Intimate Relationships Marriages And Families 9th Ed by Nancy Stinnett – Test Bank

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Intimate Relationships Marriages And Families 9th Ed by Nancy Stinnett – Test Bank

ch6

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four measures for successful marriage discussed in the text?

A. unconditional love

 

B. approximation of ideals

 

C. durability

 

D. fulfillment of needs

 

2. Which of the following was mentioned in the text as a caution regarding need fulfillment?

A. Successful marriage means partners can satisfy all of each other’s needs.

 

B. It is helpful if need fulfillment is mutual.

 

C. Realistically, needs of only one of the partners have to be met in order to have a successful marriage.

 

D. Need fulfillment is a relatively unimportant measure of successful marriage.

 

3. Which of the following terms refers to the extent to which couples are content and fulfilled in their relationships?

A. marital success

 

B. marital satisfaction

 

C. commitment

 

D. nonconditional reinforcement

 

4. A successful marriage is defined as one that:

A. lasts forever

 

B. doesn’t require counseling

 

C. fulfills both partners’ reasonable expectations

 

D. meets the definition of the researchers

 

5. The text points out that a marriage that is ______ is not necessarily successful.

A. durable

 

B. ideal

 

C. satisfying

 

D. happy

 

6. According to the text, marriages are more successful if they are based on expectations that are:

A. idealistic

 

B. realistic

 

C. based on research

 

D. culturally acceptable

 

7. Expecting one’s needs to be met in a successful marriage is:

A. too idealistic to work well

 

B. possible only with counseling

 

C. possible to some degree

 

D. setting oneself up for disappointment

 

8. The term “marital satisfaction” refers to:

A. the way researchers measure a successful marriage

 

B. sexual fulfillment in a marriage

 

C. a marriage that is working reasonably well

 

D. how happy both people are in a marriage

 

9. According to John Gottman, couples who are happy in their marriage are ______ to use negative affect reciprocity.

A. very likely

 

B. somewhat likely

 

C. unlikely

 

D. very unlikely

 

10. John and Mary have a happy marriage. John came in from work today in a grumpy mood. According to John Gottman, how will Mary perceive his behavior?

A. He’s always grumpy. He can’t think about anybody but himself!

 

B. He’s so selfish. I’m tired, too.

 

C. I better bring him a soda and a snack or he’ll get worse!

 

D. He must have had a hard day at work.

 

11. Which of the following have researchers found to be one of the processes that can predict divorce?

A. misinterpretation of a person’s behavior

 

B. anger

 

C. defensiveness

 

D. depression

 

12. Based on findings from a national study of over 21,000 couples, family life researcher David Olson advises that a happy marriage requires:

A. accepting a decrease in romance

 

B. paying positive attention to the relationship

 

C. agreeing rather than having conflict

 

D. being nice no matter what

 

13. Marriage researcher John Gottman concluded that in an unhappy marriage, if one partner says something negative, the other partner tends to:

A. reciprocate negatively.

 

B. reciprocate positively.

 

C. offer no immediate response.

 

D. interrupt.

 

14. The four processes that can predict divorce, called the “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” by John Gottman, include all but:

A. selfishness

 

B. criticism.

 

C. defensiveness.

 

D. stonewalling.

 

15. Studies have found that married people get older, their desire for physical closeness and affection:

A. decreases

 

B. increases

 

C. continues to be a strong need

 

D. changes to a desire for companionship

 

16. Research shows that ______ couples typically have sex more frequently.

A. young

 

B. older

 

C. cohabiting

 

D. remarried

 

17. The text uses the term intimacy to refer to:

A. sexual contact

 

B. closeness

 

C. commitment

 

D. interaction

 

18. Researchers have found that women consider sexual ______ to be most important.

A. satisfaction

 

B. communication

 

C. contact

 

D. intimacy

 

19. The text points out that many couples consider sex and feelings of intimacy to be:

A. inseparably linked together

 

B. separate but equally important

 

C. separate with intimacy being more important

 

D. the same thing

 

20. Which of the following have NOT been established by researchers as true regarding the relationship between sex and a happy marriage?

A. Happy marriages always result in sexual satisfaction.

 

B. For many individuals 60 and older, sexual expression remains an important part of their marriage relationship.

 

C. Healthy sexuality contributes to marital satisfaction.

 

D. If partners disagree over the frequency of sex, it can significantly reduce relationship satisfaction.

 

21. Researchers point out that the ideal frequency of sexual intercourse for marital satisfaction is:

A. one to two times per month.

 

B. one to two times per week.

 

C. daily.

 

D. variable, depending on the couple’s sexuality.

 

22. Typically, researchers find that most couples start out their marriage by engaging frequently in intercourse, and the frequency:

A. increases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.

 

B. decreases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.

 

C. usually stays at that level for the first two years of marriage.

 

D. usually stays at that level for the first five years of marriage.

 

23. According to research presented in the text, although both men and women place a high value on sexual functioning, women place the highest value on

A. sexual intimacy.

 

B. sexual satisfaction.

 

C. sexual commitment.

 

D. physical contact.

 

24. Researchers agree that _________ can be productive or destructive in relationships.

A. Communication

 

B. Intimacy

 

C. Depression

 

D. Criticism

 

25. The text points out that if communication is to be productive, it should:

A. involve some criticism.

 

B. involve complete honesty, even if hurtful.

 

C. be polite, even if that means being slightly dishonest.

 

D. be polite and tactful.

 

26. The text points out that which of the following is NOT a part of effective communication?

A. being critical

 

B. being polite

 

C. being tactful

 

D. exchanging feelings

 

27. Researchers have concluded that happy couples are those who

A. meet each other’s needs for acceptance and appreciation.

 

B. criticize each other to stimulate improvement.

 

C. are careful about giving compliments to avoid flattery.

 

D. both contribute equally to the finances.

 

28. Which of the following terms refers to unconditional positive regard?

A. noncontingent reinforcement

 

B. affective sensitivity

 

C. selfism

 

D. empathy

 

29. The text points out that in successful marriages, spouses have mastered the art of:

A. losing themselves in their relationships.

 

B. losing themselves in their relationships without losing their sense of self.

 

C. never losing themselves in their relationships.

 

D. maintaining their individual identities with little effort to achieve oneness as a couple.

 

30. What is the relationship between spirituality and marital adjustment, according to researchers?

A. There is no relationship.

 

B. There is a positive relationship.

 

C. There is a negative relationship.

 

D. There is an inconsistent relationship.

 

31. According to your text, marital success is usually more attainable if the commitment is:

A. stronger in the partner who has the greater interest in having the marriage succeed.

 

B. mutual.

 

C. defined formally.

 

D. loosely structured.

 

32. Research indicates that the strongest predictor of relationship persistence is:

A. satisfaction.

 

B. investment.

 

C. commitment.

 

D. frequency of sexual intercourse.

 

33. Constraint commitment refers to:

A. forces that compel individuals to maintain relationships regardless of their personal dedication to them.

 

B. the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the joint benefit of the couple.

 

C. the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the benefit of one individual.

 

D. maintaining autonomy.

 

34. Marital rituals are:

A. special times spent with the entire family.

 

B. special times that just one parent spends with the children.

 

C. positive social interactions that are scheduled moments that are mutually decided on and repeated.

 

D. social interactions that the couple arrange with other couples.

 

35. Which of the following is true in relation to the expression of affection and successful marriage?

A. The greater the degree of expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

 

B. The greater the degree of physical expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

 

C. The greater the degree of verbal expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

 

D. The husband and wife need to agree on the expression of affection.

 

36. In dealing with crises and stress, successful couples:

A. try not to think about what is happening.

 

B. turn to each other for assistance and strength.

 

C. believe that stress and problems are a sign of failure.

 

D. seldom feel that anything good comes from adversity.

 

37. To deal successfully with problems, the most important thing that couples need is:

A. outside help

 

B. agreement on basic issues

 

C. compatibility

 

D. tolerance for frustration

 

38. Which of the following is NOT correlated with higher divorce rates?

A. high stress levels

 

B. nervousness and moodiness

 

C. non-contingent reinforcement

 

D. depression

 

39. The text discusses the ways in which responsibility in a successful marriage involves:

A. providing for one’s family financially

 

B. being accountable for one’s own behavior

 

C. having a good relationship with in-laws

 

D. determining who will choose birth control

 

40. Which of the following does the text state would be most beneficial to a happy marriage?

A. affective sensitivity

 

B. selfism

 

C. constraint commitment

 

D. critical empathy

 

41. The text points out that persons who are _______ will not take responsibility for conflicts that might arise in a marriage because they believe they are right.

