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Experiencing The Worlds Religions Tradition, Challenge, And Change 5Th Ed By Michael – Test Bank
Chapter 6 – Test Bank
- The notion of wu wei is
- social responsibility.
- filial piety.
- no unnecessary action.
- education and discipline.
- Literally, Daodejing means
- book of light and shadow.
- The man who dreamed he was a butterfly was
- Laozi (Lao Tzu).
- Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu).
- Zhu Xi.
- Mengzi (Mencius).
- Applying the notion of yin and yang, we could say that Daoism shows a special love for
- allowing things to develop naturally.
- creating a large corporation.
- getting as many academic degrees as possible.
- having many children and educating them carefully.
- The most important image to be found in the Daodejing, the image that best expresses its ideals, is
- At the end of his life, Laozi (Lao Tzu) is said to have
- disappeared in a large cave in southern China.
- sailed with friends off the eastern coast of China to find the Isles of the Blessed.
- died when a tall, heavy bookcase fell over on him.
- left China riding on an ox.
- Daoists aim at enjoying a long life but also accept death because
- the soul will be reborn, possibly in a better life.
- the soul can go to heaven.
- death is a part of the natural order of things.
- accepting death shows strength of character.
- The aspect of reality that expresses itself in silence, receptivity, and darkness is called
- wu wei.
- The Daodejing is written in approximately how many Chinese characters?
- The Daodejing is known for its
- deliberate obscurity.
- careful prose.
- logical organization of themes.
- mention of important sites in China.
- Dao is the origin of
- mathematical certainty.
- the rhythms of nature.
- the human intuition of beauty.
- our ability to distinguish between right and wrong.
- “Divination” refers to
- telling the future.
- burying the dead.
- naming holy people as saints.
- offering sacrifice to gods.
- An image used by the Daodejing to express the difficulty of seeing in the Daoist way is
- a cloud.
- A story in the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) makes fun of the silliness of human beings. It compares them to
- After his wife died, Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)
- worked in his garden.
- Laozi (Lao Tzu) is said to have been a
- A hierarchical, hereditary form of Daoism is called
- Yellow Turban Daoism.
- Complete Perfection Daoism.
- Heavenly Master Daoism.
- Daoism of Ancient Pines.
- Black caps are the signature headwear for
- Daoist priests.
- members of the Legalist school of philosophy.
- actors in theatrical programs performed during the Jiao rite of renewal.
- teachers of Confucian ritual.
- Concerning the origins of Daoism, scholars today point to
- the historical founder, Laozi.
- the Yijing, the Book of Changes.
- a multiplicity of possible sources that coalesced into a movement.
- the legendary Jade Emperor.
- The two dots of contrasting color inside the light and dark commas of the yin/yang symbol represent
- the eternal strife of good and evil.
- the seed of its opposite.
- the eyes of God.
- the great Daoists Laozi and Zhuangzi.
- Daoism likely established monasteries and temples
- to protect itself from Confucian influence.
- to guard its secret practices.
- in order to more closely follow the teachings of the Daodejing.
- through the influence of Buddhism.
- Daoism developed a pantheon of hundreds of deities, the most important being
- the Three Purities.
- several female deities.
- humans elevated to the status of gods.
- household gods that protect the people.
- The Three Purities consist of
- Mother Li; Lord Lao; and Zhenwu, the perfected warrior.
- Laozi; Confucius; and the Buddha.
- the Jade Emperor; Laozi; and Zhuangzi.
- the Dao; the god who transmits Daoist insight; and Laozi.
- Confucianism has been especially concerned about relationships
- with God.
- between human beings.
- with nature.
- between human beings and animals.
- Confucius lived during what years?
- 1221-1156 b.c.e.
- 860-780 b.c.e.
- 551-479 b.c.e.
- 437-502 c.e.
- Confucius worked almost all his life as
- a teacher.
- a priest.
- an artist.
- a librarian.
- The Analects are
- the principal source of Legalist philosophy.
- the sayings of Confucius.
- a reaction against Mohist thought.
- a compilation of ancient poetry, saved by Confucians.
- The Doctrine of the Mean
- is a long work on the history of the state of Lu.
