Leadership Roles And Management Functions in Nursing  Theory And Application by Bessie L Marquis – Test Bank  

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Leadership Roles And Management Functions in Nursing  Theory And Application by Bessie L Marquis – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

1. Which statement regarding the responsibility of a manager in advocacy is accurate?
A) Advocacy is a management function and not a leadership role
B) Managers advocate only as needed to meet organizational goals
C) Managers should advocate for patients as well as subordinates
D) Professional advocacy is not a primary concern for most managers
Ans: C
Feedback:
Advocacy is helping others to grow and self-actualize. The manager must be an advocate for patients, subordinates, and the nursing profession. The remaining statements are not accurate descriptions of the manager’s role as advocate.

 

 

2. How is the action of advocacy described?
A) Informing others of their rights and making certain they have sufficient information to make decisions
B) Learning about the need for a decision and then making a good decision for other people
C) Supporting an individual’s right to make a decision even when they do not have accurate information
D) Protecting the rights of patients in accordance with the law
Ans: A
Feedback:
The advocate informs others of their rights and makes certain they have sufficient information to make decisions. The remaining options are incorrect when describing the action associated with advocacy.

 

 

3. Even after a lengthy discussion concerning the ramifications, a patient wants to leave the hospital against medical advice (AMA). What would the nurse do in the role of patient advocate?
A) Encourage the patient to wait until morning to leave the hospital
B) Ask family members to help talk the patient out of the decision
C) Call the security guard to escort the patient off hospital property
D) Make sure the patient has appropriate follow-up appointments
Ans: D
Feedback:
As advocate for this patient, you have made sure he is informed of the ramifications of leaving AMA; however, it is a patient’s right to refuse treatment. The other options fail to recognize the patient’s right to make autonomous choices.

 

 

4. Which statement about a national Patient Bill of Rights is accurate?
A) Not yet been enacted by the federal government
B) Became the law of the land
C) Became legally binding in every state
D) Has not been beneficial to patients
Ans: A
Feedback:
Although there has been significant progress in the field of patient rights since 1960, there is still no comprehensive federal legislation directed at the granting and protection of patient rights.

 

 

5. Who plays a primary role in ensuring that workers have reasonable, working schedules?
A) Unions
B) Top administrators
C) Managers
D) Federal government
Ans: C
Feedback:
In workplace advocacy, the manager works to see that the work environment is both safe and conducive to professional and personal growth for subordinates. The other options play a role in such situations but the manager has the primary responsibility.

 

 

6. Which situation is a reality for whistle-blowers?
A) Retaliation against them is illegal
B) Fellow workers are supportive of them
C) Federal and State law protects them
D) They are often afraid to speak out
Ans: D
Feedback:
Although whistle-blower protection has been advocated for at the federal level and has been passed in some states, many employees are reluctant to report unsafe conditions for fear of retaliation. Nurses should check with their state association to assess the status of whistle-blower protection in their state. Retaliation and resentment still exist against these individuals in many situations.

 

 

7. Which statement is true regarding political action committees (PACs)?
A) They attempt to persuade legislators to vote in a particular way
B) They are comprised of volunteers who are interested in politics
C) Their focus is the passage of specific pieces of legislature
D) They appear to have little influence with law makers
Ans: A
Feedback:
PACs of the Congress of Industrial Organizations attempt to persuade legislators to vote in a particular way. Lobbyists of the PAC may be members of a group interested in a particular law or paid agents of the group that wants a specific bill passed or defeated. Currently, PACs appear to have a significant amount of influence on law makers and the legislative process.

 

 

8. Which factor has the greatest influence on a legislator?
A) Form letters from group members
B) Individual phone calls from constituents
C) Meeting with a strong collective political group
D) A personal visit by an individual constituent
Ans: C
Feedback:
Legislators and policy makers generally are more willing to deal with a group rather than individuals; thus, joining and supporting professional organizations allow nurses to become active in lobbying for a stronger nurse practice act or for the creation or expansion of advanced nursing roles.

 

 

9. Which strategies would demonstrate an understanding of effective preparation for a television interview to discuss issues affecting nursing today? Select all that apply
A) Be focused on key points.
B) Introduce statistics that support the key points
C) Repeat key points several times during the interview
D) Provide background material related to the key points
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
The best strategies for a television interview are to be prepared and to stick to three or four key points that will drive home your message, and repeat them during the interview. Concentrating on popular points is not necessarily where the focus should be directed.

