Government in America 2014 Elections And Updates Edition 16th Ed By Edwards -Test Bank

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Government in America 2014 Elections And Updates Edition 16th Ed By Edwards -Test Bank

6

 

Public Opinion and Political Action

 

 

p Multiple-Choice Questions

 

 

  1. What is demography?

 

  1. the science of human populations
  2. an “actual enumeration” of the population
  3. the distribution of the population’s beliefs about politics and policy issues
  4. an accounting of who the American people are and what they believe

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.1

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 182

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which group makes up the smallest percentage of the minority population in the United States?

 

  1. white, non-Hispanic
  2. Hispanic
  3. Native American
  4. African American

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.2

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 184

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What three socializing agents are discussed in the textbook?

 

  1. the family, the media, and political parties
  2. the family, the schools, and the political parties
  3. the media, the schools, and the family
  4. the schools, the family, and politicians

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.3

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 189

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. How does Knowledge Networks ensure participation in its Web-based surveys?

 

  1. Respondents are paid a small sum every time they participate.
  2. Respondents are selected from the cell-phone-only segment of the population.
  3. Respondents are randomly sampled.
  4. Respondents must own their own computer.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.4

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 193

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Why does the United States have a relatively restrained scope of government compared to most European nations?

 

  1. the predominance of conservatives in the United States
  2. the predominance of liberals in the United States
  3. the absence of moderates in the United States
  4. the absence of pluralist thinking in the United States

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.5

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 200

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of adult citizens voted in the 2014 midterm elections?

 

  1. less than 50 percent
  2. 60 percent
  3. 70 percent
  4. more than 80 percent

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.6

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What was Henry David Thoreau protesting in the 1840s when he refused to pay his taxes?

 

  1. high tariffs
  2. compulsory education
  3. economic inequality
  4. the Mexican War

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.7

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 205

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Of the following, which form of participation are Americans most likely to engage in?

 

  1. volunteering with a campaign
  2. protesting
  3. writing letters to the editor
  4. contacting government officials

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.8

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 206

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What were the first immigration restrictions adopted by the United States?

 

  1. no poor immigrants
  2. no uneducated immigrants
  3. no Chinese immigrants
  4. no criminals or prostitutes

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.9

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 184

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is a principal provision of the 1986 Simpson-Mazzoli Act?

 

  1. Employers must document the citizenship of their employees.
  2. State and local police must perform roadside immigration checks.
  3. The president must apprehend and deport legal and illegal immigrants if their home country is at war with the United States.
  4. A diversity admissions category was created for legal permanent residents.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.10

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 187

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about political news consumption is accurate?

 

  1. Working-class people consume more political news than do wealthier people.
  2. Older people consume more political news than do younger people.
  3. Men consume considerably more political news than do women.
  4. West Coast residents consume more political news than do East Coast residents.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.11

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 190

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What technique is the key to the accuracy of public opinion polls?

 

  1. indexing
  2. font selection
  3. random sampling
  4. in-person interviews

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.12

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. According to decades of survey data, which ideological label are Americans most likely to choose for themselves?

 

  1. libertarian
  2. liberal
  3. left-of-center
  4. conservative

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.13

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 200

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The role of religion in influencing political ideology is most closely related to __________.

 

  1. religiosity
  2. baptism
  3. denomination
  4. creed

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.14

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 201

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” penned by Martin Luther King, Jr., in 1963, is a classic defense of __________.

 

  1. consciously breaking an unjust law
  2. conscientious objection
  3. boycotting
  4. tax resistance

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.15

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 205

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. According to Ronald Reagan, what was the cause of society’s problems?

 

  1. urban decay
  2. tax evasion
  3. government
  4. scofflaws and miscreants

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.6.16

Topic: Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action

Learning Objective: LO 6.6: Analyze how public opinion about the scope of government guides political behavior.

Page Reference: 208

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Why is participation in the census so important?

 

  1. participation indicates the legitimacy of government and of laws passed by Congress
  2. changes in the U.S. population affect membership in political parties
  3. information the census collects helps to determine how more than $400 billion in federal funding is spent each year
  4. information from the census determines tax rates

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.17

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 182 – 183

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is the effect of aging on political participation?

 

  1. Aging decreases political participation until the need for government services among the very old causes an uptick in participation.
  2. Aging decreases political participation among women, but not men.
  3. Aging increases political participation until the infirmities of old age make it harder to participate.
  4. Aging has no discernible effect on political participation.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.18

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 191

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How does lower voter turnout among young citizens affect the composition of those who show up at the polls?

 

  1. Conservatives are overrepresented at the polls.
  2. Young citizens are overrepresented at the polls.
  3. Democrats are overrepresented at the polls.
  4. Liberals are overrepresented at the polls.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.19

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 200

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How does the textbook define political participation?

 

  1. all the activities used by citizens to socialize their children to the political process
  2. all the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue
  3. a measure of the minimum requirements needed to vote
  4. the capacity of individuals (or groups) to exert their own political will

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.20

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 203

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to the textbook, what is the most common form of political participation?

 

  1. public opinion polls
  2. civil disobedience
  3. voting
  4. protesting

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.21

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The textbook classifies political participation into two broad types. What are they?

 

  1. elitist and pluralist
  2. productive and unproductive
  3. conventional and unconventional
  4. casual and formal

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.22

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is considered conventional political participation?

 

  1. running for office as a third-party candidate
  2. burning the American flag
  3. blocking the entrance to a military installation
  4. staging a sit-in on campus

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.23

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Political protests are __________.

 

  1. conventional and illegal
  2. dramatic and unconventional
  3. subtle and effective
  4. casual and violent

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.24

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What is the typical aim of protests in the United States?

 

  1. making the government listen to specific demands
  2. overthrowing the government
  3. influencing voting behavior
  4. informing the public about the candidates

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.25

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 205

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What was the effect of the 1924 immigration law that established official quotas for immigrants based on national origin?

 

  1. The flow of immigrant families with children decreased.
  2. The flow of low-income immigrant families from Mexico increased.
  3. Most new immigrants were being reunited with family in the United States.
  4. Most new immigrants were from northwestern Europe.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.26

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 184

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Why do seats in the House of Representatives need to be reapportioned?

 

  1. The number of seats each state has in the House is based on a state’s population, which changes over time.
  2. The majority party in the House of Representatives is determined by each state’s proportion of party-affiliated voters.
  3. The Constitution requires that each state’s taxes be proportional to the size of its population.
  4. Each congressional district must be redrawn to reflect changes in the state’s population.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.27

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 188

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following generally increase with age?

 

  1. liberalism and political tolerance
  2. candidate loyalty and authoritarianism
  3. political participation and suspicion of out-groups
  4. political participation and strength of party attachment

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.28

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 191

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the 1936 Literary Digest poll that predicted Roosevelt’s reelection defeat is true?