A. empathic

 

B. depressed

 

C. perfectionistic

 

D. immature

 

42. Relative to the division of household and child care responsibilities, marital dissatisfaction is greatest when:

A. the wife is responsible for housework and the husband for breadwinning.

 

B. both the husband and wife are responsible for child care and housekeeping.

 

C. the partners feel there is a fairly equal distribution of labor, and gender-role performance matches expectations.

 

D. one partner perceives unfairness in the performance of these chores.

 

43. What does research reveal regarding the division of housework in families?

A. The husband does more than the wife if she works outside of the home.

 

B. The husband spends as much time doing housework as the wife when there are children in the family.

 

C. There is little evidence of egalitarianism in marriage.

 

D. The husband’s contribution changes after the couple has been married a while.

 

44. A personal value system that emphasizes self-gratification and narcissism as the way to find happiness is termed:

A. autonomy.

 

B. perfectionism.

 

C. misogyny.

 

D. selfism.

 

45. Which of the following is characteristic of selfism?

A. It lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.

 

B. It increases the likelihood that the other partner’s needs will be fulfilled.

 

C. It increases marital stability.

 

D. It results in greater happiness through narcissistic love.

 

46. Kagan and Schneider term the ability to vicariously share the experiences of another person:

A. emulation.

 

B. affective sensitivity.

 

C. affectation.

 

D. autonomy.

 

47. Which of the following is NOT one of the five steps in the development of empathy?

A. repeating

 

B. perception

 

C. experiencing

 

D. labeling

 

48. According to the text, the most difficult partners to deal with in a marital context usually are

A. perfectionists.

 

B. masochists.

 

C. those with low frustration levels.

 

D. irresponsible partners.

 

49. Family-of-origin factors play a(n) _____ role in predicting marital satisfaction for:

A. equal; males and females.

 

B. greater; males than for females.

 

C. greater; females than for males.

 

D. unimportant; both males and females

 

50. Research has found that most of the differences between couples who stay married, but differed in marital happiness:

A. developed after 13 years of marriage.

 

B. developed after 2 years of marriage.

 

C. developed within the first 6 months of marriage.

 

D. existed at the outset of marriage.

 

51. Research has shown that _______ have the most impact on happiness in marriage.

A. social relationships (of each person)

 

B. parental approval and interaction

 

C. parent-child relationships in the family of origin

 

D. the couple’s premarital interactions

 

52. Which of the following is LEAST important for parents to do to help their children have happy marriages later?

A. have a happy marriage themselves

 

B. be involved in their children’s lives

 

C. create a happy home environment

 

D. provide a good standard of living

 

53. ______ is NOT necessarily a sign that a marriage is headed for trouble.

A. A decline in overt affection

 

B. A decline in sexual activity

 

C. Believing that one’s spouse isn’t responsive

 

D. Mixed feelings about the relationship

 

54. A good marriage may be expected to fulfill every need.

True    False

 

55. Marital satisfaction can be present if only one of the partners is content with the relationship.

True    False

 

56. Negative affect reciprocity is a consistent characteristic of distressed couples.

True    False

 

57. If partners disagree over the frequency of sexual encounters, it doesn’t seem to hurt relationship satisfaction as long as one of the partners is satisfied.

True    False

 

58. Research indicates that in the most successful relationships, partners don’t hesitate to say whatever is on their minds.

True    False

 

59. Saying critical, hurtful things, even though they are honest, may worsen a relationship.

True    False

 

60. If communication is to be productive, politeness, tact, and consideration are required.

True    False

 

61. Marital problems usually arise when partners choose to have some separateness and do some things with their own friends.

True    False

 

62. Research indicates a lack of correlation between spirituality and marital satisfaction.

True    False

 

63. Commitment, rather than satisfaction or investment, is the strongest predictor of relationship persistence.

True    False

 

64. A component of commitment is referred to as intention to persist.

True    False

 

65. Constraint commitment refers to the desire of an individual to maintain the quality of the relationship.

True    False

 

66. Successful couples usually experience much less stress in marriage than unsuccessful ones.

True    False

 

67. Selfism in marriage lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.

True    False

 

68. Affective sensitivity is the vicarious sharing of the experiences of another person.

True    False

 

69. Of all the family-of-origin issues, the parent-child relationship is one of the most important.

True    False

 

70. What happens in the first two years of marriage is important in predicting marital satisfaction over the long run.

True    False

 

71. Researchers find that most of the differences between couples who stay, but differed in marital happiness, developed within the first 2 years of the marriage.

True    False

 

72. Discuss the four criteria of a successful marriage.

 

 

 

 

73. Discuss the four needs under “fulfillment of needs,” as important criteria for marital success.

 

 

 

 

74. Discuss negative affect reciprocity as it relates to unhappy couples.

 

 

 

 

75. In a national study of over 21,000 married couples, researcher David Olson found that happy and unhappy couples differ in five key areas. Name them.

 

 

 

 

76. Discuss the gender differences in attitudes toward intimacy.

 

 

 

 

77. What are the elements of effective communication?

 

 

 

 

78. What are some characteristics of those who are able to meet their partner’s needs for admiration and respect?

 

 

 

 

79. Explain the analogy of porcupines used to exemplify one of the 12 characteristics of successful marriages.

 

 

 

 

80. Discuss to whom and to what commitment is directed in marriage.

 

 

 

 

81. Discuss the two conditions regarding division of responsibility that are reported to exist in marriages having a high degree of satisfaction.

 

 

 

 

82. List and briefly describe the five phases of empathy as presented by Kagan and Schneider.

 

 

 

 

83. Describe the four different criteria that are sometimes used to define successful marriages.

 

 

 

 

84. Discuss the differences between happy and unhappy couples.

 

 

 

 

85. Several intervention principles can help practitioners work with couples to increase the likelihood of having a high-quality marriage. These interventions can help people in five general ways. Mention and discuss.

 

 

 

 

86. Discuss reasons why people might regret their choice of mate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ch6 Key

1.
(p. 146)
Which of the following is NOT one of the four measures for successful marriage discussed in the text?

A. unconditional love

 

B. approximation of ideals

 

C. durability

 

D. fulfillment of needs

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #1
 

 

2.
(p. 147)
Which of the following was mentioned in the text as a caution regarding need fulfillment?

A. Successful marriage means partners can satisfy all of each other’s needs.

 

B. It is helpful if need fulfillment is mutual.

 

C. Realistically, needs of only one of the partners have to be met in order to have a successful marriage.

 

D. Need fulfillment is a relatively unimportant measure of successful marriage.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #2
 

 

3.
(p. 147)
Which of the following terms refers to the extent to which couples are content and fulfilled in their relationships?

A. marital success

 

B. marital satisfaction

 

C. commitment

 

D. nonconditional reinforcement

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #3
 

 

4.
(p. 146)
A successful marriage is defined as one that:

A. lasts forever

 

B. doesn’t require counseling

 

C. fulfills both partners’ reasonable expectations

 

D. meets the definition of the researchers

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #4
 

 

5.
(p. 146)
The text points out that a marriage that is ______ is not necessarily successful.

A. durable

 

B. ideal

 

C. satisfying

 

D. happy

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #5
 

 

6.
(p. 147)
According to the text, marriages are more successful if they are based on expectations that are:

A. idealistic

 

B. realistic

 

C. based on research

 

D. culturally acceptable

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #6
 

 

7.
(p. 147)
Expecting one’s needs to be met in a successful marriage is:

A. too idealistic to work well

 

B. possible only with counseling

 

C. possible to some degree

 

D. setting oneself up for disappointment

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #7
 

 

8.
(p. 147)
The term “marital satisfaction” refers to:

A. the way researchers measure a successful marriage

 

B. sexual fulfillment in a marriage

 

C. a marriage that is working reasonably well

 

D. how happy both people are in a marriage

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #8
 

 

9.
(p. 147)
According to John Gottman, couples who are happy in their marriage are ______ to use negative affect reciprocity.