 

 

10. What statement is true concerning nurses as a political body?
A) They are very committed to both their profession and the political process
B) Many are active members of the American Nurses Association (ANA)
C) Their primary focus is to speak out on consumer health-related issues
D) They have not yet recognized the full potential of political activity
Ans: D
Feedback:
As a whole, the nursing profession has not yet recognized the full potential of collective political activity. Nurses must exert their collective influence and make their concerns known to policy makers before they can have a major impact on political and legislative outcomes. The remaining options are not true of nurses in general.

 

 

11. Which leadership role is associated with advocacy?
A) Create a climate where advocacy and its associated risk-taking are valued
B) Give subordinates and patients adequate information to make informed decisions
C) Ensure that rights and values of patients supersede those of the health-care providers
D) Seek appropriate consultation when advocacy results in intrapersonal or interpersonal conflict
Ans: A
Feedback:
A leadership role associated with advocacy is to create a climate where advocacy and its associated risk-taking are valued. Management functions include the following: give subordinates and patients adequate information to make informed decisions; ensure that rights and values of patients supersede those of the health-care providers; and seek appropriate consultation when advocacy results in intrapersonal or interpersonal conflict.

 

 

12. Which management function is associated with advocacy?
A) Awareness of current legislative efforts affecting nursing practice and organizational and unit management
B) Role modeling proactive involvement in health-care policy through both formal and informal interactions with the media and legislative representatives
C) Participation in professional nursing organizations and other groups that seek to advance the profession of nursing
D) Assertively advocating on behalf of patients and subordinates when an intermediary is necessary
Ans: A
Feedback:
A management function associated with advocacy is awareness of current legislative efforts affecting nursing practice and organizational and unit management. Leadership roles include the following: role models’ proactive involvement in health-care policy through both formal and informal interactions with the media and legislative representatives; participates in professional nursing organizations and other groups that seek to advance the profession of nursing; assertively advocate on behalf of patients and subordinates when an intermediary is necessary.

 

 

13. How can nurses act as advocates? Select all that apply.
A) Helping others make informed decisions
B) Directly intervening on behalf of others
C) Providing consent to treat for the cognitively impaired patients
D) Making health-care decisions for those who are not able to do so
Ans: A, C, D
Feedback:
Nurses may act as advocates by either helping others make informed decisions, by acting as intermediary in the environment, or by directly intervening on behalf of others. Advocates do not make decisions or provide consent but rather educate patients so they can be informed.

 

 

14. Which characteristic associated with being a patient increases the need for advocacy? Select all that apply.
A) Loss of physical freedom as a result of extended hospitalizations
B) Decreased independence due to physical or psychosocial limitations
C) Physical or psychosocial limitations negatively impacted autonomy
D) Illness tends to make an individual more vulnerable to unethical activities
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Patient advocacy is necessary because disease almost always results in decreased independence, loss of freedom, and interference with the ability to make choices autonomously. In addition, aging, as well as physical, mental, or social disability may make individuals more vulnerable and in need of advocacy. It is not true that cognitive function is impaired as a result of chronic and/or acute illness.

 

 

15. Which are common areas requiring nurse–patient advocacy? Select all that apply.
A) Securing patient consents
B) Preventing medication errors
C) Facilitating access to health-care services
D) Respect for patient dignity and cultural values
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Common areas requiring nurse–patient advocacy include inadequate patient consents; medical errors; access to health care; and respect for patient dignity and cultural values. While hospitalization is expensive, education on this subject is not considered a nursing advocacy role.

 

 

16. Which intervention demonstrates that the nurse-manager is to advocate for patients in common areas of concern? Select all that apply.
A) Staffing a unit with sufficient care providers
B) Orienting staff to safely use a new patient lift
C) Providing an in-service on culturally meeting end-of-life needs
D) Arranging for patient consultations with members of the financial office
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Common areas for managers to advocate for patients include distribution of resources; use of technology; end-of-life decisions; and health-care reimbursement. While aesthetics is an important consideration, it is not a common area for managers to act as advocators

 

 

17. Whose rights do the legislative controls of nursing practice primarily protect?
A) Patients
B) Subordinates
C) Managers
D) Administrators
Ans: A
Feedback:
The legislative controls of nursing practice primarily protect the rights of patients. Protection of those identified by the other options while important is the primary focus of the nursing practice legislative bodies.

 

 

18. Patients were often denied basic human rights until when?
A) 1940s
B) 1950s
C) 1960s
D) 1970s
Ans: C
Feedback:
Until the 1960s patients had few rights; in fact, patients before then often were denied basic human rights. Conditions improved by the 1970s.