 

  1. The poll oversampled those with higher income.
  2. The poll oversampled groups heavily Democratic in orientation.
  3. The poll excluded owners of automobiles.
  4. The poll undersampled middle-class voters who owned telephones.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.29

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. According to research by Jacobs and Shapiro, politicians use public opinion polls to __________.

 

  1. tell them how to vote on legislation
  2. determine what policies to pursue
  3. identify centrist approaches to public policy
  4. shape their messages to the public

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.30

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 194

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. According to Russell Neuman, the “paradox of mass politics” is that the American political system works as well as it does despite __________.

 

  1. the public’s lack of knowledge about politics
  2. the public’s lack of consensus on matters of public policy
  3. the growing polarization of public opinion
  4. politicians’ overreliance on public opinion polls

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.31

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 197

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following viewpoints is more likely to be held by a political liberal than by a political conservative?

 

  1. The United States should stop letting criminals hide behind the law.
  2. Prayer belongs in school.
  3. Taxes and spending should be kept low.
  4. Government should regulate the economy in the public interest.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.32

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 199

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is unconventional political participation?

 

  1. running for an unopposed office
  2. signing a petition in a school parking lot
  3. gathering signatures for a proposed ballot measure
  4. staging a sit-in

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.33

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about American attitudes toward the scope of government is true?

 

  1. A majority of Americans favor having unlimited government.
  2. A majority of Americans think that the government should do more rather than do less.
  3. A majority of Americans think the federal government should be streamlined.
  4. A majority of Americans never think about the scope of government.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.6.34

Topic: Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action

Learning Objective: LO 6.6: Analyze how public opinion about the scope of government guides political behavior.

Page Reference: 208

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Alice will be 85 years old when the next presidential election arrives. Will she be likely to vote?

 

  1. Alice will be likely to vote in 2014 because political participation rises steadily with age.
  2. Alice will be unlikely to vote in 2014 because political participation falls steadily with age.
  3. Alice will be likely to vote in 2014, unless the infirmities of old age make it too hard for her to cast a ballot.
  4. Alice will be unlikely to vote in 2014 because interest in politics declines after retirement.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.35

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 191

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Assume that Howard and Javier used proper sampling techniques to draw two samples of Hispanic Floridians. Each sample will be interviewed about proposed immigration policy reform and its impact on Hispanics living in the state. The samples were selected identically, but one includes 1,000 respondents and the other consists of 2,000 respondents. Given the information presented in this scenario, which of the following statements is true?

 

  1. Howard and Javier will likely underestimate the impact of immigration reform on Florida’s Hispanic population, given the size of their samples.
  2. Howard and Javier will likely overestimate the impact of immigration reform on Florida’s Hispanic population, given the size of their samples.
  3. Howard and Javier can correctly assume that the sampling error for both surveyed samples will be the same.
  4. Howard and Javier can be more confident of the results of the 2,000-person sample.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.36

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. James is embarrassed to admit that he does not know the names of his state’s senators nor which party the governor of his state belongs to. He could not find the country of Afghanistan on a map if his life depended on it and rarely reads the news. He has voted only once and knows little about politics or government. James knows that he is not the only American so ill informed. Yet, despite James’s surprising lack of knowledge, he is generally pleased with how well democracy seems to work in America. In this scenario, what does James embody?

 

  1. the “paradox of mass politics”
  2. the “bandwagon effect”
  3. the “feeling thermometer”
  4. “public opinion shorthand”

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.37

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 197

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How do liberals differ from conservatives?

 

  1. Liberals are more likely than conservatives to envision a wide scope for the central government, often involving policies that aim to promote military intervention.
  2. Liberals are more likely than conservatives to envision a wide scope for the central government, often involving policies that aim to promote equality.
  3. Among people over the age of 30, slightly more are liberal than conservative.
  4. Conservatives are more likely than liberals to want to tax our way out of debt and deficit problems.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.38

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 199

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. You agree with Darrell M. West, who argues that the United States needs to reorient its immigration policy toward enhancing economic development. Which of the following potential immigrants do you think is most deserving of an immigrant visa?

 

  1. a Turkish national with a promising new manufacturing process
  2. the parents of neurobiologist L. S. Chung, a permanent legal resident from South Korea
  3. a former Syrian army officer, now a refugee
  4. a student-athlete from New Zealand who plays basketball and hopes to coach professionally in the future

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.39

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 185

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. To determine if families with children would use school vouchers to send their children to charter schools, from which of the following populations should you select a sample?

 

  1. women with children
  2. citizens in the school district
  3. parents
  4. parents of children under age 18

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.40

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. In a random sample of 1,000 high school students, 29 percent indicated that they had read the Declaration of Independence at least once, with a sampling error of 4 percent. Which of the following statements is true?

 

  1. It is likely that more than 33 percent of the population have read the Declaration of Independence.
  2. It is likely that fewer than 25 percent of the population have read the Declaration of Independence.
  3. It is likely that between 25 and 33 percent of the population have read the Declaration of Independence.
  4. It is likely that 29 percent of the population have read the Declaration of Independence between zero and five times.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.41

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Politicians tend to ignore __________.

 

  1. those who participate
  2. the wealthy
  3. nonvoters
  4. business interests

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.42

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 207

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is a disadvantage of conducting a public opinion survey over the phone?

 

  1. Unlisted numbers cannot be reached by telephone polls.
  2. Federal law prohibits the use of automated random-digit-dialing programs to unlisted numbers.
  3. People are substantially less willing to participate in polls over the telephone than in person.
  4. Independents are less willing to participate in polls over the telephone than are partisans.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.43

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 193

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Women are more likely than men to cast their ballots for which type of candidate?

 

  1. Democratic candidates who support higher levels of spending on the military as opposed to spending on social services
  2. Republican candidates who support higher levels of spending on the military as opposed to spending on social services
  3. Democratic candidates who support higher levels of spending on social services as opposed to spending on the military
  4. Republican candidates who support higher levels of spending on social services as opposed to spending on the military

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.44

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 201

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Of the following, which is a form of political participation?

 

  1. donating money to a charity for homeless veterans
  2. working as a caseworker in a social services agency
  3. compiling a statistical analysis on the demographic factors of students enrolled at a local community college
  4. calling your representative to express your opinion about upcoming legislation

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.45

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. If the poor participated at higher levels in the political process, what might happen?

 

  1. government workers would likely unionize
  2. government-run services would likely be privatized
  3. government programs to help individuals invest their Social Security income would likely be higher on the political agenda
  4. government programs to alleviate economic inequality would likely be higher on the political agenda

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.46

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 207

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How does civil disobedience differ from a protest?

 

  1. Civil disobedience involves violence; a protest is peaceful.
  2. Civil disobedience is involuntary; a protest is voluntary.
  3. Civil disobedience involves intentionally breaking a law; a protest involves getting attention from the media.
  4. Civil disobedience involves unintentionally breaking a law; a protest involves intentionally breaking a law.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.47

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 205

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following statements about immigration in the United States is true?