A. very likely

 

B. somewhat likely

 

C. unlikely

 

D. very unlikely

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #9
 

 

10.
(p. 148)
John and Mary have a happy marriage. John came in from work today in a grumpy mood. According to John Gottman, how will Mary perceive his behavior?

A. He’s always grumpy. He can’t think about anybody but himself!

 

B. He’s so selfish. I’m tired, too.

 

C. I better bring him a soda and a snack or he’ll get worse!

 

D. He must have had a hard day at work.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #10
 

 

11.
(p. 148)
Which of the following have researchers found to be one of the processes that can predict divorce?

A. misinterpretation of a person’s behavior

 

B. anger

 

C. defensiveness

 

D. depression

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #11
 

 

12.
(p. 149)
Based on findings from a national study of over 21,000 couples, family life researcher David Olson advises that a happy marriage requires:

A. accepting a decrease in romance

 

B. paying positive attention to the relationship

 

C. agreeing rather than having conflict

 

D. being nice no matter what

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #12
 

 

13.
(p. 148)
Marriage researcher John Gottman concluded that in an unhappy marriage, if one partner says something negative, the other partner tends to:

A. reciprocate negatively.

 

B. reciprocate positively.

 

C. offer no immediate response.

 

D. interrupt.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #13
 

 

14.
(p. 148)
The four processes that can predict divorce, called the “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” by John Gottman, include all but:

A. selfishness

 

B. criticism.

 

C. defensiveness.

 

D. stonewalling.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #14
 

 

15.
(p. 150)
Studies have found that married people get older, their desire for physical closeness and affection:

A. decreases

 

B. increases

 

C. continues to be a strong need

 

D. changes to a desire for companionship

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #15
 

 

16.
(p. 150)
Research shows that ______ couples typically have sex more frequently.

A. young

 

B. older

 

C. cohabiting

 

D. remarried

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #16
 

 

17.
(p. 154)
The text uses the term intimacy to refer to:

A. sexual contact

 

B. closeness

 

C. commitment

 

D. interaction

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #17
 

 

18.
(p. 151)
Researchers have found that women consider sexual ______ to be most important.

A. satisfaction

 

B. communication

 

C. contact

 

D. intimacy

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #18
 

 

19.
(p. 150 – 151)
The text points out that many couples consider sex and feelings of intimacy to be:

A. inseparably linked together

 

B. separate but equally important

 

C. separate with intimacy being more important

 

D. the same thing

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #19
 

 

20.
(p. 150 – 151)
Which of the following have NOT been established by researchers as true regarding the relationship between sex and a happy marriage?

A. Happy marriages always result in sexual satisfaction.

 

B. For many individuals 60 and older, sexual expression remains an important part of their marriage relationship.

 

C. Healthy sexuality contributes to marital satisfaction.

 

D. If partners disagree over the frequency of sex, it can significantly reduce relationship satisfaction.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #20
 

 

21.
(p. 150)
Researchers point out that the ideal frequency of sexual intercourse for marital satisfaction is:

A. one to two times per month.

 

B. one to two times per week.

 

C. daily.

 

D. variable, depending on the couple’s sexuality.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #21
 

 

22.
(p. 150)
Typically, researchers find that most couples start out their marriage by engaging frequently in intercourse, and the frequency:

A. increases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.

 

B. decreases over time until the couple settles into their own individual patterns.

 

C. usually stays at that level for the first two years of marriage.

 

D. usually stays at that level for the first five years of marriage.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #22
 

 

23.
(p. 151)
According to research presented in the text, although both men and women place a high value on sexual functioning, women place the highest value on

A. sexual intimacy.

 

B. sexual satisfaction.

 

C. sexual commitment.

 

D. physical contact.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #23
 

 

24.
(p. 151)
Researchers agree that _________ can be productive or destructive in relationships.

A. Communication

 

B. Intimacy

 

C. Depression

 

D. Criticism

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #24
 

 

25.
(p. 151)
The text points out that if communication is to be productive, it should:

A. involve some criticism.

 

B. involve complete honesty, even if hurtful.

 

C. be polite, even if that means being slightly dishonest.

 

D. be polite and tactful.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #25
 

 

26.
(p. 151)
The text points out that which of the following is NOT a part of effective communication?

A. being critical

 

B. being polite

 

C. being tactful

 

D. exchanging feelings

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #26
 

 

27.
(p. 152)
Researchers have concluded that happy couples are those who

A. meet each other’s needs for acceptance and appreciation.

 

B. criticize each other to stimulate improvement.

 

C. are careful about giving compliments to avoid flattery.

 

D. both contribute equally to the finances.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #27
 

 

28.
(p. 152)
Which of the following terms refers to unconditional positive regard?

A. noncontingent reinforcement

 

B. affective sensitivity

 

C. selfism

 

D. empathy

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #28
 

 

29.
(p. 156)
The text points out that in successful marriages, spouses have mastered the art of:

A. losing themselves in their relationships.

 

B. losing themselves in their relationships without losing their sense of self.

 

C. never losing themselves in their relationships.

 

D. maintaining their individual identities with little effort to achieve oneness as a couple.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #29
 

 

30.
(p. 154)
What is the relationship between spirituality and marital adjustment, according to researchers?

A. There is no relationship.

 

B. There is a positive relationship.

 

C. There is a negative relationship.

 

D. There is an inconsistent relationship.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #30
 

 

31.
(p. 155)
According to your text, marital success is usually more attainable if the commitment is:

A. stronger in the partner who has the greater interest in having the marriage succeed.

 

B. mutual.

 

C. defined formally.

 

D. loosely structured.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #31
 

 

32.
(p. 154 – 155)
Research indicates that the strongest predictor of relationship persistence is:

A. satisfaction.

 

B. investment.

 

C. commitment.

 

D. frequency of sexual intercourse.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #32
 

 

33.
(p. 155)
Constraint commitment refers to:

A. forces that compel individuals to maintain relationships regardless of their personal dedication to them.

 

B. the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the joint benefit of the couple.

 

C. the desire of an individual to maintain or improve the quality of the relationship for the benefit of one individual.

 

D. maintaining autonomy.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #33
 

 

34.
(p. 156)
Marital rituals are:

A. special times spent with the entire family.

 

B. special times that just one parent spends with the children.

 

C. positive social interactions that are scheduled moments that are mutually decided on and repeated.

 

D. social interactions that the couple arrange with other couples.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #34
 

 

35.
(p. 156)
Which of the following is true in relation to the expression of affection and successful marriage?

A. The greater the degree of expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

 

B. The greater the degree of physical expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

 

C. The greater the degree of verbal expression of affection, the more successful the marriage.

 

D. The husband and wife need to agree on the expression of affection.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #35
 

 

36.
(p. 157)
In dealing with crises and stress, successful couples:

A. try not to think about what is happening.

 

B. turn to each other for assistance and strength.

 

C. believe that stress and problems are a sign of failure.

 

D. seldom feel that anything good comes from adversity.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #36
 

 

37.
(p. 157)
To deal successfully with problems, the most important thing that couples need is:

A. outside help

 

B. agreement on basic issues

 

C. compatibility

 

D. tolerance for frustration

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #37
 

 

38.
(p. 152)
Which of the following is NOT correlated with higher divorce rates?

A. high stress levels

 

B. nervousness and moodiness

 

C. non-contingent reinforcement

 

D. depression

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #38
 

 

39.
(p. 158)
The text discusses the ways in which responsibility in a successful marriage involves:

A. providing for one’s family financially

 

B. being accountable for one’s own behavior

 

C. having a good relationship with in-laws

 

D. determining who will choose birth control

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #39
 

 

40.
(p. 159)
Which of the following does the text state would be most beneficial to a happy marriage?

A. affective sensitivity

 

B. selfism

 

C. constraint commitment

 

D. critical empathy

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #40
 

 

41.
(p. 161)
The text points out that persons who are _______ will not take responsibility for conflicts that might arise in a marriage because they believe they are right.

