Mr. Able is diagnosed with illness anxiety disorder, while Mr. Baker is diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder. How will their symptoms be different?
a. Mr. Able will fear he has an undetected fatal illness; Mr. Baker will have many vague physical complaints.
b. Mr. Able will have complaints about his body; Mr. Baker will not.
c. Mr. Able will not have any physical complaints; Mr. Baker will fear that he has cancer or a form of heart disease.
d. Mr. Able will claim that he cannot see or walk; Mr. Baker will fear that he has an undetected fatal illness.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Suppose we interviewed fifty people with illness anxiety disorder. Which quote do you expect we would hear most often?
a. “My doctor is very accurate with her diagnoses.”
b. “I can notice even the slightest changes in my body.”
c. “I know that even when I am sick, nothing terrible is going to happen.”
d. “I know I have some kind of illness, but I haven’t been to see a doctor in years.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Dissociative fugue is best described as ____.
a. a generalized amnesia for one’s identity and life history that may be accompanied by bewildered wandering or purposeless travel
b. lack of memory for a specific event or events
c. a condition in which two or more independent personality states appear to exist in one person
d. feelings of unreality concerning the self and the environment that are extremely distressing ti the individual

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which statement about dissociative amnesia is accurate?
a. It is has a sudden onset associates with stress or trauma.
b. Its onset is always slow and progressive.
c. It begins to develop in early childhood.
d. It only remits with psychodynamic therapy.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A psychologist discusses a patient with illness anxiety disorder this way: “She focuses on her health so that she can be protected from the anxiety her underlying conflicts cause. Then, when she is shown attention and sympathy, her dependency needs are met.” This psychologist ____.
a. probably agrees with the behavioral perspective
b. takes a diathesis-stress approach to illness anxiety disorder
c. is discussing primary and secondary gain
d. probably rejects the psychoanalytic perspective

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Reinforcement of illness behaviors and parental modeling of how to act sick are both etiological factors in which theory of functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder)?
a. biogenic c. psychodynamic
b. family systems d. cognitive-behavioral

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Krank says, “Patients who continually report being in pain have a higher-than-normal sensitivity level.” Dr. Krank’s explanation of somatic symptom disorder reflects which perspective?
a. psychodynamic c. sociocultural
b. biological d. cognitive-behavioral

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Research has found that Asian Americans often react to stress by ____.
a. becoming irritable
b. developing physical complaints
c. withdrawing
d. redirecting their energies into school or work

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

  1. Evidence supporting the biological perspective on patients with illness anxiety disorder includes research showing they ____.
a. are more sensitive than others to bodily sensations
b. have neurotransmitter imbalances
c. have lower arousal levels than others
d. have lower heartbeats than others when stressed

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The biological perspective on somatic symptom disorder emphasizes which difference in these patients?
a. They perceive mild body changes more acutely.
b. They have experienced more stress in early childhood.
c. They are unable to learn from punishment.
d. They are exposed to parents who model how to act sick.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Angel has been prescribed an SSRI to help her cope with complex somatic symptom disorder. The medication is most likely to help Angel with ____.
a. her pain c. revising her distorted self-perception
b. articulating her ailments d. her depression

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A particularly promising treatment for somatic symptom disorders involves which approach?
a. biological c. cognitive-behavioral
b. psychobiodynamic d. sociocultural

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Bar-Illan wants to overcome his negative reactions toward his clients with a somatic symptom disorder. Which quality should he develop?
a. sympathy c. empathy
b. patience d. insight

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. From a social perspective, somatic complaints reflect ____.
a. unsatisfying or inadequate social relationships
b. frustration and anger
c. unconscious conflicts
d. cognitive distortions

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which therapists educate their patients about the relationship between misinterpreted bodily sensations and selective attention to topics of illness for treatment of illness anxiety disorder?
a. cognitive-behaviorists c. humanists
b. family systems d. psychoanalysts

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The approaches that are particularly effective in treating somatic symptom disorders are ____.
a. relaxation training, psychoeducation, and changing cognitions
b. flooding, modeling, and drug therapy
c. hypnotherapy, drug therapy, and changing cognitions
d. systematic desensitization, cognitive therapy, and exposure

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. The class of drugs that appears to be most effective with patients that have a complex somatic symptom disorder is ____.
a. benzodiazepines c. SSRIs
b. tricyclic antidepressants d. stimulants

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

  1. When clients learn to experience and observe their problematic thoughts and symptoms without judgment or emotion, and without reacting to them, they are undergoing which form of therapy?
  2. biological therapy
  3. psychodynamic therapy
  4. behavioral therapy
  5. mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

 

ANS: D REF: Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.          KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which form of amnesia is characterized by an inability to recall any events that occur between a specific time in the past and the present time?
  2. continuous amnesia
  3. systematized amnesia
  4. selective amnesia
  5. localized amnesia

 

ANS: A REF: Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:    UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Some individuals who have experienced several fugue episodes decide to ____in the event of a future occurrence.
  2. keep maps handy
  3. wear personal identification
  4. register with a national database
  5. alert their friends and family

 

ANS: B REF: Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:    UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dissociative identity disorder can involve an experience of ____, in which the person’s sense of personal identity is replaced by a supernatural presence.
  2. depersonalization
  3. derealization
  4. possession
  5. spiritual identification

 

ANS: C REF: Dissociative Disorders

OBJ:    UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.

KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. What form does the dissociation take in depersonalization disorder, dissociative amnesia, and dissociative identity disorder? What are the major differences in the symptoms and prospects for recovery in these three disorders?

 

ANS:

People who have depersonalization disorder feel that they or the world has become unreal. These feelings cause significant impairment in their ability to work and get along with other people. Altered perceptions are also likely, such as thinking that one’s body is distorted. The dissociation is in the individual’s sense of self and relationship to the outside world; normal consciousness about what is real or dream and how we look or feel is lost. Memory loss is the fundamental symptom of dissociative amnesia. Whether it is recall of whole events (localized) or portions of them (selective), the individual deals with a stressful experience by splitting off his or her memory of it. In dissociative identity disorder, there is a more complete splitting off of memories. Not only does the person have no recollection of traumatic events in the past, but also different personalities come to inhabit the body at different times, and only those personalities have access to event-related memories. Therefore, the dissociation, as the name implies, is more than about mere recall; it is about identity. In all cases, there is a form of splitting off of portions of consciousness in these disorders, but depersonalization and amnesia are more likely to be time- and stress-limited conditions than is dissociative identity disorder. Once the precipitating stressor is over and the person can return to normal means of coping, depersonalization and amnesia typically spontaneously remit. The person with dissociative identity disorder, however, has developed a well-established coping mechanism and may harbor deep-seated conflicts that do not allow for easy resolution. Furthermore, it can be argued that dissociative identity disorder can be quite adaptive, allowing the person to function in parts better than might occur in an integrated whole. Treatment outcomes for dissociative identity disorder are generally poorer than for the other two dissociative disorders.

 

REF:   Dissociative Disorders                    OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.6.2 Describe dissociations, why they occur, and how they are treated.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

 

  1. Describe the features of somatic symptom disorder, factitious disorders, and malingering, delineating how the three can be differentiated from one another.

 

ANS:

Somatic symptom disorder involves physical symptoms for which, based on current knowledge of physical functioning, there is no adequate explanation. Somatic symptom disorder is considered unintentional because persons with this disorder are not deliberately faking their physical symptoms. Factitious disorders also involve the presence of physical symptoms for which there is no apparent medical cause, but the symptoms are produced intentionally or faked. The motivation for the feigning of physical symptoms is the desire to assume the “sick role.” Complex psychological variables are assumed to be involved with factitious disorders, and the individual is usually unaware of the motivation for the behavior. Additionally, simulation of illness is induced with no apparent incentive other than attention from medical personnel or others. Malingering involves is faking a disorder with physical symptoms. In malingering, the physical symptoms are faked, but the motivation is for external incentives, such as economic gain or the avoidance of work or legal responsibilities.

 

REF:   Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:    UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.      KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Describe the psychological approaches to the treatment of somatic symptom and related disorders.

 

Treatment for SSD and related disorders focuses primarily on understanding the client’s view of his or her problem. Individuals with somatic symptom, illness anxiety, and conversion disorders are often frustrated, disappointed, and angry following years of encounters with the medical profession. They believe that treatment strategies have been ineffective and resent the implication that they are “fakers” or “problem patients” (Frohm & Beehler, 2010). Medical personnel have been found to show negative reactions when interacting with individuals with these disorders (P. G. Williams et al., 2010). A newer approach to treating SSD and illness anxiety disorder involves demonstrating empathy regarding the physical complaints, accepting them as genuine, and providing information about symptoms that are often stress-related such as hypertension and headaches (Marshall et al., 2013).

 

Many patients with somatic symptom and health anxiety disorders have cognitive distortions, such as a conviction that they are especially vulnerable to disease. In these cases, cognitive-behavioral approaches focused on correcting these misinterpretations have been successful. In one program, individuals with illness anxiety disorder who feared having cancer, heart disease, or other fatal illnesses were educated about the relationship between misinterpretations of bodily sensations and selective attention to illness themes. Six 2-hour group sessions covered topics such as “What Is Illness Anxiety?” “The Role of Your Thoughts,” “Bodily Attention and Illness Anxiety,” “Stress and Bodily Symptoms,” and “Your Own Vicious Cycle.” As homework, participants monitored and challenged illnessrelated anxiety thoughts. After completing these sessions, most participants showed considerable improvement or no longer met the criteria for the disorder (Hiller, Leibbrand, Rief, & Fichter, 2002). A similar cognitive-behavioral program also led to marked reductions in somatic symptoms and illness concerns in individuals with SSD (Schröder et al., 2012).

 

Because individuals with SSD often show a fear of internal bodily sensations, cognitive-behavioral therapists include exposure to bodily sensations during treatment. Therapists ask clients to perform activities that typically trigger anxiety symptoms, such as breathing through a straw, hyperventilating, spinning, or climbing stairs, until feared reactions such as light-headedness, chest discomfort, or increased heart rate occur. The activities are repeated until the bodily sensations no longer elicit anxiety or fear (Flink, Nicholas, Boersma, & Linton, 2009). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is another approach that can lower anxiety in those with SSD. Clients learn to experience and observe their problematic thoughts and symptoms without judgment or emotion, and without reacting to them. Instead of responding with fear and anxiety, the individual merely observes and reflects on thoughts and physical reactions. This process weakens the connection between emotional arousal and physical symptoms or distressing thoughts and has been effective in treating somatic symptom and illness anxiety disorders (Blacker, Herbert, Forman, & Kounios, 2012; McManus, Surawy, Muse, Vazquez- Montes, & Williams, 2012).

