Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia – Test Bank

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Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia – Test Bank

 

 Sample  Questions

 

5                          COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

DURING THE FIRST THREE YEARS

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. What are six approaches to the study of cognitive development?
  2. How do infants learn, and how long can they remember?
  3. Can infants’ and toddlers’ intelligence be measured, and can it be improved?
  4. How did Piaget explain early cognitive development, and how well have his claims stood up?
  5. How can we measure infants’ ability to process information, and when do infants begin to understand characteristics of the physical world?
  6. What can brain research reveal about the development of cognitive skills?
  7. How does social interaction with adults advance cognitive competence?
  8. How do babies develop language, and what influences contribute to linguistic progress?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Which approach attempts to measure intelligence quantitatively?
  2. psychometric
  3. Piagetian
  4. information-processing
  5. cognitive

Answer: A

Page: 144

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which approach looks at the quality of cognitive functioning at different stages of life?
  2. psychometric
  3. Piagetian
  4. information-processing
  5. behaviorist

Answer: B

Page: 144

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Little Mark plays with a balloon that pops in his face and frightens him. The next time he sees a balloon, he starts to cry. The type of learning illustrated in this example is called
  2. habituation.
  3. operant conditioning.
  4. classical conditioning.
  5. latent learning.

Answer: C

Page: 145

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. When an infant is classically conditioned, he or she learns
  2. a relationship between two stimulus events.
  3. to stop responding to an unimportant, repetitive stimulus.
  4. to associate a certain behavior with a reward.
  5. to avoid punishment by crying.

Answer: A

Page: 145

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Classically conditioned learning will fade or become extinct if it is not
  2. punished.
  3. reinforced.
  4. ignored.
  5. dishabituated.

Answer: B

Page: 145

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When a child learns to behave in a specific way in order to obtain a specific result, what is occurring?
  2. habituation
  3. classical conditioning
  4. operant conditioning
  5. social learning

Answer: C

Page: 145

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Susie learned to sit on the floor and cry until she is given a piece of candy. This is an example of
  2. habituation.
  3. classical conditioning.
  4. operant conditioning.
  5. social learning.

Answer: C

Page: 145

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Lucy has no memories about her early life. Her first memories are of preschool when she was 3 years old. This inability to recall early events is called
  2. information-processing.
  3. infantile amnesia.
  4. infantile literacy stage.
  5. a learning opportunity.

Answer: B

Page: 145

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. At Tiny Tots day care, the caregivers have found that if the infants in their care repeat an action over and over again they will
  2. not repeat the action in several weeks.
  3. always repeat the action several weeks later.
  4. often repeat the action several weeks later.
  5. repeat the action if it was practiced with their mother.

Answer: C

Page: 146

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Young infants’ memory is specifically linked to a particular cue. At what age will children repeat a learned behavior without the original cue being available?
  2. 3 to 4 months
  3. 4 to 6 months
  4. 9 to 12 months
  5. after the first year

Answer: C

Page: 146

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development produce a(n)
  2. IQ score.
  3. report of mental, motor, and behavioral development.
  4. developmental assessment that correlates with adult abilities.
  5. measure of reflex development.

Answer: B

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the Bayley III test scales of infant and toddler development?
  2. alertness
  3. motor
  4. mental
  5. behavior rating

Answer: A

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following children would be MOST likely to be assessed with the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development?
  2. a newborn who suffered anoxia during delivery
  3. a 4 1/2-year-old who shows high intelligence
  4. a 2-year-old who has not yet spoken any words
  5. a 3-year-old who developed language at an early age

Answer: C

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Developmental test scores obtained during infancy are
  2. very reliable.
  3. strong predictors of adult IQ.
  4. good predictors of childhood IQ.
  5. None of these.

Answer: D

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Developmental tests measure mostly sensory and motor abilities, whereas intelligence tests used for older children also measure __________ abilities.
  2. behavioral
  3. mental
  4. verbal
  5. cognitive

Answer: C

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a concern of the HOME items assessment?
  2. It may be less culturally relevant in non-Western homes.
  3. It is correlational data and may not have a direct effect on intelligence.
  4. There may be a genetic influence at work in the highly rated homes.
  5. Examiners may bias the results by the way they ask the questions.

Answer: D

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. HOME is an instrument for evaluating the impact of a child’s home environment on
  2. socioeconomic status.
  3. emotional health.
  4. intellectual development.
  5. future career success.

Answer: C

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. HOME examiners rate parents on all of the following EXCEPT
  2. expressions of affection.
  3. number of books in the home.
  4. parent’s involvement in children’s play.
  5. feeding methods.

Answer: D

Page: 148

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. HOME scores demonstrated that all of the following were positively related to high intelligence in children EXCEPT
  2. mother’s ability to create an environment that fostered learning.
  3. responsiveness of parents to children.
  4. access to stimulating play materials.
  5. number of children in the family.

Answer: D

Page: 149

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. A systematic process of providing therapeutic and educational services to families that need help in meeting young children’s developmental needs is called
  2. natural child-rearing.
  3. infant support.
  4. early intervention.
  5. developmental priming.

Answer: C

Page: 149

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The Piagetian approach focuses on
  2. qualitative changes in cognition.
  3. quantitative differences in intelligence.
  4. establishing norms for intelligence tests.
  5. the relationship of brain development to sensorimotor function.

Answer: A

Page: 151

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The first stage in Piaget’s cognitive theory is
  2. sensorimotor.
  3. preoperational .
  4. concrete operational.
  5. formal operational.

Answer: A

Page: 151

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piaget called organized patterns of behavior
  2. operations.
  3. schemes.
  4. gestalts.
  5. circular reactions.

Answer: B

Page: 151

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following defines Piaget’s concept of circular reactions?
  2. They are primitive reflexes in infants.
  3. Circular reactions set up continuous cycles of waking and sleeping.
  4. They occur as a result of operant conditioning.
  5. Circular reactions are another form of habituation.

Answer: C

Page: 151

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following do infants do during the first month of life according to Piaget?
  2. behave only reflexively
  3. begin to initiate activity
  4. develop primary circular reactions
  5. make acquired adaptations

Answer: B

Page: 151

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Marla finds that rubbing her face against the satin edge of her blanket feels good. She learns to repeat this action to get a pleasurable sensation. According to Piaget, she has acquired a(n)
  2. adaptation.
  3. circular reaction.
  4. unconditioned response.
  5. symbolic representation.

Answer: B

Page: 151

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Cody is 3 months old and has been given a pacifier to suck on for the first time. Since he finds sucking on the pacifier to be pleasurable, Cody repeats this activity whenever possible. According to Piaget, Cody is in the __________ substage of the sensorimotor period.
  2. first
  3. second
  4. third
  5. tertiary

Answer: B

Page: 151

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. According to Piaget, infants who repeat actions in order to get results outside their own bodies are engaging in
  2. primary circular reactions.
  3. secondary circular reactions.
  4. deferred imitation.
  5. sensorimotor conditioning.

Answer: B

Page: 151-152

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Erica, who is 10 months old, is trying to solve the problem of obtaining a toy on a high shelf. According to Piaget, if she has reached the fourth substage of the sensorimotor stage, which of the following is most likely to occur?
  2. She will quickly lose interest in the problem and forget the toy.
  3. She will choose a strategy to attempt to get the toy and persist with that strategy even if it fails repeatedly.
  4. She will become frustrated and simply cry until she falls asleep.
  5. She will attempt a strategy that was successful in obtaining a book on a high shelf in the past.

Answer: D

Page: 151-152

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Tertiary circular reactions involve
  2. doing three things at once.
  3. varying an action to see what will happen.
  4. repeating a behavior at least three times.
  5. manipulating symbols.

Answer: B

Page: 152

Guidepost:4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A child hits a drum with different kinds of objects in order to make different sounds. According to Piaget, this child is exhibiting
  2. a variability scheme.
  3. classical conditioning.
  4. a tertiary circular reaction.
  5. object permanence.

Answer: C

Page: 152

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When Piaget’s daughter, Lucienne, figured out how to remove a watch chain from a box by widening the opening and opened and closed her mouth to signify this, she had reached what substage?
  2. substage 2
  3. substage 4
  4. substage 5
  5. substage 6

Answer: D

Page: 152

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. At 21 months of age, Pierre has acquired a symbolic thinking system. Which substage of the sensorimotor stage is he in?
  2. substage 3
  3. substage 4
  4. substage 5
  5. substage 6

Answer: D

Page: 152-153

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Sensorimotor substage six is noted for the acquisition of
  2. adaptations.
  3. causality.
  4. symbols.
  5. schemes.

Answer: C

Page: 152-153

Guidepost: 4

Type: F

 

  1. Jake has developed the ability to put his actions into memory. This ability is called
  2. permanence.
  3. representational ability.
  4. maturity.
  5. imitation.

