Introduction to Criminology-Why Do They Do It? 1st Edition by Pamela J. Schram , Stephen G. Tibbetts Test Bank

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Sample Chapter

 

Schram, Introduction to Criminology  

Chapter 6

  1. The ___________ evolves during individual development when restrictions, mores, and values of society are learned.

 

  1. id

*b. superego

  1. ego
  2. libido

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. _________ developed the concept of psychoanalysis, founded on the perception of resistance used by individuals when therapists attempt to make them conscious of their unconscious.

 

  1. August Aichhorn
  2. Albert Fish

*c. Sigmund Freud

  1. Erik Erikson

 

General Feedback:

Page 137; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. _____ is considered a warning of looming danger or a painful experience.

 

  1. stress
  2. defense mechanism
  3. unconscious

*d. anxiety

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. _______ delinquency results in antisocial behavior.

 

  1. latent

*b. manifest

  1. dormant
  2. apparent

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The _________________ is characteristic of designating what is considered “right” and “wrong”.

 

  1. postconventional level of morality
  2. conventional level of morality

*c. preconventional level of morality

 

General Feedback:

Page 142; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. When employing self-report methods, extroversion is usually ______ among the general population as compared to criminal offender samples.

 

  1. no different

*b. higher

  1. lower

 

General Feedback:

Page 142; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. For neurotics, the biological link is in the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system, which involves __________.

 

  1. pain and punishment
  2. excitement

*c. fight or flight reactions

  1. antisocial behavior

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Individuals with low psychoticism are characterized by having all of the following EXCEPT:

 

*a. egocentric

  1. empathetic
  2. peaceful
  3. altruistic

 

General Feedback:

Page 140; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, application

 

 

  1. Stage ____ of the stages of reasoning consists of right being based on a higher order of applying principles to all humankind (being nonjudgmental and respecting all human life).

 

  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 5

*d. 6

 

General Feedback:

Page 142; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. __________ attachments are enduring and persistent. These attachments can sometimes last throughout a person’s life.

 

  1. specificity
  2. engagement of emotion
  3. organization

*d. duration

 

General Feedback:

Page 144; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Who is credited with bringing intelligence testing to the United States?

 

  1. Binet
  2. Simon
  3. Terman

*d. Goddard

 

General Feedback:

Page 145; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. All of the following are considered levels of low IQ by Goddard EXCEPT:

 

  1. moron
  2. imbecile

*c. fool

  1. idiot

 

General Feedback:

Page 145; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The book ________ resulted in a public outcry concerning the link between intelligence and criminality.

 

*a. The Bell Curve

  1. Crime and Human Nature
  2. The Kallikak Family: A Study in Hereditary Feeble-Mindedness
  3. Mask of Sanity

 

General Feedback:

      Page 150; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. People with low IQ scores are somewhat destined to be all of the following EXCEPT:

 

  1. commit crime
  2. unsuccessful in school
  3. produce illegitimate children

*d. employed

 

General Feedback:

Page 150; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

 

 

  1. The dominate ________ political climate of the 1960s was one of optimism with the perception that any social problem could be solved.

 

  1. independent

*b. liberal

  1. conservative

 

General Feedback:

Page 151; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. All of the following are considered factors that explain street crime through human nature and evolution EXCEPT:

 

  1. family relationships
  2. biological makeup
  3. social environment

*d. changes in conceptual analysis

 

General Feedback:

Page 151; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. _______ refers specifically to antisocial personalities that are due to social or familial dysfunction.

 

  1. psychopath
  2. sadist

*c. sociopath

  1. masochist

 

General Feedback:

Page 156; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The term insanity is a ______ term.

 

*a. legal

  1. medical
  2. social
  3. psychological

 

General Feedback:

Page 157; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

 

 

  1. _________ examined adolescents struggling to discover their own ego identity while negotiating, learning, and understanding social interactions, as well as developing a sense of morality and right and wrong.

 

  1. August Aichhorn
  2. Albert Fish
  3. Sigmund Freud

*d. Erik Erikson

 

General Feedback:

Page 140; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The _______ is a standard for the insanity defense where offenders can claim that, due to mental disease, they were unable to control their behavior.