- is the basis for the Legalist emphasis on strict punishment.
- reflects the Daoist love of contemplation.
- is a short book on moderation and harmony.
- The Mencius
- advocates the ideal of the bodhisattva.
- offers advice about magical ritual that was thought to raise agricultural productivity.
- presents the teachings of a Confucian thinker.
- was a stone memorial to Confucius placed in his home town of Qufu.
- Confucius’s ideal society would live according to the ideals of the
- Five Great Relationships.
- Four Noble Truths.
- Seven Sacraments.
- Five K’s.
- Confucius hoped to
- introduce new ideas about architecture.
- stop the destruction of books by the emperor.
- restore the social harmony of the past.
- reestablish appreciation for simple living.
- The Yijing (I Ching)
- was a central library, where many ancient texts were kept.
- recounts tales of the mythic life of the Yellow Emperor.
- is a book of prophecy and poetry.
- is a book, valued by Confucius, that is used for divination.
- In their view of human nature, the Confucianists
- seem to be the most optimistic of the philosophical schools.
- emphasize that people are rapacious and predatory, needing the strictest controls.
- see human beings as needing their characters shaped by education.
- see education as a pursuit that primarily develops human intellect.
- The personal ideal or hero of Confucianism is the
- noble person.
- simple peasant.
- The social period in which Confucius lived was
- a time when China was ruled by a single emperor.
- a time of a classless society.
- Mencius (Mengzi, Meng Tzu) was a
- Legalist with a pessimistic view of human nature.
- Confucian with a positive view of human nature.
- Mohist with a stern view of human nature.
- Daoist with a very optimistic view of human nature.
- Regarding Confucianism, the Communists after the Communist Revolution
- encouraged it in order to build up a sound economy.
- spread it because of its support of government.
- rejected it as not being egalitarian.
- rejected it because of its emphasis on individual freedom.
- The most fundamental relationship for Confucius seems to have been that between
- father and son.
- elder brother and younger brother.
- husband and wife.
- The virtue of filial piety means
- doing what is appropriate to a situation.
- love of education.
- devotion to one’s family.
- doing only what is spontaneous.
- The ideal of benevolence or “human-heartedness” in Chinese is a written character made up of which pictographs?
- two hearts, one beside the other
- a person under a roof
- a mother and a child
- a person and the number two
- The most significant Confucian art form has been
- garden design.
- stone carving.
- The authoritative pre-Confucian books are the
- Five Classics.
- Four Books.
- During the Han dynasty (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.),
- Confucianism became the official philosophy of China, guiding its state policy.
- Confucianism was abandoned in favor of Daoism.
- calligraphy came to be taught as a part of Confucian training for girls.
- Confucians embraced and adopted Buddhist religion as a complement to their own philosophy.
- Which great scholar developed a complete philosophy of reality, now called Neo-Confucianism?
- Mozi (Mo Tzu)
- Xunzi (Hsun Tzu)
- Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi)
- Dong Zhongshu (Tun Chung-shu)
- China has had how many female rulers (emperors)?
- Confucianism was criticized by Chinese who had studied in the West and were influenced by the teachings of
- John Dewey and Bertrand Russell.
- Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir.
- Georg F. Hegel.
- George Santayana.
- Confucianism remains a strong value system in
- The Qing (Ching) dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, collapsed in China in
- Complex Confucian etiquette shows respect to others, makes social interactions predictable, and
- reflects the social position of its participants.
- leads to the virtue of humility.
- generates much anxiety and resentment.
- led to the development of Confucianism as a religious system.
- Explain yang and yin, using examples as necessary to illustrate your explanation.
- Recount the life story of Laozi.
- What is the Daodejing and what roles has it played in the Daoist religion?
- Define the Dao—or explain why we cannot define the Dao, yet can experience it.
- What does the collection called the Zhuangzi add to basic understanding of the Dao?
- Explain the ideal of wu wei.
- Summarize four of the basic teachings of early Daoism.
- Describe three or four features that came to be associated with later Daoism.
- Explain the likely influences Buddhism had on Daoism.
- Provide an overview of the Daoist pantheon of deities.
- Describe with some detail four classical Chinese arts and show how they exhibit some of the concerns of Daoism.