 

  1. Federal law allows for the legal admission of about 1 million new immigrants every year.
  2. In recent years, illegal immigrants have outnumbered legal immigrants.
  3. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that 5 percent of the nation’s immigrants have become American citizens.
  4. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that immigrants represent 30 percent of the nation’s population.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.48

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 183

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Politicians who believe that America’s competitiveness in the globalized economy would be best served by allocating a substantial percentage of immigrant visas to people with special talents would be more likely than other politicians to repeal the __________.

 

  1. Hart-Celler Immigration and Nationality Act
  2. Civil Rights Act
  3. Affordable Care Act
  4. Simpson-Mazzoli Act

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.49

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 184

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Many of the commercials that air during the nightly news broadcasts of ABC, CBS, and NBC seem to be for various prescription drugs. What is the most plausible explanation for this fact?

 

  1. Today’s generation of young adults is significantly less likely to read newspapers than their elders.
  2. Political socialization is more important to governments than to individuals.
  3. The median age of viewers of nightly news broadcasts is 63.
  4. Children who develop positive feelings toward political authorities grow into adults who are not easily disenchanted with politics.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.50

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 190

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Conservatives generally favor the __________ sector.

 

  1. service
  2. government
  3. private
  4. public

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.51

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 199

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. When do blacks participate more in politics than whites?

 

  1. when their levels of education are equal to those of whites
  2. when their levels of income are less than those of whites
  3. when they are heads of households
  4. when they live in the South

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.52

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 207

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p True-False Questions

 

 

  1. Americans are generally more likely to participate in protests than are citizens of other democracies.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.53

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 205

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Better-educated citizens are more likely to vote, more knowledgeable about politics, and more tolerant of opposing opinions.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.54

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 190

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Citizens with above-average levels of political knowledge are more likely to have stable and consistent opinions on policy issues and to vote.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.55

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 196

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Generally, the United States has a culture that values political participation.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.56

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 203

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Opposing your state’s redistricting plans by writing letters to all state-level representatives is an unconventional form of political participation.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.57

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Americans have a long history of favoring limited government.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.6.58

Topic: Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action

Learning Objective: LO 6.6: Analyze how public opinion about the scope of government guides political behavior.

Page Reference: 208

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Average grade-school youngsters spend more time each week watching television than they spend at school.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.59

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 190

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Most polling is done on the telephone with samples selected through random-digit dialing.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.60

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 193

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Demographic changes in the U.S. population impact American culture and our political system.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.61

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 188

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Aging increases strength of party attachment and political participation (until the infirmities of old age make it harder to participate).

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.62

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 191

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. If “big government” solutions to social problems are deemed wasteful and impractical, public support for them declines.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.63

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 199

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Many Americans are ideological liberals but operational conservatives, meaning that they favor big government in principle but oppose it in practice.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.6.64

Topic: Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action

Learning Objective: LO 6.6: Analyze how public opinion about the scope of government guides political behavior.

Page Reference: 208

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. A sample is said to represent the entire population of registered voters in the United States. The total number of subjects in the sample is 1,000. Of these, approximately 180 should be white Americans.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.65

Topic: The American People; Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics; LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Americans who think that overall the government is too big but who want light rail systems installed in key traffic corridors illustrate the concept of ideological liberalism but operational conservatism.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.6.66

Topic: Understanding Public Opinion and Political Action

Learning Objective: LO 6.6: Analyze how public opinion about the scope of government guides political behavior.

Page Reference: 208

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. A conservative Republican is more likely to benefit from the gender gap than is a moderate Democrat.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.67

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 201

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Officeholders are likely to ignore the preferences of citizens who do not participate in politics.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.68

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 207

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

 

  1. The __________ is the constitutionally mandated “actual enumeration” of the population that occurs every 10 years.

 

Answer: census

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.69

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 182

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Sampling error depends on the __________ of the sample.

 

Answer: size

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.70

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The __________ process occurs once a decade, after each census, when the 435 seats in the House of Representatives are reallocated to reflect each state’s proportion of the population.

 

Answer: reapportionment

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.71

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 188

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The family, the media, and the schools all serve as important agents of __________.

 

Answer: political socialization

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.72

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 189

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. __________ encompasses the many activities in which citizens engage to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue.

 

Answer: Political participation

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.73

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 203

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Nonviolent __________ was one of the most effective techniques of the civil rights movement in the American South.

 

Answer: civil disobedience

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.74

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 205

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Public opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict electoral winners with speed and precision are called __________.

 

Answer: exit polls

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.75

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 194

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The most common means of political participation in a democracy is __________.

 

Answer: voting

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.76

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The strategy used by the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., and others in the civil rights movement was influenced by India’s __________.

 

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.77

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 205

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Perhaps surprisingly, no __________ gap is evident on the issue of abortion.

 

Answer: gender

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.78

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 201

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Short Answer Questions

 

 

  1. What did John F. Kennedy mean when he said that America is “not merely a nation but a nation of nations”? Does Kennedy’s conception of America still hold true?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Acknowledge that the United States has always been a nation of immigrants and that all Americans except Native Americans are descended from immigrants or are immigrants themselves.
  2. Suggest that the United States is still in the third of three great waves of immigration and recall that, since the 1960s, immigrants have been especially Hispanic and Asian.
  3. Provide relevant statistics regarding present-day immigration: 1 million legal immigrants per year; 500,000 illegal immigrants each year; immigrants constitute roughly 11 percent of the nation’s population.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.1.79

Topic: The American People

Learning Objective: LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.

Page Reference: 183 – 188

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What is the relationship between political protests and the media?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define protest as a form of political participation designed to achieve policy change through dramatic and unconventional tactics.
  2. Explain that protests are designed to receive media attention. The media have a willingness to cover the unusual, drawing attention to the point of view of protesters, which many Americans might otherwise never encounter.
  3. Point out that the flamboyant means of a single protest or a protest movement, such as Occupy Wall Street, are now part of the standard playbook for demonstrators, who orchestrate their activities so as to provide television cameras with vivid images.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.80

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 204 – 207

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What is the significance of family in the process of political socialization?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define political socialization as the process through which an individual acquires his or her particular political orientations.
  2. Explain how families socialize children through time commitment, emotional commitment, informal learning processes, political leanings and attitudes, and genetics.
  3. Note that children with politically active parents are more likely to be interested in politics as well and often adopt the same policy positions as their parents.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.81

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 189 – 190

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What are Election Day exit polls, and why have they been criticized?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define an exit poll as asking exiting voters at randomly selected voting places how they voted. Note that they are used by the media to predict the outcome of elections before the votes are counted.
  2. Describe how this practice may discourage some from voting.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.82