 

REF: Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

OBJ:    UABB.SUES.17.6.1 Explain what somatic symptom and related disorders have in common and describe the causes and treatments of these conditions.      KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

Chapter 7: Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which type of disorders are characterized by intense sadness or loss of interest in activities that would normally be pleasant?
a. personality disorders
b. emotional disorders
c. depressive disorders
d. anxiety disorders

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The two primary aspects of bipolar disorders are ____, which is characterized by intense sadness, and ____, which is characterized by elevated mood and often results in hyperactivity.
a. mania; anxiety c. depression; anxiety
b. mania; depression d. depression; mania

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. The director of a new mental health center is planning to provide treatment for a disorder that is the most common complaint for those who seek mental health care, and the second leading cause of disability worldwide. That disorder is ____.
a. depression c. anxiety
b. manic depression d. hyperactivity

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Valentine has had two episodes of depression during the winter. During the summer, she does not have any occurrences. She would likely be diagnosed with ____.
a. seasonal depression c. anxious distress
b. manic episodes d. persistent depressive disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Jill has had one episode of major depression with no history of mania or hypomania. What could she be diagnosed with?
a. persistent depressive disorder c. major depressive disorder
b. premenstrual dysphoric disorder d. anxious distress

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A young woman cannot stop thinking about how hopeless her life is. No matter how much she tries to think about other things, all she can think about is what has gone wrong. This woman is engaging in ____.
a. hypomania c. rumination
b. expansive mood d. psychosis

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Shelly is pessimistic about her future. Her disinterest in everything around her, together with her loss of energy and motivation, make it difficult for her to cope with even the most minor of daily events. These symptoms demonstrate which domain of depression?
a. cognitive c. behavioral
b. affective d. physiological

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Professor Wong tells her class that there are four symptom domains that are used to describe depression. These domains include emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and ____.
a. sociological c. psychoanalytical
b. physiological d. vocational

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Khalil has been losing weight because he has no interest in eating. He also complains of constipation. Furthermore, he has difficulty falling asleep and then wakes up several times during the night, often because of nightmares. Khalil is experiencing which symptoms of depression?
a. affective c. cognitive
b. behavioral d. physiological

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Lucy feels worthless and extremely sad. She has had crying spells that do not stem from any particular event. Life seems uninteresting and colorless. Lucy’s symptoms illustrate the ____.
a. emotional symptoms of depression c. cognitive symptoms of mania
b. behavioral symptoms of depression d. physiological symptoms of depression

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The emotional symptoms of depression include ____.
a. slowed speech and action
b. thoughts of suicide
c. an inability to sleep
d. feelings of worthlessness

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The most common lingering symptoms of depression include _____.
a. suicidality
b. poor concentration
c. feelings of worthlessness
d. significant weight change

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The cognitive symptoms of depression include ____.
a. feelings of sadness, dejection, worthlessness, apathy, and crying spells
b. social withdrawal, low energy, psychomotor retardation, and agitation
c. appetite and weight changes, constipation, and sleep disturbances
d. pessimism, guilt, and loss of interest and motivation

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Harold says, “I cry for hours and feel a profound sense of loss. I experience no joy, but I can still see a positive future for myself. I know I am competent; I just feel very sad all the time.” If Harold is experiencing depression, he illustrates ____.
a. none of the cognitive signs but many of the emotional ones
b. most of the cognitive and emotional signs
c. most of the behavioral signs but none of the emotional ones
d. none of the emotional signs but many of the cognitive ones

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A psychologist describes a patient as showing certain cognitive symptoms associated with depressive reactions. Which patient is being described?
a. Rachel, who is apathetic, anxious, and socially withdrawn
b. Megan, who has a negative view of herself and her future
c. Kate, who is crying, easily fatigued, and moves very slowly
d. Wendy, who has gastrointestinal problems, and aches and pains

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. What is a behavioral symptom of depression?
a. slowing down all body movements and speech
b. becoming more and more involved with other people’s problems
c. having trouble getting to sleep but feeling full of energy
d. having thoughts of suicide

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What behavior is most characteristic of someone diagnosed with depression?
a. increased activity level
b. racing thoughts
c. social withdrawal
d. impulsivity

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Ralph has lost twenty pounds since he was fired from his job. He either cannot get to sleep or wakes up early and is exhausted the next day. These facts illustrate which symptoms of depression?
a. cognitive c. behavioral
b. emotional d. physiological

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which of the following is a physiological symptom of depression?
a. lowered productivity
b. poor hygiene
c. anhedonia
d. appetite and weight changes

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Artie changes topics mid-sentence and his rapid loud speech is difficult to understand. Artie is exhibiting which category of bipolar symptoms?
a. emotional c. cognitive
b. behavioral d. physiological