 

 

19. The Patient’s Bill of Rights established by which body has the most legal authority?
A) A health-care organization
B) A professional medical organization
C) A regulation professional nursing organization
D) A specific state
Ans: D
Feedback:
A bill of rights that has become law or state regulation has the most legal authority because it provides the patient with legal recourse. A bill of rights issued by health-care organization and professional associations is not legally binding but may influence federal or state funding and certainly should be considered professionally binding.

 

 

20. Which standard of the American Nurses Association (ANA) Scope and Standards for Nurse Administrators suggests that nurse administrators should advocate for subordinates as well as patients?
A) II
B) III
C) IV
D) V
Ans: D
Feedback:
Standard V of the ANA Scope and Standards for Nurse Administrators suggests that nurse administrators should advocate for subordinates as well as patients. This issue is not addressed in the other options.

 

 

21. Which nursing intervention demonstrates attention to the nursing values central to patient advocacy? Select all that apply.
A) Assuring the patient that their wishes will be respected regarding the care they receive
B) Identifying the patient’s religious dietary practices when discussing a prescribed diet
C) Answering the patient’s questions regarding the alternatives to a proposed procedure
D) Suggesting to a patient that a social services consult would help with discharge needs
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
The nursing values central to advocacy emphasize caring, autonomy, respect, and empowerment. While appropriate, comforting a patient is not an act of advocacy in this situation.

 

 

22. Which strategy demonstrates an understanding of the management’s role as advocate for their subordinates? Select all that apply.
A) Staff representatives on all unit committees
B) Monthly “brown bag lunches” with the staff
C) Requests revising criteria for granting a “leave of absence”
D) Working with primary care providers to expand standing nursing orders
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
The following are suggestions for creating an environment that promotes subordinate advocacy: Invite collaborative decision making; get to know staff personally; “go to bat” for staff when needed; and promote nurse autonomy. Rather than anticipating educational needs, the manager advocates by asking for and then respecting their suggestions by planning accordingly.

 

 

23. Managerial advocacy has resulted in which profession of nursing characteristics? Select all that apply.
A) Ethical code
B) Legal recognition
C) Nurse Practice Acts
D) Professional licensing
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Managers must be advocates for the nursing profession. It was nurses who pushed for accountability through state nurse practice acts and state licensing. Nurse-leaders collaborated on defining the profession, achieving legal recognition of the profession and establishing a culture for professional nursing which has continued to the present time. Advocating for professional nursing is a leadership role. Professional issues are always ethical issues. When nurses find a discrepancy between their perceived role and society’s expectations, they have a responsibility to advocate for the profession. This includes speaking out on consumer issues, continuing and expanding attempts to influence legislation, and increasing membership on governmental health policy-making boards and councils. Only then will nurses be able to influence the tremendous problems facing society today.

 

 

24. Which statement correctly identifies the composition of a letter to a legislator? Select all that apply.
A) Identify yourself as a constituent in the first paragraph
B) State your reason for writing in the second paragraph
C) Sign the letter and include your contact information
D) Address the legislator by title
Ans: A, C, D
Feedback:
Personal letters are more influential than formal letters, and the tone should be formal but polite. The letter should also be concise (not more than one page). Be sure to address the legislator properly by title. Establish your credibility early in the letter as both a constituent and a health-care expert. State your reason for writing the letter in the first paragraph, and refer to the specific bill that you are writing about. Then, state your position on the issue and give personal examples as necessary to support your position. Offer your assistance as a resource person for additional information. Sign the letter, including your name and contact information. Remember to be persistent, and write legislators repeatedly who are undecided on an issue. Display 6.5 displays a format common to letters written to legislators.

 

 

25. A nurse-manager has been asked to write an article for the newspaper addressing a health-care issue of local concern. Which statement demonstrates the nurse understandings the appropriate way to response to such a request? Select all that apply.
A) “I’ll include the latest data on the subject.”
B) “When will you need to have the final draft of my article?”
C) “Are you comfortable with me focusing on 3 key points related to this topic?”
D) “That isn’t my field of expertise but I will contact a peer with that knowledge.”
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Tips of effective interaction with the media include respecting and meeting their deadlines, having key facts ready to include, limiting key points to two or three, and not being afraid to say you lack that specific expertise. One should assume, until proven otherwise, that the reporter will be fair and accurate in his/her reporting.

 

1. Which is the first step in the time management process?
A) Completing the highest priority task
B) Allowing enough time for sufficient daily planning
C) Reprioritizing based on new information received
D) Delegating work that cannot be accomplished in a day
Ans: B
Feedback:
Daily planning is essential if the manager is to manage by efficiency rather than by crisis. The remaining options are steps that occur after planning.