- What particular aspects of the Dao are of primary interest to the Confucian?
- What two ideals were sought by Confucius?
- Explain, from a Confucian perspective, what it would take to be a “superior” human being.
- List the five great relationships and summarize the responsibilities of the related persons in each of the five.
- What is ren? How does one show it?
- Explain wen and describe how it shows itself in practice.
- Explain the Confucian notion of sincerity and contrast it with the common Western notion.
- Identify two of the Four Books of Confucianism and describe a key characteristic of each.
- Describe what Mencius brought to Confucianism by contrasting his thought with that of Confucius.
- Pretend that you have been asked to begin a Confucian school. What would be studied? What practices would be evident in everyday life?
- Summarize Zhu Xi’s contributions to Confucian thought.
- What is the greatest of Confucian arts? Why?
- Summarize three key arguments against Confucianism that became prominent during the twentieth century.
- In what ways are Confucian virtues at odds with typical Western virtues?
Chapter 7 – Test Bank
- Shinto often makes use of
- purification rituals.
- sitting in meditation.
- repetition of the name of Amida Buddha.
- the cutting of the priest’s hair as a form of initiation.
- The sun goddess of Shinto is
- The primeval female kami who was burned by the fire god is
- In Shinto, white is often used because
- it is associated with death and rebirth.
- it invokes the presence of the kami.
- it evokes fertility and new life.
- it symbolizes cleanliness and purity.
- The torii is
- often used as a gateway to a sacred location.
- a wand used by a Shinto priest for purification.
- the name of a basin where one washes before prayer.
- worn around the neck as a good-luck charm.
- In Shinto, spirits are named
- The Ise Grand Shrine is dedicated to Amaterasu, and the high priest and priestess are always members of the imperial family. Why?
- Only the imperial family is allowed in grand shrines.
- Only the imperial family is allowed to converse with Amaterasu.
- Amaterasu is the ancestor of the Japanese emperors.
- Amaterasu is the patron kami of Japan.
- Emperor Meiji often celebrated which Shinto virtue in his poetry?
- An important element of ritual at a Shinto shrine is
- lighting a candle.
- offering incense.
- bodily prostration.
- hand clapping.
- The term Shinto comes from two Chinese words that mean
- the fulfillment of nature.
- the way of the gods.
- bridge of light.
- perfect life.
- The Japanese drew many cultural and technological elements from
- The primary focus of Shinto worship is directed toward
- a single, all-powerful God or Goddess.
- Mount Fuji and other sacred natural sites.
- spirits of nature and the ancestors.
- creating a positive flow of energy.
- According to Shinto beliefs, human beings are
- fundamentally good.
- sinful and guilty.
- distracted by ephemeral pleasures.
- attached to individualism.
- Shinto puts great emphasis on
- strong beliefs.
- careful ritual.
- following the commands of a spiritual teacher.
- regular meditation.
- Kamikaze, or “spirit wind,” refers to
- suicide pilots.
- high winds, like typhoons.
- gods who live at the top of mountains.
- the special hats of Shinto priests.
- State Shinto refers to
- the special role of the emperor in Shinto.
- a springtime rice-planting ceremony, done for the good of the nation.
- Shinto ceremonies carried out at the beginning of each day in schools.
- a former system of national shrines.
- The Nihongi is
- the painting of a pine tree, a frequent background for Noh plays.
- a special dance used in Noh plays.
- a collection of stories of the gods and early history.
- the name of one important branch of Shinto.
- The ideal of the warrior, promoted by Shinto during World War II, is called
- The emperor renounced his title to divinity when
- Buddhism first entered Japan.
- Christianity first entered Japan.
- Japan began to modernize.
- World War II ended.
- Tenrikyo, which grew out of Shinto, has its headquarters near
- The founder of Tenrikyo was
- Kamo Mabuchi.
- Motoori Norinaga.
- Deguchi Nao.
- Nakayama Miki.
- Omoto is a new religion that emphasizes the value of
- Omoto, in order to encourage international understanding, gives a special place to the study and use of
- Shinto and Buddhism
- have developed separately in Japan.
- began to blend in the nineteenth century.