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Unlike depression, in mania, ____.
a. the mood is elevated, expansive, or irritable
b. mood changes occur without any changes in behavior
c. the mood remains normal, while the cognitive and behavioral symptoms change
d. mood changes do not affect social or occupational functioning

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which individual best illustrates the symptoms of mania?
a. Jim, who has suddenly developed an aversion to sexual activity
b. Paul, who has boundless energy and becomes angered when frustrated
c. Alice, who is highly anxious about future events
d. Esther, whose energy level is so low that she has become withdrawn from other people

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which term is correctly paired with its definition?
a. Hypomania is when a person is beginning to feel depressed.
b. Mania is when a person is “high” but totally coherent.
c. Hypomania involves increased levels of activity combined with an expansive mood.
d. Mania is a less severe form of the disorder than hypomania.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. For the past several weeks, Ian’s thinking races from one idea to the next, and he cannot stay focused on any one idea. He feels pressure to keep on talking, feels a decreased need for sleep, and has been arrested for harassing pedestrians on the street. Of the following, what diagnosis would Ian most likely be given?
a. bipolar disorder c. cyclothymic disorder
b. unipolar depression d. dysthymic disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Winnie exhibits the essential feature of bipolar disorder, which is ____.
a. depressed mood
b. chronic fatigue
c. changing moods from happy to serious
d. one or more manic or hypomanic episodes

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Romeo is grandiose in his thinking, incoherent in his speech, and so hyperactive he has hardly sat down in the past week. DeJuan is overactive and elated, starting projects but not completing them. However, he shows neither delusions nor incoherence in his speech. According to the DSM-5, ____
a. Romeo illustrates the hypomanic state, and DeJuan the manic state.
b. Romeo and DeJuan both illustrate the manic state.
c. Romeo and DeJuan both illustrate the hypomanic state.
d. Romeo illustrates the manic state, and DeJuan the hypomanic state.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. In the DSM-5, depressive disorders are divided into which three major subcategories?
a. major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder
b. major depressive disorder, seasonal depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder
c. mild depression, moderate depression, and severe depression
d. major depression, cyclothymic disorder, and dysthymic disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Taylor is diagnosed with major depressive disorder. One thing we are sure of is that he ____.
a. will never have another episode of depression after this one
b. is likely to have hallucinations
c. does not alternate between depression and mania
d. swings from extremely low energy to very high energy

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Based on cross-cultural research, which individual has the lowest risk of developing depression?
a. Sam, a middle-aged white gay man
b. Juan, a 20-year-old Hispanic college student
c. Monica, a 25-year-old Native American
d. Sharona, a 45-year-old white divorcee

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Shauna experienced three different major depressive episodes, each of which occurred during the fall or winter. She was unable to care for herself, and did not eat much. These symptoms suggest that Shauna is likely to have experienced which depressive disorder?
a. premenstrual dysphoric disorder c. seasonal depression
b. persistent depressive disorder d. pure dysthymic syndrome

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Brianna has always been pessimistic. For the past three years, on most days she feels tired, guilty, and unable to concentrate. However, her eating, sleeping, and daily functioning have not been impaired. This chronic depressed state best illustrates ____.
a. anxious distress c. premenstrual dysphoric disorder
b. MDD with a seasonal pattern d. persistent depressive disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. For an event to qualify as a manic episode, the DSM-5 says that ____.
a. the state must last for at least one week
b. there must also be a depressive episode
c. there must be an elevated mood that does not impair functioning
d. the state must last for two months

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           MSC:              actual

 

  1. Ronnie has recurrent major depressive episodes that alternate with hypomania. According to the DSM-5, Ronnie should be diagnosed with ____.
a. bipolar I
b. bipolar II
c. cyclothymia
d. major depressive disorder not otherwise specified

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. To decide whether a person should be diagnosed as bipolar I or bipolar II, a diagnostician must ask, ____.
a. “Have any of your close relatives ever had this problem?”
b. “Have you taken any medication for your moods?”
c. “Have you had a history of manic episodes?”
d. “Have you ever guilty about your disorder?”

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Nathan has a seven-year history of mild mood swings. When he is “high,” he is coherent; when he is “low,” he is never suicidal or unable to function. What is the best diagnosis for Nathan?
a. cyclothymic disorder c. major depressive disorder, mixed
b. bipolar disorder, mixed d. dysthymic disorder

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which disorder may include psychotic features?
a. cyclothymic disorder
b. bipolar I disorder
c. bipolar II disorder
d. dysthymic disorder

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Bipolar disorder is to ____ disorder as major depression is to ____ disorder.
a. dysthymic; cyclothymic c. cyclothymic; dysthymic
b. cyclothymic; anxiety d. psychotic; neurotic

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

KEY: Analyze

 

  1. Gertrude has read an article in her local newspaper about “depressed cities” and “happy cities.” She sees that the city where she lives is number one on the “depressed cities” list, and decides to move near her daughter, who lives in the number one “happy city.” Gertrude will move from ____ to ____.
a. Seattle, WA; Honolulu, HI c. Tampa, FL; Louisville, KY
b. Detroit, MI; Miami Beach, FL d. St. Petersburg, FL; Honolulu, HI

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Rochelle suffers from bipolar II disorder and Elaine suffers from cyclothymic disorder. Which statement best describes the reasons that one of these women is more likely than the other to miss work due to her illness?
a. Because of her more severe lack of energy and inability to focus, Elaine will miss more work than Rochelle.
b. Because her depressive episodes are more severe and more persistent than Elaine’s, Rochelle will miss more work.
c. Because her depressive episodes are more severe and more persistent than Rochelle’s, Elaine will miss more work.
d. Their severe and persistent episodes of depression will result in both Rochelle and Elaine missing about the same amount of work.