A. empathic

 

B. depressed

 

C. perfectionistic

 

D. immature

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #41
 

 

42.
(p. 158)
Relative to the division of household and child care responsibilities, marital dissatisfaction is greatest when:

A. the wife is responsible for housework and the husband for breadwinning.

 

B. both the husband and wife are responsible for child care and housekeeping.

 

C. the partners feel there is a fairly equal distribution of labor, and gender-role performance matches expectations.

 

D. one partner perceives unfairness in the performance of these chores.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #42
 

 

43.
(p. 158)
What does research reveal regarding the division of housework in families?

A. The husband does more than the wife if she works outside of the home.

 

B. The husband spends as much time doing housework as the wife when there are children in the family.

 

C. There is little evidence of egalitarianism in marriage.

 

D. The husband’s contribution changes after the couple has been married a while.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #43
 

 

44.
(p. 158)
A personal value system that emphasizes self-gratification and narcissism as the way to find happiness is termed:

A. autonomy.

 

B. perfectionism.

 

C. misogyny.

 

D. selfism.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #44
 

 

45.
(p. 158)
Which of the following is characteristic of selfism?

A. It lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.

 

B. It increases the likelihood that the other partner’s needs will be fulfilled.

 

C. It increases marital stability.

 

D. It results in greater happiness through narcissistic love.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #45
 

 

46.
(p. 159)
Kagan and Schneider term the ability to vicariously share the experiences of another person:

A. emulation.

 

B. affective sensitivity.

 

C. affectation.

 

D. autonomy.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #46
 

 

47.
(p. 159)
Which of the following is NOT one of the five steps in the development of empathy?

A. repeating

 

B. perception

 

C. experiencing

 

D. labeling

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #47
 

 

48.
(p. 161)
According to the text, the most difficult partners to deal with in a marital context usually are

A. perfectionists.

 

B. masochists.

 

C. those with low frustration levels.

 

D. irresponsible partners.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #48
 

 

49.
(p. 161)
Family-of-origin factors play a(n) _____ role in predicting marital satisfaction for:

A. equal; males and females.

 

B. greater; males than for females.

 

C. greater; females than for males.

 

D. unimportant; both males and females

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #49
 

 

50.
(p. 162)
Research has found that most of the differences between couples who stay married, but differed in marital happiness:

A. developed after 13 years of marriage.

 

B. developed after 2 years of marriage.

 

C. developed within the first 6 months of marriage.

 

D. existed at the outset of marriage.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #50
 

 

51.
(p. 161)
Research has shown that _______ have the most impact on happiness in marriage.

A. social relationships (of each person)

 

B. parental approval and interaction

 

C. parent-child relationships in the family of origin

 

D. the couple’s premarital interactions

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #51
 

 

52.
(p. 161)
Which of the following is LEAST important for parents to do to help their children have happy marriages later?

A. have a happy marriage themselves

 

B. be involved in their children’s lives

 

C. create a happy home environment

 

D. provide a good standard of living

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #52
 

 

53.
(p. 150)
______ is NOT necessarily a sign that a marriage is headed for trouble.

A. A decline in overt affection

 

B. A decline in sexual activity

 

C. Believing that one’s spouse isn’t responsive

 

D. Mixed feelings about the relationship

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #53
 

 

54.
(p. 147)
A good marriage may be expected to fulfill every need.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #54
 

 

55.
(p. 147)
Marital satisfaction can be present if only one of the partners is content with the relationship.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #55
 

 

56.
(p. 147)
Negative affect reciprocity is a consistent characteristic of distressed couples.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #56
 

 

57.
(p. 150)
If partners disagree over the frequency of sexual encounters, it doesn’t seem to hurt relationship satisfaction as long as one of the partners is satisfied.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #57
 

 

58.
(p. 151)
Research indicates that in the most successful relationships, partners don’t hesitate to say whatever is on their minds.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #58
 

 

59.
(p. 151)
Saying critical, hurtful things, even though they are honest, may worsen a relationship.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #59
 

 

60.
(p. 151)
If communication is to be productive, politeness, tact, and consideration are required.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #60
 

 

61.
(p. 152 – 154)
Marital problems usually arise when partners choose to have some separateness and do some things with their own friends.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #61
 

 

62.
(p. 155)
Research indicates a lack of correlation between spirituality and marital satisfaction.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #62
 

 

63.
(p. 154)
Commitment, rather than satisfaction or investment, is the strongest predictor of relationship persistence.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #63
 

 

64.
(p. 154)
A component of commitment is referred to as intention to persist.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #64
 

 

65.
(p. 155)
Constraint commitment refers to the desire of an individual to maintain the quality of the relationship.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #65
 

 

66.
(p. 157)
Successful couples usually experience much less stress in marriage than unsuccessful ones.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #66
 

 

67.
(p. 158)
Selfism in marriage lessens each partner’s responsibility for the success of the relationship.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #67
 

 

68.
(p. 159)
Affective sensitivity is the vicarious sharing of the experiences of another person.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #68
 

 

69.
(p. 161)
Of all the family-of-origin issues, the parent-child relationship is one of the most important.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #69
 

 

70.
(p. 162)
What happens in the first two years of marriage is important in predicting marital satisfaction over the long run.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #70
 

 

71.
(p. 162)
Researchers find that most of the differences between couples who stay, but differed in marital happiness, developed within the first 2 years of the marriage.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #71
 

 

72. Discuss the four criteria of a successful marriage.

Durability: Many would say that a marriage that lasts is more successful than the one that is broken, but for many, marital success involves criteria more important than the number of years a couple stays together. Approximation of Ideals: This refers to the extent to which the marriage approximates a couple’s ideals or fulfills their expectations. Fulfillment of Needs: Psychological, social, sexual and material. Satisfaction: The extent to which couples are content and fulfilled in their relationship.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #72
 

 

73. Discuss the four needs under “fulfillment of needs,” as important criteria for marital success.

Psychological—for love, affection, approval, and self-fulfillment; social—for friendship, companionship, and new experiences; sexual—both physical and psychological needs for sexual fulfillment; and material—”room and board” needs and physical maintenance services.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #73
 

 

74. Discuss negative affect reciprocity as it relates to unhappy couples.

In unhappy couples, after one partner makes a negative statement, both partners continue to reciprocate negatively. This is a consistent characteristic of distressed couples.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #74
 

 

75. In a national study of over 21,000 married couples, researcher David Olson found that happy and unhappy couples differ in five key areas. Name them.

(1) How well partners communicate; (2) how flexible they are as a couple; (3) how emotionally close they are; (4) how compatible their personalities are; (5) how they handle conflict.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #75
 

 

76. Discuss the gender differences in attitudes toward intimacy.

Women places more importance on sexual intimacy than do men. Men place more importance on sexual satisfaction, sexual communication, positive attitudes toward sex, and physical contact.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #76
 

 

77. What are the elements of effective communication?

The ability to exchange ideas, facts, feelings, attitudes, and beliefs so that a message is accurately heard and interpreted. It is also important to avoid saying hurtful, critical things, to use politeness, tact, and consideration.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #77
 

 

78. What are some characteristics of those who are able to meet their partner’s needs for admiration and respect?

Are emotionally secure; don’t have to criticize another to build self up; express appreciation and give compliments, nonconditional approval; don’t try to change spouse but are able to accept him or her; voice complaints in private; not threatened by a competent, high-achieving spouse; like themselves and each other; express approval in word and deed.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #78
 

 

79. Explain the analogy of porcupines used to exemplify one of the 12 characteristics of successful marriages.

Exemplifies companionship—if they get too close, they prick one another; too far apart, they can’t achieve warmth

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #79
 

 

80. Discuss to whom and to what commitment is directed in marriage.

Of the self, to the self; to each other; to the relationship; to the marriage and the family.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #80
 

 

81. Discuss the two conditions regarding division of responsibility that are reported to exist in marriages having a high degree of satisfaction.

Fairly equal division of labor felt by partners; gender-role performance matches gender-role expectations.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #81
 

 

82. List and briefly describe the five phases of empathy as presented by Kagan and Schneider.

(1) Perception—during contact and interaction; (2) experiencing—resonates to the emotion of the other; (3) awareness—process of acknowledging perception and resonation to oneself; (4) labeling—verbal acknowledgment of awareness and expression of sensitivity; (5) stating—communication of perception.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #82
 

 

83. Describe the four different criteria that are sometimes used to define successful marriages.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #83
 

 

84. Discuss the differences between happy and unhappy couples.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #84
 

 

85. Several intervention principles can help practitioners work with couples to increase the likelihood of having a high-quality marriage. These interventions can help people in five general ways. Mention and discuss.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #85
 

 

86. Discuss reasons why people might regret their choice of mate.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 06 #86
 

 

 

ch6 Summary

Category # of Questions
DeGenova – Chapter 06 86

ch7

 

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. According to the text, couples’ personal happiness depends to a large degree on the _____ of their marriage.