Answer: B

Page: 152-153

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Meredith watches her mother pour water out of a glass into the sink. The next day, at the beach, Meredith pours water from a cup into a pail. Meredith is engaging in
  2. invisible imitation.
  3. visible imitation.
  4. deferred imitation.
  5. conservation.

Answer: C

Page: 154

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Diane loves to play peek-a-boo. Peek-a-boo is played in many diverse cultures using similar routines. Which of the following is NOT an important purpose of the game?
  2. It helps babies master anxiety when their mothers are not around.
  3. The game helps babies develop object permanence.
  4. It creates anxiety that makes babies stronger.
  5. It provides a social skill—the ability to take turns.

Answer: C

Page: 155-156

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to research cited in the text, children become capable of deferred imitation
  2. only at an older age than Piaget suggested.
  3. at a much younger age than Piaget suggested.
  4. at the age Piaget suggested.
  5. minutes after birth.

Answer: B

Page: 154-155

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to some research, a newborn who smiles at a smiling adult is engaging in
  2. invisible imitation.
  3. visible imitation.
  4. deferred imitation.
  5. circular reaction.

Answer: A

Page: 153-154

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The ability to mentally represent and remember objects and events is
  2. object permanence.
  3. representational ability.
  4. developed early in infancy.
  5. not developed until Piaget’s concrete operations stage.

Answer: B

Page: 152-153

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The realization that a person or object continues to exist even when out of sight is called
  2. representational ability.
  3. primary circular reaction.
  4. coordination of secondary schemes.
  5. object permanence.

Answer: D

Page: 155

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Lenny searches for a toy that he saw his mother hide, first behind her back and then under a pillow. Lenny has acquired
  2. object permanence.
  3. sharp vision.
  4. persistence.
  5. symbolic thought.

Answer: A

Page: 155

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following describes the correct status of Piaget’s theory?
  2. It has continued to be accepted with modifications.
  3. Later research has revealed this theory to be deeply flawed.
  4. Piaget’s theory has stimulated little research.
  5. Piaget’s theory was influential only in the early 1950s.

Answer: A

Page: 158-159

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Infants and toddlers seem to be __________ cognitively competent and to show signs of conceptual thought earlier than Piaget thought.
  2. less
  3. more
  4. far more
  5. far less

Answer: C

Page: 158

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the newer approaches to studying cognitive development?
  2. the information-processing approach
  3. the psychometric approach
  4. the cognitive neuroscience approach
  5. the social-contextual approach

Answer: B

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. An important function of habituation seems to be
  2. to increase attention to repetitive stimuli.
  3. the conservation of energy.
  4. to prevent important stimuli from overstimulating a baby.
  5. to increase the rate of sucking responses.

Answer: B

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A baby stops sucking to listen to a tone. Later, after the tone has been repeated frequently, the infant ignores it. This is an example of
  2. operant conditioning.
  3. classical conditioning.
  4. habituation.
  5. boredom.

Answer: C

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. A baby, who has been given 100 presentations of a high-pitched tone, no longer reacts to the sound by stopping the sucking response. When a low-pitched tone is presented, the baby does stop sucking. This cessation of sucking caused by the new tone is called
  2. dishabituation.
  3. disinhibition.
  4. nonadaptation.
  5. a conditioned response.

Answer: A

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. Habituation studies provide information on all of the following EXCEPT
  2. intelligence.
  3. preference for complexity.
  4. sophisticated play.
  5. strength of sucking reflex.

Answer: D

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Babies who habituate rapidly are
  2. highly distractible.
  3. likely to be more intelligent.
  4. stronger in nonverbal than verbal abilities.
  5. perceptually differentiated.

Answer: B

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In an experiment, an infant hears a particular sound. The next day, the infant is less likely to respond to that sound than is another infant who has never heard it before. The results of this experiment suggest that infants possess the capacity for
  2. cross-modal transference.
  3. tertiary circular reactions.
  4. representational ability.
  5. habituation.

Answer: D

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. The amount of time a baby spends looking at different sights is a measure of visual preference that is based on the ability to
  2. make visual distinctions.
  3. have vision loss.
  4. visually habituate.
  5. have visual distortions.

Answer: A

Page: 159-160

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Research on visual-tasks memory demonstrates that very young infants
  2. pay more attention to familiar patterns than to new ones.
  3. pay more attention to new patterns than to familiar ones.
  4. cannot discriminate new patterns from familiar patterns.
  5. show no consistency in the attention they give to new and familiar patterns.

Answer: B

Page: 159-160

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Length of time spent looking at a new stimulus as compared with familiar stimuli is called
  2. habituation.
  3. visual-recognition memory.
  4. visual preference.
  5. attention recovery.

Answer: C

Page: 159

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Lukas was shown two toys at the same time. He looked for a short time at one and then turned to look at the other. This quick shift in attention shows that Lucas has good
  2. habituation.
  3. visual-recognition memory.
  4. cross-modal transfer.
  5. attention recovery.

Answer: B

Page: 160

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in your textbook as one of the indicators of an infant’s ability to process information?
  2. habituation/dishabituation
  3. visual preference
  4. cross-modal transfer
  5. auditory preferences

Answer: D

Page: 160

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A child is asked to reach into a box while blindfolded and hold a small rubber duck. Later, the child is shown several pictures of different toys, including the duck, and asked to choose the one that was handled earlier. If the duck picture is chosen, this would suggest that the child is capable of
  2. polymodal attention.
  3. habituation.
  4. cross-model transference.
  5. novelty avoidance.

Answer: C

Page: 160

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. Researchers study infants’ information processing by considering all of the following EXCEPT
  2. visual preferences.
  3. habituation time.
  4. cross-modal transference.
  5. language development.

Answer: D

Page: 159-160

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which cognitive characteristic in infants seems to be generally associated with high intelligence in middle childhood?
  2. low polymodal attention levels
  3. the ability to devote more attention to familiar stimuli
  4. early appearance of the sensorimotor stage
  5. rapid processing of perceptual information

Answer: D

Page: 161

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Michelle is shown a new mobile, and the amount of time she spends studying it is measured. This is a technique of which approach to intellectual development?
  2. behaviorist
  3. information processing
  4. Piagetian
  5. psychometric

Answer: B

Page: 161

Guidepost: 5

Type: Application

 

  1. Predictions about an infant’s intelligence appear to be related to how infants process information but this information does not take into account the
  2. physical health of the infant.
  3. parents’ genetic background.
  4. education of the infant’s parents.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 161

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Some researchers propose that infants may be born with or acquire very early reasoning abilities that help them make sense of the information they encounter. These abilities are called
  2. innate learning mechanisms.
  3. at-birth learning abilities.
  4. preprogrammed learning skills.
  5. information-processing abilities.

Answer: A

Page: 165

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. __________ is the principle “that allows people to predict and control their world.”
  2. Innate learning
  3. Violation of expectations
  4. Causality
  5. Information-processing ability

Answer: C

Page: 163

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The study of the brain structures that govern thinking and memory is called
  2. assessment of brain stimulus.
  3. cognitive neuroscience.
  4. mental stimulus evaluation.
  5. neurological assessment.

Answer: B

Page: 165-166

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a long-term memory system mentioned in the textbook?
  2. episodic memory
  3. implicit memory
  4. explicit memory
  5. None of these are mentioned.

Answer: A

Page: 166

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Implicit memory seems to develop ________ explicit memory.
  2. later than
  3. earlier than
  4. about the same time as
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 166

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Many aspects of cognition are believed to be under the control of or located in which area of the brain?
  2. cerebellum
  3. prefrontal cortex
  4. medial temporal lobe
  5. striatum

Answer: B

Page: 166

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The concept of guided participation was inspired by the theory of the zone of proximal development, which was postulated by
  2. Jean Piaget.
  3. Lev Vygotsky.
  4. Urie Bronfenbrenner.
  5. Noam Chomsky.

Answer: B

Page: 167

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A communication system based on words and grammar is called
  2. syntax.
  3. linguistics.
  4. language.
  5. social referencing.

Answer: C

Page: 168

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Babbling, cooing, and crying are known as
  2. motherese.
  3. prelinguistic speech.
  4. linguistic speech.
  5. nonsymbolic speech.

Answer: B

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Infants first communicate their emotions at ______ by ______.
  2. birth; crying
  3. 6 months of age; babbling
  4. 12 months of age; imitating sounds
  5. 18 months of age; using words

Answer: A

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Prelinguistic speech communicates
  2. ideas.
  3. emotions.
  4. symbols.
  5. words.

Answer: B

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. At about 3 months of age, infants
  2. “try out” sounds from all human languages.
  3. produce sounds that match the ones they hear.
  4. babble strings of consonants.
  5. deliberately imitate sounds with linguistic meaning.

Answer: B

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A baby who says “da-da-da-da” is
  2. babbling.
  3. using telegraphic speech.
  4. using a holophrase.
  5. using a language acquisition device.