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 194 – 195

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Cedric is a high school graduate who works as an assistant manager at a big-box retailer located in the suburb of a major metropolitan center. Gayle lives in the Midwest, has two master’s degrees, and works part-time as an estate planner. Who is more likely to vote, Cedric or Gayle? On what evidence do you base your conclusion?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Choose either Cedric or Gayle as more likely to vote. Gayle is the best choice because of her education level.
  2. Explain that education exerts a profound influence on a variety of political attitudes and behavior.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.83

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 189 – 191

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What type of research error would you expect from a public opinion poll about support for women in combat roles that sought responses only from female college students who described themselves as feminists?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that polls rely on samples of the population (relatively small proportions of people) to represent the whole and that the quality of the sample is crucial for accurate public opinion polling.
  2. Evaluate this example of a public opinion poll as violating proper sampling technique because it is not random. It does not account for other population groups whose opinions about the role of women in combat would vary from those of feminist female college students.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.84

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192 -193

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Evaluate the wording of the following question from a public opinion poll: “Would you support a single-payer managed health care system if you knew your ability to choose your own physician would be limited?” Is the way that this question is posed an attempt to manipulate the results?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that, in evaluating public opinion data, it is crucial to carefully evaluate how questions are posed, because even small differences in question wording can sometimes produce significantly different results.
  2. Analyze specific sections of this question, discussing why the question may force even ardent supporters of single-payer systems to answer no. Giving up the right to choose one’s physician would not likely be seen by many as a reasonable compromise to achieve managed care through a single-payer system.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.85

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 193 – 195

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Albert is a 55-year-old high school science teacher and a father of three. Evaluate whether he is more or less likely to vote than his 22-year-old, college-educated daughter.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that age and education level increase political participation.
  2. Discuss why aging and education affect political participation.
  3. Assess whether he is more likely to vote.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.86

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 189 – 191

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. If the percentage of African American men in the general population is 6 percent, approximately what percentage of an accurately drawn random sample will be African American men? Explain your reasoning.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that 6 percent of African American men should be included in the random sample if it is accurate.
  2. Define or describe a random sample as one in which everyone has an equal probability of being selected.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.87

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192 – 193

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How would you expect trust in government to be related to support for a taxpayer-funded program to raise the high school graduation rates of African Americans?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Indicate that as trust in government increases, support for government programs and the willingness to be taxed to support those programs increases—and vice versa.
  2. Explain why trust is linked to funding support and beliefs about the effective or ineffective use of the public’s money.
  3. Explain that current low levels of political trust make it less likely that Americans will support such a program.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.88

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 197 – 199

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is the gender gap in public opinion? Why does it exist?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define the gender gap as the regular pattern in which women are more likely than men to support Democratic candidates.
  2. Discuss one or more specific examples of issues in which a gender gap is known to exist (e.g., view of an activist role for government, U.S. military intervention, restrictions on firearms, spending on social programs, or affirmative action).
  3. Explain that women, because they have been politically and economically disadvantaged, have become more likely to support spending on social services to overcome these disadvantages.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.4.89

Topic: What Americans Value: Political Ideologies

Learning Objective: LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.

Page Reference: 201

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, some commentators speculated on the reasons why the government was so slow in coming to the aid of victims, notably African Americans who lived in the poverty-stricken lower Ninth Ward. What may have been their reason for doing so?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that commentators likely assumed that African Americans in Louisiana were less likely to vote, although the difference in turnout rates between whites and blacks in Louisiana has been relatively small in recent years.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.90

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 207

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Compare and contrast the different agents of political socialization. What effect do they have on political learning?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Identify two or three agents of political socialization: family, mass media, and schools.
  2. Explain the differences in the process of political socialization for each agent.
  3. Note that much of this socialization from the family and the media is informal, where children simply learn by watching and listening to their parents and the media. Schools, however, are rather intentional in socializing students through activities like pledging allegiance to the flag.

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.91

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 189 – 191

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is random-digit dialing, and why are most polls conducted this way?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define random-digit dialing as calls placed to phone numbers created by combining exchanges with randomly selected digits.
  2. Explain why polls are conducted this way, such as the ability to reach both listed and unlisted numbers and the modest cost of making telephone calls.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.92

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 193

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Explain the relationship between social class and political participation.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define social class (a group of people with similar financial status) and political participation (all the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue).
  2. Explain that virtually every study of political participation has come to the conclusion that citizens of higher social economic status participate more in politics.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.93

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 207

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Explain why some critics contend that public opinion polls weaken American democracy.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. List and explain the reasons that public opinions polls can weaken democracy: (1) may cause politicians to be followers of public opinion, not leaders; (2) may allow politicians to frame policies toward public opinion without changing policies to reflect public opinion, and (3) may induce a bandwagon effect.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.94

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 193 – 195

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Essay Questions

 

 

  1. Recall some of the events in recent American history that have led the public to distrust the government and comment on the relationship between trust and support for policies that address poverty and racial inequality.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Acknowledge that the American public has become increasingly distrustful of government over recent decades.
  2. Itemize some of the events that have contributed to the decline of trust in government (e.g., Vietnam, Watergate, failures of the Carter administration, etc.).
  3. Note that political trust and support for policies that address poverty and racial inequality are positively correlated. Therefore, the drop in political trust helps to explain the recent drop in support for these programs.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.95

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 197 – 199

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Dorrinda and Denise are 12-year-old identical twins. Their parents do not pay much attention to politics. They rarely vote and have never been to a political rally. Given what you know about political socialization, what sort of political life do you envision for the twins?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss whether or not the twins will view politics and vote similarly to one another and to their parents.
  2. Identify reasons for the twins’ voting similarity or dissimilarity with each other and their parents, including detailed discussion of their parents as agents of political socialization and other agents (school, genetics, the media, and friends) that explain their voting behavior.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.96

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 189 – 191

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. You are an elementary school principal in Chicago, Illinois. Explain why you think intentional political socialization should take place in school. Describe two actions that you could undertake to encourage the future political participation of your students.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss why creating a learning environment that stresses the positive features of the political system will help ensure the growth of supportive citizens.
  2. Provide two specific actions that would lead to a politically productive learning environment at the school. Examples may include offering government or American politics classes, having extracurricular activities related to politics, starting the day with the Pledge of Allegiance, and staging mock elections.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.2.97

Topic: How Americans Learn About Politics: Political Socialization

Learning Objective: LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.

Page Reference: 190 – 191

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. To what extent does race affect political participation?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that African Americans are only slightly less likely to participate than are whites, in part because a legacy of racism and discrimination has left a relatively high proportion of African Americans economically disadvantaged.
  2. Explain that when blacks and whites with equal levels of education are compared, the former actually participate more in politics.
  3. Explain that minorities have a group consciousness that gives them an extra incentive to vote.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.5.98

Topic: How Americans Participate in Politics

Learning Objective: LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.

