Experiencing The Worlds Religions Tradition, Challenge, And Change 5Th Ed By Michael – Test Bank

$20.00

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD WITH ANSWERS

Experiencing The Worlds Religions Tradition, Challenge, And Change 5Th Ed By Michael – Test Bank

Chapter 6 – Test Bank

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

Daoism

 

  1. The notion of wu wei is
  2. social responsibility.
  3. filial piety.
  4. no unnecessary action.
  5. education and discipline.

Answer: c

Page: 216

 

  1. Literally, Daodejing means
  2. book of light and shadow.
  3. mountain-silence-scripture.
  4. dark-path-poetry.
  5. way-power-classic.

Answer: d

Page: 211

 

  1. The man who dreamed he was a butterfly was
  2. Laozi (Lao Tzu).
  3. Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu).
  4. Zhu Xi.
  5. Mengzi (Mencius).

Answer: b

Page: 215

 

  1. Applying the notion of yin and yang, we could say that Daoism shows a special love for
  2. allowing things to develop naturally.
  3. creating a large corporation.
  4. getting as many academic degrees as possible.
  5. having many children and educating them carefully.

Answer: a

Page: 208

 

  1. The most important image to be found in the Daodejing, the image that best expresses its ideals, is
  2. fire.
  3. music.
  4. water.
  5. light.

Answer: c

Page: 214

 

  1. At the end of his life, Laozi (Lao Tzu) is said to have
  2. disappeared in a large cave in southern China.
  3. sailed with friends off the eastern coast of China to find the Isles of the Blessed.
  4. died when a tall, heavy bookcase fell over on him.
  5. left China riding on an ox.

Answer: d

Page: 211

 

  1. Daoists aim at enjoying a long life but also accept death because
  2. the soul will be reborn, possibly in a better life.
  3. the soul can go to heaven.
  4. death is a part of the natural order of things.
  5. accepting death shows strength of character.

Answer: c

Page: 208

 

  1. The aspect of reality that expresses itself in silence, receptivity, and darkness is called
  2. wu wei.
  3. yin.
  4. dao.
  5. yang.

Answer: b

Page: 253

 

  1. The Daodejing is written in approximately how many Chinese characters?
  2. 100
  3. 1,000
  4. 5,000
  5. 25,000

Answer: c

Page: 211

 

  1. The Daodejing is known for its
  2. deliberate obscurity.
  3. careful prose.
  4. logical organization of themes.
  5. mention of important sites in China.

Answer: a

Page: 212

 

  1. Dao is the origin of
  2. mathematical certainty.
  3. the rhythms of nature.
  4. the human intuition of beauty.
  5. our ability to distinguish between right and wrong.

Answer: b

Page: 228

 

  1. “Divination” refers to
  2. telling the future.
  3. burying the dead.
  4. naming holy people as saints.
  5. offering sacrifice to gods.

Answer: a

Page: 209

 

  1. An image used by the Daodejing to express the difficulty of seeing in the Daoist way is
  2. a cloud.
  3. darkness.
  4. smoke.
  5. blindness.

Answer: b

Page: 213

 

  1. A story in the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) makes fun of the silliness of human beings. It compares them to
  2. bees.
  3. goats.
  4. snakes
  5. monkeys.

Answer: d

Page: 216

 

  1. After his wife died, Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)
  2. swam.
  3. danced.
  4. sang.
  5. worked in his garden.

Answer: c

Page: 215

 

  1. Laozi (Lao Tzu) is said to have been a
  2. fisherman.
  3. painter.
  4. carpenter.
  5. librarian.

Answer: d

Page: 211

 

  1. A hierarchical, hereditary form of Daoism is called
  2. Yellow Turban Daoism.
  3. Complete Perfection Daoism.
  4. Heavenly Master Daoism.
  5. Daoism of Ancient Pines.

Answer: c

Page: 222

 

  1. Black caps are the signature headwear for
  2. Daoist priests.
  3. members of the Legalist school of philosophy.
  4. actors in theatrical programs performed during the Jiao rite of renewal.
  5. teachers of Confucian ritual.