A. overall length

 

B. general quality

 

C. stability

 

D. state

 

2. The family life cycle consists of phases over the life span which are determined by:

A. researchers who compile statistics

 

B. specific age cut-off points

 

C. ages of children

 

D. major life changes

 

3. According to Census Bureau statistics, children are typically born _____ year(s) apart.

A. 1

 

B. 2

 

C. 3

 

D. 4

 

4. According to Census Bureau statistics, on average, a couple waits about _____ year(s) before having the first of _____ children.

A. 1; 2

 

B. 2; 2

 

C. 3; 3

 

D. 4; 2

 

5. According to Census Bureau statistics, women tend to marry men who are ____ than/as they are.

A. about 2 years older

 

B. about the same age

 

C. about 2 years younger

 

D. much older

 

6. According to Census Bureau statistics, the median age of first marriage for couples who later divorce is:

A. 2 years younger than for couples who never divorce.

 

B. 2 years older than for couples who never divorce.

 

C. 4 years younger than for couples who never divorce.

 

D. 4 years older than for couples who never divorce.

 

7. According to Census Bureau statistics, couples who divorce usually remarry when their children are:

A. preschoolers

 

B. early elementary age

 

C. middle school age

 

D. high school age

 

8. According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce and women tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce.

A. 2; 3

 

B. 3; 4

 

C. 4; 3

 

D. 5; 4

 

9. According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry ______ after divorce than women.

A. sooner

 

B. later

 

C. about the same number of years

 

10. According to Census Bureau statistics, fathers who divorce and remarry will most likely live with their _____ children.

A. biological

 

B. step

 

11. According to Census Bureau statistics, youngest children typically leave home when they are _____ years old.

A. 18

 

B. 19

 

C. 20

 

D. 21

 

12. In the traditional family life cycle, what does the Census Bureau say are the average ages of the mother and father when the youngest child leaves home?

A. woman is 45; man is 47

 

B. woman is 50; man is 51

 

C. woman is 51; man is 53

 

D. woman is 54; man is 56

 

13. According to Census Bureau statistics, in _______ couples, women typically will spend more years as a widow.

A. never divorced

 

B. divorced and remarried

 

14. According to Census Bureau statistics, on the average, remarried women can expect to be widows for about __________ years.

A. 4

 

B. 5

 

C. 7

 

D. 10

 

15. Which of the following does NOT fit in with the text’s definition of “marital adjustment“?

A. the process of modifying individual and couple patterns of behavior

 

B. a means to an end

 

C. becoming adjusted to each other but still being unhappy and dissatisfied with the relationship

 

D. a process that is completed early in marriage

 

16. Making adjustments to one’s partner in a marriage:

A. will always improve the marriage

 

B. does not necessarily make partners happier

 

C. may provide the highest satisfaction possible under the circumstances

 

D. both B and C

 

E. none of these

 

17. Which of the following became less of a problem after marriage than had been true before marriage – according to longitudinal research of couples?

A. money

 

B. communication

 

C. religion

 

D. alcohol and drugs

 

E. both C and D

 

18. According to a longitudinal study of couples during three early stages of their relationship, _____ was the number one problem at all stages of the relationship.

A. jealousy

 

B. communication

 

C. money

 

D. relatives

 

19. Research shows that one big problem before marriage that declines substantially after marriage is:

A. jealousy

 

B. communication

 

C. money

 

D. relatives

 

20. _____ was a bigger problem after the first child was born than either before marriage or in the first year.

A. religion

 

B. relatives

 

C. communication

 

D. recreation

 

21. According to research studies, which of the following issues was as much a problem after the birth of the first child as before marriage?

A. jealousy

 

B. friends

 

C. relatives

 

D. religion

 

22. Which of the following problems became much more serious after the birth of the first child?

A. jealousy

 

B. communication

 

C. religion

 

D. sex

 

E. both B and D

 

23. According to research, which of the following is NOT true regarding stress and parenthood?

A. The less stressful a couple’s marriage before parenthood, the more stressful parenthood becomes.

 

B. Part of the stress arises because couples are inadequately prepared for parenthood.

 

C. Parenthood is more stressful if it is not planned.

 

D. Part of the stress arises because of the abrupt transition to parenthood.

 

24. The stress of new parenthood arises because of:

A. inadequate preparation for parenthood

 

B. abrupt transition to parenthood

 

C. immaturity of the parents

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and C

 

25. Social support during the transition to parenthood is associated with:

A. positive parent-child interactions

 

B. more positive adaptations to parenthood

 

C. more negative mental and physical health outcomes

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and B

 

26. Of the following positive contributions that fathers make to their children’s well-being, most fathers tend to think that _____ is the most important feature of being a good father.

A. sharing child care responsibilities

 

B. being a provider

 

C. being available to their children

 

D. teaching their children

 

27. Mexican American families, in comparison to European American families:

A. have more frequent social interactions

 

B. show stronger levels of obligation

 

C. exchange more support

 

D. are less likely to share living arrangements with the elderly

 

E. A, B, and C

 

28. Which of the following is characteristic of Chinese American families?

A. great emphasis on the extended family as the most important unit

 

B. children have high sense of duty to parents

 

C. emphasis on the importance of fulfilling individual needs

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and B

 

29. Research shows that children who receive support from their parents during childhood:

A. have fewer psychological and physical problems

 

B. have lower levels of depressive symptoms

 

C. have lower levels of self-esteem

 

D. A and B

 

E. none of these correlates

 

30. In a multicultural study of fathering, most fathers reported _______ about fatherhood.

A. ambivalent feelings

 

B. feeling disappointed

 

C. positive feelings

 

D. fears

 

31. The text points out that the most noticeable changes of midlife are

A. physical

 

B. emotional

 

C. intellectual

 

D. social

 

32. According to your text, middle adulthood:

A. marks a stage of low life fulfillment for most individuals.

 

B. marks the prime of life in many ways.

 

C. sees very few physical changes but many psychological changes.

 

D. is marked by rapid physical changes.

 

33. During which period of the family life cycle are most adults first confronted with their own mortality?

A. beginning marriage

 

B. after the first child is born

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

34. Which period in the life cycle is the time of heaviest responsibilities at work and in the community, often leading to considerable stress?

A. Single adulthood

 

B. Young adulthood

 

C. Middle adulthood

 

D. Late adulthood

 

35. The generalized capacity for flexible and resourceful adaptation to stress is referred to as:

A. coping-skill

 

B. play-quotient

 

C. ego-resiliency

 

D. combating-depression

 

36. Middle-aged adults are sometimes called the __________ generation because they
carry both the care-giving responsibilities for their children and for their elderly parents.

A. flip-flop

 

B. sandwich

 

C. reverse

 

D. upside-down

 

37. The post-parental years usually refer to:

A. the period between when children go away to college and then return to live at home for some time

 

B. the period between the last child’s leaving home and the parents’ retirement.

 

C. the period when middle aged adults take care of their elderly parents

 

D. a time of marital dissatisfaction

 

38. Because today’s generation of young adults may return home several different times to live, they are referred to as the:

A. sandwich generation

 

B. upside-down generation

 

C. good-bye kids

 

D. boomerang kids

 

39. The text points out that one result of the “boomerang kid” phenomenon is:

A. stronger extended family ties

 

B. the easing of financial pressure on middle-aged parents

 

C. increased conflict between parents and children

 

D. later retirement

 

40. Late adulthood is defined as the period of life in which adults:

A. are over 65

 

B. are over 75

 

C. become grandparents

 

D. lose their independence

 

41. The text refers to the “young-old” as being between _____ years of age.

A. 45-54

 

B. 55-64

 

C. 65-74

 

D. 75-84

 

42. Which of the following living arrangements is of great importance to older people?

A. living in their own home

 

B. living with their grown children

 

C. living with a roommate

 

D. living in an extended care facility

 

43. Research findings indicate that as adults get older they tend to:

A. prefer living alone

 

B. lose interest in pursuing friendships

 

C. take on different gender roles at home

 

D. resent their children’s concern about them

 

44. Research indicates that the majority of older people:

A. rent housing

 

B. live with adult children

 

C. live in homes they own.

 

D. live in senior citizens’ communities

 

45. Research findings indicate that one of the most important predictors of life satisfaction for the elderly is:

A. retirement

 

B. home maintenance

 

C. high status and prestige

 

D. good health

 

46. According to the text, what happens to marital satisfaction during late adulthood?

A. It continues to decline.

 

B. It decreases after the children are launched.

 

C. It increases after retirement.

 

D. It increases briefly, then decreases.

 

47. Research indicates that later-life parental divorce has a _______ effect on the relationships between older adults and their grown children.