Page Reference: 207

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How was it possible that the Literary Digest erroneously predicted that Republican Alf Landon would beat incumbent Democrat Franklin Roosevelt in his 1936 bid for reelection, despite having obtained over 2 million responses to its poll?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss the significance of proper sampling techniques.
  2. Explain that the Literary Digest used two of the biggest available list of names, telephone books and motor vehicle records, in order to conduct its poll. These lists prevented the poll, taken in the midst of the Great Depression, from being representative of the voting universe as it represented only those with above-average incomes. Sampling techniques should be based on representative accuracy, not solely on number of responses.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q6.3.99

Topic: Measuring Public Opinion and Political Information

Learning Objective: LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.

Page Reference: 192 – 193

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

7

 

The Mass Media and the Political Agenda

 

 

p Multiple-Choice Questions

 

 

  1. Differences in press coverage between the initial speeches given to Congress by President Reagan and by President Obama show __________.

 

  1. a diminishing audience for national news and presidential messages
  2. that presidential addresses receive higher Nielson ratings today than they did several decades ago
  3. more Americans read presidential addresses in newspapers, while fewer view coverage on TV
  4. that more than 50 percent of Americans can be expected to tune in to watch presidential addresses to Congress

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.0.1

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 216

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other forms of communication are collectively referred to as the __________.

 

  1. mass media
  2. media conglomeration
  3. partisan press
  4. fifth estate

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.0.2

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 216

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. According to journalist Mark Hertsgaard, which of the following is one of the seven principles on which news management in the Reagan White House operated?

 

  1. Express the message once and only once.
  2. Be spontaneous.
  3. Stay on the offensive.
  4. Expand reporters’ access to the president.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.1.3

Topic: The Mass Media Today

Learning Objective: LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media.

Page Reference: 217

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. In 1960, one newspaper was sold for every two adults; by 2008, one paper was sold for every __________.

 

  1. adult
  2. three adults
  3. five adults
  4. 50 adults

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.4

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 220

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In 1934, Congress created which body to regulate the use of the airwaves?

 

  1. Federal Trade Commission
  2. Equal Opportunity Commission
  3. Federal Communications Commission
  4. Department of Media Communications

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.5

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 222

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Over 80 percent of the nation’s daily newspaper circulation is published by massive media conglomerates called __________.

 

  1. narrowcasters
  2. chains
  3. broadcasters
  4. associated press outlets

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.6

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 229

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In democracies, the primary interest of publicly owned media is __________.

 

  1. reducing recidivism
  2. serving the public interest
  3. promoting the government
  4. entertaining viewers

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.7

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 229

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The primary interest of privately owned media is __________.

 

  1. making a profit
  2. serving the public interest
  3. spreading propaganda
  4. informing the public

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.8

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 229

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. How does the increasing focus of media conglomerates on making a profit affect television news?

 

  1. The quality of news reporting has increased considerably in an attempt to sway more viewers and more advertisers.
  2. A study of a set of major newspapers found that the total number of foreign news stories in U.S. newspapers doubled between 1985 and 2014.
  3. Media organizations have cut back on their foreign bureaus and on international news.
  4. Television news is increasingly viewed as a public service that benefits the media conglomerate by generating goodwill with viewers.

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.9

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 229

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Who declared, “The president of the United States will not stand and be questioned like a chicken thief by men whose names he does not even know”?

 

  1. Herbert Hoover
  2. John F. Kennedy
  3. Richard Nixon
  4. Ronald Reagan

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.10

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction it generates is called a(n) __________.

 

  1. talking head
  2. press release
  3. earmark
  4. trial balloon

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.11

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The average length of time that a presidential candidate was given to talk uninterrupted on the TV news in 1968 was __________; in 2008, it was __________.

 

  1. 5 seconds; 25 seconds
  2. 43 seconds; 9 seconds
  3. 5 minutes; 5 seconds
  4. 8 minutes; 20 seconds

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.12

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 232

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What are the specific locations from which news frequently emanates called?

 

  1. trial balloons
  2. news houses
  3. reporters’ clubs
  4. beats

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.13

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Increasing public attention to specific problems is a core feature of the media’s __________ power.

 

  1. watchdog
  2. investigative
  3. agenda-setting
  4. score-keeping

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.14

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Research suggests that the overriding bias in the news is one toward stories that __________.

 

  1. favor liberals
  2. favor conservatives
  3. draw the largest audience
  4. put the president in a good light

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.15

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 235

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. People who invest their political capital in an issue are called __________.

 

  1. agenda setters
  2. policy entrepreneurs
  3. lobbyists
  4. gatekeepers

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.16

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The issues that attract serious attention from public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time are collectively referred to as __________ agenda.

 

  1. news
  2. policy
  3. media
  4. entrepreneurial

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.17

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a consequence of the rise of television broadcasting?

 

  1. Candidates are more capable of running for office on their own by appealing to people directly through TV.
  2. Individuals have a greater need for political parties to help them make decisions.
  3. Groups have greater access to spread their issues and messages to the public.
  4. The American public is better informed about politics and Congress is basing its opinions more on public opinion.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.6.18

Topic: Understanding the Mass Media

Learning Objective: LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.

Page Reference: 238

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is an event called that is purposely staged for the media and that is significant just because the media are there?

 

  1. a think tank
  2. a pork-barrel project
  3. a media event
  4. a round-robin event

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.1.19

Topic: The Mass Media Today

Learning Objective: LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media.

Page Reference: 217

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The cozy relationship between politicians and the press in the twentieth century lasted until when?

 

  1. the Iran Hostage Crisis
  2. World War II
  3. the beginning of Franklin Roosevelt’s presidency
  4. the Vietnam War and Watergate

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.20

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, at times putting reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders, is referred to as __________ journalism.

 

  1. beat
  2. gatekeeping
  3. investigative
  4. law-and-order

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.21

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Investigative journalism may contribute to __________.

 

  1. public cynicism and negativity about politics
  2. corporate ownership of the media
  3. an increase in long-term media consumption rates
  4. a legal environment that favors plaintiffs over defendants

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.22

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Thomas Patterson’s careful analysis of campaign reporting has shown that since 1960, its emphasis has changed dramatically from __________.

 

  1. negative information about the candidates to negative assessments about the parties
  2. the candidates’ policy statements to the campaign as a horse race
  3. covering events to covering ideas
  4. sensational information about the candidates to substantive information about the issues

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.23

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 219

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. As technology has enabled the media to pass along information with greater speed, news coverage has become __________.

 

  1. more homogenous
  2. less thorough
  3. more objective
  4. less biased

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.24

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 232

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Public officials often leak __________ to reporters to see what the political reaction will be.

 

  1. trial balloons
  2. sound bites
  3. beats
  4. oiled news

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.25

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is a consequence of the rise of narrowcasting?