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. The two extremes of mood on opposite ends of a continuum are ____ and ____.
a. hypomania and depression
b. mania and hypomania
c. depression and mania
d. depression and cyclothymia

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Mrs. Smyth is diagnosed with depression because she has lost weight, expresses excessive guilt, and ruminates a lot. She does still enjoy listening to music and working in her garden. Which symptom listed would NOT be consistent with the diagnosis of depression?
a. weight loss c. rumination
b. enjoying music and gardening d. excessive guilt

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which type of study supports the contribution of genetic factors to bipolar disorder?
a. laboratory study c. animal study
b. twin study d. sociocultural study

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Greta’s psychiatrist advises her to buy bright lights, which are to be turned on in the early morning hours of winter days to reduce her problem with depression. We can guess that Greta’s problem is ____.
a. dysthymia due to a medical condition c. postpartum onset
b. seasonal depression d. rapid-cycling bipolar disorder

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which statement about bipolar and depressive disorders is accurate?
a. There is stronger evidence of genetic influence for depressive disorders than for bipolar disorders.
b. The age of onset is typically earlier for depressive disorders than for bipolar disorders.
c. There are circadian rhythm abnormalities present in both depressive disorders and bipolar disorders.
d. Bipolar disorder is more common among females while depression is more common among men.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders | Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Studies on bipolar disorders suggest that ____.
a. they are more common than depressive disorders
b. they often coexist with other mental disorders
c. men are more likely than women to suffer from bipolar II disorder
d. there is very little risk of suicide

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Dr. DeVille thinks that depression occurs when people receive insufficient social reinforcement. We can guess that Dr. DeVille supports which perspective on depression?
a. biological c. psychodynamic
b. behavioral d. sociocultural

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Dr. McGuire is a behaviorist who sees separation and loss as important issues in depression, and ____.
a. sees loss in terms of a reduced chance for reinforcement
b. highlights how sympathy towards the grieving person aids in recovery
c. sees loss as changing the hormonal balance within the depressive’s body
d. highlights the symbolic nature of loss

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Diagnosis rates for bipolar disorders have been found to be up to ____ percent for identical twins.
a. 100 c. 48
b. 72 d. 14

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. What is a key concept in the behavioral explanation of depression?
a. incomplete mourning and unexpressed anger
b. irrational thinking and poor logic
c. few reinforcers and poor social skills
d. lack of imagination and self-absorption

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which statement best mirrors Lewinsohn’s view of depression?
a. “The depressed person has a low self-concept that is made worse by poor family supports, but more important are the person’s neurotransmitter imbalances.”
b. “Low rates of positive reinforcements are crucial, but prior level of stress and the person’s loss of self-confidence lead to an increased vulnerability to depression.”
c. “Classically conditioned depression is combined with modeling of other depressed individuals until depression becomes almost contagious.”
d. “In addition to the stressors the person suffers, we must look at the unconscious conflicts that bubble to the surface.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which treatment involves creating routines in day-to-day life and has been effective in reducing relapse of bipolar disorder?
a. social rhythm therapy c. family-focused therapy
b. psychoeducation d. cognitive-behavioral therapy

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Dr. Lublin attributes depression to errors in thinking that result in pessimism, negative views of self, and feelings of hopelessness. Dr. Lublin is which kind of therapist?
a. cognitive c. behavioral
b. humanistic d. psychodynamic

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Negative thoughts, low self-esteem, and errors in thinking are all concepts central to which theory of depression?
a. biological c. operant
b. cognitive d. psychodynamic

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which statement best illustrates Beck’s explanation of depression?
a. “Depression is primarily a problem in thinking.”
b. “Depression is related to lack of reinforcement”
c. “Depressives use internal and global causal attributions for negative events.”
d. “Depressives accurately appreciate the brutality of life.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which situation best illustrates Beck’s concept of overgeneralization in depressives?
a. When it rains on the day of the picnic, the host feels he should have scheduled it for another day.
b. When feeling great anger at his mother, a boy wonders what is wrong with her.
c. When a girl is complimented on her hair, she assumes that the person who complimented her was just showing pity for her.
d. A man burns the toast one morning at breakfast and concludes that he is a worthless father and husband.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Professor Solomon is investigating the differences between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. Based on the criteria in DSM-5, what will she conclude?
a. There is at least one manic episode in bipolar II, but not in bipolar I.
b. A diagnosis of Bipolar II does not need a depressive episode.
c. A diagnosis of Bipolar I may include psychotic symptoms.
d. There are no clear differences between the two disorders.