Answer: a

Page: 222

 

  1. Concerning the origins of Daoism, scholars today point to
  2. the historical founder, Laozi.
  3. the Yijing, the Book of Changes.
  4. a multiplicity of possible sources that coalesced into a movement.
  5. the legendary Jade Emperor.

Answer: c

Page: 211

 

  1. The two dots of contrasting color inside the light and dark commas of the yin/yang symbol represent
  2. the eternal strife of good and evil.
  3. the seed of its opposite.
  4. the eyes of God.
  5. the great Daoists Laozi and Zhuangzi.

Answer: b

Page: 208

 

  1. Daoism likely established monasteries and temples
  2. to protect itself from Confucian influence.
  3. to guard its secret practices.
  4. in order to more closely follow the teachings of the Daodejing.
  5. through the influence of Buddhism.

Answer: d

Page: 220

 

  1. Daoism developed a pantheon of hundreds of deities, the most important being
  2. the Three Purities.
  3. several female deities.
  4. humans elevated to the status of gods.
  5. household gods that protect the people.

Answer: a

Page: 221

 

  1. The Three Purities consist of
  2. Mother Li; Lord Lao; and Zhenwu, the perfected warrior.
  3. Laozi; Confucius; and the Buddha.
  4. the Jade Emperor; Laozi; and Zhuangzi.
  5. the Dao; the god who transmits Daoist insight; and Laozi.

Answer: d

Page: 221

 

 

Confucianism

 

  1. Confucianism has been especially concerned about relationships
  2. with God.
  3. between human beings.
  4. with nature.
  5. between human beings and animals.

Answer: b

Page: 227

 

  1. Confucius lived during what years?
  2. 1221-1156 b.c.e.
  3. 860-780 b.c.e.
  4. 551-479 b.c.e.
  5. 437-502 c.e.

Answer: c

Page: 228

 

  1. Confucius worked almost all his life as
  2. a teacher.
  3. a priest.
  4. an artist.
  5. a librarian.

Answer: a

Page: 228

 

  1. The Analects are
  2. the principal source of Legalist philosophy.
  3. the sayings of Confucius.
  4. a reaction against Mohist thought.
  5. a compilation of ancient poetry, saved by Confucians.

Answer: b

Page: 235

 

  1. The Doctrine of the Mean
  2. is a long work on the history of the state of Lu.
  3. is the basis for the Legalist emphasis on strict punishment.
  4. reflects the Daoist love of contemplation.
  5. is a short book on moderation and harmony.

Answer: d

Page: 237

 

  1. The Mencius
  2. advocates the ideal of the bodhisattva.
  3. offers advice about magical ritual that was thought to raise agricultural productivity.
  4. presents the teachings of a Confucian thinker.
  5. was a stone memorial to Confucius placed in his home town of Qufu.

Answer: c

Page: 237

 

  1. Confucius’s ideal society would live according to the ideals of the
  2. Five Great Relationships.
  3. Four Noble Truths.
  4. Seven Sacraments.
  5. Five K’s.

Answer: a

Page: 231

 

  1. Confucius hoped to
  2. introduce new ideas about architecture.
  3. stop the destruction of books by the emperor.
  4. restore the social harmony of the past.
  5. reestablish appreciation for simple living.

Answer: c

Page: 233

 

  1. The Yijing (I Ching)
  2. was a central library, where many ancient texts were kept.
  3. recounts tales of the mythic life of the Yellow Emperor.
  4. is a book of prophecy and poetry.
  5. is a book, valued by Confucius, that is used for divination.

Answer: d

Page: 237

 

  1. In their view of human nature, the Confucianists
  2. seem to be the most optimistic of the philosophical schools.
  3. emphasize that people are rapacious and predatory, needing the strictest controls.
  4. see human beings as needing their characters shaped by education.
  5. see education as a pursuit that primarily develops human intellect.

Answer: c

Page: 228

 

  1. The personal ideal or hero of Confucianism is the
  2. teacher.
  3. businessman.
  4. noble person.
  5. simple peasant.

