Human Heredity  Principles And Issues 10th Edition by Michael Cummings  – Test Bank

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Human Heredity  Principles And Issues 10th Edition by Michael Cummings  – Test Bank

 

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Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Edition by Michael Cummings – Test Bank 

 

 

Chapter 1—A Perspective on Human Genetics
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The major point of controversy in deCODE’s plan to establish a genetic database of the people of Iceland
is
A. the large expense and minimal projected benefits.
B. the privacy and appropriate use of the information obtained.
C. the inadequacy of the database size.
D. the genetic isolation of Icelanders.
E. all of these.
ANS: B PTS: 1
2. What was deCODE’s stated purpose in wanting to decode the genomes of Icelanders?
A. To trace migration patterns from Europe.
B. To find unique genes to patent.
C. To identify disease-causing genes for the purpose of drug development.
D. To learn more about the interaction of genes and proteins.
E. More than one of these is the answer.
ANS: C PTS: 1
3. What was a major issue in deCODE’s genomic studies of Icelanders that ultimately led to it filing for
bankruptcy?
A. Too many Icelanders were reluctant to cooperate with deCODE.
B. deCODE did not have the money to invest in the high-tech equipment needed.
C. Most diseases are are caused by multiple gene mutations and are therefore too complex for
deCODE’s purposes.
D. There was too much criticism from bioethicists, especially from the United Nations.
E. Several top executives at deCODE were charged with embezzlement.
ANS: C PTS: 1
4. Genetics is defined as the study of ____.
A. Diseases
B. DNA
C. Heredity
D. chromosome structure
E. more than one of these
ANS: C PTS: 1
5. Which is the correct arrangement of the components of a nucleotide in a strand of DNA?
A. Bases pair up inside with phosphates and sugars on the outside.
B. Phosphates and sugars pair up on the inside with bases pointing to the outside.
C. Phosphates, sugars, and bases alternate in a single linear molecule like beads on a string.
D. Bases connect with sugars on the inside and phosphate groups are on the outside.
E. Phosphates connect on the inside while sugars and bases connect to each other on the
outside.
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
ANS: A PTS: 1
6. Which of the following is NOT a nucleotide base found in DNA?
A. Adenine
B. Thymine
C. Guanine
D. Cytosine
E. Uracil
ANS: E PTS: 1
7. Gregor Mendel ____.
A. cross-bred pea plants with contrasting traits
B. claimed that each individual carries a pair of “factors” for a given trait
C. discovered that genes are on chromosomes
D. did all of these things
E. did most, but not all of these things
ANS: E PTS: 1
8. Mendel’s work on the transmission of genes in pea plants is applicable to ____.
A. only pea plants
B. plants and some animals but not humans
C. all plants, but only plants
D. all plants and animals, including humans
E. all organisms
ANS: D PTS: 1
9. What Mendel called “factors” we now call ____ .
A. Nucleotides
B. DNA
C. Chromosomes
D. Genes
E. Bases
ANS: D PTS: 1
10. Before Mendel, most people would have predicted that a cross of a red rose with a yellow rose would
produce ____.
A. all red roses
B. all yellow roses
C. all orange roses
D. about half yellow roses and half red roses
E. about three-fourths red roses and one-fourth yellow roses
ANS: C PTS: 1
11. The main purpose of preparing karyotypes is ____.
A. to reveal chromosome abnormalities
B. to determine gender
C. to determine which genes are on which chromosomes
D. to isolate and analyze genes
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
E. all of these
ANS: A PTS: 1
12. The branch of genetics concerned with the mechanisms by which genes are transferred from parent to
offspring is called ____ .
A. transmission genetics D. molecular genetics
B. pedigree analysis E. recombinant DNA technology
C. cytogenetics
ANS: A PTS: 1
13. If you were a geneticist working to clone a woolly mammoth, you would be using ____ technology.
A. cytogenetic D. transmission genetics
B. pedigree analysis E. recombinant DNA
C. molecular genetics
ANS: E PTS: 1
14. Which one of the following statements about eugenics is UNTRUE?
A. It was founded by Charles Darwin.
B. It is a dubious method for improving the human species through selective breeding.
C. It is based on the assumption that human traits are much less influenced by environment
than genes.
D. It contributed to the Immigration Act of 1924.
E. It was used to justify the passage of sterilization laws.
ANS: A PTS: 1
15. Which of the following was a result of the eugenics movement in the United States?
A. Individuals thought to be unfit were sterilized.
B. Immigration from Itally was curtailed.
C. Individuals with desirable traits were encouraged to have large families.
D. Contests were held to determine the most fit families.
E. All of these were a result of the eugenics movement in the United States.
ANS: E PTS: 1
16. What was Carrie Buck’s significance in the history of genetics?
A. She was a famous advocate for eugenics.
B. She became the first woman geneticist.
C. She was sterilized after the US Supreme Court determined she was feebleminded.
D. She discovered how to genetically modify corn to be resistant to herbicides.
E. She is the author of the first biography of Gregor Mendel.
ANS: C PTS: 1
17. Hereditarianism is the idea that human traits are ____.
A. partly influenced by environment and genes