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. John has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Consistent with neuroimaging studies, we would expect that John will ____.
a. have increased brain activation in regulating emotions
b. have reduced gray matter
c. become less emotionally responsive
d. show increases in gray matter

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Moods disorders differ from temporary emotional reactions to life events because they ____.
a. have an impact in only one aspect of a person’s life
b. do not persist over an extended period of time
c. only occur for specific reasons
d. involve extreme reactions

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.                 KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A person who believes that his or her behavior has little effect on the environment and who becomes passive and depressed illustrates which perspective on depression?
a. Beck’s low self-esteem c. Lewinsohn’s operant
b. Seligman’s learned helplessness d. Freud’s psychodynamic

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which quote best illustrates what Seligman means by learned helplessness?
a. “Nothing I do will ever improve my situation.”
b. “Everyone can perform well except for me.”
c. “I can’t remember anything good ever happening to me.”
d. “Many of the stresses in my life I brought on myself.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. In therapy, a psychologist tries to convince a depressed woman that her actions do affect the environment and that even though uncontrollable events happened in the past, they need not happen again. This therapist is making use of principles from ____.
a. psychodynamic theory c. the biogenic theory of depression
b. learned helplessness theory d. the cognitive triad

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. The basic assumption of Seligman’s explanation for depression is that ____.
a. both cognitions and feelings of helplessness are learned and that depression results from learned helplessness
b. cognitions and but not feelings of helplessness are learned and that depression results from learned helplessness
c. feelings but not cognitions of helplessness are learned and that depression results from learned helplessness
d. high levels of negative cognitions coupled with stress results in depression

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. All of the following people were unsuccessful in getting a job after undergoing three interviews. Which person’s thinking illustrates the depressive attributional style?
a. Esther: “I may be terrible at job interviews, but the rest of my skills are exceptionally strong.”
b. Theresa: “I am always incompetent—in job interviews and everything else.”
c. Anthony: “I didn’t get a job because of a bad streak of luck, and luck is always ripe for changing.”
d. Paul: “I didn’t try my hardest; if I work at it, I can get a job.”

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Dr. Meredith works with clients from different cultural backgrounds who suffer from depression. Which of her clients is most likely to interpret his symptoms as being “heartbroken”?
a. Suliman, who is from Saudi Arabia c. Pepe, who is Mexican
b. Yeh, who is Chinese d. Ahote, who is Hopi

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Which sociocultural factor has been found to be significantly associated with depression?
a. religion c. gender
b. education d. gene expression

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Individuals from which culture are especially likely to present bodily complaints when they are depressed?
a. Chinese c. American Indian
b. Irish American d. Italian American

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Research addressing the relationship between stress and depression suggests that ____.
a. several minor stressors are more likely than one severe stressor to cause depression
b. acute stress is more likely than chronic stress to cause depression
c. exposure to dangerous events is more likely than loss and humiliation to cause depression
d. there is a bidirectional relationship between stress and depression

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. According to Hammen and colleagues (1992), some people who respond to stress with depression ____.
a. contribute to their own stressors
b. have social supports who make them dependent
c. see themselves as so independent that they refuse help
d. have too much norepinephrine in the frontal lobes

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A physician notices that twice as many female patients complain of depression as male patients. The physician’s first thought is that the cause is hormonal or genetic differences in the sexes. Research has ____.
a. shown that only males who have a genetic vulnerability develop depression.
b. been done extensively on this and results confirm that there is a hormonal basis for depression
c. proven that this is simply not casein accurate explanation
d. suggested that environmental and social-cultural factors interact with biological factors to influence gender differences in depression

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The gender difference in depression may be more apparent than real. One factor that could explain why women seem to be more prone to depression is that ____.
a. women are socialized to be more self-interested and autonomous
b. women have higher concentrations of a certain depressive allele than men
c. depression in men may be hidden by other factors such as substance abuse
d. depression in men is more likely to manifest early one and then dissipate

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Imagine that there is an equal level of stress in Gerald’s and Mary’s lives. Ruling out biological differences, we might expect Mary to be more prone to depression if she ____.
a. is employed outside the home and has no children
b. maintains a nontraditional gender role
c. sees herself as controlling her life situations
d. tends to ruminate and amplify her depressive moods

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Evidence for heritability of bipolar disorders suggests that ____.
a. no significant evidence regarding heritability and bipolar disorders has been discovered
b. a gene for bipolar disorder exists on chromosome 11
c. there is a complex genetic basis of bipolar disorders involving interactions among multiple genes
d. the concordance rate for bipolar disorder is higher for dizygotic twins than for monozygotic twins

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Suppose you will win $10,000 if you can find a person who had a mood disorder. The person cannot be anyone you have met, interviewed, or know personally. Who should you pick to win the money?
a. the identical twin of a person with unipolar depression
b. a person raised in an adoptive home with depressed parents
c. the fraternal twin of a person with unipolar depression
d. the identical twin of a person with bipolar disorder

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which treatment is considered by many clinicians to be an effective for treating profound depression but remains controversial among the general public?
a. ECT c. MAOIs
b. CBT d. RET

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Many studies have found that social support is especially important as a buffer against depression when people are exposed to stress. Recent research by Kasen, Wickramaratne, Garneroff, & Weissmam (2012) showed that what specific kind of social support is particularly beneficial?
a. psychological support, such as help with problem solving
b. emotional support, such as having a “shoulder to cry on”
c. religious participation and neighborhood cohesion
d. workplace participation and leadership style