- began to blend soon after the introduction of Buddhism.
- were forced to separate from each other before 1200 c.e.
- The Japanese people
- have always enthusiastically adopted foreign cultures.
- adopted the culture of Vietnam for about 500 years.
- seem to be a blend of several peoples.
- rejected the culture of China.
- When he returned from visiting his deceased wife, Izanagi had to
- mourn Izanami’s death for one year.
- purify Izanami’s burial site with fire.
- get the attention of the other kami by clapping.
- cleanse himself in water.
- The Shinto creation myth may have
- united the beliefs of several tribes.
- originated in Okinawa.
- retold an ancient myth from India.
- borrowed from the Near East.
- Shinto and Confucianism particularly had what feature in common?
- love of art and imagery
- veneration of ancestors
- idealization of the simple life of the farmer
- appreciation for ritual dance
- The emperor of Japan came to be considered a father figure for the whole country. This
- arose from Shinto love of ritual.
- was a necessity after the attempted Mongol invasion of Japan.
- seems to show the influence of Confucianism.
- came from the Buddhist ideal of the loving bodhisattva.
- has helped the Japanese maintain a sense of their unique identity.
- has been quite warlike throughout its long history.
- is a religion with organization and strong structure.
- developed a statement of belief and a set of commandments after 1400 C.E.
- Izanami and Izanagi created Japan when they stirred the ocean with
- the sandal from Izanami’s right foot.
- a white camellia flower.
- a branch of the sakaki tree.
- a jeweled spear.
- Izanagi searched for Izanami
- on the Floating Bridge of Heaven.
- in the underworld.
- in a cave near Ise.
- in the ocean east of Japan.
- The basis for the Japanese writing system came from
- The goddess Amaterasu was lured from a cave, where she was hiding, by
- the music of a flute.
- the smell of food being cooked.
- the sound of flags being blown by the wind.
- dancing nearby.
- The Church of World Messianity (Sekaikyusei-kyo) is an offshoot of
- Soka Gakkai.
- The islands of Japan, according to the creation story, are a sort of “this-worldly” heaven because
- the gods made them.
- humans share the islands with divine beings.
- the deity of the wind has promised to protect all who live there.
- Amaterasu is buried there.
- Part of the accommodation between Shinto and Buddhism included
- separate shrines in different regions of the country.
- shared priests between the two religions.
- an agreement not to use Chinese art and architecture.
- a division of focus, with Buddhism associated with philosophy, death, and afterlife, while Shinto was called on for agriculture and fertility.
- During the Meiji Restoration, Shinto became tied to growing nationalism through
- an emphasis on the divine origins of the emperor.
- large state-sponsored shines.
- a renewed emphasis on traditional martial arts.
- the assimilation of Western educational and governmental models.
- Kami are associated with natural places, the ancestors, and
- Buddhist saints.
- animal spirits.
- famous samurai.
- Confucian scholars.
- A special New Year’s ritual in Shinto is
- the setting off of firecrackers.
- the dragon dance.
- rice pounding.
- the veneration of those who died in war.
- Explain the derivation of the term, Shinto. What does the name tell us about the relationship with China and with Buddhism? Please explain.
- How did Amaterasu come into being? What role did she play in Japanese history?
- Describe how areas of influence are typically divided between Shinto and Buddhism in Japan. How might this be evident at a Japanese temple complex?
- Explain the emergence of State Shinto within the context of the Meiji Restoration. What was the Meiji Restoration and why did it establish State Shinto?
- Explain the basic Shinto notion of kami. Describe and name the most important kami.
- How are ancestors understood, according to basic Shinto belief?
- Describe the basic rituals associated with visiting a Shinto shrine. What is the importance of these rituals to practitioners of Shinto?
- List at least three ceremonies that are typically performed by Shinto priests.
- Summarize New Year rituals associated with Shinto.
- What roles does the emperor of Japan play in Shinto ritual?
- Describe a torii. What is its function? Where may it be found?
- Describe the key beliefs of Tenrikyo.
- Describe the key beliefs of Omoto-kyo.
- Describe at least four ways in which Shinto beliefs and practices are relevant to the problems of the modern world.