Answer: A

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Steven is 8 months old and has begun to produce repetitive strings of vowel and consonant sounds such as “pa-pa-pa-pa.” According to the text, this stage of prespeech language development is called
  2. cooing.
  3. babbling.
  4. intonation expression.
  5. protolanguage.

Answer: B

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Application

 

  1. Rachel hears her father say “ouch!” when he accidentally hits his hand with a hammer. For the next several hours, Rachel deliberately tries to imitate the sound of the word ouch. According to the text, approximately how old is Rachel?
  2. at least 24 to 28 months old
  3. at least 16 to17 months old
  4. at least 9 to10 months old
  5. at least 4 to 6 months old

Answer: C

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Application

 

  1. According to research cited in the text, when do babies become able to distinguish different speech sounds?
  2. before birth
  3. 3 weeks after birth
  4. 6 weeks after birth
  5. 12 weeks after birth

Answer: A

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The basic sounds of an infant’s native language are called
  2. graphemes.
  3. phonemes.
  4. phonetics.
  5. morphemes.

Answer: B

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Symbolic gestures, such as blowing to mean hot, or sniffing to mean flower, emerge __________ babies say their first words.
  2. before
  3. about the same time
  4. after
  5. when

Answer: B

Page: 170

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Ten-month-old Nathan has just been told goodbye by his grandparents who are now leaving in their car. Nathan waves bye-bye to them with his left arm. Nathan’s attempt to communicate with his grandparents is called a
  2. conventional social gesture.
  3. representational gesture.
  4. symbolic gesture.
  5. telegraphic gesture.

Answer: A

Page: 170

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a type of prelinguistic speech?
  2. crying
  3. cooing
  4. babbling
  5. gestures

Answer: D

Page: 169

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A child’s first word appears at about what age?
  2. 4 to 6 months
  3. 7 to 9 months
  4. 10 to 14 months
  5. 16 to 18 months

Answer: C

Page: 171

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Jackie says “milk,” meaning “I want some milk.” When his mother pours it, he says “milk,” meaning “This is milk.” After taking a sip, he pushes his cup toward his mother and says “milk,” meaning “Do you want my milk?” This is an example of
  2. a monophrase.
  3. a holophrase.
  4. a synonym.
  5. motherese.

Answer: B

Page: 171

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The process by which a toddler demonstrates rapid vocabulary development is called
  2. vocabulary development.
  3. a naming explosion.
  4. the naming process.
  5. word multiplication.

Answer: B

Page: 171

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Juan’s vocabulary suddenly jumps from 50 words to 400 words. He is probably at least how old?
  2. 11 months
  3. 16 months
  4. 30 months
  5. 3 ½ years

Answer: B

Page: 171

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Most children speak in two-word sentences by about what age?
  2. 8 months
  3. 10 months
  4. 14 months
  5. 24 months

Answer: D

Page: 172

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An example of telegraphic speech is
  2. “Cookie.”
  3. “Want cookie.”
  4. “I want a cookie.”
  5. “I want a chocolate chip cookie.”

Answer: B

Page: 172

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Mindy, who is 24 months old, is beginning to speak sentences with articles and prepositions. She is developing
  2. holophrases.
  3. syntax.
  4. overextensive speech.
  5. telegraphic speech.

Answer: B

Page: 172

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Characteristics of early speech include all of the following EXCEPT
  2. simplification.
  3. overextension.
  4. understanding grammar without being able to express it.
  5. use of motherese.

Answer: D

Page: 172-173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A child who calls a dog a “bow-wow” and also calls a cat a “bow-wow” is
  2. overextending.
  3. overregularizing.
  4. using a monophrase.
  5. using syntax.

Answer: A

Page: 172-173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Fran says, “Yesterday, I sitted on the floor.” This is an example of __________ grammatical rules.
  2. underextending
  3. hyperextending
  4. overregularizing
  5. paraphrasing

Answer: C

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to which of the following theories is language acquired by imitation and reinforcement of specific sounds?
  2. Piagetian theory
  3. psychometric theory
  4. nativism theory
  5. learning theory

Answer: D

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Learning theory implies that
  2. newborns should be able to distinguish between sounds.
  3. children acquire language the same way they learn to walk.
  4. children living with deaf parents are likely to experience delay in acquiring language.
  5. children learn language by classical conditioning.

Answer: C

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The proponent of learning theory who maintained that language development is based on experience is
  2. Ivan Pavlov.
  3. B. F. Skinner.
  4. Noam Chomsky.
  5. John Watson.

Answer: B

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to which of the following theories do humans have an innate capacity to acquire language?
  2. behaviorism
  3. operant conditioning
  4. nativism
  5. learning theory

Answer: C

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Noam Chomsky, a language acquisition device is a(n)
  2. perceptual mechanism that allows reinforcement to strengthen commonly used words in a language.
  3. mechanism that enables the brain to infer linguistic rules from the language they hear.
  4. inborn mechanism that helps children to understand the meanings of words.
  5. something that helps a child learn to read.

Answer: B

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Chomsky’s proposal that humans possess a language acquisition device is MOST consistent with a(n) __________ view of language acquisition.
  2. learning theory
  3. nativist
  4. empiricist
  5. prelinguistic

Answer: B

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Nativists would cite all of the following evidence to support their view EXCEPT
  2. the human brain is larger on the left side than on the right.
  3. children learn their own language in an age-related sequence without formal teaching.
  4. children vary widely in grammatical skills and fluency.
  5. deaf children make up their own sign language without models.

Answer: C

Page: 173

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The activity of stringing together meaningless motions and repeating them over and over, a process performed by __________, has been called hand-babbling.
  2. deaf children
  3. hearing children
  4. both hearing and deaf children
  5. neither hearing nor deaf children

Answer: A

Page: 174

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. With regard to language development, most developmentalists currently favor
  2. nativism.
  3. learning theory.
  4. a combination of nativism and learning theory.
  5. rejection of both nativism and learning theory.

Answer: C

Page: 175

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The organization of linguistic processes in the brain may depend heavily on __________ during maturation.
  2. genetics
  3. experience
  4. nutrition
  5. lateralization

Answer: B

Page: 175

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An important predictor of a baby’s language comprehension is the mother’s __________.
  2. relationship with the baby.
  3. verbal sensitivity.
  4. emotional stability.
  5. social sensitivity.

Answer: B

Page: 175-176

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The amount and quality of verbal interaction between parents and children seems to be affected by the
  2. socioeconomic status.
  3. IQ level of parents.
  4. psychological identity of parents.
  5. mental level of parents.

Answer: A

Page: 175-176

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Infants __________ simplified speech, or child-directed speech.
  2. avoid
  3. like
  4. don’t like
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 176-177

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The use of parentese includes which of the following?
  2. use of short words and simple sentences
  3. low-pitched speech
  4. rapid speech
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 176-177

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The best way for babies to learn speech is from
  2. television.
  3. recordings.
  4. practice in overextension.
  5. communication with someone.

Answer: D

Page: 177

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When she reads to him, Louis’s mother focuses on what is going on in every picture and tries to engage him to do so also. She uses the ______ style.
  2. describer
  3. performance-oriented
  4. comprehender
  5. linquistic

Answer: A

Page: 177

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Reading orally to a child affects all of the following EXCEPT
  2. how well children speak.
  3. how well children read.
  4. how soon children read.
  5. how soon children speak.

Answer: D

Page: 177-178

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When Martin and his dad sit down to read at the end of the day, Martin’s dad encourages him to think deeply about the story, and to make predictions and inferences. Martin’s dad uses the ______ style.
  2. describer
  3. performance-oriented
  4. comprehender
  5. linquistic

Answer: C

Page: 177

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Toni’s Grandpa Sully was a schoolteacher for 40 years. When they sit down to read, Toni’s grandpa first introduces the main themes, then reads the story all the way through, and finally ends by asking questions. Her grandpa uses the ______ style.
  2. describer
  3. performance-oriented
  4. comprehender
  5. linquistic

Answer: B

Page: 177

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. When children are learning to be storytellers themselves while parents become active listeners, they are engaging in a __________ style of reading.
  2. describer
  3. dialogic
  4. comprehender
  5. linquistic

Answer: B

Page: 178

Guidepost: 8

Type: Comprehension

 

 

Essay Questions

112.   The Millers are concerned about their baby girl. She has no notable physical defects, but she is the Millers’ third child and even though she is only three weeks old, they feel things are just “not right.” List two tests available to the Millers that will help them to evaluate their daughter’s cognitive development. Describe how each of the measures assesses different qualities that we define as important in cognitive functioning. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of each measure and explain their predictive value and  how well the assessment predicts later intelligence scores.

 

  1. Summarize what research that has been revealed about brain development and its relationship to cognitive skills in infants. Give five examples of how social interaction with parents and caregivers contributes to infants’ cognitive development.