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Depressed behavior is related to ____.
a. low levels of serotonin c. high levels of estradiol
b. high levels of serotonin d. low levels of estradiol

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Carmen does not want to take medication for her depression because she is concerned about putting toxins into her body. Based on research by Trivedi and colleagues (2011), Carmen’s therapist might suggest that, in conjunction with psychotherapy, Carmen also ____.
a. be treated by an acupuncturist
b. take a break from work and have her chakras aligned by an Asian healer
c. engage in moderate- to high-intensity exercise for 30 minutes two to four times a week
d. take long relaxing walks with her dog

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Rose, an elderly woman, suffers from depression. An evaluation at a sleep clinic finds that Rose has in increased need for sleep during the winter months, but not in the summer months. What might her diagnosis be?
a. anxious distress c. pure dysthymic syndrome
b. seasonal depression d. persistent depressive disorder

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. When exploring the respective influences of heredity and environment in contributing to mood disorders, many researchers compare the instances of the disorders among the biological and adoptive families of people who have bipolar disorder. What do these comparisons show?
a. The contributions of heredity and environment are relatively equal.
b. There is little observable influence from either heredity or environment.
c. The influences of environment are stronger than those of heredity.
d. The influences of heredity are stronger than those of environment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Research that assessed the role of stress in people’s lives suggests that ____.
a. most children are sufficiently resilient so that exposure to stress has little predictive value for depression later in life
b. severity, chronicity, onset, and type of stress interact in causing depression
c. encountering stress early in life helps children develop defenses for averting depression later in life
d. stress early in life is only predictive of depression later in life for children who are genetically vulnerable

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Noveck and Tompson (2007) surveyed people ages 13-24 to learn what makes them happy. The top answer was ____.
a. lots of money
b. spending time with friends
c. spending time with family
d. being able to do the things a person finds enjoyable

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders                      (Did You Know Box, pg. 184)

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Jeannie, a 36-year-old woman, sees a psychiatrist while suffering from an initial episode of unipolar depression. Which biological treatment is her psychiatrist most likely to prescribe?
a. electroconvulsive therapy c. amphetamines
b. SSRIs d. MAOIs

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. A recent concern about the use of SSRIs for treating depression is related to ____.
a. their potential for addiction
b. side effects such as tremors and blurred vision
c. the potential for suicide among young people
d. the potential for lethal tyramine-cheese reactions

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Which statements regarding ECT is accurate?
a. ECT is usually reserved for individuals with severe depression who have not responded to drug treatment.
b. Because of the negative side effects of ECT, it is no longer used in the United States.
c. The effects of ECT on reducing depressive symptoms are well understood by researchers.
d. ECT is generally the first treatment used with severely depressed individuals.

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. MRI images of the brains of individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder indicate that gray matter abnormalities in areas are related to ____.
a. emotional processing
b. interference by neurotransmitters
c. cognitive processing
d. irregularity of transmission among specific neurotransmitters

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A particular danger of hypomanic/manic symptoms occurring with depressive symptoms is ____.
a. increased risk of dangerous behaviors c. rapid cycling
b. excessive fatigue post-mania d. mixed features

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression focuses on ____.
a. biological principles c. relationship issues
b. assertiveness skills d. negative thought patterns

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. The initial steps in cognitive-behavioral therapy usually requires that the client ____.
a. learn to relax
b. increase his or her activity in the world so that reinforcement is possible
c. replace irrational thoughts with more rational alternatives
d. become aware of his or her thoughts and emotions

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which therapy focuses on reducing depressive symptoms by helping the client to change automatic negative thoughts?
a. sensate-focused therapy c. cognitive-behavioral therapy
b. psychoanalytic therapy d. interpersonal therapy

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Mel’s therapist helps him create routines for his daily life, such as setting daily times for sleeping, eating, and exercising. This form of therapy for bipolar disorder is called ____.
a. psychoeducation c. cognitive behavioral therapy
b. social rhythm therapy d. interpersonal therapy

 

 

ANS:  B                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. An insurance company is interested in the most effective treatment for acute depression. Based on recent research, what is the best advice that one could give to the company?
a. “Medication, interpersonal psychotherapy, and cognitive-behavioral treatments are all equally effective.”
b. “Interpersonal psychotherapy is far more effective than either medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy.”
c. “Belief in treatment is enough—even placebo pills are as effective as psychotherapy or medication.”
d. “Only antidepressant medication is effective.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Analyze

 

  1. Which treatment of depression seems to have the lowest rate of relapse?
a. bupropion c. cognitive therapy
b. electroconvulsive therapy d. Prozac

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. A medication that has consistently-proven to be a preventive treatment of “classic” bipolar disorder is ____.
a. norepinephrine
b. MAO inhibitors
c. lithium
d. serotonin

 

 

ANS:  C                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

  1. Although lithium can effectively treat bipolar disorder, one problem is that ____.
a. it is too expensive for most patients to afford
b. in large doses, it can produce severe memory loss
c. it interacts with the tyramine in certain foods to produce a life-threatening side effect
d. it has serious side effects and requires monitoring blood levels

 

 

ANS:  D                    REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.           KEY: Bloom’s: Understand

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe the difference between depression and bipolar disorders. Be sure to include a description of the clinical characteristics of each.