 

 

2. What is the reason that first- and middle-level managers experience more interruptions than higher-level managers?
A) They generally interact directly with a greater number of subordinates in daily planning
B) They seldom have the clerical and secretarial help assigned to higher-level managers
C) They are more social in nature and personal interactions
D) They are busier than higher-level managers
Ans: A
Feedback:
Frequent interruptions are common for first- and middle-level managers, who have a larger number of direct reports than do higher-level managers. The other options are not generally true statements.

 

 

3. Which time waster does the manager have least control over?
A) Failure to set objectives
B) Inability to say no
C) Procrastination
D) Paperwork overload
Ans: D
Feedback:
Excessive paperwork is an external time waster; the others are time wasters created by the manager (internal).

 

 

4. What does the good manager have to remember about creating a daily list?
A) It should remain changed once initial planning is completed
B) It is a planning tool, and thus must have flexibility in its implementation
C) It should include all the planner’s short-term, intermediate, and long-term goals
D) It should be highly structured, thus decreasing the possibility of procrastination
Ans: B
Feedback:
The daily list should be flexible, changeable, leave some time for the unexpected, and include appropriate short-term goals.

 

 

5. Which policy implemented by a manager will minimize unproductive socialization?
A) An open-door policy
B) Scheduled appointments
C) Informal, impromptu meetings
D) Maintaining strict professional boundaries
Ans: B
Feedback:
Appointments will discourage unproductive socialization since time will be allotted and a schedule maintained. Open-door policies and impromptu meetings encourage socialization while strict professional boundaries may actually interfere with communications.

 

 

6. Which plan is an effective way of handling a large task?
A) Plan to finish the task with few breaks
B) Delegate portions of the task to qualified staff
C) Break the task into smaller, less intimidating units
D) Delay beginning the task until it has your undivided attention
Ans: C
Feedback:
Breaking down a task, or chunking, prevents the person from becoming overwhelmed by the size of the task. It may not be possible or advisable to finish the task without breaks or delegating it to staff.

 

 

7. Which statement about time management is true?
A) Most people have an accurate perception of the time they spend on a particular task or the total amount of time they are productive during the day
B) Nurses who are self-aware and have clearly identified personal goals and priorities have greater control over how they spend their time
C) Writing goals down is not necessary if the goals are limited to fewer than five in number
D) A time inventory for 2 or 3 days is sufficient to identify a time management pattern
Ans: B
Feedback:
Nurses who are self-aware and have clearly identified personal goals and priorities have greater control over how they spend their time. The other options are not true statements regarding time management.

 

 

8. Which task should the team leader initially engage in when planning care for a group of patients?
A) Plan so that each patient on the team receives equal amounts of nursing care
B) Prioritize the amount and type of nursing care each patient requires
C) Identify the staff who will comprise the individual care teams
D) Assign patients to the specific nursing teams
Ans: B
Feedback:
Prioritizing the care each patient will require is the initial step in care planning. The other options are considered but implementation will happen after the prioritizing.

 

 

9. What will the nurse-manager do to best reduce paper clutter in the workspace?
A) Support face-to-face communication between staff members
B) Encourage paper clutter to be thrown away at the end of each shift
C) Deal with paper correspondence as soon as possible after it arrives.
D) Place additional recycling and trash receptacles throughout the unit
Ans: C
Feedback:
Whenever possible, incoming correspondence should be handled the day it arrives. It should either be thrown away or filed according to the date to be completed. The other options do not have the same amount of impact on controlling clutter.

 

 

10. Which technique will help the manager prioritize?
A) Doing “trivial” items first to get them out of the way
B) Putting some items in the “don’t do” category
C) “Breaking of” overwhelming tasks
D) “Delegating” the most important things to someone else
Ans: B
Feedback:
The “don’t do” list contains items that will take care of themselves, are already outdated, or are best accomplished by someone else. In the case of items that are best done by someone else, the manager should pass these along in a timely fashion. None of the remaining options address prioritization.

 

 

11. Which is the foundational principle of nursing time management?
A) Short-term planning
B) Strategic planning
C) Immediate attention to care needs
D) Adhering to a daily plan
Ans: A
Feedback:
The foundational principle of time management is short-term planning. Strategic planning is a long-term activity while the other options lack the flexibility needed by time management.