7                           PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE

DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. How do children’s bodies change between ages 3 and 6, and what sleep problems and motor achievements are common?
  2. What are the major health and safety risks for young children?
  3. What are typical cognitive advances and immature aspects of preschool children’s thinking?
  4. What memory abilities expand in early childhood?
  5. How is preschoolers’ intelligence measured, and what are some influences on it?
  6. How does language improve, and what happens when its development is delayed?
  7. What purposes does early childhood education serve, and how do children make the transition to kindergarten?

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT describe how children develop in the preschool years of early childhood, compared to their development as toddlers?
  2. Their bodies become slimmer.
  3. Their motor and mental abilities become sharper.
  4. Their verbal development slows down.
  5. Their personalities and relationships become more complex.

Answer: C

Page: 216

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. During early childhood, physical development involves
  2. more rapid growth and muscular development than during any other phase of the life span.
  3. more rapid growth, but slower muscular development than during the first three years.
  4. slower growth, but more rapid muscular development than during the first three years.
  5. slower growth and slower muscular development than during the first three years.

Answer: C

Page: 216

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Physical development during early childhood includes which of the following?
  2. Cartilage turns to bone, and bones become harder.
  3. Girls become taller and heavier than boys during this period.
  4. Children gain weight rapidly, but gain height slowly.
  5. Boys develop more fatty tissue than girls.

Answer: A

Page: 216

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Brittany, at age 5, is thinner than she was a year ago; she has gained only 4 pounds even though she has grown 2 inches. Which of the following statements is probably TRUE?
  2. Her growth pattern is normal for her age.
  3. Her diet is probably lacking essential nutrients.
  4. Her growth will probably slow down when she reaches puberty.
  5. She was probably a low-birth-weight baby.

Answer: A

Page: 217

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A key to preventing obesity in children is to have
  2. individual servings of appropriate portions.
  3. increasing numbers of calories per pound of body weight.
  4. the amount of calories children consume from day to day be inconsistent.
  5. parents insist that children eat everything on their plates.

Answer: A

Page: 223

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Cognitive effects of ______ may be long lasting.
  2. obesity
  3. eating dessert
  4. malnutrition
  5. enlarged fatty cells

Answer: C

Page: 223

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Children who cannot recognize the sensation that their bladder is full often suffer from enuresis, which is commonly know as
  2. sleepwalking.
  3. sleeptalking.
  4. a neurological disturbance.
  5. bedwetting.

Answer: D

Page: 219

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Ricardo sleeps VERY soundly at night, but he will still need a daytime nap or a quiet rest until about the age of
  2. 3.
  3. 4.
  4. 5.
  5. 6.

Answer: C

Page: 218

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Shelly is 4 years old. With regard to sleep patterns, she can be expected to
  2. sleep lightly at night.
  3. fall asleep more quickly than she did when she was younger.
  4. need fewer bedtime rituals and routines.
  5. fight going to sleep and find excuses to get up.

Answer: D

Page: 218

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. On occasion, Marcus, a 7-year-old, awakens abruptly from a deep sleep in a state of panic within an hour after falling asleep. His parents get him quieted down quickly, and he has no memory of the incident in the morning. Martin is probably experiencing
  2. nightmares.
  3. poor sleep patterns that need modification.
  4. sleep terrors.
  5. sleepwalking.

Answer: C

Page: 218

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Seth used to go to sleep in a dark room, but now, at age 3, he cries unless his parents leave a night-light on. This behavior may be
  2. a way of putting off sleep.
  3. a risk factor for sleepwalking.
  4. a precursor to bouts of nightmares.
  5. a sign of neurological damage.

Answer: A

Page: 218

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Nightmares during early childhood
  2. are rare in children younger than 7 years.
  3. should be treated by a child psychologist.
  4. generally indicate abuse.
  5. are serious only if they occur frequently.

Answer: D

Page: 219

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Five-year-old Mike has had an exciting evening opening birthday presents. He has just gone to bed 2 hours later than normal and has recently eaten a lot of cake and ice cream. Which of the following problems is Mike at risk for during the night?
  2. night terrors
  3. nightmares
  4. sleepwalking
  5. sleeptalking

Answer: B

Page: 219

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Repeated urination in clothing or in bed is called
  2. encopresis.
  3. enuresis.
  4. nightmares.
  5. night terrors.

Answer: B

Page: 219

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Gross motor coordination allows a child to
  2. scribble on paper.
  3. stack blocks.
  4. jump and hop.
  5. use scissors.

Answer: C

Page: 220

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Meagan is learning to jump rope. This involves her learning to use her leg muscles to jump in a rhythmic fashion. In learning to jump properly, Meagan is acquiring a
  2. gross motor skill.
  3. fine motor skill.
  4. proximal motor skill.
  5. reflexive motor skill.

Answer: A

Page: 220

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. According to the text, children are usually not physically ready to participate in organized sports until they are
  2. about 4 years old.
  3. about 5 years old.
  4. about 6 years old.
  5. adolescents, because organized sports are harmful to young children.

Answer: C

Page: 221

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Joey is able to button his shirt and cut his food alone. Joey has developed
  2. fine motor skills.
  3. gross motor skills.
  4. handedness.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 221

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Juan can walk upstairs, alternating feet, but still needs help to walk down a flight of stairs. He is most likely how old?
  2. 2 years
  3. 3 years
  4. 4 years
  5. 5 years

Answer: C

Page: 221

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Tanya has recently developed the ability to draw shapes such as circles and squares. About what age is Tanya?
  2. 12 months
  3. 2 years
  4. 3 years
  5. 5 years

Answer: C

Page: 222

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. What percent of children and adults are right-handed?
  2. 42 percent
  3. 52 percent
  4. 62 percent
  5. 82 percent

Answer: D

Page: 221

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Handedness, the preference for using one hand over the other, usually becomes evident in children when they are about _________ of age.
  2. 9 months
  3. 18 months
  4. 2 years
  5. 3 years

Answer: D

Page: 221

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The pictorial stage in young children’s drawings typically begins between the ages of ____ and ____.
  2. 2; 3
  3. 3; 4
  4. 4; 5
  5. 5; 6

Answer: C

Page: 222

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The reason many of the major diseases of childhood, such as measles, whooping cough, and tuberculosis, are now fairly rare in Western industrialized countries is because of
  2. widespread immunizations.
  3. death by accidents.
  4. death by other diseases.
  5. sudden infant death syndrome.

Answer: A

Page: 223

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Injuries in childhood
  2. are likely to be frequent but minor.
  3. are extremely rare, because the immune system is fully developed.
  4. involve the respiratory system.
  5. should always receive medical attention.

Answer: A

Page: 224

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Currently, which of the following causes the most deaths in childhood?
  2. cancer
  3. measles
  4. accidents
  5. AIDS

Answer: C

Page: 224

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the textbook as something that has been done legally to make young childhood safer?
  2. require childproof caps on medicine bottles
  3. require mandatory helmets for bicycle riders
  4. require safe storage of firearms
  5. require mandatory immunizations

Answer: D

Page: 224-225

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The risk of illness, injury, and death in childhood is most strongly related to the family’s
  2. SES.
  3. race.
  4. physical size.
  5. ethnicity.

Answer: A

Page: 225

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A government program providing medical assistance to low-income families is
  2. SSI.
  3. WIC.
  4. Medicaid.
  5. Medicare.

Answer: C

Page: 225

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Parental smoking increases the likelihood that young children may contract a number of medical problems, including which of the following?
  2. pneumonia
  3. delayed fine motor skills
  4. vision impairment
  5. delayed gross motor skills

Answer: A

Page: 226-227

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The chief factor associated with ill health in childhood is
  2. size of family.
  3. low income.
  4. daycare.
  5. stress.

Answer: B

Page: 225

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Of the following, the child MOST likely to have a high rate of childhood illness is
  2. an only child.
  3. a “difficult” child.
  4. a child from a low-income family.
  5. a child with both parents working.

Answer: C

Page: 225

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The proportion of children living in poverty in the United States is
  2. 1 in 5.
  3. 2 in 5.
  4. 3 in 5.
  5. 4 in 5.

Answer: A

Page: 225

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Environmental health steps to prevent lead poisoning include all of the following EXCEPT
  2. removal of lead from paints and gasoline.
  3. screening of residents in areas where the majority of the houses were built before 1950.
  4. closing school buildings.
  5. encouraging parents to remove chipping or peeling paints in their homes.

Answer: C

Page: 227-228

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Many poor children do not get adequate medical care because
  2. they don’t need it.
  3. their parents don’t care.
  4. their families don’t have medical insurance.
  5. their families move so often.