B. influenced mostly by the genetic make-up
C. influenced equally by genes and environment
D. determined solely by the genotype or genetic make-up
E. none of these
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
ANS: D PTS: 1
18. The decline of the eugenics movement in the U.S. in the early 20th century resulted from ____.
A. its misuse for social and political purposes by the Nazis
B. the lack of knowledge of the cell theory
C. the lack of understanding of natural selection
D. the idea that most human traits are controlled by single genes
E. all of these
ANS: A PTS: 1
19. DNA microarrays (DNA chips) are used to ____.
A. cut DNA molecules at specific sites
B. clone DNA
C. test an individual for a specific genetic disease
D. screen an individual’s entire genome
E. produce human embryos in a laboratory dish
ANS: D PTS: 1
20. Induced pluripotency is a term related to ___ .
A. producing stem cells from normal body cells
B. cloning animals like Dolly the sheep
C. the discovery of mutated genes that cause disease
D. the decoding of the human genome
E. the practice of eugenics
ANS: A PTS: 1
21. Which of the following terms is not closely related to the others?
A. Haplotype
B. Single nucleotide polymorphism
C. Genome-wide association study
D. Induced pluripotency
E. All of these terms are closely related
ANS: D PTS: 1
22. Gene therapy can best be described as ____.
A. the elimination of a defect (mutation) in a gene
B. the insertion of normal genes to act in place of mutant genes
C. the insertion of human genes into other organisms
D. the cloning of genes to produce and purify therapeutically useful proteins
E. the mapping of all human genetic information
ANS: B PTS: 1
23. One of the properties of genes is that they can “recombine.” This refers to their ability to ____.
A. be transmitted from parents to children
B. move from one chromosome to another
C. be turned on and off
D. undergo changes
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
E. break into pieces and then reassemble
ANS: B PTS: 1
24. Which one of the following is the most accurate description of the pedigrees used in human genetics?
A. Family tree charts showing who has/had a particular trait.
B. Certificates verifying that an individual has a particular trait.
C. Certificates of good genetic health.
D. Family tree charts showing everyone’s birth and death dates.
E. Family tree charts showing photographs of all individuals.
ANS: A PTS: 1
SHORT ANSWER
1. Should information about citizens’ genomes be held by a single private company? By the government? By
anyone?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
2. Distinguish between transmission genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and population genetics.
Which has had the greatest impact on human genetics in recent years?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
3. Distinguish between basic and applied research and discuss how the two are linked in terms of genetics.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
4. Discuss the contribution made by Francis Galton to the development of eugenics.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
5. What were the benefits envisioned from the Human Genome Project and was this project an appropriate
use of taxpayers’ money?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
PTS: 1
6. What are the reasons why Iceland was chosen to have its population’s genome decoded?
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
7. Explain the connection between single nucleotide polymorphism, haplotype, and genome-wide
association studies.
ANS:
Answer not provided.
PTS: 1
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
Chapter 2—Cells and Cell Division
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The process of meiosis results in ____.
A. the production of four identical cells
B. no change in chromosome number from parental cells
C. a doubling of the chromosome number
D. a reduction in chromosome number
E. two diploid cells
ANS: D PTS: 1
2. In the cell cycle, the G2 phase represents ____.
A. the stage of DNA synthesis
B. splitting of the chromosomes into chromatids
C. a period of growth
D. the stage of actual cell division
E. the stage just prior to meiosis
ANS: C PTS: 1
3. Ribosomes are organelles that function in ____.
A. plasma membrane selectivity
B. cellular energy production
C. synthesis of gene products
D. transport of materials throughout the cytoplasm
E. DNA replication
ANS: C PTS: 1
4. Which of the following genetic diseases involve defects in DNA repair, which affects cell division?
A. Gaucher disease and Werner syndrome
B. Kearns-Sayre syndrome and progeria
C. Progeria and Werner syndrome
D. Gaucher disease and cystic fibrosis
E. Progeria and Werner syndrome
ANS: E PTS: 1
5. Autosomes represent ____.
A. all chromosomes including the sex chromosomes
B. the half of the chromosomes inherited from one parent
C. all chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
D. chromosome pairs with unlike members
E. those chromosomes found only in gametes
ANS: C PTS: 1
6. During meiosis in an organism where 2n = 8, how many chromatids will be present in a cell at the
beginning of meiosis II?
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 8
E. 12
ANS: D PTS: 1
7. The Hayflick limit describes ____.
A. the size limit to which a cell can grow
B. the number of divisions a cultured cell can undergo
C. the largest number of chromosomes an organism can possess
D. the most cells an organism can have
E. how rapidly DNA replication occurs
ANS: B PTS: 1
8. In meiosis, homologous chromosomes separate in ____.