 

 

12. Which activity is associated with a leadership role in time management?
A) Assisting followers in working cooperatively to maximize time use
B) Prioritizing day-to-day planning to meet short-term and long-term unit goals
C) Building time for time management planning into the work schedule
D) Utilizing technology to facilitate timely communication and documentation
Ans: A
Feedback:
A leadership role is to assist followers in working cooperatively to maximize time use. Management functions include the following: Appropriately prioritizes day-to-day planning to meet short-term and long-term unit goals; builds time for planning into the work schedule; utilizes technology to facilitate timely communication and documentation.

 

 

13. How can subordinates be discouraged from taking up a nursing manager’s time unproductively?

1. Being accessible in the nursing station
2. Instituting an open-door policy
3. Have limited office seating available
4. Refocus conversations as needed
A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 4
D) 3, 4
Ans: D
Feedback:
Do not make yourself overly accessible. Make it easy for people to ignore you. Try not to “work” at the nursing station, if this is possible. Interrupt. When someone is rambling on without getting to the point, break in and say gently, “Excuse me. Somehow I’m not getting your message. What exactly are you saying?” Avoid promoting socialization. Having several comfortable chairs in your office, a full candy dish, and posters on your walls that invite comments encourage socializing in your office. Be brief. Watch your own long-winded comments, and stand up when you are finished.

 

 

14. What is the best response for a nurse-manager to handle someone who has a pattern of lengthy chatter?
A) “We’ll need to make it brief since my schedule is tight today.”
B) “I can’t speak with you now, but I’m going to have free time at 11 am.”
C) “Stop by and we can talk during your lunch break.”
D) “I am sorry but I do not have anytime today to talk with you.”
Ans: B
Feedback:
If someone has a pattern of lengthy chatter and manages to corner you on rounds or at the nurse’s station, say, “I can’t speak with you now, but I’m going to have some free time at 11 AM. Why don’t you see me then?” Unless the meeting is important, the person who just wishes to chat will not bother to make a formal appointment. If you would like to chat and have the time to do so, use coffee breaks and lunch hours for socializing.

 

 

15. Time management can be reduced to cyclic steps. What are the steps?

1. Allow time for planning and establish priorities.
2. Complete the quickest priority tasks first.
3. Complete the highest priority task, and whenever possible, finish one task before beginning another.
4. Reprioritize based on remaining tasks and new information that may have been received.
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 1, 2, 4
C) 1, 3, 4
D) 2, 3, 4
Ans: C
Feedback:
Time management can be reduced to three cyclic steps: (a) allow time for planning and establish priorities; (b) complete the highest priority task, and whenever possible, finish one task before beginning another; and (c) reprioritize based on remaining tasks and new information that may have been received.

 

 

16. When is the best time of day for the manager to spend appropriate time on planning?
A) Whenever a block of time is available
B) Beginning of the day
C) Middle of the day
D) End of the day
Ans: B
Feedback:
Setting aside time at the beginning of each day to plan the day allows the manager to spend appropriate time on high-priority tasks.

 

 

17. What is the most critical skill in good time management?
A) Allow adequate time for planning
B) Recognizing the need for daily planning
C) Priority setting
D) Handling situations as they arise
Ans: C
Feedback:
Priority setting is perhaps the most critical skill in time management because all actions taken are some type of relative importance.

 

 

18. What category of prioritizing will an item that will take care of itself be placed?
A) Squeaky wheel
B) Don’t do
C) Do later
D) Do now
Ans: B
Feedback:
One simple means of prioritizing what needs to be accomplished is to divide all requests into three categories: “don’t do,” “do later,” and “do now.” The “don’t do” items probably reflect problems that will take care of themselves, are already outdated, or are better accomplished by someone else.

 

 

19. What do the “do now” requests reflect?
A) A unit’s day-to-day operational needs
B) Issues related to short-term goals
C) Large, time-consuming tasks
D) Problems that cannot be delegated
Ans: A
Feedback:
The “do now” requests most commonly reflect a unit’s day-to-day operational needs. These “do now” requests are not necessarily related to short-term goals or time-consuming. Nor are they also non-delegatable.

 

 

20. In prioritizing all the “do now” items, the manager may find preparing a written list helpful. What is important to remember about the written list?

1. It is a plan
2. It is a product
3. It is a planning tool
4. It is the final goal to be accomplished
A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 3
D) 3, 4
Ans: B
Feedback:
In prioritizing all the “do now” items, the manager may find preparing a written list helpful. The list is a planning tool. Remember, however, that a list is a plan, not a product, and that the creation of the list is not the final goal.