Answer: C

Page: 225

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Natasha is 5 years old. She is probably in which of Piaget’s stages?
  2. sensorimotor
  3. preoperational
  4. concrete operations
  5. formal operations

Answer: B

Page: 228

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Three-year-old Ben is pretending to build a birdhouse with some pieces of wood lying in the yard. Suddenly, Ben says, “I need a hammer to fix this,” even when there is no hammer present. According to Piaget, Ben has entered the
  2. sensorimotor stage.
  3. concrete operations stage.
  4. formal operations stage.
  5. preoperational stage.

Answer: D

Page: 228

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The symbolic function allows young children to
  2. think about things they can see.
  3. refer to mental representations of objects they have seen before.
  4. think abstractly.
  5. think logically.

Answer: B

Page: 229

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Young children involved in pretend play are demonstrating
  2. object permanence.
  3. association.
  4. centration.
  5. symbolic function.

Answer: D

Page: 229

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Miranda and her uncle see an interesting new car drive by. Later, after the car has gone, her uncle asks if she remembers the neat thing they saw minutes before. Miranda says, “Yes, we saw a car.” Miranda is demonstrating
  2. deferred imitation.
  3. symbolic function.
  4. recognition memory.
  5. conservation.

Answer: B

Page: 229

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. When children repeat an action that they saw someone else perform at an earlier time, they are demonstrating
  2. deferred imitation.
  3. symbolic play.
  4. evidence of the sensorimotor stage.
  5. recognition memory.

Answer: A

Page: 229

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Marsha watches her mother bathe the new baby. The next morning she gets her doll and a pail of water and bathes her “baby.” Marsha is showing
  2. deferred imitation.
  3. maternal instinct.
  4. centration.
  5. conservation.

Answer: A

Page: 229

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. When children make an object stand for or represent something else, they are using
  2. deferred imitation.
  3. pretend play.
  4. recall memory.
  5. recognition memory.

Answer: B

Page: 229

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Some children playing in the yard are pretending to bake cookies. One child gathers up some disk-shaped rocks and says, “Here are the cookies I made!” This child is engaged in
  2. sensorimotor play.
  3. deferred recognition.
  4. pretend play.
  5. conservational play.

Answer: C

Page: 229

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Anne’s father is going to a Halloween party. He comes into her room dressed in a gorilla suit and says, “Hi, sweetheart!” Anne says, “Oh, Daddy, it’s you!” Anne’s behavior reflects her understanding of
  2. identities.
  3. centration.
  4. symbolic play.
  5. imagery.

Answer: A

Page: 230

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. At about the age of ___, children are able to understand the relationship between pictures, maps, and scale models and the objects are spaces they represent.
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5

Answer: B

Page: 230

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Nick was feeling angry at his little brother, and at about the same time, Nick’s little brother came down with a bad case of the stomach flu. Nick was worried that his anger caused his brother to get sick. According to Piaget, Nick is demonstrating _____________ reasoning.
  2. intuitive
  3. centrated
  4. transductive
  5. irreversible

Answer: C

Page: 230

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Kelly broke a lamp and was told that she had been bad. Later that evening, she was told that her parents were getting a divorce. She thought that her breaking the lamp had caused the divorce. This is an example of what kind of reasoning?
  2. deductive
  3. inductive
  4. transductive
  5. reductive

Answer: C

Page: 230

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. According to the text, children become able to classify objects according to two dimensions, such as color and shape, around the age of
  2. 18 months.
  3. 2 years.
  4. 3 years.
  5. 4 years.

Answer: D

Page: 230

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Four-year-old Sarah tells her mother, “I told the wind to blow, so it made my kite fly.” This is an example of
  2. animism.
  3. inductive reasoning.
  4. deductive reasoning.
  5. decentration.

Answer: A

Page: 230

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the principles of counting that children begin to recognize during the preoperational stage?
  2. the ascending-series principle
  3. the stable-order principle
  4. the cardinality principle
  5. the abstraction principle

Answer: A

Page: 231

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. By age ___, most children can count to 20 or more and know the relative sizes of numbers 1 through 10; some can do simple single-digit addition and subtraction.
  2. 3
  3. 4
  4. 5
  5. 6

Answer: C

Page: 231

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Focusing on only one aspect of a situation and neglecting others is called
  2. centration.
  3. decentering.
  4. conservation.
  5. irreversibility.

Answer: A

Page: 231

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piaget concluded that young children come to illogical conclusions because they cannot _____________ and think about several aspects of a situation at the same time.
  2. mentally focus
  3. reason logically
  4. decenter
  5. remember

Answer: C

Page: 231

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Margaret, who is 4, is upset because her older sister, Leslie, “has more candy.” Actually, each girl has one caramel, but Leslie has stretched hers into a long string while Margaret’s is still a small cube. This shows Margaret’s inability to use
  2. reversal.
  3. decentration.
  4. conservation.
  5. transduction.

Answer: C

Page: 232

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Inability to understand that a ball of clay that has been molded into a “snake” can be formed into a ball again is an example of
  2. irreversibility.
  3. centration.
  4. conservation.
  5. egocentrism.

Answer: A

Page: 232

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A child who cannot see something from another person’s perspective or point of view is showing
  2. centration.
  3. egocentrism.
  4. conservation.
  5. irreversibility.

Answer: B

Page: 231

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piaget designed the “three mountain task” to study _____________ of young children.
  2. centration
  3. egocentrism
  4. conservation
  5. irreversibility

Answer: B

Page: 232

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Alex is listening to some music through headphones so no one else can hear it. When his mother walks into the room, he says, “Mommy, do you like this song?” although she cannot hear the music. Alex’s question indicates that Alex is
  2. presymbolic.
  3. egocentric.
  4. decentered.
  5. transformational.

Answer: B

Page: 231-232

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. With regard to egocentrism, researchers other than Piaget have found that
  2. Piaget was apparently correct in his view of young children’s egocentrism.
  3. Piaget seems to have underestimated young children’s ability to decenter.
  4. egocentrism does not begin to diminish until middle childhood.
  5. young children do not show empathy.

Answer: B

Page: 231-232

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Piaget proposed that children begin to develop a theory of mind when they are around
  2. 18 months old.
  3. 6 years old.
  4. 3 years old.
  5. 9 years old.

Answer: B

Page: 233

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Piaget, a limitation in the thinking of children in the preoperational stage is that they have difficulty
  2. showing empathy.
  3. classifying objects according to more than one stimulus dimension.
  4. distinguishing reality from fantasy.
  5. thinking animistically.

Answer: C

Page: 233

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Children’s ability to understand that people who see or hear different versions of the same event may come away with different beliefs does not develop until they are
  2. 3 years of age.
  3. 4 years of age.
  4. 5 years of age.
  5. well past childhood.

Answer: B

Page: 233

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Billy has two imaginary friends named Joe and Buckus. In which of the following ways is having Joe and Buckus similar to having peer relationships?
  2. They may make Billy less sociable.
  3. They are good company for an only child.
  4. They provide mechanisms of avoidance.
  5. They help him avoid difficult situations.

Answer: B

Page: 233-234

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The children who have the most difficulty in recognizing false beliefs are those who
  2. are rated high in social skills.
  3. have limited language development.
  4. participate in family discussions.
  5. are from non-Western cultures.

Answer: B

Page: 234

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Recognition memory is
  2. better developed than recall memory in early childhood.
  3. the ability to reproduce knowledge from memory.
  4. more efficient in early childhood than in middle childhood, when recall memory takes over.
  5. fully developed by the age of 2.

Answer: A

Page: 237

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. John is shown a group of objects. The objects are then covered, and he is asked to list all that he remembers. This is a test of
  2. mastery motivation.
  3. recognition.
  4. recall.
  5. symbolic function.

Answer: C

Page: 237

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. What form of memory provides a storehouse of unlimited amounts of information for long periods of time?
  2. recognition
  3. recall
  4. generic
  5. long-term

Answer: D

Page: 237

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which form of memory produces a script or outline of familiar things?
  2. procedural
  3. generic
  4. episodic
  5. autobiographical

Answer: B

Page: 238

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which form of memory seems to rely most on the development of language?
  2. script
  3. implicit
  4. episodic
  5. autobiographical

Answer: D

Page: 238

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Kelly, age 3, frequently goes to the beach with her mother. One night, when her father comes home from work, he asks Kelly what she did that day at the beach. Which of the following is Kelly most likely to talk about?
  2. seeing a helicopter fly overhead
  3. eating an ice cream cone
  4. filling her pail with sand
  5. putting her head underwater for the first time

Answer: D

Page: 238

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. A young child may have difficulty answering questions accurately about a specific instance of abuse, even though the child accurately remembers a(n) _________ of abuse.
  2. episode
  3. pattern
  4. experience
  5. situation

Answer: B

Page: 238

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Four-year-old Ramona has just returned from a trip to a children’s museum. While at the museum, she viewed some antique cars, listened to some music from 1930, and built a house out of clay. Generalizing from the text, which activity will she be able to recall the best?
  2. viewing the cars
  3. listening to the music
  4. building the house
  5. All will be recalled equally well.

