Introduction To Criminology Why Do They Do 2nd edition by Pamela J. Schram -Test Bank

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Chapter 6: Modern Biosocial Perspectives of Criminal Behavior

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. ______ studied a family, the Kallikaks, to determine if there is a link between heredity and criminality.
  2. H. H. Goddard
  3. Richard L. Dugdale
  4. Sarnoff Mednick
  5. Patricia A. Jacobs

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Children who were studied in the adoption studies were given up for adoption prior to ______ of age, which is important when understanding the parental impact.
  2. 6 months
  3. 1 year
  4. 5 years
  5. 10 years

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adoption Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Although adoption studies have been criticized concerning selective placement, the ultimate findings of these studies are still ______.
  2. completely valid
  3. somewhat valid
  4. completely invalid
  5. unknown

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adoption Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The environments in which the “twins separated at birth” individuals were raised in were often ______.
  2. extremely similar
  3. similar
  4. unknown
  5. extremely different

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Twins Separated at Birth

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The findings of “twins separated at birth” studies have shown that ______ have(has) a significant impact on human behavior, especially regarding criminal behavior.
  2. genetics
  3. environment
  4. social bonds
  5. stigmata

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Twins Separated at Birth

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Individuals with this type of chromosomal abnormality are often very tall but slow in terms of social and intelligence skills.
  2. XYY
  3. XXY
  4. XXX
  5. XO

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In one study, the more the chromosomal mutation produced ______ hormones, the less likely individuals were to commit criminal acts.
  2. feminine
  3. masculine
  4. both A and B are correct

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. After the twin studies of the mid-1900s were heavily criticized, researchers moved on to which other methodological approach to examine the nature versus nurture debate?
  2. twin studies
  3. family studies
  4. adoption studies
  5. twins separated at birth studies
  6. cytogenetic studies

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adoption Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Adoption studies have found that the adopted children for whom ______ were the least likely to become criminal.
  2. both sets of parents were criminal
  3. their biological parents were not criminal while the adoptive parents were criminal
  4. their biological parents were criminal while the adoptive parents were not criminal
  5. neither set of parents were criminal

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adoption Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The first major study concerning chromosomal abnormalities found that the genetic mutation of XYY occurs in about 1 of every ______ males.
  2. 100
  3. 1,000
  4. 100,000
  5. 1,000,000

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ examined male children born in Copenhagen and adopted early in life to determine the influence of nature versus nurture.
  2. H. H. Goddard
  3. Richard L. Dugdale
  4. Sarnoff Mednick
  5. Patricia A. Jacobs

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adoption Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Virtually all individuals perform better on ______ tasks in the afternoon or evening, when they have relatively high levels of estrogen or other female hormones in their system, which can be important for policy development.
  2. spatial
  3. verbal
  4. mathematical
  5. analytical

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The process of differential levels of hormones begins early in life, specifically in about the ______ week after conception.
  2. first
  3. second
  4. fifth
  5. ninth

Ans: C

Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Most illicit drug use brings forth pleasurable sensations through enhancing the levels of ______ in an individual’s system.
  2. serotonin
  3. estrogen
  4. testosterone
  5. dopamine

Ans: D

Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Most of the executive functions of the brain, such as problem solving, take place in the ______.
  2. occipital lobe
  3. frontal lobe
  4. temporal lobe
  5. parietal lobe

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Identify the regions of the brain that criminological studies implicate for both structural trauma and functioning disorders.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Brain Injuries

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Typically, the chromosomal mutations that occur in individuals are largely due to _______.
  2. environmental factors
  3. random mutations
  4. heredity
  5. toxins

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Studies that examine the relative concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
  2. twin studies
  3. family studies
  4. adoption studies
  5. twins separated at birth studies
  6. cytogenetic studies

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Twin Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. All of the following are possible consequences of high levels of testosterone EXCEPT:
  2. increased sensitivity to pain
  3. enhanced seeking of sensory stimulation
  4. higher levels of spatial aptitude
  5. lower levels of verbal reasoning and empathy