A. generally positive

 

B. generally negative

 

C. devastating

 

D. strengthening

 

48. In research looking at relationships between parents and grown children, the grown children tend to describe their relationship with their older parents in terms of:

A. the quality of the relationship

 

B. how much their parents need them

 

C. how often they contact and help them

 

D. how available their parents are to them

 

49. Studies show that older adults generally feel ______ when their children give them extensive help when they need it.

A. resentful

 

B. encouraged

 

C. the need to give back

 

D. incapacitated

 

50. Which of the following has been shown by research NOT to be a key factor in the relationship between older adults and their grown children?

A. emotional support

 

B. frequent contact

 

C. reciprocated help

 

D. moderate level of support

 

51. According to census statistics, on average, about how many years will a woman be a widow in her later years?

A. 3

 

B. 4

 

C. 7

 

D. 10

 

52. Studies reveal that widows report that the biggest problem they have is:

A. low income

 

B. loneliness

 

C. isolation from children

 

D. self-identity

 

53. How one deals with the challenges of widowhood depends on:

A. physical factors

 

B. emotional factors

 

C. spiritual factors

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and B only

 

54. Which of the following was NOT cited by younger widows as a problem after their spouses died?

A. loneliness

 

B. home maintenance and car repair

 

C. finances

 

D. increased independence

 

55. _____ is often a period of disillusionment and disenchantment for couples who have not realized what marriage involves.

A. Early marriage

 

B. Parenthood

 

C. Middle adulthood

 

D. Late adulthood

 

56. The text makes a strong point that during ______ a great deal of stress can occur because the couple is inadequately prepared.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

57. Studies show that during ______marital satisfaction is at its lowest point.

A. early marriage

 

B. middle adulthood

 

C. retirement

 

D. post retirement

 

58. Research shows that stress arises in _____ because of the sudden transition to the stage.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

59. In _____, the text suggests that a tired marriage may need to be revitalized.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

60. In _____, the text points out that there is significant loss of status and prestige.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

61. The family life cycle can be said to consist of the phases, or stages, over the life span and to describe changes in family structure during each stage.

True    False

 

62. Typically, according to census figures, a woman remarries 3 years after her divorce.

True    False

 

63. Same sex couples have very little role flexibility.

True    False

 

64. Researchers have found that gay and lesbian families are very different in most respects than are heterosexual families.

True    False

 

65. The goal of marital adjustment is to eliminate conflict.

True    False

 

66. According to longitudinal research, jealousy is often a big problem after marriage, even though it was not before the marriage.

True    False

 

67. The more stressful a couple’s marriage prior to parenthood, the more likely they are to have problems in adjusting to their first child.

True    False

 

68. Couples who prepare for parenthood find greater satisfaction in being a parent than do those who do not prepare.

True    False

 

69. Stress related to parenthood is greater if parents are young.

True    False

 

70. Ego resiliency refers to the generalized capacity to be flexible and resourceful in adapting to stress.

True    False

 

71. Parents today see their children leaving home at an earlier age than in past decades.

True    False

 

72. In looking at the population over age 45, the number of widows is about 4 times the number of widowers.

True    False

 

73. The chief psychological task of the final stage of life is the development of ego integrity – contentment with one’s life as it is and has been.

True    False

 

74. Discuss the traditional family life cycle of spouses in an intact marriage in the United States.

 

 

 

 

75. What usually precipitates a midlife crisis?

 

 

 

 

76. Describe the “sandwich generation.” To what does this term refer? Give some examples in your answer.

 

 

 

 

77. Unmarried children continue living with their parents for a longer period of time than they used to for three basic reasons. Discuss them.

 

 

 

 

78. What problems and stresses do widows face?

 

 

 

 

79. Identify four of the nine categories of major adjustments facing elderly people that were discussed in the chapter.

 

 

 

 

80. Identify and give an example of five of the twelve marital adjustment tasks early in marriage as discussed in the chapter.

 

 

 

 

81. Why is parenthood often a period of stress?

 

 

 

 

82. What did fathers report as the primary components of good fathering?

 

 

 

 

83. Discuss the effects of people going through divorce during late adulthood.

 

 

 

 

84. What are the chief sources of stress in middle age?

 

 

 

 

85. Identify and briefly discuss the six different types of long-term marriages described by Weishaus and Field.

 

 

 

 

86. Outline the basic stages of the family life cycle in an intact marriage and in a family in which there has been divorce and remarriage.

 

 

 

 

87. Discuss the differences and similarities of gay and lesbian families as compared to heterosexual marriages.

 

 

 

 

88. Summarize the major marital adjustment tasks early in marriage.

 

 

 

 

89. Describe the relationship between marriage happiness and life satisfaction.

 

 

 

 

90. Discuss the major adjustments people typically face during middle adulthood.

 

 

 

 

91. Discuss the ramifications that the return of adult children to their parents’ home might have on the parents, the adult children, and the grandchildren.

 

 

 

 

92. Summarize the major adjustments typically necessary during late adulthood.

 

 

 

 

93. Describe marriage and family relationships among the elderly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ch7 Key

1.
(p. 168)
According to the text, couples’ personal happiness depends to a large degree on the _____ of their marriage.

A. overall length

 

B. general quality

 

C. stability

 

D. state

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #1
 

 

2.
(p. 168)
The family life cycle consists of phases over the life span which are determined by:

A. researchers who compile statistics

 

B. specific age cut-off points

 

C. ages of children

 

D. major life changes

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #2
 

 

3.
(p. 168)
According to Census Bureau statistics, children are typically born _____ year(s) apart.

A. 1

 

B. 2

 

C. 3

 

D. 4

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #3
 

 

4.
(p. 168)
According to Census Bureau statistics, on average, a couple waits about _____ year(s) before having the first of _____ children.

A. 1; 2

 

B. 2; 2

 

C. 3; 3

 

D. 4; 2

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #4
 

 

5.
(p. 168)
According to Census Bureau statistics, women tend to marry men who are ____ than/as they are.

A. about 2 years older

 

B. about the same age

 

C. about 2 years younger

 

D. much older

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #5
 

 

6.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, the median age of first marriage for couples who later divorce is:

A. 2 years younger than for couples who never divorce.

 

B. 2 years older than for couples who never divorce.

 

C. 4 years younger than for couples who never divorce.

 

D. 4 years older than for couples who never divorce.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #6
 

 

7.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, couples who divorce usually remarry when their children are:

A. preschoolers

 

B. early elementary age

 

C. middle school age

 

D. high school age

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #7
 

 

8.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce and women tend to remarry within _____ years of divorce.

A. 2; 3

 

B. 3; 4

 

C. 4; 3

 

D. 5; 4

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #8
 

 

9.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, men tend to remarry ______ after divorce than women.

A. sooner

 

B. later

 

C. about the same number of years

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #9
 

 

10.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, fathers who divorce and remarry will most likely live with their _____ children.

A. biological

 

B. step

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #10
 

 

11.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, youngest children typically leave home when they are _____ years old.

A. 18

 

B. 19

 

C. 20

 

D. 21

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #11
 

 

12.
(p. 168 – 169)
In the traditional family life cycle, what does the Census Bureau say are the average ages of the mother and father when the youngest child leaves home?

A. woman is 45; man is 47

 

B. woman is 50; man is 51

 

C. woman is 51; man is 53

 

D. woman is 54; man is 56

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #12
 

 

13.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, in _______ couples, women typically will spend more years as a widow.