Answer: C

Page: 238

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Dorisa is able to talk about many of the events that have occurred in her young life. This autobiographical memory seems to occur due to
  2. the lack of development of language.
  3. the degree of interest that Dorisa showed in particular events.
  4. the uniqueness of the event.
  5. Dorisa’s active participation.

Answer: C

Page: 238

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Children remember more about an event if the adult discusses the event with them using a(n) ______________ style of communication.
  2. repetitive
  3. elaborative
  4. prospective
  5. child-centered

Answer: B

Page: 238

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Intelligence tests for young children
  2. are more reliable than tests for infants.
  3. rarely correlate with intelligence test scores in middle childhood.
  4. are usually administered to groups rather than individually.
  5. contain no verbal items.

Answer: A

Page: 239

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Andy, age 3, took an hour-long test that yielded an overall IQ score as well as separate verbal and performance scores. The test he took was most likely the
  2. Scale of Pragmatic Intelligence.
  3. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI).
  4. Zone of Proximal Development Scale (ZPD).
  5. None of the above; intelligence tests are not designed for children as young as age 3.

Answer: B

Page: 240

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to twin and adoption studies, family life has its strongest influence during which period?
  2. infancy
  3. toddlerhood
  4. early childhood
  5. middle childhood

Answer: C

Page: 240

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Vygotsky, a child who is in the “zone of proximal development” is
  2. almost ready to perform a particular cognitive task independently.
  3. in a transition between sensorimotor and preoperational thought.
  4. able to perform certain cognition tasks at a later-than-normal age.
  5. physically close to the mother, who provides a secure base from which to explore.

Answer: A

Page: 241

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Scaffolding
  2. is temporary parental support to enable a child to do a task.
  3. is most needed by children of high ability.
  4. reflects parent’s sensitivity to children’s competence.
  5. may need to become permanent.

Answer: A

Page: 241

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The average child learns ____ new words a day from about 1 ½ years of age.
  2. 6
  3. 7
  4. 8
  5. 9

Answer: D

Page: 241

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The ability of young children to retain the meaning of a new word after having heard it used in conversation only once or twice is called
  2. fast mapping.
  3. overgeneralizing.
  4. rapid regularization.
  5. scaffolding.

Answer: A

Page: 242

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Most of the sentences of young children are
  2. interrogative.
  3. declarative.
  4. exclamatory.
  5. imperative.

Answer: B

Page: 242

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Bart has just begun to use prepositions. While riding on the bus, he says to his mother, “A lady is sitting behind you.” Bart is probably how old?
  2. 2 to 3 years
  3. 3 to 5 years
  4. 5 to 7 years
  5. 7 to 9 years

Answer: C

Page: 242

Guidepost: 6

Type: Application

 

  1. When young children start to make grammatical errors that they did not make previously, they are often
  2. regressing.
  3. discovering grammatical rules but failing to note exceptions.
  4. having trouble expressing more sophisticated thoughts.
  5. showing the effects of exposure to adults who speak ungrammatically.

Answer: B

Page: 242

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The practical knowledge of how to use language to communicate is
  2. pragmatics.
  3. a linguistic dysfunction.
  4. preoperational language.
  5. overgeneralizing.

Answer: A

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Speech intended to be understood by a listener is called
  2. imaginative speech.
  3. social speech.
  4. grammar.
  5. private speech.

Answer: B

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piaget thought that young children’s speech was mostly
  2. egocentric.
  3. social.
  4. unintelligible.
  5. ungrammatical.

Answer: A

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piaget maintained that private speech is
  2. a sign of abnormal development.
  3. a form of communication.
  4. an egocentric form of speech.
  5. practice for social speech.

Answer: C

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Vygotsky saw private speech as
  2. reflecting unwillingness to communicate.
  3. egocentric.
  4. resulting from lack of social experience.
  5. a way that children converse with themselves.

Answer: D

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In evaluating private speech, ________________ believed it represents egocentrism, and __________thought that it helped children to integrate thinking and speaking.
  2. Piaget; Piaget
  3. Vygotsky; Vygotsky
  4. Vygotsky; Piaget
  5. Piaget; Vygotsky

Answer: D

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A young child is alone in a room, trying to put together a difficult puzzle. The child says out loud, “Maybe if you look for the pieces with the flat side first, it will be easier to finish the outside part.” This pattern of private speech is most consistent with ______________ view of the function of this kind of speech.
  2. Piaget’s
  3. Kohlberg’s
  4. Vygotsky’s
  5. Binet’s

Answer: C

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Application

 

  1. Children’s ability to communicate is related to
  2. general knowledge.
  3. popularity.
  4. intent to communicate.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Mr. Rogers is a kindergarten teacher. He observes that some of the children in his class use private speech more than others. Of the following, Mr. Rogers is MOST likely to say that the children who engage in private speech
  2. have less self-regulation than the other children.
  3. are more sociable than the other children.
  4. do not talk to themselves when working out problems.
  5. tend to think privately.

Answer: B

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The Garrol family is concerned because their 3-year-old son is still not talking. Which of the following is a possible reason for the delayed language development of about 3 percent of preschool children?
  2. problems in fast mapping
  3. otitis media
  4. cognitive limitations
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Application

 

  1. Corrine is struggling with a difficult math problem and is talking to herself and muttering out loud. Corrine’s behavior is an example of
  2. self-regulation.
  3. a language deficit.
  4. private speech.
  5. delayed language development.

Answer: C

Page: 243

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. To enhance the development of good reading and writing skills, parents who wish to incorporate educational television programs such as Sesame Street into their children’s lives should
  2. watch the programs with their children and talk to them about what they see.
  3. let their children watch the program with their peers.
  4. let their children watch the programs alone so they can focus their attention on the material.
  5. strictly limit children’s viewing of such programs, because they foster passive behavior.

Answer: A

Page: 244

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The mastery of the skills that are necessary before a child can begin to read include the knowledge and attitudes that underlie reading. This is referred to as
  2. emergent literacy.
  3. phonemic awareness.
  4. shared reading.
  5. general linguistic skills.

Answer: A

Page: 244

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which type of preschool is most likely to be found in China?
  2. society-centered
  3. child-centered
  4. role-centered
  5. academically centered

Answer: D

Page: 245

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following children is most likely to benefit from high-quality daycare?
  2. Amanda, whose divorced mother is poor and under stress
  3. Brett, whose IQ is below average
  4. Cara, who is eager to learn
  5. None of these; it is impossible to predict which child will benefit the most.

Answer: D

Page: 245

Guidepost: 7

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. By their late teens, children who had attended Project Head Start or similar programs were more likely than other needy children to have done which of the following?
  2. achieved permanent gains in IQ
  3. been in regular, rather than special education, classes
  4. finished high school and enrolled in college or vocational training
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 245-246

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. For most U.S. children today, _______________ is the beginning of formal schooling.
  2. daycare
  3. preschool
  4. kindergarten
  5. first grade

Answer: C

Page: 246

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Children in full-day kindergarten tend to learn ______ than those attending a half-day kindergarten.
  2. more
  3. less
  4. equal
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 246

Guidepost: 7

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Compensatory preschool programs, such as Project Head Start, have had positive outcomes, yet participants’ school and IQ performance has ____________ the performance of middle-class children.
  2. equaled
  3. not equaled
  4. exceeded
  5. lagged far behind

Answer: B

Page: 246

Guidepost: 7

Type: Comprehension

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Describe how children’s language develops in early childhood. Describe the progression of speech patterns from two-word phrases through the use of grammar in formulating sentences. List two effects of environment on language development, and give two suggestions for how parents and caregivers can enhance the development of language skills in their young children.

 

  1. As children expand their world to the neighborhood around them, they also increase their opportunities for new kinds of activities. Describe five of the physical activities that young children participate in, and explain the hazards involved in participation. Give five suggestions about how parents and caregivers can keep children reasonably safe while still letting them take on some new challenges in negotiating their environment.

11                        PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE

DEVELOPMENT IN ADOLESCENCE

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. What is adolescence, when does it begin and end, and what opportunities and risks does it entail?
  2. What physical changes do adolescents experience, and how do these changes affect them psychologically?
  3. What brain developments occur during adolescence, and how do they affect adolescent behavior?
  4. What are some common health problems in adolescence, and how can they be prevented?
  5. How do adolescents’ thinking and use of language differ from younger children’s?
  6. On what basis do adolescents make moral judgments?
  7. What influences affect school success, and their educational and vocational planning and preparation?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about adolescence?
  2. This developmental period is recognized in all cultures throughout the world.
  3. Adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood.
  4. It begins when young people reach sexual maturity.
  5. Adolescence is genetically determined.

Answer: B

Page: 354

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Before the twentieth century, there was no concept of adolescence; children moved to adulthood either through physical maturity or when they began apprenticeships. Adolescence is
  2. an arbitrary state.
  3. a sign of puberty.
  4. a social construction.
  5. a genetically determined stage.