Ans: A

Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Studies of behavioral genetics regarding criminality or antisocial behaviors consistently show that heritability/genetic factors explain about ______ of the variance in antisocial behavior.
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 100%

Ans: B

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behavioral Genetics Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Multiple Response

 

  1. SELECT ALL THAT APPLY. Members of the same family share ______.
  2. neurotransmitters
  3. hormones
  4. genetics
  5. environment

Ans: C, D

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

  1. Criminality tends to cluster in certain families, as the first wave of nature versus nurture studies showed. However, this tendency cannot be shown to be a product of heredity or genetics.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The family studies showed that criminality in the mother (or head female caretaker) had a much stronger influence on future criminality of the children than did the father’s criminality.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Concordance is a count based on whether two people (or a twin pair) share a certain trait (or lack of a certain trait); for our purposes, the trait is criminal offending.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Twin Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The highest predictability for future criminality by far was for adopted youths whose biological parents and adoptive parents were not convicted criminals.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adoption Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Selective placement is when adoptees are placed with their biological families so they are taken out of the home.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Adoption Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Kallikak and Jukes family studies did not have similar findings concerning criminality and heredity.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Investigations into Goddard’s research found that he altered many photographs to make the family members appear more evil and fit into the definition of stigmata.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Although the Kallikak family study provides proof that criminality is more common in some families, subsequent studies have proven otherwise.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter largely responsible for good feelings in the brain.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Otherwise known as Klinefelter’s syndrome, the XYY mutation results in higher likelihood for homosexuality and other behaviors but is not typically linked to criminality.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A high proportion of females in prison for committing violent crimes did so while on their premenstrual cycle when they experience an influx of testosterone.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Doctors typically prescribe individuals diagnosed with ADHD a stimulant because these individuals have significantly low levels of ANS arousal.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Central and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Some children do not feel anxiety when being physically punished (e.g., spanked) and are likely to have lower-than-average levels of ANS functioning and are also likely to become chronic offenders if this disorder is not addressed.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Central and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Research has consistently found both genetics and environment influence behavior, particularly the interaction between the two.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Biosocial Approaches to Explaining Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. For every dollar spent on maternal/infant health care, studies show that not only will many dollars in criminal justice processing and prison time be saved but also many lives, due to the reduction in violence.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Policy Implications

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Essay

 

  1. What are neurotransmitters and what do they do? How are neurotransmitters different from hormones? How can the neurotransmitter serotonin be related to criminality?

Ans: Chemicals released when a neuron wants to send an electric message to a neighboring neuron. Neurotransmitters are the way messages are passed through the body. They regulate mood and behavior. Hormones carry a signal that is not electric, but neurotransmitters are electric. Low levels of serotonin are linked to criminality. Serotonin is important in all information processing and is vital in interactions with the environment. Low levels of serotonin may make individuals have problems communicating.
Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the nature versus nurture debate. Design a hypothetical study to test these competing ideas.

Ans: Nature versus nurture is the debate between the influences of heredity versus the environment an individual grows up in. This debate aims at determining which influence has the strongest effect on predicting criminality in people. This debate discusses how much criminality is inherited from our parents and other ancestors versus how much is due to cultural norms, such as family, community, and so forth. Students should give original answers on how to test these ideas.
Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Nature Versus Nurture: Studies Examining the Influence of Genetics and Environment

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain findings on diet and nutrition connections to criminality.

Ans: Studies have shown that when incarcerated juveniles were assigned to diets with limited levels of simple carbohydrates (e.g., sugars), their reported violations during incarceration declined by almost half (45%). Such recent reviews of the existing studies on nutrition and criminal offending concluded that dietary deficiencies in iron, zinc, protein, riboflavin, and omega-3 are significantly related to criminality. Furthermore, other studies have reported that various food additives and dyes, such as those commonly found in processed foods, can also have a significant effect on criminal behavior. Thus, the old saying “You are what you eat” appears to have some scientific weight behind it, at least regarding criminal behavior.