Answer: c

Page: 230

 

  1. The social period in which Confucius lived was
  2. disorderly.
  3. peaceful.
  4. a time when China was ruled by a single emperor.
  5. a time of a classless society.

Answer: a

Page: 229

 

  1. Mencius (Mengzi, Meng Tzu) was a
  2. Legalist with a pessimistic view of human nature.
  3. Confucian with a positive view of human nature.
  4. Mohist with a stern view of human nature.
  5. Daoist with a very optimistic view of human nature.

Answer: b

Page: 239

 

  1. Regarding Confucianism, the Communists after the Communist Revolution
  2. encouraged it in order to build up a sound economy.
  3. spread it because of its support of government.
  4. rejected it as not being egalitarian.
  5. rejected it because of its emphasis on individual freedom.

Answer: c

Page: 247

 

  1. The most fundamental relationship for Confucius seems to have been that between
  2. friends.
  3. father and son.
  4. elder brother and younger brother.
  5. husband and wife.

Answer: b

Page: 231

 

  1. The virtue of filial piety means
  2. doing what is appropriate to a situation.
  3. love of education.
  4. devotion to one’s family.
  5. doing only what is spontaneous.

Answer: c

Page: 235

 

  1. The ideal of benevolence or “human-heartedness” in Chinese is a written character made up of which pictographs?
  2. two hearts, one beside the other
  3. a person under a roof
  4. a mother and a child
  5. a person and the number two

Answer: d

Page: 234

 

  1. The most significant Confucian art form has been
  2. garden design.
  3. calligraphy.
  4. stone carving.
  5. music.

Answer: b

Page: 243

 

  1. The authoritative pre-Confucian books are the
  2. Analects.
  3. Mencius.
  4. Five Classics.
  5. Four Books.

Answer: c

Page: 236

 

  1. During the Han dynasty (206 B.C.E.-220 C.E.),
  2. Confucianism became the official philosophy of China, guiding its state policy.
  3. Confucianism was abandoned in favor of Daoism.
  4. calligraphy came to be taught as a part of Confucian training for girls.
  5. Confucians embraced and adopted Buddhist religion as a complement to their own philosophy.

Answer: a

Page: 238

 

  1. Which great scholar developed a complete philosophy of reality, now called Neo-Confucianism?
  2. Mozi (Mo Tzu)
  3. Xunzi (Hsun Tzu)
  4. Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi)
  5. Dong Zhongshu (Tun Chung-shu)

Answer: c

Page: 242

 

  1. China has had how many female rulers (emperors)?
  2. 0
  3. 1
  4. 4
  5. 10

Answer: b

Page: 247

 

  1. Confucianism was criticized by Chinese who had studied in the West and were influenced by the teachings of
  2. John Dewey and Bertrand Russell.
  3. Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir.
  4. Georg F. Hegel.
  5. George Santayana.

Answer: a

Page: 247

 

  1. Confucianism remains a strong value system in
  2. Cambodia.
  3. Indonesia.
  4. Malaysia.
  5. Korea.

Answer: d

Page: 247

 

  1. The Qing (Ching) dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, collapsed in China in
  2. 1445.
  3. 1703.
  4. 1911.
  5. 1966-1967.

Answer: c

Page: 246

 

  1. Complex Confucian etiquette shows respect to others, makes social interactions predictable, and
  2. reflects the social position of its participants.
  3. leads to the virtue of humility.
  4. generates much anxiety and resentment.
  5. led to the development of Confucianism as a religious system.