 

  1. Young adults are more likely than other age groups to use newspapers and broadcast media as news and information sources.
  2. Young adults are less likely than other age groups to use newspapers and broadcast media as news and information sources.
  3. Most Americans follow politics more frequently and with greater intensity than they follow popular culture.
  4. Narrowcasting has encouraged less repetition of stories on cable news programs.

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.26

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 222

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Epstein’s News From Nowhere suggests which of the following about newsworthiness?

 

  1. TV networks define news as what is entertaining to average viewers.
  2. The media strive for quality of story rather than ratings.
  3. The media tend to report only the most important stories.
  4. The media tend to pitch stories to a relatively high level of viewer sophistication.

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.27

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Research by Miller and Krosnick demonstrates that the effects of agenda-setting are particularly strong among which group?

 

  1. politically knowledgeable citizens who trust the media
  2. politically knowledgeable citizens who distrust the media
  3. younger citizens who trust the media
  4. older citizens who distrust the media

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.28

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Iyengar and Kinder’s research found that TV news __________.

 

  1. can alter the priorities Americans attach to problems depending on which stories are covered
  2. has minimal effects on the public opinion of viewers
  3. discourages citizens from voting by focusing on the imperfections of the democratic system
  4. selects stories that are especially important to business interests

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.29

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. The “minimal effects hypothesis” suggested that the media have a minimal effect on __________.

 

  1. public opinion
  2. policymakers’ issue positions
  3. Americans’ consumption of newspapers
  4. Americans who do not watch TV

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.30

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Policy entrepreneurs are people who invest __________ in an issue.

 

  1. their life savings
  2. financial expertise
  3. political capital
  4. scant attention

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.31

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The media act as a __________ between the people and policymakers.

 

  1. key linkage institution
  2. stockbroker
  3. real estate agent
  4. standard operating procedure

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.6.32

Topic: Understanding the Mass Media

Learning Objective: LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.

Page Reference: 238

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of these is an example of a major television network?

 

  1. ABC
  2. Knight-Ridder
  3. Associated Press
  4. Gannett

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.33

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 229

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Television, radio, and the Internet are __________ media; newspapers and magazines are __________ media.

 

  1. electronic; print
  2. public; private
  3. private; public
  4. liberal; conservative

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.34

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 219 – 220

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. An example of a newsweekly is __________.

 

  1. Time
  2. the New York Times
  3. the Washington Post
  4. the Daily News

 

Answer: a

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.35

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 220

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Top aides to President Clinton leaked his admission of an “inappropriate relationship” to the New York Times in order to gauge the public response to the revelation. Based on the public’s response to this __________, Clinton went ahead and admitted the “inappropriate relationship” to the grand jury.

 

  1. beat
  2. trial balloon
  3. talking head
  4. sound bite

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.36

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. In covering military conflicts, the majority of TV news stories usually originate from correspondents posted at __________ including the White House, the Pentagon, and the State Department.

 

  1. associated presses
  2. networks
  3. trial balloons
  4. beats

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.37

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Politicians and journalists have a(n) __________ relationship: Politicians rely on journalists to get out their message, and journalists rely on politicians to keep them in the know.

 

  1. parasitic
  2. symbiotic
  3. cooperative
  4. adversarial

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.38

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 231

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Which of these would a major TV network be least likely to show for very long?

 

  1. ambassadors fighting at the United Nations
  2. talking heads discussing a major news event
  3. the aftermath of a major natural disaster
  4. footage of a domestic terrorist attack

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.39

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 235

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. During a 1976 presidential debate, President Ford made a mistake by saying that the Soviet Union was not the dominant force in Eastern Europe. The statement was given much press coverage, and polls indicated that most viewers did not recognize the error until they learned of it on the news. What effect did this reporting have on public opinion?

 

  1. It made Ford more personally likable.
  2. It made Ford seem less vulnerable.
  3. It made Ford seem more qualified.
  4. It made Ford seem less qualified.

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.40

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Civil rights activists in the 1960s used the media to show Americans the injustice of the treatment of minorities, successfully placing the civil rights issue onto the __________.

 

  1. policy entrepreneur
  2. policy agenda
  3. press conference
  4. news beat

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.41

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What do network executives blame for the superficiality in media reporting?

 

  1. cable news
  2. social media
  3. the Internet
  4. the public

 

Answer: d

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.6.42

Topic: Understanding the Mass Media

Learning Objective: LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.

Page Reference: 239

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. __________ is the tendency for viewers to seek news that aligns with their existing ideas.

 

  1. Narrowcasting
  2. Investigative journalism
  3. Selective exposure
  4. Logrolling

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.43

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 225

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The increased number of news and infotainment options has resulted in __________ in which media outlets focus on a particular interest and aim at a particular audience.

 

  1. infotainment
  2. watchdog journalism
  3. narrowcasting
  4. selective exposure

 

Answer: c

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.44

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 222

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Trial balloons are used for which of the following?

 

  1. avoiding a political reaction
  2. assessing a political reaction
  3. exposing media bias
  4. limiting media bias

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.45

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. After the 2004 Iowa caucuses, the press repeatedly showed an unusually awkward clip of Howard Dean screaming rather than any substantive portions of the event. What does this illustrate?

 

  1. a sound bite
  2. the newsworthiness of odd events
  3. a trial balloon
  4. a beat

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.46

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The media’s emphasis on the slowly improving American economic situation in 2012 rather than the record number of long-term unemployed Americans is an example of __________.

 

  1. investigative journalism
  2. agenda setting
  3. policy entrepreneurship
  4. narrowcasting

 

Answer: b

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.47

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p True-False Questions

 

 

  1. In high-tech politics, the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda are increasingly shaped by technology.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.0.48

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 216

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Television has enabled voters to rely more on political parties and social groups to make their decisions about candidates and less on their own assessments.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.6.49

Topic: Understanding the Mass Media

Learning Objective: LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.

Page Reference: 238

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. A media event is staged for the purpose of being covered by the media.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.1.50

Topic: The Mass Media Today

Learning Objective: LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media.

Page Reference: 217

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Up until the early 1960s, the relationship between politicians and the press was relatively cozy and many reporters accepted most of what government officials told them.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.51

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Policy entrepreneurs are political activists who employ media strategies to get their ideas placed high on the governmental agenda.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.52

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Some viewers gain political information by watching comedy television shows.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.53

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 223

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Research suggests that most reporting is systematically biased in a liberal direction.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.54

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 234

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The First Amendment guarantees American journalists the freedom to criticize government leaders and policies.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.55

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 220

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. In focusing public attention on particular events, the media influence the criteria by which the public evaluates political leaders.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.56

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and others involved in politics are collectively known as the policy agenda.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.57

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A majority of presidential campaign spending is devoted to TV ads.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.1.58

Topic: The Mass Media Today

Learning Objective: LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media.