 

  1. M’Naughten Rule

*b. irresistible impulse test

  1. Durham test
  2. American Law Institute’s Model Penal Code

 

General Feedback:

Page 158; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

 

 

  1. Which of the following states do not allow an insanity defense?

 

  1. Texas

*b. Kansas

  1. Florida
  2. North Dakota

 

General Feedback:

Page 157; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The word _______ implies that some part of criminality may be due, categorically and permanently, to assigned constitutional factors (genetics).

 

  1. manifested
  2. prepared
  3. made

*d. born

 

General Feedback:

Page 151; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. _______ attempted to apply psychoanalysis to uncover the unconscious motives of juveniles engaged in delinquent behavior.

 

*a. August Aichhorn

  1. Albert Fish
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. David Abrahamsen

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. ________ is considered the most controversial aspect of Wilson and Herrnstein’s theoretical perspective.

 

*a. biological makeup

  1. social environment
  2. family relationships

 

General Feedback:

Page 151; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. ___________ is in the first nine (9) months of an infant’s life when he or she develops an attachment to a primary figure.

 

*a. course of development

  1. biological function
  2. engagement of emotion
  3. duration

 

General Feedback:

Page 144; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. In early childhood, girls often gravitate toward the morality of justice while boys gravitate toward the morality of care.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 143; opposite; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. When discussing the threat or menace myth, eugenicists were describing individuals who were considered harmless and often institutionalized.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 146; individuals that lacked the intelligence to control their passions, higher functioning; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The shift in American culture from valuing restraint and discipline to the recent narcissistic “me-first” orientation has a strong influence on the individual level and contributed to increasing crime rates.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 151; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. Wilson and Herrnstein named their theory operant-utilitarian theory of criminality because they often used concepts associated with operant psychology.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 151; the never named their theory, this was a suggested name from Jack Gibbs; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Biological explanations of crime were more palatable while environmental or sociological explanations lost favor among many social scientists.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 151; opposite; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Goddard believed that intelligence or IQ was static or innate and could not change over time.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 145; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. While learning does have some influence on a person’s attachments, the key component is the biological function of survival.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 144; social interaction; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Attachment theory was influenced heavily by the work of Freud and other psychoanalytic theorists.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 143; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Psychoticism is traits such as being sociable, lively, active, assertive, dominant, and carefree.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 140; extroversion, Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Originally, Eysneck focused on the two personality dimensions of neuroticism and extroversion.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 140; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Destructive drives give individuals pleasure.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; aggression, destruction, death; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The only conscious domain of the psyche is the superego.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; ego; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. It is more difficult to condition extroverts than introverts.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 141; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. An ego-defense mechanism is used by the id when an individual cannot correct situations in their lives.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; used by the ego; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. It takes a great deal of effort for individuals to recognize their unconscious.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The PEN model can be viewed in what three (3) dimensions?

 

Correct Answer:

psychoticism, extroversion, neuroticism
Page 140; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Neuroticism is linked to many traits. List three (3) different traits an individual may exhibit when considered neurotic.

 

Correct Answer:

anxiety, depression, guilty feelings, low self-esteem, tension, irrationality, shyness, moodiness, and emotionality
Page 140; Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

 

 

  1. According to Gilligan, why may girls fail to develop within the constraints of Kohlberg’s system of moral development?

 

Correct Answer:

women may construct a problem differently than do men, the system of moral development was based on study of boys
Page 143; Bloom’s Taxonomy: application, comprehension

 

 

  1. Attachment theory consists of the combined work of what two (2) researchers? Which researcher did what concerning the theory?

 

Correct Answer:

John Bowlby- formulated the basic propositions of the theory and Mary Ainsworth- implemented innovated methodology to Bowlby’s concepts
Page 143; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The quantified measure of intelligence is called what?

 

Correct Answer:

intelligence quotient
Page 144; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Give an example of the attachment termed engagement of emotion.

 

Correct Answer:

fear- fear diminishes when in presence of trusted companion but resurfaces when alone; student can provide a number of different examples of emotions and how attachment affects these emotions
Page 144; Bloom’s Taxonomy: application, synthesis

 

 

  1. An infant develops an attachment to a primary figure, which is considered what?

 

Correct Answer:

the person who provides the most fulfilling and pleasing social interaction
Page 144; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. To achieve an ideal level of arousal, extroverts need what?

 

Correct Answer:

more excitement and stimuli in their environment
Page 141; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. What two (2) things did Hirschi and Hindelang find in reference to intelligence and delinquency?