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Diet/Nutrition

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain findings on toxins and connections to criminality.

Ans: Additional studies have found that high levels of certain toxins, particularly lead, cadmium, and manganese, can have a profound effect on behavior, including criminality. Recent studies have found a consistent, strong connection between criminal behavior and exposure to high levels of lead. The populations (e.g., poor, urban, etc.) most susceptible to biosocial interactions are also the most likely to be exposed to high levels of lead, largely due to old paint in their homes and other household products that contain dangerous toxins.

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Toxins

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Of the parents, who is more likely to be a stronger influence concerning the criminality of the children? Explain the two (2) reasons presented in the text. Make a case for or against this finding.

Ans: The mother is more likely to be the stronger influence on criminality of the children. First, the father is often absent while the children are being raised. More important, it takes much more time for a woman to transgress social norms and become a convicted offender, which indicates that the mother is highly antisocial and gives some credence to the argument that criminality is inherited.
Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Family Studies

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. What were the overall findings of the twin studies conducted in the mid-1900s? Why were these findings strongly criticized?

Ans: MZ twins were far more similar in the trait of criminality than were DZ (fraternal) twins. Identical twins are typically dressed the same by their parents, as well as treated the same by the public and are generally expected to behave the same. This is not true for fraternal twins, namely those of different genders. Also, the identification of twins as fraternal or identical was flawed because it was determined by sight (not a scientific measure).
Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Twin Studies

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What were the findings of the “twins separated at birth” studies? How was the phenomenon found in these studies explained by researchers? What are the criticisms presented in relation to these studies?

Ans: Twin pairs often showed extremely similar tendencies for criminality, sometimes more than those seen in concordance rates for identical twins raised together. Researchers stated that generally, identical twins that are raised together go out of their way to deviate from their natural tendencies in an effort to form their own identity. No significant criticism has been presented.
Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Twins Separated at Birth

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Cytogenetic studies focus specifically on what?

Ans: Abnormalities in chromosomal makeup that randomly occur in the population.
Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The effect of the XYY chromosome abnormality on criminality is more linked with what type of crime?

Ans: Property crime.
Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. If genetics play a major role in determining the criminality of individuals, then what will twin studies find?

Ans: MZ twins will be expected to have a significantly higher concordance rate for criminal offending than will DZ twins.
Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Twin Studies

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the first major study that examined the influence of XYY factor.

Ans: The first major study that examined the influence of XYY sampled about 200 men in the mental hospital, which would have predicted (assuming general population occurrences) about 1 occurrence. However, the study found 13 individuals who were XYY, which suggested that individuals who have mental disorders are more likely to have XYY chromosomes than those who do not have mental disorders. In other words, males who have XYY are at least 13 times (or 1,300%) as likely to have behavioral disorders as are those without this chromosomal abnormality.

Learning Objective: Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cytogenetic Studies: The XYY Factor

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is the primary job of dopamine on the brain?

Ans: Dopamine is the neurotransmitter most commonly linked to feeling good. For example, dopamine is the chemical that tells us when we are experiencing good sensations, such as delicious food, sex, and other pleasurable activities.

Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What do hormones do in the body?

Ans: Carry chemical signals to the body as they are released from certain glands and structures.
Learning Objective: Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hormones and Neurotransmitters: Chemicals That Determine Criminal Behavior

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. How could the findings of cytogenetic studies be applied to criminal justice policies?

Ans: Students must provide original answers. The text does not state policy implications.

Learning Objective: Compare and contrast the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system and identify the ways both systems play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Policy Implications

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Name the four (4) waves of research developed from the testing of the nature versus nurture debate.

Ans: Family studies, twin studies, adoption studies, and identical twins separated at birth studies.
Learning Objective: Evaluate the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Nature Versus Nurture: Studies Examining the Influence of Genetics and Environment

Difficulty Level: Medium