A. never divorced

 

B. divorced and remarried

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #13
 

 

14.
(p. 169)
According to Census Bureau statistics, on the average, remarried women can expect to be widows for about __________ years.

A. 4

 

B. 5

 

C. 7

 

D. 10

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #14
 

 

15.
(p. 172)
Which of the following does NOT fit in with the text’s definition of “marital adjustment“?

A. the process of modifying individual and couple patterns of behavior

 

B. a means to an end

 

C. becoming adjusted to each other but still being unhappy and dissatisfied with the relationship

 

D. a process that is completed early in marriage

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #15
 

 

16.
(p. 172)
Making adjustments to one’s partner in a marriage:

A. will always improve the marriage

 

B. does not necessarily make partners happier

 

C. may provide the highest satisfaction possible under the circumstances

 

D. both B and C

 

E. none of these

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #16
 

 

17.
(p. 174 – 175)
Which of the following became less of a problem after marriage than had been true before marriage – according to longitudinal research of couples?

A. money

 

B. communication

 

C. religion

 

D. alcohol and drugs

 

E. both C and D

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #17
 

 

18.
(p. 174)
According to a longitudinal study of couples during three early stages of their relationship, _____ was the number one problem at all stages of the relationship.

A. jealousy

 

B. communication

 

C. money

 

D. relatives

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #18
 

 

19.
(p. 174 – 175)
Research shows that one big problem before marriage that declines substantially after marriage is:

A. jealousy

 

B. communication

 

C. money

 

D. relatives

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #19
 

 

20.
(p. 174 – 175)
_____ was a bigger problem after the first child was born than either before marriage or in the first year.

A. religion

 

B. relatives

 

C. communication

 

D. recreation

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #20
 

 

21.
(p. 174 – 175)
According to research studies, which of the following issues was as much a problem after the birth of the first child as before marriage?

A. jealousy

 

B. friends

 

C. relatives

 

D. religion

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #21
 

 

22.
(p. 175)
Which of the following problems became much more serious after the birth of the first child?

A. jealousy

 

B. communication

 

C. religion

 

D. sex

 

E. both B and D

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #22
 

 

23.
(p. 178)
According to research, which of the following is NOT true regarding stress and parenthood?

A. The less stressful a couple’s marriage before parenthood, the more stressful parenthood becomes.

 

B. Part of the stress arises because couples are inadequately prepared for parenthood.

 

C. Parenthood is more stressful if it is not planned.

 

D. Part of the stress arises because of the abrupt transition to parenthood.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #23
 

 

24.
(p. 175 – 176)
The stress of new parenthood arises because of:

A. inadequate preparation for parenthood

 

B. abrupt transition to parenthood

 

C. immaturity of the parents

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and C

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #24
 

 

25.
(p. 176)
Social support during the transition to parenthood is associated with:

A. positive parent-child interactions

 

B. more positive adaptations to parenthood

 

C. more negative mental and physical health outcomes

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and B

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #25
 

 

26.
(p. 177)
Of the following positive contributions that fathers make to their children’s well-being, most fathers tend to think that _____ is the most important feature of being a good father.

A. sharing child care responsibilities

 

B. being a provider

 

C. being available to their children

 

D. teaching their children

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #26
 

 

27.
(p. 176)
Mexican American families, in comparison to European American families:

A. have more frequent social interactions

 

B. show stronger levels of obligation

 

C. exchange more support

 

D. are less likely to share living arrangements with the elderly

 

E. A, B, and C

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #27
 

 

28.
(p. 177)
Which of the following is characteristic of Chinese American families?

A. great emphasis on the extended family as the most important unit

 

B. children have high sense of duty to parents

 

C. emphasis on the importance of fulfilling individual needs

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and B

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #28
 

 

29.
(p. 176)
Research shows that children who receive support from their parents during childhood:

A. have fewer psychological and physical problems

 

B. have lower levels of depressive symptoms

 

C. have lower levels of self-esteem

 

D. A and B

 

E. none of these correlates

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #29
 

 

30.
(p. 177)
In a multicultural study of fathering, most fathers reported _______ about fatherhood.

A. ambivalent feelings

 

B. feeling disappointed

 

C. positive feelings

 

D. fears

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #30
 

 

31.
(p. 177)
The text points out that the most noticeable changes of midlife are

A. physical

 

B. emotional

 

C. intellectual

 

D. social

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #31
 

 

32.
(p. 178)
According to your text, middle adulthood:

A. marks a stage of low life fulfillment for most individuals.

 

B. marks the prime of life in many ways.

 

C. sees very few physical changes but many psychological changes.

 

D. is marked by rapid physical changes.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #32
 

 

33.
(p. 177)
During which period of the family life cycle are most adults first confronted with their own mortality?

A. beginning marriage

 

B. after the first child is born

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #33
 

 

34.
(p. 178)
Which period in the life cycle is the time of heaviest responsibilities at work and in the community, often leading to considerable stress?

A. Single adulthood

 

B. Young adulthood

 

C. Middle adulthood

 

D. Late adulthood

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #34
 

 

35.
(p. 178)
The generalized capacity for flexible and resourceful adaptation to stress is referred to as:

A. coping-skill

 

B. play-quotient

 

C. ego-resiliency

 

D. combating-depression

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #35
 

 

36.
(p. 179)
Middle-aged adults are sometimes called the __________ generation because they
carry both the care-giving responsibilities for their children and for their elderly parents.

A. flip-flop

 

B. sandwich

 

C. reverse

 

D. upside-down

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #36
 

 

37.
(p. 179)
The post-parental years usually refer to:

A. the period between when children go away to college and then return to live at home for some time

 

B. the period between the last child’s leaving home and the parents’ retirement.

 

C. the period when middle aged adults take care of their elderly parents

 

D. a time of marital dissatisfaction

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #37
 

 

38.
(p. 180)
Because today’s generation of young adults may return home several different times to live, they are referred to as the:

A. sandwich generation

 

B. upside-down generation

 

C. good-bye kids

 

D. boomerang kids

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #38
 

 

39.
(p. 180)
The text points out that one result of the “boomerang kid” phenomenon is:

A. stronger extended family ties

 

B. the easing of financial pressure on middle-aged parents

 

C. increased conflict between parents and children

 

D. later retirement

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #39
 

 

40.
(p. 180)
Late adulthood is defined as the period of life in which adults:

A. are over 65

 

B. are over 75

 

C. become grandparents

 

D. lose their independence

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #40
 

 

41.
(p. 180)
The text refers to the “young-old” as being between _____ years of age.

A. 45-54

 

B. 55-64

 

C. 65-74

 

D. 75-84

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #41
 

 

42.
(p. 182)
Which of the following living arrangements is of great importance to older people?

A. living in their own home

 

B. living with their grown children

 

C. living with a roommate

 

D. living in an extended care facility

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #42
 

 

43.
(p. 183)
Research findings indicate that as adults get older they tend to:

A. prefer living alone

 

B. lose interest in pursuing friendships

 

C. take on different gender roles at home

 

D. resent their children’s concern about them

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #43
 

 

44.
(p. 182)
Research indicates that the majority of older people:

A. rent housing

 

B. live with adult children

 

C. live in homes they own.

 

D. live in senior citizens’ communities

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #44
 

 

45.
(p. 180))
Research findings indicate that one of the most important predictors of life satisfaction for the elderly is:

A. retirement

 

B. home maintenance

 

C. high status and prestige

 

D. good health

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #45
 

 

46.
(p. 183)
According to the text, what happens to marital satisfaction during late adulthood?

A. It continues to decline.

 

B. It decreases after the children are launched.

 

C. It increases after retirement.

 

D. It increases briefly, then decreases.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #46
 

 

47.
(p. 184)
Research indicates that later-life parental divorce has a _______ effect on the relationships between older adults and their grown children.

A. generally positive

 

B. generally negative

 

C. devastating

 

D. strengthening

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #47
 

 

48.
(p. 184)
In research looking at relationships between parents and grown children, the grown children tend to describe their relationship with their older parents in terms of:

A. the quality of the relationship

 

B. how much their parents need them

 

C. how often they contact and help them

 

D. how available their parents are to them

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #48
 

 

49.
(p. 185)
Studies show that older adults generally feel ______ when their children give them extensive help when they need it.