Answer: a

Page: 233

 

Essay Topics

 

 

  1. Explain yang and yin, using examples as necessary to illustrate your explanation.

 

  1. Recount the life story of Laozi.

 

  1. What is the Daodejing and what roles has it played in the Daoist religion?

 

  1. Define the Dao—or explain why we cannot define the Dao, yet can experience it.

 

  1. What does the collection called the Zhuangzi add to basic understanding of the Dao?

 

  1. Explain the ideal of wu wei.

 

  1. Summarize four of the basic teachings of early Daoism.

 

  1. Describe three or four features that came to be associated with later Daoism.

 

  1. Explain the likely influences Buddhism had on Daoism.

 

  1. Provide an overview of the Daoist pantheon of deities.

 

  1. Describe with some detail four classical Chinese arts and show how they exhibit some of the concerns of Daoism.

 

  1. What particular aspects of the Dao are of primary interest to the Confucian?

 

  1. What two ideals were sought by Confucius?

 

  1. Explain, from a Confucian perspective, what it would take to be a “superior” human being.

 

  1. List the five great relationships and summarize the responsibilities of the related persons in each of the five.

 

  1. What is ren? How does one show it?

 

  1. Explain wen and describe how it shows itself in practice.

 

  1. Explain the Confucian notion of sincerity and contrast it with the common Western notion.

 

  1. Identify two of the Four Books of Confucianism and describe a key characteristic of each.
  2. Describe what Mencius brought to Confucianism by contrasting his thought with that of Confucius.

 

  1. Pretend that you have been asked to begin a Confucian school. What would be studied? What practices would be evident in everyday life?

 

  1. Summarize Zhu Xi’s contributions to Confucian thought.

 

  1. What is the greatest of Confucian arts? Why?

 

  1. Summarize three key arguments against Confucianism that became prominent during the twentieth century.

 

  1. In what ways are Confucian virtues at odds with typical Western virtues?

 

 

Chapter 7 – Test Bank

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

  1. Shinto often makes use of
  2. purification rituals.
  3. sitting in meditation.
  4. repetition of the name of Amida Buddha.
  5. the cutting of the priest’s hair as a form of initiation.

Answer: a

Page: 268

 

  1. The sun goddess of Shinto is
  2. Izanagi.
  3. Amaterasu.
  4. Susanowo.
  5. Inari.

Answer: b

Page: 258

 

  1. The primeval female kami who was burned by the fire god is
  2. Izanami.
  3. Susanowo.
  4. Izanagi.
  5. Tsukiyomi.

Answer: a

Page: 258

 

  1. In Shinto, white is often used because
  2. it is associated with death and rebirth.
  3. it invokes the presence of the kami.
  4. it evokes fertility and new life.
  5. it symbolizes cleanliness and purity.

Answer: d

Page: 266

 

  1. The torii is
  2. often used as a gateway to a sacred location.
  3. a wand used by a Shinto priest for purification.
  4. the name of a basin where one washes before prayer.
  5. worn around the neck as a good-luck charm.

Answer: a

Page: 271

 

 

  1. In Shinto, spirits are named
  2. kami.
  3. koan.
  4. o-mikoshi.
  5. gagaku.

Answer: a

Page: 258

 

  1. The Ise Grand Shrine is dedicated to Amaterasu, and the high priest and priestess are always members of the imperial family. Why?
  2. Only the imperial family is allowed in grand shrines.
  3. Only the imperial family is allowed to converse with Amaterasu.
  4. Amaterasu is the ancestor of the Japanese emperors.
  5. Amaterasu is the patron kami of Japan.

Answer: c

Page: 258

 

  1. Emperor Meiji often celebrated which Shinto virtue in his poetry?
  2. purity
  3. sincerity
  4. reverence
  5. forgiveness

Answer: b

Page: 264

 

  1. An important element of ritual at a Shinto shrine is
  2. lighting a candle.
  3. offering incense.
  4. bodily prostration.
  5. hand clapping.

Answer: d

Page: 265

 

  1. The term Shinto comes from two Chinese words that mean
  2. the fulfillment of nature.
  3. the way of the gods.
  4. bridge of light.
  5. perfect life.

Answer: b

Page: 258

 

  1. The Japanese drew many cultural and technological elements from
  2. India.
  3. Mongolia.
  4. Vietnam.
  5. China.

Answer: d

Page: 259

 

  1. The primary focus of Shinto worship is directed toward
  2. a single, all-powerful God or Goddess.
  3. Mount Fuji and other sacred natural sites.
  4. spirits of nature and the ancestors.
  5. creating a positive flow of energy.