Answer: C

Page: 354

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the text, adolescence is defined as
  2. encompassing the years between 11 and 20.
  3. puberty.
  4. cognitive changes.

D an apprenticeship.

Answer: A

Page: 354

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The process that leads to sexual maturity is
  2. puberty.
  3. puberty rites.
  4. adolescence.
  5. the secular trend.

Answer: A

Page: 354

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In the United States, entry from adolescence into adulthood occurs
  2. at a set time fixed by law.
  3. earlier than in previous centuries because of the “hurried child” phenomenon.
  4. later than in previous centuries because of the secular trend.
  5. at varying times, depending on what definition of adulthood is used.

Answer: D

Page: 354

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The following behaviors pose risks to adolescents’ physical and mental well-being EXCEPT
  2. drug abuse.
  3. working at a part-time job.
  4. accidents.
  5. smoking cigarettes.

Answer: B

Page: 355

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Research suggests that the pubertal process takes about____________ in both sexes.
  2. 3–4 years.
  3. 1–2 years.
  4. 5–6 years.
  5. 7–8 years.

Answer: A

Page: 356

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The initial origin of the hormonal changes that cause puberty is from the _______ gland.
  2. pituitary
  3. adrenal
  4. thyroid
  5. lacrimal

Answer: B

Page: 356

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The precise time when puberty begins seems to depend on
  2. the neurological program in the brain.
  3. reaching a critical weight level.
  4. the age of the person.
  5. the personality of the person.

Answer: B

Page: 356

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. It is normal for girls to show breast budding and pubic hair as early as age
  2. 6.
  3. 7.
  4. 8.
  5. 9.

Answer: A

Page: 356

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. At about what age would you expect an average American boy to reach puberty?
  2. 8
  3. 9
  4. 10
  5. 11

Answer: B

Page: 357

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. At what age would you expect an average American girl to reach puberty?
  2. 8
  3. 9
  4. 10
  5. 11

Answer: B

Page: 357

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The anatomical structures that differentiate males from females are the
  2. primary gender structures.
  3. gonads.
  4. primary sex characteristics.
  5. secondary sex characteristics.

Answer: C

Page: 357

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Primary sex characteristics are
  2. body parts directly related to reproduction.
  3. pubic, facial, axillary, and body hair.
  4. frequently the cause of pimples, blackheads, and acne.
  5. the cause of the voice change.

Answer: A

Page: 357

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Secondary sex characteristics include which of the following?
  2. pubic hair
  3. breast growth in females
  4. broad shoulders in males
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 357-358

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The principal sign of sexual maturity in males is
  2. growth of the penis.
  3. growth of testes.
  4. ejaculation of semen.
  5. the adolescent growth spurt.

Answer: B

Page: 358

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the adolescent growth spurt?
  2. A growth spurt follows the achievement of sexual maturity.
  3. Growth spurts usually occur earlier in boys than in girls.
  4. Growth may be uneven and cause temporary gawkiness.
  5. Growth is faster than growth at any other time during the life span.

Answer: C

Page: 358

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The growth spurt in girls usually begins at about the age of
  2. 9–10.
  3. 11–13.
  4. 13–14.
  5. 15–16.

Answer: B

Page: 358

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Compared to boys of the same age, girls between the ages of 11 and 13 are
  2. taller.
  3. smarter.
  4. thinner.
  5. weaker.

Answer: A

Page: 358

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Most teenagers are more concerned about their _______________ than any other aspect of their development.
  2. height
  3. weight
  4. appearance
  5. hair

Answer: C

Page: 358

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. During the past century, the onset of puberty has been coming at an earlier age in the United States and in some other countries. This is
  2. called a secular trend.
  3. apparently related to a higher standard of living.
  4. now leveling off.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 359

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Puberty began for Molly when she was 9 years old. Her mother began puberty at 11 years. For her grandmother, the onset was at 13 years of age. These changes in the age of the onset of puberty over time are referred to as a _____ trend.
  2. cross-sectional
  3. sexual
  4. physiologic
  5. secular

Answer: D

Page: 359

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Nocturnal emission is
  2. also called a wet dream.
  3. common in adolescent girls.
  4. a signal of a sexual disorder.
  5. found only in sexually active males.

Answer: A

Page: 359

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Menarche, or the first menstruation,
  2. occurs at the beginning of puberty.
  3. accompanies the onset of the adolescent growth spurt.
  4. is a sign of sexual maturity.
  5. signals a sexual disorder.

Answer: C

Page: 359

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The average age of menarche in the United States is
  2. 9–10.
  3. 12–13.
  4. 14–15.
  5. 16–17.

Answer: B

Page: 359

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about the secular trend in the onset of puberty?
  2. It is probably due to better health and nutrition.
  3. It does not appear to have a genetic limit.
  4. It is found in nonindustrialized countries.
  5. It is so called because it seems to be linked with decreased influence of religion.

Answer: A

Page: 359

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Several studies have suggested that____________ is associated with early menarche.
  2. parental warmth
  3. harmonious family relationships
  4. family conflict
  5. parental involvement in child rearing

Answer: C

Page: 359

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The adolescent brain is
  2. a work in progress.
  3. consistent since infancy.
  4. not producing new brain functions.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 360

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Compared to adults, adolescents process information about emotions
  2. similarly.
  3. differently.
  4. None of these.
  5. Both of these, at different times.

Answer: D

Page: 360

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following describes the major changes that occur in the brain during adolescence?
  2. stopping of brain changes
  3. growth and pruning of gray matter
  4. growth alone
  5. growth of the gray matter

Answer: B

Page: 361

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. At puberty, brain changes include
  2. major changes in gray matter in frontal lobes.
  3. decline in gray matter in the prefrontal cortex.
  4. no changes occur in the brain
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 361

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Physical exercise affects both physical and mental health by doing all of the following EXCEPT
  2. helping build desired muscle.
  3. reducing anxiety and stress.
  4. decreasing time spent dealing with friends issues.
  5. increasing feelings of confidence.

Answer: C

Page: 361

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A pattern of late bedtimes and oversleeping in the morning can contribute to
  2. depression.
  3. stress.
  4. insomnia.
  5. night terrors.

Answer: C

Page: 362

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. To be in sync with their brain’s natural clock, or circadian rhythms, most adolescents need to
  2. go to bed late and get up late.
  3. go to bed late and get up early.
  4. go to bed early and get up early.
  5. go to bed early and get up late.

Answer: A

Page: 363

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The unhealthy diets of many adolescents place them at risk for all of the following EXCEPT
  2. being overweight.
  3. deficiencies in iron and calcium.
  4. high fat and low nutrient eating.
  5. increased heart attacks.

Answer: D

Page: 363

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The most common eating disorder is
  2. anorexia.
  3. obesity.
  4. bulimia.
  5. addiction to junk food.

Answer: B

Page: 363

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Overweight teenagers are at heightened risk for
  2. hypertension.
  3. diabetes.
  4. high cholesterol.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 363

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is a cause of obesity?
  2. inadequate physical activity
  3. poor eating habits
  4. genetic predisposition
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 363

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The typical anorexic is
  2. an underachiever in school.
  3. depressed.
  4. rarely thinking about food or handling it.
  5. fully aware of how abnormally thin she is, but cannot help herself.

Answer: B

Page: 364-365

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. At age 18, Terri is 25 percent underweight and has stopped menstruating. However, she is afraid of becoming fat. She is also overactive and obsessed with food. She is probably
  2. anorexic.
  3. bulimic.
  4. schizophrenic.
  5. suicidal.

Answer: A

Page: 364-365

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Secret gorging on food followed by vomiting, fasting, or purging with use of laxatives is characteristic of
  2. anorexics.
  3. bulimics.
  4. obese teenagers.
  5. compulsive dieters.

Answer: B

Page: 365

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Adolescents who have bulimia
  2. are depressed.
  3. have low self-esteem.
  4. are overwhelmed with shame.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 365

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Treatment for anorexia and bulimia may include
  2. family therapy.
  3. antidepressant drugs.
  4. cognitive behavior therapy.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 365-366

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. After completion of treatment, ________ of anorexics make a full recovery.
  2. 100%
  3. 50%
  4. 25%
  5. 10%

Answer: B

Page: 366

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In recent years, there has been a drop in adolescents’ overall use of drugs. The exception to this is an increase in the use of
  2. heroin.
  3. ecstasy and anabolic steroids.
  4. marijuana and alcohol.
  5. prescription drugs.

Answer: D

Page: 367

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An increasing trend in drug use by high school youth is the abuse of
  2. nonprescription drugs.
  3. hair spray
  4. methamphetamines
  5. All of these.