 

 

21. Which statement identifies a common mistake made related to daily planning?
A) “Crises always come up so my plan is always changing.”
B) “I have always handled my patients’ needs as they arise.”
C) “Sometimes it’s difficult to reserve time for daily planning.”
D) “Patient care requires a lot of reassessment by nursing.”
Ans: B
Feedback:
Two mistakes common in planning are underestimating the importance of a daily plan and not allowing adequate time for planning. The remaining options reflect an understanding of the importance of planning.

 

 

22. How does the effective nurse-manager most effectively deal with the ever-changing nature of the nursing work environment?
A) Evaluating the management skills of the nursing team leaders
B) Providing time management classes for staff members
C) Frequently reassessing personally established priorities
D) Encouraging staff to engage in daily planning
Ans: C
Feedback:
Setting new priorities or adjusting priorities to reflect ever-changing work situations is an ongoing reality for the unit manager. While the other options are appropriate, they are not directed to the management role in dealing with the ever-changing nature of the environment of nursing.

 

 

23. Which statement demonstrates adherence to habits that supports good time management skills? Select all that apply.
A) “It’s important to me to be professional.”
B) “I can depend on the members of my team.”
C) “I’ve learned that I’m most energetic in the morning.”
D) “I’ll adjust my sleep schedule now that I’m on night shift.”
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Habit 1: Strive to be authentic. Be honest with yourself about what you want and why you do what you do. Habit 2: Favor trusting relationships. Build relationships with people you can trust and count on, and make sure those same people can trust and count on you. Habit 3: Maintain a lifestyle that will give you maximum energy. Exercise, eat well, and get enough sleep. Habit 4: Listen to your biorhythms and organize your day accordingly. Pay attention to regular fluctuations in your physical and mental energy levels throughout the day and schedule tasks accordingly. Habit 5: Set very few priorities and stick to them. Select a maximum of two things that are your highest priority, and work on them.

 

 

24. What is the primary reason for documenting nursing interventions as soon as possible after an activity is completed?
A) Decreasing the risk of inaccurate documentation
B) Implementing effective time management skills
C) Demonstrating professional nursing behavior
D) Observing an established nursing principle
Ans: A
Feedback:
Document your nursing interventions as soon as possible after an activity is completed. Waiting until the end of the workday to complete necessary documentation increases the risk of inaccuracies and incomplete documentation. The remaining options are accurate but lack the primary focus of patient safety.

 

 

25. What is the suggested perception of a nurse-manager who is consistently late for appointments?
A) The manager is overworked with too many responsibilities
B) The manager needs additional management training
C) The manager does not value other people’s time
D) The manager lacks time management skills
Ans: C
Feedback:
A lack of punctuality suggests that one does not value other people’s time. The other options may be true but the perception is the more emotional perception.

 

1. What type of power does a professional nursing certification provide?
A) Legitimate
B) Expert
C) Charismatic
D) Organizational
Ans: B
Feedback:
A nursing certification provides the proof of earned expert power such as having knowledge or skill not possessed by all nurses.

 

 

2. Which statement about power is correct?
A) It is a finite quality and, once gained, is very difficult to lose
B) It is destructively manipulative but is necessary for effective management
C) Women generally view power more positively than do men
D) Having power generally results in the gain of additional power
Ans: D
Feedback:
The only true statement here is that power is likely to bring more power in an ascending cycle, whereas powerlessness often generates more powerlessness.

 

 

3. Which statement represents a powerful image of a team leader?
A) “I’m in charge here, and so all requests need to come to me.”
B) “I’m too tired to deal with Dr. Jones today. When he gets here, tell him I’ve gone to lunch.”
C) “Is it okay with the rest of you if I do all the charting and you do the direct patient care?”
D) “We have a great deal to accomplish today, but I am confident that, by working together, we can do it and do it well.”
Ans: D
Feedback:
The empowerment of staff is a hallmark of transformational leadership. To empower means to enable, develop, or allow. Empowerment can be defined as decentralization of power. Empowerment occurs when leaders communicate their vision; employees are given the opportunity to make the most of their talents; and learning, creativity, and exploration are encouraged. Empowerment plants seeds of leadership, collegiality, self-respect, and professionalism.

 

 

4. Which power-building strategy would be the appropriate for a new employee? Select all that apply.
A) Maintaining a sense of humor
B) Gaining additional nursing certifications
C) Learning the institution’s organizational culture.
D) Attending a training seminar on a new piece of unit equipment
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Trying to induce change when one is a new employee is not an appropriate power-building strategy while the other options are all appropriate for a new employee to engage in.