Answer: c

Page: 263

 

  1. According to Shinto beliefs, human beings are
  2. fundamentally good.
  3. sinful and guilty.
  4. distracted by ephemeral pleasures.
  5. attached to individualism.

Answer: a

Page: 264

 

  1. Shinto puts great emphasis on
  2. strong beliefs.
  3. careful ritual.
  4. following the commands of a spiritual teacher.
  5. regular meditation.

Answer: b

Page: 270

 

  1. Kamikaze, or “spirit wind,” refers to
  2. suicide pilots.
  3. high winds, like typhoons.
  4. gods who live at the top of mountains.
  5. the special hats of Shinto priests.

Answer: a

Page: 262

 

  1. State Shinto refers to
  2. the special role of the emperor in Shinto.
  3. a springtime rice-planting ceremony, done for the good of the nation.
  4. Shinto ceremonies carried out at the beginning of each day in schools.
  5. a former system of national shrines.

Answer: d

Page: 262

 

  1. The Nihongi is
  2. the painting of a pine tree, a frequent background for Noh plays.
  3. a special dance used in Noh plays.
  4. a collection of stories of the gods and early history.
  5. the name of one important branch of Shinto.

Answer: c

Page: 264

 

  1. The ideal of the warrior, promoted by Shinto during World War II, is called
  2. kamikaze.
  3. bushido.
  4. harai.
  5. mikoshi.

Answer: b

Page: 262

 

  1. The emperor renounced his title to divinity when
  2. Buddhism first entered Japan.
  3. Christianity first entered Japan.
  4. Japan began to modernize.
  5. World War II ended.

Answer: d

Page: 262

 

  1. Tenrikyo, which grew out of Shinto, has its headquarters near
  2. Tokyo.
  3. Kobe.
  4. Osaka.
  5. Nara.

Answer: d

Page: 273

 

  1. The founder of Tenrikyo was
  2. Kamo Mabuchi.
  3. Motoori Norinaga.
  4. Deguchi Nao.
  5. Nakayama Miki.

Answer: d

Page: 272

 

  1. Omoto is a new religion that emphasizes the value of
  2. art.
  3. business.
  4. study.
  5. technology.

Answer: a

Page: 273

 

  1. Omoto, in order to encourage international understanding, gives a special place to the study and use of
  2. Latin.
  3. Chinese.
  4. Spanish.
  5. Esperanto.

Answer: d

Page: 273

 

  1. Shinto and Buddhism
  2. have developed separately in Japan.
  3. began to blend in the nineteenth century.
  4. began to blend soon after the introduction of Buddhism.
  5. were forced to separate from each other before 1200 c.e.

Answer: c

Page: 259

 

  1. The Japanese people
  2. have always enthusiastically adopted foreign cultures.
  3. adopted the culture of Vietnam for about 500 years.
  4. seem to be a blend of several peoples.
  5. rejected the culture of China.

Answer: c

Page: 258

 

  1. When he returned from visiting his deceased wife, Izanagi had to
  2. mourn Izanami’s death for one year.
  3. purify Izanami’s burial site with fire.
  4. get the attention of the other kami by clapping.
  5. cleanse himself in water.

Answer: d

Page: 258

 

  1. The Shinto creation myth may have
  2. united the beliefs of several tribes.
  3. originated in Okinawa.
  4. retold an ancient myth from India.
  5. borrowed from the Near East.

Answer: a

Page: 259

 

  1. Shinto and Confucianism particularly had what feature in common?
  2. love of art and imagery
  3. veneration of ancestors
  4. idealization of the simple life of the farmer
  5. appreciation for ritual dance

Answer: b

Page: 261

 

  1. The emperor of Japan came to be considered a father figure for the whole country. This
  2. arose from Shinto love of ritual.
  3. was a necessity after the attempted Mongol invasion of Japan.
  4. seems to show the influence of Confucianism.
  5. came from the Buddhist ideal of the loving bodhisattva.