A. resentful

 

B. encouraged

 

C. the need to give back

 

D. incapacitated

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #49
 

 

50.
(p. 185)
Which of the following has been shown by research NOT to be a key factor in the relationship between older adults and their grown children?

A. emotional support

 

B. frequent contact

 

C. reciprocated help

 

D. moderate level of support

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #50
 

 

51.
(p. 185)
According to census statistics, on average, about how many years will a woman be a widow in her later years?

A. 3

 

B. 4

 

C. 7

 

D. 10

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #51
 

 

52.
(p. 187)
Studies reveal that widows report that the biggest problem they have is:

A. low income

 

B. loneliness

 

C. isolation from children

 

D. self-identity

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #52
 

 

53.
(p. 185)
How one deals with the challenges of widowhood depends on:

A. physical factors

 

B. emotional factors

 

C. spiritual factors

 

D. all of these

 

E. A and B only

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #53
 

 

54.
(p. 187)
Which of the following was NOT cited by younger widows as a problem after their spouses died?

A. loneliness

 

B. home maintenance and car repair

 

C. finances

 

D. increased independence

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #54
 

 

55.
(p. 173)
_____ is often a period of disillusionment and disenchantment for couples who have not realized what marriage involves.

A. Early marriage

 

B. Parenthood

 

C. Middle adulthood

 

D. Late adulthood

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #55
 

 

56.
(p. 175)
The text makes a strong point that during ______ a great deal of stress can occur because the couple is inadequately prepared.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #56
 

 

57.
(p. 178)
Studies show that during ______marital satisfaction is at its lowest point.

A. early marriage

 

B. middle adulthood

 

C. retirement

 

D. post retirement

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #57
 

 

58.
(p. 176)
Research shows that stress arises in _____ because of the sudden transition to the stage.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #58
 

 

59.
(p. 178)
In _____, the text suggests that a tired marriage may need to be revitalized.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #59
 

 

60.
(p. 182)
In _____, the text points out that there is significant loss of status and prestige.

A. early marriage

 

B. parenthood

 

C. middle adulthood

 

D. late adulthood

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #60
 

 

61.
(p. 168)
The family life cycle can be said to consist of the phases, or stages, over the life span and to describe changes in family structure during each stage.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #61
 

 

62.
(p. 169)
Typically, according to census figures, a woman remarries 3 years after her divorce.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #62
 

 

63.
(p. 171)
Same sex couples have very little role flexibility.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #63
 

 

64.
(p. 170)
Researchers have found that gay and lesbian families are very different in most respects than are heterosexual families.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #64
 

 

65.
(p. 172)
The goal of marital adjustment is to eliminate conflict.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #65
 

 

66.
(p. 174)
According to longitudinal research, jealousy is often a big problem after marriage, even though it was not before the marriage.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #66
 

 

67.
(p. 175)
The more stressful a couple’s marriage prior to parenthood, the more likely they are to have problems in adjusting to their first child.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #67
 

 

68.
(p. 175)
Couples who prepare for parenthood find greater satisfaction in being a parent than do those who do not prepare.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #68
 

 

69.
(p. 176)
Stress related to parenthood is greater if parents are young.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #69
 

 

70.
(p. 178 – 179)
Ego resiliency refers to the generalized capacity to be flexible and resourceful in adapting to stress.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #70
 

 

71.
(p. 180)
Parents today see their children leaving home at an earlier age than in past decades.

FALSE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #71
 

 

72.
(p. 186)
In looking at the population over age 45, the number of widows is about 4 times the number of widowers.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #72
 

 

73.
(p. 186)
The chief psychological task of the final stage of life is the development of ego integrity – contentment with one’s life as it is and has been.

TRUE

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #73
 

 

74. Discuss the traditional family life cycle of spouses in an intact marriage in the United States.

Man is married at 28 and the woman at 26. They wait 2 years before having the first of two children. The man is 52 and the woman 50 when the youngest child is 20 and leaves home. The empty-nest years are from age 52-65 for men and 50-65 for women. The man dies at age 75 and the woman at 80.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #74
 

 

75. What usually precipitates a midlife crisis?

An awareness that one’s years are numbered, even as one is entering the prime of life, the stage of fulfillment; this is the time when one personalizes mortality, realizes that time is finite and that one has to hurry to accomplish all that one wants to achieve.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #75
 

 

76. Describe the “sandwich generation.” To what does this term refer? Give some examples in your answer.

The “sandwich generation” refers to middle-aged adults who are caught between caregiving responsibilities for their children and for their elderly parents. Many of these middle-aged adults had counted on their parents and their own children to have sufficient financial independence to care for themselves; they had planned on retiring and being carefree. Instead, they now feel compelled to take on the responsibilities of multigenerational caregiving.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #76
 

 

77. Unmarried children continue living with their parents for a longer period of time than they used to for three basic reasons. Discuss them.

(1) delay of marriage; (2) high divorce rates; (3) financial need

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #77
 

 

78. What problems and stresses do widows face?

Psychological stress of spousal loss and the need to reconstruct a new sense of self; loneliness; sexual frustration; home maintenance and car repair; decision making; financial management and child rearing if the widow is left with young children.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #78
 

 

79. Identify four of the nine categories of major adjustments facing elderly people that were discussed in the chapter.

(1) Staying physically healthy and adjusting to limitations; (2) maintaining an adequate income and means of support; (3) adjusting to revised work roles; (4) establishing acceptable housing and living conditions, (5) maintaining identity and social status; (6) finding companionship and friendship; (7) learning to use leisure time pleasurably; (8) establishing new roles in the family; (9) achieving integrity through acceptance of one’s life.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #79
 

 

80. Identify and give an example of five of the twelve marital adjustment tasks early in marriage as discussed in the chapter.

(1) Emotional fulfillment and support; (2) sexual adjustment; (3) personal habits; (4) gender roles; (5) material concerns and finances; (6) work, employment, achievement; (7) social life, friends, recreation; (8) family, relatives; (9) communication; (10) power, decision making; (11) handling conflict, solving problems; (12) morals, values, ideology.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #80
 

 

81. Why is parenthood often a period of stress?

Stressful if not planned, if couple is inadequately prepared, because transition is abrupt; stress varies depending upon child’s temperament and the quality of the marriage before parenthood; stress is greater if parents are young and immature; the economic status of the family affects stress levels.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #81
 

 

82. What did fathers report as the primary components of good fathering?

“Being there” for their children; being a model, teacher, and moral guide; love

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #82
 

 

83. Discuss the effects of people going through divorce during late adulthood.

The proportion of unhappy divorced adults increases with age. Adults over 60 who become divorced stand out as lower in morale and overall happiness. They exhibit more symptoms of psychological disturbance and report they are troubled by the separation.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #83
 

 

84. What are the chief sources of stress in middle age?

Health concerns, identity issues, heaviest responsibilities at work and in the community, marital issues, launching children.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #84
 

 

85. Identify and briefly discuss the six different types of long-term marriages described by Weishaus and Field.

Stable/positive: stable but not static marriage, maintaining moderately high to high satisfaction level. Stable/neutral: generally comfortable marriage based on motives other than emotional closeness. Stable/negative: marriage marked with primary negative emotions, such as hostility or indifference. Curvilinear: marriage with satisfaction level that is high early on, lower during mid-years, and higher again after children are grown. Continuous decline: marriage with continuous erosion of satisfaction level. Continuous increase: marriage with continuous increase in satisfaction level.

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #85
 

 

86. Outline the basic stages of the family life cycle in an intact marriage and in a family in which there has been divorce and remarriage.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #86
 

 

87. Discuss the differences and similarities of gay and lesbian families as compared to heterosexual marriages.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #87
 

 

88. Summarize the major marital adjustment tasks early in marriage.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #88
 

 

89. Describe the relationship between marriage happiness and life satisfaction.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #89
 

 

90. Discuss the major adjustments people typically face during middle adulthood.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #90
 

 

91. Discuss the ramifications that the return of adult children to their parents’ home might have on the parents, the adult children, and the grandchildren.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #91
 

 

92. Summarize the major adjustments typically necessary during late adulthood.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #92
 

 

93. Describe marriage and family relationships among the elderly.

Answer will vary

 

DeGenova – Chapter 07 #93
 

 

 

ch7 Summary

Category # of Questions
DeGenova – Chapter 07 93