A. metaphase I
B. anaphase I
C. metaphase II
D. anaphase II
E. telophase
ANS: B PTS: 1
9. A cell that could not form spindle fibers could not perform ____.
A. energy production
B. gas exchange across the plasma membrane
C. meiosis
D. DNA replication
E. protein synthesis
ANS: C PTS: 1
10. Which of the following is an event that does NOT occur in prophase of mitosis?
A. The chromosomes are duplicated.
B. The nuclear envelope starts to break up.
C. The mitotic spindle begins to form.
D. The chromosomes begin to condense.
E. All of these are events that occure in prophase of mitosis.
ANS: A PTS: 1
11. A cell in G0 state is a cell ____.
A. that will shortly enter G1
B. that never divides
C. that has just finished mitosis but has not yet begun cytokinesis
D. in cytokinesis
E. just after cytokinesis
ANS: B PTS: 1
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
12. Centromeres are described by all of the following events except one. Select the exception.
A. They divide in anaphase of mitosis.
B. They connect sister chromatids.
C. They attach chromosomes to spindle fibers.
D. They cross over during prophase I of meiosis.
E. There are no exceptions. All of these events describe centromeres.
ANS: D PTS: 1
13. Which of the following are NOT haploid?
A. Polar bodies and secondary spermatocytes
B. Primary oocytes and spermatids
C. Secondary spermatocytes and spermatogonia
D. Primary oocytes and spermatogonia
E. Secondary spermatocytes and spermatids
ANS: D PTS: 1
14. The underlying problem with Gaucher diseases is ___.
A. the spontaneous breakdown of red blood cells
B. the accumulation of fat in white blood cells
C. the breakdown of the myelin sheath around nerves
D. a hypertrophied spleen
E. the lack of critical liver enzymes
ANS: B PTS: 1
15. Which of the following biomolecules is directly important for membrane structure and function?
A. Polysaccharides
B. Steroids
C. DNA
D. Phospholipids
E. ATP
ANS: D PTS: 1
16. Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?
A. Energy carrier
B. Structure of bones
C. Enzymes
D. Hormones
E. All of these are functions of proteins
ANS: A PTS: 1
17. Which of the following organelles is NOT involved with protein synthesis?
A. The rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. The Golgi complex
C. The nucleus
D. The lysosomes
E. All of these organelles are involved in protein synthesis
ANS: D PTS: 1
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
18. With which organelle are ribosomes most closely associated?
A. The Golgi complex
B. Lysosomes
C. Mitochondria
D. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
ANS: E PTS: 1
19. How many different types of chromosomes do humans possess?
A. 22
B. 23
C. 24
D. 42
E. 46
ANS: C PTS: 1
20. In meiosis, when do cells become haploid?
A. After telophase I
B. After telophase II
C. During anaphase I
D. During anaphase II
E. After prophase II
ANS: A PTS: 1
21. In meiosis of oogenesis, how many mature eggs result?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
ANS: A PTS: 1
22. In spermatogenesis, what cells form in meiosis II?
A. Primary spermatocytes
B. Secondary spermatocytes
C. Spermatids
D. Mature sperm
E. More than one of these
ANS: C PTS: 1
23. Which of the following occurs between meiosis I and meiosis II?
A. DNA replication
B. Crossing over
C. Random assortment
D. Reduction of chromosome number
E. None of these occur between meiosis I and meiosis II
ANS: E PTS: 1
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
TRUE/FALSE
1. Skin cells typically do not divide.
ANS: F PTS: 1
2. Mitotic divisions reduce the number of chromosomes found in daughter cells.
ANS: F PTS: 1
3. Cytokinesis usually occurs just prior to mitosis.
ANS: F PTS: 1
4. Autosomal chromosome pairs are identical, whereas the sex chromosome pair in males is not.
ANS: T PTS: 1
5. “Crossing over” is partially responsible for our genetic diversity.
ANS: T PTS: 1
6. Crossing over occurs between chromatids of homologous chromosome pairs.
ANS: T PTS: 1
7. There are 92 chromosomes in a normal human cell undergoing mitosis at the anaphase stage.
ANS: T PTS: 1
8. A polar body, once formed, has no further function and dies.
ANS: T PTS: 1
COMPLETION
1. There are __________ autosomes present in a human egg.
ANS: 22
PTS: 1
2. The chromosomal structure that anchors the spindle fiber to the chromosome is ____________________.
ANS: the centromere
PTS: 1
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cummings
3. If a cell was to stop dividing, it would stop in the __________ part of the cell cycle.
ANS: G1
PTS: 1
4. In mitosis, chromatids separate and move to the center of the cell during ____________________.
ANS: metaphase
PTS: 1
5. In many respects, the events of prophase seem to be the reverse of those occurring in
____________________.
ANS: telophase
PTS: 1
6. In meiosis, sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the spindle during
____________________.
ANS: anaphase II
PTS: 1
7. In cell division, toward the end of nuclear division, the cytoplasm divides by a process called
______________ to produce two identical cells.
ANS: cytokinesis
PTS: 1
8. The only cytoplasmic organelles besides nuclei that contain DNA are the ____________________.
ANS: mitochondria
PTS: 1
9. Ribosomes exist either free in the cytoplasm or attached to the membranes of ____________________.
ANS: rough endoplasmic reticulum
PTS: 1
10. One primary spermatocyte produces ____________________ (how many?) functional sperm(s); one
primary oocyte produces ____________________ functional egg(s).
ANS: 4; 1
Human Heredity Principles and Issues 10th Cumm