 

 

5. What determines the size of the authority–power gap between a manager and an employee?
A) The organizational philosophy
B) The degree of rigidity in the corporate chart
C) How credible the manager is perceived to be
D) How much informal power the manager possesses
Ans: C
Feedback:
When a manager loses credibility, the authority–power gap widens. None of the other options are relevant.

 

 

6. What does proactive political strategy include?
A) Assuming authority to do something if it is not expressly prohibited
B) Using competitive approaches to the decision-making process
C) Attempting to appear as a victim so future gains can be made
D) Verbalizing discontent with the politics of an organization
Ans: A
Feedback:
Assuming authority to do something that is not prohibited allows the individual to accomplish goals for the organization, which will lead to greater empowerment. None of the remaining options are associated with the proactive political strategy.

 

 

7. Which strategy is most effective in empowering staff?
A) Serving as a role model of an empowered nurse
B) Following a rigid but consistent rule enforcement policy
C) Providing all employees with an annual cost-of-living raise
D) Encouraging staff to establish a strong unit culture with turf boundaries
Ans: A
Feedback:
By serving as a role model of an empowered nurse, the individual encourages others to become empowered. The remaining options are not examples of effective empowering strategies.

 

 

8. Which statement concerning the queen bee syndrome is true?
A) It occurs more often with women than with men
B) It encourages the empowerment of subordinates
C) It prevents the sharing of power
D) It is an informal leadership role
Ans: C
Feedback:
Individuals who have the queen bee syndrome do not empower others, because they want to keep all the power for themselves. None of the other options are associated with the queen bee syndrome.

 

 

9. What is one of the most politically serious errors one can make?
A) Dispensing fictitious information
B) Promoting the advancement of subordinates
C) Withholding or refusing to divulge information
D) Delaying decision making until there is additional information
Ans: A
Feedback:
Lying to others is a serious political error. The other options represent appropriate behaviors.

 

 

10. Which statement describes both self-power and feminist power?
A) The militant expression of power by assertive women
B) The power gained from knowing other powerful people
C) The narrowing of the authority gap between nurses and physicians
D) Personally awareness that is demonstrated by having power over one’s life
Ans: D
Feedback:
Self-power, sometimes referred to as feminist power, is power over self rather than over other people. The concept of self-power/feminist power is not described accurately by any of the other options.

 

 

11. A nursing administrator believes that the organization supports an inadequate distribution of power. What is the administrator’s initial action to combat this situation?
A) To form a coalition to extend administrative networking.
B) To pose a plan for organizational restructuring.
C) To gain entry into an informal power group.
D) To improve one’s personal power base
Ans: C
Feedback:
To gain power one needs entry into informal lines of communication provided by informal power groups. The other options would be effective only after the correct option is achieved.

 

 

12. What does empowerment encourage?
A) Delegation of responsibility
B) Sharing authority with others
C) Relinquishing informal power
D) Successful authoritarian leadership
Ans: B
Feedback:
Empowerment is sharing power or authority with others but not relinquishing either power inherent in a position or its responsibility. Authoritarian leadership is not associated with empowerment.

 

 

13. Two of the organizational goals are to increase physician satisfaction and reduce costs. A unit goal is to increase professional RN staffing. Which statement best supports all the stated goals?
A) Increasing the RN staff will cut down on nursing errors, prevent burn out, and decrease the cost associated with staff turnover
B) Increasing the RN staff will result in increased patient safety and quality care, and thus improve physician satisfaction
C) Increasing the RN staff will free more nurses to be available to answer doctors’ concerns during their rounds and will reduce our costly use of overtime
D) Increasing the RN staff will lead to improved patient education and a reduction in costly patient stays
Ans: C
Feedback:
Politically wise requests should always be made using the goals of the organization; therefore, stating that increasing the staff would meet the organization’s goals is most appropriate. The other options do not address all of the stated goals.

 

 

14. What are necessary components of leadership and management?

1. Power

2. Authority

3. Empowerment

4. Authority–power gap

A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 4
D) 3, 4
Ans: A
Feedback:
Power and authority are necessary components of leadership and management. The gap that sometimes exists between a position of authority and subordinate response is called the authority–power gap. Empowerment is the concept of sharing power.

 

 

15. What is the primary influence that shapes a person’s response to authority?
A) Power figures in the family unit
B) Work experiences in each job held
C) Administrative figures in the workplace
D) Experiences in the spiritual dimension of life
Ans: A
Feedback:
A person’s response to authority is conditioned early through authority figures and experiences in the family unit. While the other options may influence an individual, none are the primary influence.