 

Correct Answer:

1- relation is at least as strong as the relation of either class or race to official delinquency; 2- the relation is stronger than the relation of either class or race to self-reported delinquency
Page 150; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. How do conservatives and liberals differ in terms of causes of crime?

 

Correct Answer:

liberals–causes of crime in society such as unequal distribution of wealth; conservatives–are more likely to see criminals as different from normal citizens
Page 151; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. What study was considered one of the major contributions to the menace, or threat, myth considered to be linked to feeble-mindedness?

 

Correct Answer:

Kallikak family genealogical study
Page 145; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Attachment theory is often referenced with research examining what? Are these types of studies relatable to the behavior of young children?

 

Correct Answer:

the effects of separation on mother and infant monkeys; Bowlby notes that these studies show plainly the attachment behavior of young non-human primates is very similar to that of young children but also their responses to separation are very similar also
Page 143; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge

 

 

  1. According to Freud, what can happen if unconscious experiences are not brought to awareness by the individual?

 

Correct Answer:

The individual could engage in irrational and destructive behavior.
Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge

 

 

  1. According to Freud, what did sex include? Explain and give an example.

 

Correct Answer:

anything that gives people pleasure; example–painting
Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. What is a constructive drive?

 

Correct Answer:

sexual in nature, make up the libido
Page 137; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Explain the three (3) levels of moral development according to Kohlberg and the several stages of reasoning within these levels.

 

Correct Answer:

The preconventional level- designates what is considered right and wrong; stage 1- right is obedience to power and avoidance of punishment; stage 2- right is taking responsibility and leaving others to be responsible for themselves; Conventional level- considered the normal adult approach used to maintain the family and social order; stage 3- right is being considerate; stage 4- right is being good, with the values and norms of family and society at large; Postconventional level- when a person attempts to balance between individual rights and societal rights; stage 5- right is finding inner universal rights balance between self-rights and societal rules- a social contract; stage 6- right is based on a higher order of applying principles to all humankind
Page 142; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge

 

 

  1. What happens when the ego cannot cope with anxiety through rational measures? Give an example.

 

Correct Answer:

Ego uses irrational measures referred to as ego-defense mechanisms; Example-discharging pent-up feelings on objects less dangerous than those arousing the feelings
Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, application

 

 

  1. Eysenck offered three (3) different arguments in relation to biology and individual behavior. Explain these three (3) arguments. Also, choose one (1) of the three (3) arguments as what you believe to be the main link between individuals and their behavior. Explain your decision.

 

Correct Answer:

Genetics- heredity, looked at twin studies, heredity plays important and possible vital part in predisposing a given individual to crime; Pavlovian conditioning- socialized and altruistic behavior had to be learned and that this learning was mediated by means of Pavlovian conditioning. The newborn and the young child have no social conscience and behave in a purely egocentric manner. They have to acquire a conscience through a process of conditioning; neurophysiology- brain physiology, maintained that cortical arousal differs among individuals with respect to the ease or difficulty with which their level of arousal can be increased, their usual level of arousal, and the ease with which this arousal level can be maintained. Student must give original answer by choosing one explanation and explaining why it is the best.
Page 141; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, evaluation

 

 

  1. What is the PEN model and who developed it? Write a sample question that could be used to test individuals for every dimension of the PEN model.

 

Correct Answer:

The PEN model, developed by Hans Eysenck, emphasizes that human personality can be viewed in three dimensions: psychoticism, extroversion, and neuroticism. Students must give original answer in developing questions for every dimension of the PEN model.
Page 139; Bloom’s Taxonomy: synthesis, knowledge

 

 

  1. Explain the three (3) different aspects of individual personality that control behavior (id, ego, superego) and how they interact with one another.

 

Correct Answer:

Deals with the modern concept of insanity in English Common Law. The legal standard is that he didn’t know what he was doing or didn’t know that it was wrong. The three presumptions are: 1- every person is presumed sane unless contrary is proven, 2-person suffering a partial delusion should be dealt with as if the circumstance of delusion is real, 3- to establish defense on the grounds of insanity, it must be proven that five things existed. At the time of committing the act, the accused was laboring under such a defect of reason from a disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing and if he did know it that he did not know what he was doing was wrong.
Page 158; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge, analysis