Page Reference: 217

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Many political scientists believe that investigative journalism contributes to public cynicism and negativity about politics.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.59

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. A majority of Americans believe that press criticism of political leaders is worthwhile because it keeps leaders from doing things that should not be done.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.6.60

Topic: Understanding the Mass Media

Learning Objective: LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.

Page Reference: 238

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. While there is little evidence that the media directly affect how citizens vote, there is considerable evidence that the media shape what citizens think about.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.61

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Reporters believe that exposing officeholders is an essential task of the media.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.6.62

Topic: Understanding the Mass Media

Learning Objective: LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.

Page Reference: 238

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. News coverage of campaigns has become more negative since the 1960s.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.63

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 219

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Media events are those everyday campaign events that would be organized whether or not the press is likely to show up.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.1.64

Topic: The Mass Media Today

Learning Objective: LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media.

Page Reference: 217

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The United States is in an era of high-tech politics.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.0.65

Topic: Introduction

Learning Objective: Introduction

Page Reference: 216

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Republicans are more likely to get their news from Fox News than from CNN or MSNBC.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.66

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 225

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Newspaper circulation rates in the United States have been steadily declining.

 

Answer: TRUE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.67

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 220

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. A dog-bites-man story is more likely to be newsworthy than is a man-bites-dog story.

 

Answer: FALSE

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.68

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

 

  1. Press conferences are meetings of __________ with reporters.

 

Answer: public officials

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.69

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. __________ is the process through which people consciously choose to get the news from information sources that have viewpoints compatible with their own.

 

Answer: Selective exposure

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.70

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 225

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Chains are groups of newspapers published by __________ and account for over 80 percent of the nation’s daily newspaper circulation.

 

Answer: media conglomerates

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.71

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 229

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. __________ are intentional news leaks for the purpose of assessing the political reaction.

 

Answer: Trial balloons

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.72

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Americans today hear __________ of about 10 seconds or less of important political speeches on television news.

 

Answer: sound bites

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.73

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 232

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The __________ is the set of issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.

 

Answer: policy agenda

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.74

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237

Skill Level: Remember the Facts

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The __________ Amendment guarantees freedom of the press.

 

Answer: First

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.75

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 220

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. The proposed __________ would offer newspapers the option of operating as nonprofit organizations for educational purposes.

 

Answer: Newspaper Revitalization Act

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.76

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 221

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. If a reporter is assigned to cover news from the Pentagon, it is considered the reporter’s __________.

 

Answer: beat

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.77

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

 

p Short Answer Questions

 

 

  1. What are media events, and how are they used?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define a media event as a staged event that is significant only because the media are there.
  2. Explain that the events themselves may not be important, but the fact that they are broadcast suggests their importance. Thus, the politician staging the event benefits by increasing his or her overall exposure to the public.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.1.78

Topic: The Mass Media Today

Learning Objective: LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media.

Page Reference: 217

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. What are sound bites? How does their use influence the nature of the news?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define a sound bite as a product of changing technology whereby the media are able to, for instance, take a small, 10-second section of a speech and use it instead of the substance of a candidate’s position.
  2. Discuss how sound bites could be beneficial in their ability to encapsulate complex subjects in short, digestible bits for citizens, but also how they might be negative in making peripheral aspects of the speech into the news, as noted by Jimmy Carter, or in allowing politicians to develop slogans over policy, as noted by Walter Cronkite.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.79

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 232

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Explain how the media determine what is newsworthy. Do you think these criteria should be changed?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that TV networks define newsworthiness as what is entertaining to the viewer and what is profitable for the network.
  2. Evaluate whether these criteria for newsworthiness should be changed.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.80

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230 – 231

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What are policy entrepreneurs, and how do they try to get their underrepresented issues on the governmental agenda?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define a policy entrepreneur as someone in or out of government who invests political capital in an issue and depends heavily on the media to get particular ideas placed high on the policy agenda.
  2. Explain how policy entrepreneurs rely on tools including press releases, letter writing, lobbying journalists, using personal contacts, and occasionally staging dramatic events to tell their side.
  3. Explain how they bring underrepresented issues and concerns to the policy agenda—for example, Saul Alinsky’s dramatization of the plight of the neighborhood by dumping dead rats on the mayor’s lawn.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.5.81

Topic: Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 237 – 238

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. Based on information in the chapter, if you were a media consultant, what recommendations would you make to a candidate about how to get his or her message out through the mass media?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that candidates rely heavily on the mass media to communicate with potential voters.
  2. Explain that candidates should use media events to increase general exposure, make appearances on non-news shows such as late-night talk shows or comedy shows, and rely heavily on the Internet to connect with citizens and encourage political engagement and mobilization.
  3. Include in your recommendations the use of political activists and policy entrepreneurs to bring attention to the candidate’s agenda.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.1.82

Topic: The Mass Media Today; Policy Entrepreneurs and Agenda Setting

Learning Objective: LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media; LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.

Page Reference: 216 – 217, 223, 237

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is narrowcasting? Evaluate how narrowcasting can be both a good thing and a bad thing.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain how narrowcasting is a development of cable television that allows viewers to focus on channels with programs that appeal to narrow interests.
  2. Explain how narrowcasting can be good in that it has the potential to increase the amount of information disseminated to citizens, but that it can be bad in that it restricts the variety of viewpoints.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.83

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 222 – 226

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How does the length of political candidates’ sound bites compare across the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and France? What accounts for the length of sound bites in these countries?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that the sound bites for politicians in Germany, France, and Great Britain are between 12 and 15 seconds and the sound bites for politicians in the United States are about 10 seconds. Note that these European sound bites are not that much longer than those for American politicians, despite differences across political systems.
  2. Describe the two factors that appear to be at work in advanced industrialized democracies that have contributed to fairly short sound bites. First, technological advancements in editing have made it quite easy to cut political statements into small tidbits. And, second, networks usually believe that brief sound bites are best to keep their audience.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.84

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 232 – 233

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty Level: Moderate

 

  1. In what ways are the news media as a whole biased? Evaluate the evidence that there might be an ideological bias in the media.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that the media are biased in favor of a good story that will attract an audience and keep advertisers happy.
  2. Explain that the media are biased in favor of unusual, man-bites-dog stories.
  3. Note that most researchers have found very little evidence of an overall ideological bias in the media, even though the public sometimes complains about the “liberal media” bias.
  4. At the same time, note that reporters tend to be politically liberal.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.85

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 234 – 235

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. According to the text, a major metropolitan newspaper averages roughly 100,000 words daily, whereas a typical broadcast of the nightly TV news is only about 3,600 words. Why does this difference matter?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain that TV news is much more superficial than are newspapers. TV news provides little more than headlines and sound bites.
  2. Note that citizens are abandoning traditional newspapers in droves and switching to news sources that are more superficial.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.86

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 219 – 221

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is selective exposure? Do you think it is a problem or a strength in today’s media? Explain your answer.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define selective exposure as the process through which people consciously choose to get the news from sources with views compatible to their own.
  2. Assess whether selective exposure is a problem or a weakness. Most students should argue that it’s a weakness because it can turn people off from politics and prevent compromise since citizens never hear the competing perspective on issues.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.87

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 225 – 226

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What effect did the events surrounding the Vietnam War and Watergate have on the news media and their relationship to politics and the American people? Assess whether this was a good development.