 

 

16. What is the name of the gap that sometimes exists between a position of authority and subordinate response?
A) Leadership–subordinate
B) Manager–subordinate
C) Administrator–power
D) Authority–power
Ans: D
Feedback:
The gap that sometimes exists between a position of authority and subordinate response is called the authority–power gap. None of other options is the term used to identify the described power gap.

 

 

17. Which factors are associated with the empowerment of staff?

1. Allow

2. Develop

3. Enable

4. Lead

A) 1, 2, 3
B) 1, 2, 4
C) 1, 3, 4
D) 2, 3, 4
Ans: A
Feedback:
The empowerment of staff is a hallmark of transformational leadership. Empowerment means to enable, develop, or allow. Leading is not associated with empowerment.

 

 

18. Which statement concerning women’s views of power is true?
A) Women view power as a male right
B) Women view power differently than men do
C) Gender views regarding power differ only slightly
D) Gender views regarding power are rapidly changing
Ans: B
Feedback:
Traditionally, women have been socialized to view power differently than men do. However, recent studies show that gender differences regarding power are slowly changing.

 

 

19. What is coercive power based on?
A) The ability to grant rewards to others
B) The power of fear and of punishment
C) The power inherent in one’s position
D) The gaining of knowledge and skills
Ans: B
Feedback:
Coercive power is based on fear and punishment. Reward power is obtained by the ability to grant rewards to others. Legitimate power is the power inherent in one’s position. Expert power is gained through knowledge or skill.

 

 

20. What are the reasons for losing this power?

1. Being politically naive

2. Failure to use appropriate political strategies

3. The lack of a dynamic and powerful persona

4. Association with others who desire similar power

A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 4
D) 3, 4
Ans: A
Feedback:
Power gained may be lost because one is politically naive or fails to use appropriate political strategies. The other options are not major factors in the loss of power.

 

 

21. Which statement regarding the view of power held by some women is true? Select all that apply.
A) Power is inherently possessed by men
B) Power is associated with personal attributes
C) Power is viewed as dominance versus submission
D) Power is associated with personal qualities not accomplishment
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
As a result, some women view power as dominance versus submission; associated with personal qualities, not accomplishment; and dependent on personal or physical attributes, not skill. Also, some women believe that they do not inherently possess power but instead must rely on others to acquire it. Thus, rather than feeling capable of achieving and managing power, some women feel that power manages them. The end result has been that so far too many women have remained unskilled in the art of the political process.

 

 

22. What is the foundation of reference power?
A) Association with others
B) Ability to grant favors
C) Personality
D) Fear
Ans: A
Feedback:
Referent power is power that a person has as others identify with that leader or with what that leader symbolizes. Referent power also occurs when one gives another person, feelings of personal acceptance or approval. It may be obtained through association with the powerful. Reward power, charismatic, and coercive are the powers associated with the other options.

 

 

23. Which is the positive outcome for a manager perceived to possess manager power?
A) Staff have trust in the manager
B) Unit staffing tends to remain stable
C) The manager will be a leader as well
D) Administration supports the manager’s decisions
Ans: A
Feedback:
The term manager power may explain subordinates’ response to the manager’s authority. The more power subordinates perceive a manager to have, the smaller the gap between the right to expect certain things and the resulting fulfillment of those expectations by others. None of the other options present a positive outcome of manager power.

 

 

24. A staff member asks the manger for a particular day off on the next schedule. Which response demonstrates the concept of underpromising and help the manager retain the staff’s trust?
A) “I will do my best to give you the time off.”
B) “Be sure to get the written request in early.”
C) “If staffing stays the same, I will arrange for your request.”
D) “If you don’t take any sick time before then, I’ll give it to you.”
Ans: C
Feedback:
Less trust is lost between the manager and the subordinate when underpromising occurs than when a granted request is rescinded, as long as the subordinate believes that the manager will make a genuine effort to meet his or her request. Underpromising occurs when the manager explains the uncontrollable factors that affect granting the request. While being sick is uncontrollable, the issue is staffing at the time of the actual request.

 

 

25. Which statement supports the manager’s commitment to staff empowerment? Select all that apply.
A) “Unit goals include hiring an additional 2 nursing assistants.”
B) “A staff committee will be formed to address that unit issue.”
C) “We can arrange for you to spend 2 months working on another unit.”
D) “I’m got funding to support staff who are interested in earning certifications.”
Ans: A, B, C, D
Feedback:
Empowerment, as discussed in Chapter 2, can be defined as decentralization of power. Empowerment occurs when leaders communicate their vision; employees are given the opportunity to make the most of their talents; and learning, creativity, and exploration are encouraged. While an open-door policy supports communication, it is not associated with empowerment.