Answer: A

Page: 367

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is not a risk factor in drug use in adolescents?
  2. a “difficult” temperament
  3. early initiation in drug use
  4. aggression
  5. peer acceptance

Answer: D

Page: 367

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. All of the following are strong factors in getting adolescents to start smoking EXCEPT
  2. peer pressure.
  3. early experience with tobacco.
  4. family influence.
  5. the taste of tobacco.

Answer: D

Page: 368-369

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In recent years, the rate of smoking among adolescents has
  2. risen.
  3. declined.
  4. stayed the same.
  5. remained somewhat stable.

Answer: B

Page: 368

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Depression appears in adolescents as which behavior?
  2. irritability
  3. laziness
  4. loneliness
  5. ebulliance

Answer: A

Page: 369

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Adolescent girls are more likely to be depressed than adolescent boys because they experience
  2. biological changes in puberty.
  3. family conflict.
  4. more help with emotional problems.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 369

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When adolescents die, it is usually from which of the following?
  2. cancer
  3. accidents
  4. homicide
  5. suicide

Answer: B

Page: 370

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The leading cause of death among U.S. teenagers, accounting for 2 of 3 deaths of 16- to 19-year-olds, is
  2. homicide.
  3. suicide.
  4. vehicular accidents.
  5. cancer.

Answer: C

Page: 370-371

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Although most adolescents who attempt suicide do it by taking pills, the method of those who succeed is most likely to be
  2. carbon monoxide.
  3. an intentional car crash.
  4. overdose of recreational drugs.
  5. a firearm.

Answer: D

Page: 371

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A reason cited for the decline of teenage suicides in the United States is
  2. more police officers on the streets.
  3. improved education.
  4. restriction of children’s access to guns.
  5. parental guidance has improved.

Answer: C

Page: 371

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of these groups has the highest rate of suicide?
  2. adolescent males
  3. Native American males
  4. African American females
  5. depressed homosexuals

Answer: B

Page: 371

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Ms. Heil is a new teacher at the Roosevelt High School. She is concerned about her students and pays close attention to their affective behavior. When assessing a student’s potential for suicidal behavior, Ms. Heil should look for all of the following EXCEPT
  2. antisocial behavior.
  3. perpetrators and victims of violence.
  4. high tolerance for frustration.
  5. depressed students.

Answer: C

Page: 371-372

Guidepost: 4

Type: Application

 

  1. Factors that have been found to reduce the risk of suicidal behavior in today’s youth include
  2. emotional well-being.
  3. academic achievement.
  4. sense of connectedness.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 371

Guidepost: 4

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. As adolescents move into the stage of formal operations, they are able to make moral judgments and plan for the future. This means they are thinking
  2. abstractly.
  3. sophisticatedly.
  4. realistically.
  5. consistently.

Answer: A

Page: 372

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to Piaget, adolescents are in which stage of cognitive development?
  2. sensorimotor
  3. preoperational
  4. formal operations
  5. concrete operations

Answer: C

Page: 372

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Lucy solves a chemistry problem by systematically testing several hypotheses. She is at which stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget?
  2. sensorimotor
  3. preoperational
  4. formal operations
  5. concrete operations

Answer: C

Page: 372

Guidepost: 5

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The awareness and monitoring of one’s own mental processes and strategies is called
  2. cognition.
  3. metacognition.
  4. bilateral cognition.
  5. processing.

Answer: B

Page: 373

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the text, Piaget’s theory does not consider all of the following EXCEPT
  2. gains in information-processing capacity.
  3. accumulation of knowledge and expertise.
  4. role of metacognition.
  5. moral considerations of cognitive development.

Answer: D

Page: 372-373

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Information-processing researchers have identified two categories of measurable change in adolescent cognition. These categories are
  2. structural and biological.
  3. structural and functional.
  4. functional and emotional.
  5. biological and emotional.

Answer: B

Page: 374

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. With formal thought, adolescents are able to
  2. social perspective take.
  3. define and discuss love, justice, and freedom.
  4. speak a different language with adults and peers.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 374

Guidepost: 5

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Most adolescents function at which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?
  2. preconventional morality
  3. morality of conventional role conformity
  4. morality of autonomous moral principles
  5. authoritative morality

Answer: B

Page: 377

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Ron has internalized the moral standards of his parents and grandparents. He is concerned with being considered a good son and maintaining the social order. According to Kohlberg, Ron is in the stage of the
  2. morality of conventional role conformity.
  3. morality of autonomous moral principles.
  4. preconventional morality.
  5. authoritarian morality.

Answer: A

Page: 377

Guidepost: 6

Type: Application

 

  1. Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg’s description of moral development because
  2. he focuses on Western European moral values.
  3. he proposes too many stages of development.
  4. he focuses on cognitive development rather than on emotional development.
  5. he focuses on values more important to males than females.

Answer: D

Page: 378

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Gilligan, the moral reasoning of males focuses on _______________, whereas the moral reasoning of females is concerned with ______.
  2. responsibility; justice
  3. justice; showing of care
  4. avoiding harm; avoiding blame
  5. punishments; rewards

Answer: B

Page: 378

Guidepost: 6

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
  2. Peers affect moral reasoning of adolescents by talking about moral conflicts.
  3. Parents contribute to adolescent moral development.
  4. Kohlberg’s system represents moral reasoning in non-Western cultures.
  5. Kohlberg’s theory is oriented towards values important to men rather than to women.

Answer: C

Page: 377-378

Guidepost: 6

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is a central organizing experience in most adolescents’ lives?
  2. home
  3. school
  4. church
  5. family

Answer: B

Page: 382

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to research described in the text, parents of high school students who earned the highest grades were likely to be
  2. authoritarian.
  3. authoritative.
  4. permissive.
  5. inconsistent.

Answer: B

Page: 382

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Asian American students, on average, get higher grades and score higher on achievement tests than white students, because
  2. they are innately smarter than white students.
  3. they have no moral standard against cheating.
  4. they are obsessed with achievement.
  5. their parents and peers value achievement.

Answer: D

Page: 383

Guidepost: 7

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A good high school has all of the following EXCEPT
  2. an orderly, unoppressive atmosphere.
  3. an active, energetic principal.
  4. the latest high-tech teaching equipment.
  5. teachers who take part in making decisions.

Answer: C

Page: 383

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is the most likely to drop out of high school?
  2. Asian American boy
  3. white American girl
  4. Latino boy
  5. African American girl

Answer: C

Page: 383

Guidepost: 7

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The most important factor that determines whether or not a student will finish high school is
  2. location of the school.
  3. the student’s active engagement in schooling.
  4. family stability.
  5. quality of the teachers.

Answer: B

Page: 384

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following statements about gender as a factor in occupational choice is true?
  2. Gender-typing in occupational choice has diminished to such an extent that gender is no longer a significant influence.
  3. Although gender-typing in occupational choice has declined considerably, some counselors still steer boys and girls to gender-typed careers.
  4. Recent studies have found increasingly significant gender differences in mathematical and verbal abilities.
  5. Fewer boys than girls take physics and computer science.

Answer: B

Page: 384

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Oftentimes the educational system, because of its emphasis on the ability to memorize and analyze material,
  2. isolates students whose strengths lie in creative or practical thinking.
  3. guides all students to become good thinkers.
  4. offers students a variety of avenues to explore in pursuing their vocational aspirations.
  5. provides opportunities for students to enter any profession they desire.

Answer: A

Page: 384-385

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. One of the major problems with currently existing vocational training programs is that they
  2. have limited enrollment.
  3. do not allow students to work part-time.
  4. are not comprehensive and not tied to the needs of the community.
  5. cannot graduate students fast enough to fill positions in the community.

Answer: C

Page: 385

Guidepost: 7

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Vocational planning is one aspect of an adolescent’s search for
  2. attitude.
  3. cognition.
  4. identity.
  5. None of these.

Answer: C

Page: 385

Guidepost: 8

Type: Knowledge

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. The Godwins have four children who are rapidly heading into the adolescent phase of their development. From chats with close friends, and the information they have gathered from the media, the Godwins anticipate nothing but havoc for the next several years. What information would you give them about what lies ahead for them? Include the physical changes that occur in both males and females during this period. Describe what parents can do in this period that will have a positive effect on their children’s development.

 

  1. When adolescents reach puberty they also experience changes in the way that they think. Describe Piaget’s formal operations stage of cognitive development. Describe Elkind’s views on adolescent cognitive development, including the immature thought patterns that can result from an adolescent’s inexperience with formal thinking.

 

  1. During the adolescent period of development, serious emphasis is placed on the kind of education that students receive, and the kind of educational and vocational advice they are given in order to prepare them for the world of work. Explain the effects of personal thinking patterns, such as self-efficacy and academic motivation, on educational growth. List at least three environmental factors that provide either advantages or disadvantages for academic performance.
  1. Describe what puts adolescents “at risk” of not obtaining a good education, and suggest steps schools, parents, and communities can do to address the needs of at-risk students.