 

ANS:

Depression involves multiple symptoms—including mood-related, cognitive, physical, and behavioral symptoms—that persist over time and cause impaired functioning. Specific depression symptoms include feeling sad, down, or blue; a loss of enjoyment and the inability to experience pleasure; irritability; negative thinking; pessimism; hopelessness; difficulty in concentration, memory, and decision making; feeling fatigued and without energy; agitation; increase or decrease in sleep; increase or decrease in appetite; and social withdrawal. Bipolar disorder is much rarer than depression and involves not only depression but also mania or hypomania. Individuals cycle between periods of elevated or depressed mood and normal mood. In many ways mania is the opposite of depression. It is a disorder marked by grandiose or irritable mood; increased energy, activity, and distractibility; and excessive engagement in pleasurable behaviors that may lead to painful consequences. Hypomania is a mild version of mania. To determine whether a person should be diagnosed with unipolar or bipolar disorder, the clinician must look beyond the client’s present episode and get information about the client’s previous history.

 

REF:   Symptoms Associated with Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.1 Identify and describe the symptoms of depression and mania.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Compare and contrast Lewinsohn’s explanation of major depression with Seligman’s attribution-learned helplessness approach.

 

ANS:

Lewinsohn and his colleagues developed a behavioral explanation for depression. This model suggests that a lack of reinforcements leads to feelings of depression. The lack of reinforcement can occur for reasons external to the person or can be an outgrowth of reduced activity. Either way, the depressed person engages in fewer and fewer actions that can be reinforced, so a downward spiral of negative emotions and reduced activity continues. In addition, the sympathy of others may inadvertently reward the depressed person for inaction, so the depression deepens further. Depressed individuals are seen as having weak social skills—they initiate few conversations, smile less, and complain more, therefore reducing their ability to obtain reinforcement. Lewinsohn’s model also indicates that prior to being depressed, individuals who experience major stresses may feel that they can no longer predict their world and, feeling they can no longer control events, become more self-critical. As self-awareness of inadequacy intensifies, the person functions less appropriately and feels less self-confident and more depressed. Therefore, in addition to strictly operant (stimulus-response-consequence) components, this model includes the cognitive and emotional elements of depression.

 

In Seligman’s model of depression, thoughts and feelings of helplessness are learned and depression results from learned helplessness—an acquired belief that one is helpless and unable to affect outcomes in one’s life. According to Seligman, people who feel helpless make causal attributions, or speculations about why they are helpless. Individuals who are depressed mistakenly generalize this view to other, controllable situations. Thus, depression is seen as a form of learned helplessness. Depressed individuals make “depressive” attributions and feel less in control of their lives. Attribution style focuses on the misperception of causes of negative events rather than the awareness of inadequacy. Seligman and his colleagues argue that depressives are pessimists: they see the causes of negative events as due to internal factors (them) and stable traits (rather than ones that can change with time or situation) and as affecting global rather than specific spheres of their lives.

 

In general, Lewinsohn and Seligman share common ground in assuming that a lack of activity and a belief in lost control are the keys to depression. However, Lewinsohn emphasizes the behavioral deficiencies of people prone to depression, while Seligman points out the attributional (cognitive) deficiencies.

 

REF:   Depressive Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.2 Explain what depressive disorders are, what causes them, and how they are treated.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply

 

  1. Evaluate the evidence for a biological cause for all mood disorders. How does this relate to methods of treatment?

 

ANS:

Biological factors appear to play a more prominent role in the etiology of bipolar disorders compared to depression. Evidence indicates that depression is influenced by genetic factors whose ultimate phenotypic expression is highly dependent on environmental factors, and bipolar disorders are believed to have a complex genetic basis involving interactions among multiple genes. Twin studies have made it clear that inheritance plays a role in both major depression and bipolar disorders, although more so for the latter. The average concordance rate for bipolar disorders among identical twins is 72 percent; for depression it is 40 percent. In both disorders, the concordance rate drops to 10 to 14 percent for fraternal twins. Obviously, genetic endowment is important. Findings from adoption research strengthen the argument, since researchers have found that children reared by adoptive parents who have mood disorders are no more likely to develop the disorders than the general population. Only adoptees whose biological parents have the disorders are at higher risk. What exactly is inherited is harder to determine. Abnormally low levels of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine) or abnormally low levels of receptor sensitivity to these chemicals are often found in depressives. It is not clear whether this is a cause or a result of depression. Other biological correlates of depression may represent inherited abnormalities, including abnormally high levels of the adrenal hormone cortisol.

 

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) also has powerful, short-term effects on severe depression. It is not clear how ECT affects the brain. However, a biological cause of mood disorders does not require a biological treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal psychotherapies have proved to be just as effective as antidepressants, and people who receive cognitive-behavioral treatments appear to be less vulnerable to relapse than those given medication.

 

REF:   Bipolar Disorders

OBJ:   UABB.SUES.17.7.3 Describe the types of bipolar disorders, what causes them, and how they are treated.

KEY: Bloom’s: Apply