Answer: c

Page: 261

 

  1. Shinto
  2. has helped the Japanese maintain a sense of their unique identity.
  3. has been quite warlike throughout its long history.
  4. is a religion with organization and strong structure.
  5. developed a statement of belief and a set of commandments after 1400 C.E.

Answer: a

Page: 261

 

  1. Izanami and Izanagi created Japan when they stirred the ocean with
  2. the sandal from Izanami’s right foot.
  3. a white camellia flower.
  4. a branch of the sakaki tree.
  5. a jeweled spear.

Answer: d

Page: 258

 

  1. Izanagi searched for Izanami
  2. on the Floating Bridge of Heaven.
  3. in the underworld.
  4. in a cave near Ise.
  5. in the ocean east of Japan.

Answer: b

Page: 258

 

  1. The basis for the Japanese writing system came from
  2. Vietnam.
  3. Malaysia.
  4. China.
  5. India.

Answer: c

Page: 259

 

  1. The goddess Amaterasu was lured from a cave, where she was hiding, by
  2. the music of a flute.
  3. the smell of food being cooked.
  4. the sound of flags being blown by the wind.
  5. dancing nearby.

Answer: d

Page: 271

 

  1. The Church of World Messianity (Sekaikyusei-kyo) is an offshoot of
  2. Tenrikyo.
  3. Omoto.
  4. Honmichi.
  5. Soka Gakkai.

Answer: b

Page: 274

 

  1. The islands of Japan, according to the creation story, are a sort of “this-worldly” heaven because
  2. the gods made them.
  3. humans share the islands with divine beings.
  4. the deity of the wind has promised to protect all who live there.
  5. Amaterasu is buried there.

Answer: b

Page: 259

 

  1. Part of the accommodation between Shinto and Buddhism included
  2. separate shrines in different regions of the country.
  3. shared priests between the two religions.
  4. an agreement not to use Chinese art and architecture.
  5. a division of focus, with Buddhism associated with philosophy, death, and afterlife, while Shinto was called on for agriculture and fertility.

Answer: d

Page: 260

 

  1. During the Meiji Restoration, Shinto became tied to growing nationalism through
  2. an emphasis on the divine origins of the emperor.
  3. large state-sponsored shines.
  4. a renewed emphasis on traditional martial arts.
  5. the assimilation of Western educational and governmental models.

Answer: a

Page: 261

 

  1. Kami are associated with natural places, the ancestors, and
  2. Buddhist saints.
  3. animal spirits.
  4. famous samurai.
  5. Confucian scholars.

Answer: b

Page: 263

 

  1. A special New Year’s ritual in Shinto is
  2. the setting off of firecrackers.
  3. the dragon dance.
  4. rice pounding.
  5. the veneration of those who died in war.

Answer: c

Page: 267

 

 

Essay Topics

 

  1. Explain the derivation of the term, Shinto. What does the name tell us about the relationship with China and with Buddhism? Please explain.

 

  1. How did Amaterasu come into being? What role did she play in Japanese history?

 

  1. Describe how areas of influence are typically divided between Shinto and Buddhism in Japan. How might this be evident at a Japanese temple complex?

 

  1. Explain the emergence of State Shinto within the context of the Meiji Restoration. What was the Meiji Restoration and why did it establish State Shinto?

 

  1. Explain the basic Shinto notion of kami. Describe and name the most important kami.

 

  1. How are ancestors understood, according to basic Shinto belief?

 

  1. Describe the basic rituals associated with visiting a Shinto shrine. What is the importance of these rituals to practitioners of Shinto?

 

  1. List at least three ceremonies that are typically performed by Shinto priests.

 

  1. Summarize New Year rituals associated with Shinto.

 

  1. What roles does the emperor of Japan play in Shinto ritual?

 

  1. Describe a torii. What is its function? Where may it be found?

 

  1. Describe the key beliefs of Tenrikyo.

 

  1. Describe the key beliefs of Omoto-kyo.

 

  1. Describe at least four ways in which Shinto beliefs and practices are relevant to the problems of the modern world.