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that like radio in WWII, TV brought the Vietnam War and the events of Watergate directly into the homes of Americans.
  2. Discuss how the coverage of these events, by exposing governmental naiveté and outright lying regarding the conduct of the war as well as shining light on the power abuses by President Nixon during Watergate, destroyed the deference that the media and the public had traditionally extended to political leaders and their policy choices.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.88

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 218 – 219

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How does government regulate the news media? Are these regulations beneficial to democracy?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Analyze how the Federal Communications Commission’s regulation of the media generally works to promote a diversity of news sources through its prevention of monopolies, that its licensing powers work to make sure broadcasters are generally serving the public interest, and that its fair treatment rules regarding the sale of advertising to political candidates make sure all candidates get the opportunity to pay for equal media time—all of which make the news more open and democratic.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.89

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 222

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. How has the Internet changed news reporting? How has it changed political campaigns and elections? What effect does the Internet have on other news media?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss the ways in which the Internet has changed news reporting, specifically, that while it provides a lot more news, people are not necessarily more informed due in part to self-selection.
  2. Explain how the Internet has helped change campaigns and elections by facilitating more communication with the public at large, which helps with political mobilization. An appropriate example might be Facebook or the use of political blogs.
  3. Discuss how the rise of online sources has made print media less competitive, but also provides the greatest potential for their long-term survival.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.90

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 226 – 228

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What is the FCC and what are its purposes? Is it a necessary agency? Why or why not?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Define the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as an independent regulatory agency created to regulate the use of the public airwaves.
  2. Make an argument as to whether the FCC is necessary for preventing monopolies over the broadcast market, reviewing the goals and performance of broadcast stations, and ensuring the fair treatment of those seeking to purchase political advertisements.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.91

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 222

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

 

p Essay Questions

 

 

  1. Describe how the media shape public opinion. What are the consequences of the media’s influence on public opinion?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Note that the “minimal effects hypothesis,” which stated that the media had at best a negligible effect on public opinion, was quickly cast aside once researchers switched their focus away from direct effects like vote choice.
  2. Discuss the major ways in which the media shape public opinion, including agenda-setting, framing the issues, and influencing the criteria by which politicians are evaluated by citizens.
  3. Explain the positive consequences of this influence, including aiding citizens in engaging with a thoughtful and deliberate source of information and information contexts.
  4. Evaluate the possible negative effects, including directing citizens’ attention away from issues that might favor one candidate over another—for example, the fact that talking about the economic recovery in 2012 instead of lingering unemployment favored Barack Obama at the expense of Mitt Romney.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.92

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236 – 237

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Based on your opinion and a careful reading of the textbook, what role should the media play in American democracy? What role do they play?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Form an argument about the appropriate role of the media. Should the media inform public opinion through the objective presentation of facts? Should the media lead public opinion by telling citizens what is important and what criteria matter in the evaluation of politics? Should the media actively try to steer the public to whom they deem to be the best candidate and what they deem to be the optimal solutions to public policy problems?
  2. Discuss how the corporate, profit-driven media tend to take the middle road and tend to focus on negative and unusual stories that attract the largest audience. Evaluate why this might have a negative effect on democracy by focusing on candidate mistakes and missteps that could alter the perception that the public has of candidates.
  3. Explain the overall impact of this on the health of democracy in the context of citizens making independent decisions about government.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.4.93

Topic: The News and Public Opinion

Learning Objective: LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media have on what policy issues Americans think about.

Page Reference: 236 – 237

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Should we be concerned by Americans’ habits regarding consumption of the news? Should we be troubled by the fact that more Americans do not take fuller advantage of the Internet to gather information about political issues or campaigns and elections? Why or why not?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Explain how the explosion of media sources should be good for democracy because information is what fuels democratic governance, but that this is greatly underused.
  2. Discuss Americans’ news-consumption habits, specifically how we tend to focus on light or entertainment-based news.
  3. Note that Americans are turning away from newspapers in droves, despite the fact that newspapers offer in-depth coverage of political events while television news provides little more than headlines.
  4. Explain the concern that the rise of the information society has failed to produce an informed society.
  5. Make an argument about why this may be bad or good.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.6.94

Topic: Understanding the Mass Media

Learning Objective: LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.

Page Reference: 238 – 239

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. What consequences follow the character and quality of media coverage of political news when news organizations are privately owned? How does this differ from the type of coverage provided by publicly owned organizations?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss the fact that American media ownership structure is highly concentrated in a few corporate conglomerations. Note that there is very little publicly owned media in the United States.
  2. Explain how private ownership, because it is driven by profits and is totally dependent on advertising revenues, affects political reporting through the need to cut costs—including reducing the number of foreign bureaus, for example, and to limit the depth of coverage of news issues.
  3. Discuss how private ownership, coupled with the First Amendment protection of free speech, provides American journalists greater opportunities to be critical of government.
  4. Explain how public media, because it is not driven by profit, can serve the public interest without worrying about the size of their audience. This means that the news tends to be more substantive and informative.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.2.95

Topic: The Development of Media Politics

Learning Objective: LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.

Page Reference: 228 – 229

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult

 

  1. Most people describe government and election news coverage as superficial, narrow, and limited. Explain what factors contribute to these tendencies in news coverage in the United States. Whom do government officials and candidates blame for the nature of news coverage? Whom do journalists blame?

 

Answer: An ideal response will:

  1. Discuss the factors that contribute to the superficial and narrow coverage of American news, including the need to retain an audience and not be boring or confusing, the short amount of time given to news analysis, the fact that the media focus on strategy and the horse race, and the development of technology that has allowed reporters to do their jobs faster but not better.
  2. Explain how politicians blame the media for this problem because the media are driven by a need to generate an audience and thus can ignore politicians’ requests for time to discuss issues at length. For example, the text mentions the rebuff of President Clinton and his request for network time to discuss United States–China relations. In addition, discuss how politicians often claim that they have a lot to say, but that the media only discuss a small portion of it. Note Jimmy Carter’s frustration with the superficial coverage of campaigns, despite the fact that it is covered by more than 100 reporters.
  3. Explain how the media blame politicians for embracing the sound bite as a way to stay visible in the news without saying anything of substance, and that the incentive is to build catchy phrases instead of substantive plans.

 

Test Bank Item Title: TB_Q7.3.96

Topic: Reporting the News

Learning Objective: LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.

Page Reference: 230 – 235

Skill Level: Analyze It

Difficulty Level: Difficult