Life Span Development 15th Edition by John Santrock  – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Life Span Development 15th Edition by John Santrock  – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 05

Cognitive Development in Infancy

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Jean Piaget believed that children:

actively construct their own cognitive world.

passively react to their environments.

absorb their knowledge from the environment.

gain their view of the world from their parents.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

Schemes refer to:

actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge.

groups of behaviors.

knowledge that has been adjusted to fit new experiences.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

According to Piaget, physical activities such as sucking, grasping, and walking are examples of:

mental schemes.

mental adaptations.

behavioral adaptations.

behavioral schemes.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

According to Piaget, solving a puzzle is an example of a:

mental scheme.

mental adaptation.

behavioral adaptation.

behavioral scheme.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

Alejandro is 3 years old. He is now able to sort his blocks by color. Alejandro has developed:

a new behavioral scheme.

a new mental scheme.

object permanence.

the ability to assimilate.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

 

Benji starts calling his father “dad,” but he also calls all men that he sees “dad.” According to Piaget, this error is due to _____.

amalgamation

accommodation

assimilation

application

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

_____ occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

Adaptation

Accommodation

Assimilation

Application

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

Two-year-old Anita has learned the word “dog” to identify the family pet Rover. Now, Anita says the word “dog” when she sees any animal. Anita has _____ these animals into her existing scheme.

amalgamated

accommodated

assimilated

applied

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

Baby Elise has developed a sucking scheme. She knows that to get food she must suck on her mother’s breast. Now, her mother has begun to introduce solid foods with a spoon. Elise immediately sucks on the spoon. This is an example of _____.

accommodation

assimilation

amalgamation

application

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

Three-year-old Jesse used to call all moving vehicles “car.” He now accurately categorizes moving vehicles into trucks, cars, motorcycles, and buses. Jesse has _____ to fit new information into his existing scheme.

accommodated

assimilated

amalgamated

applied

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

  1. Jean Piaget’s concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order system is called _____.
    A.

assimilation

equilibration

organization

amalgamation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Organization

 

Trenton was playing in a sandbox. He was pouring sand from a short and wide fat container into a tall and narrow container. When he poured the sand into the tall and narrow container, it appeared as if it had more sand in it. Trenton could not figure out where the extra sand came from, and how it got into his container. As Trenton continues to try to solve this puzzle, he experiences considerable movement between states of cognitive _____ and _____ to produce cognitive change.

equilibrium; disequilibrium

adaptation; organization

classification; modification

equilibration; categorization

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

When children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world, they shift from one stage of thought to the next. The mechanism through which this shift occurs is called _____.

equilibration

assimilation

organization

amalgamation

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

For cognitive change to occur, identify the two processes that must work in concert as the child experiences considerable movement between the states of cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium.

Equilibration and categorization

Amalgamation and organization

Assimilation and accommodation

Classification and modification

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

  1. Jean Piaget believed that children’s thinking in one stage is _____ that in another stage.
    A.

qualitatively different from

quantitatively different from

qualitatively similar to

quantitatively similar to

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

  1. According to Jean Piaget’s theory of infant development, what makes one stage more advanced than another?
    A.

When a child is able to stand and walk

When a child understands the world differently

When a child is older

When a child is able to manipulate objects better

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

 

The sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth to about:

six months of age.

eight months of age.

one year of age.

two years of age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage of development into _____ substages.

two

three

five

six

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Alice who is three weeks old is in the _____ substage of Piaget’s sensorimotor development; she will latch on to and suck anything that is touched to her lips.

simple reflexes

first habits

secondary circular reactions

primary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

The _____ substage of sensorimotor development corresponds to the first month after birth.

first habits and primary circular reactions

simple reflexes

secondary circular reactions

internalization of schemes

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Which of the following substages of sensorimotor development is characterized by coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors?

Conditioned reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Simple reflexes

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Josh is three months old. In which of Jean Piaget’s substages of sensorimotor development is Josh?

Simple reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which of the following substages of sensorimotor development does the infant’s main focus remain on his or her own body?

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

First habits and primary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which substage of sensorimotor development do infants start repeating actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results?

First habits and primary circular reactions

Simple reflexes

Secondary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Which substage of sensorimotor development is characterized by coordination of vision and touch—hand-eye coordination?

Coordination of primary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Internalization of schemes

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which of the following substages of sensorimotor development do infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects?

Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity

Coordination of primary circular reactions

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

Internalization of schemes

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

When Monica was born, she showed the typical grasping reflex by closing her fingers around anything that brushed against her palm. After a few weeks, she showed this grasping behavior even when nothing touched her palm. Monica developed a _____ or a scheme based on a reflex that became completely separated from its eliciting stimulus.

habit

simple reflex

primitive symbol

circular reaction

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Antonio swings his arms while lying in his crib. One of his arms accidentally hits the mobile hanging above him. This causes the mobile to move. Antonio continues to swing his arms but is unable to strike the mobile again. This is an example of a:

habit.

reflex.

primary circular reaction.

secondary circular reaction.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which sensorimotor substage does an infant’s actions become more object-oriented?

Simple reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Secondary circular reactions

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Sarah, an infant of seven months, loves repeatedly hitting a toy that lights up and plays music on impact with her toy hammer. Sarah is in Piaget’s substage of:

reflexes.

primary circular reaction.

secondary circular reaction.

tertiary circular reaction.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

  1. According to the substages of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development, which of the following statements about the coordination of secondary circular reactions is NOT true?
    A.

It develops between 8 and 12 months of age.

The infant must be able to coordinate vision and touch, hand and eye.

It develops between 12 and 18 months of age.

It is marked by intentionality.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Significant changes during the _____ substage involve the coordination of schemes and intentionality.

primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

coordination of secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Eleven-month-old Jenny uses her toy golf club to bring another toy within reach. According to Piaget’s theory of infant development, Jenny is in the _____ substage of the sensorimotor stage.

primary circular reactions

secondary circular reactions

coordination of secondary circular reactions

tertiary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Sixteen-month-old Akel plays endlessly with a ball, rolling it, throwing it, using it to knock over other toys, standing on it, and trying to ride on it. Which of Jean Piaget’s substages of the sensorimotor stage is represented by Akel’s behavior?

Primary circular reactions

Secondary circular reactions

Coordination of secondary circular reactions

Tertiary circular reactions

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

According to Piaget, the _____ sensorimotor substage marks the starting point for human curiosity and interest in novelty.

second

third

fifth

sixth

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

In which sensorimotor substage does an infant develop the ability to use primitive symbols?

Simple reflexes

First habits and primary circular reactions

Secondary circular reactions

Internalization of schemes

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

According to Piaget, a _____ is an internal sensory image or word that represents an event.

transducer

sensation

symbol

memory

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

The understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched is called:

object containment.

object permanence.

object availability.

object continuance.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Object permanence

 

Heather is shown a teddy bear. The teddy bear is then hidden from her, and she searches for it. This shows that Heather has developed a sense of _____.

symbolic manipulation

infinite generativity

telegraphic thinking

object permanence

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Object permanence

 

Identify the type of error that occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting a familiar hiding place rather than a new hiding place as they progress into Piaget’s fourth substage of the sensorimotor stage.

Type 1 error

Type 2 error

F-not-N error

A-not-B error

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: A-not-B error

 

A developmental psychologist studying infants’ understanding of object permanence uses a method where infants see an event happen as it would normally occur. Then, the event is changed, often in a way that creates a physically impossible event. The result of this is that the infants look longer at the changed event indicating that he or she is surprised by it. Which method is being adopted here?

Violation of expectations

Habituation and dishabituation

Visual preference

Principle of persistence

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

  1. In Baillargeon’s view, infants have a pre-adapted, innate bias called the principle of _____ that explains their assumption that objects do not change their properties unless some external factor obviously intervenes.
    A.

consistency

inertia

persistence

internalized representation

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

Researchers like Baillargeon have found that infants’ perceptual abilities are highly developed much earlier than Jean Piaget proposed. These researchers conclude that infants see objects as bounded, unitary, solid, and separate from their background definitely by _____ of age.

eight to nine months

one to two months

three to four months

five to six months

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

Research suggests that infants appear to understand the physical law of gravity:

at birth.

at around 6 to 8 months of age.

at around 1 to 2 months of age.

at the start of toddlerhood.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

Research by Renée Baillargeon and her colleagues documents that infants as young as three to four months expect objects to be ­­­­_____ in the sense that other objects cannot move through them and _____ in the sense that objects continue to exist when they are hidden.

subject to gravity; transient

consistent; existential

substantial; permanent

opaque; substantial

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Perceptual development

 

In considering the big issue of whether nature or nurture plays the more important role in infant development, Elizabeth Spelke endorses a _____ approach that states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems.

core knowledge

domain knowledge

learned domain

nurture

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Nature and nurture

 

Which of the following is a key criticism of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

Jean Piaget failed to conduct observations in an infant’s everyday environment.

Jean Piaget failed to conduct observations in controlled settings.

Infants are more competent than Jean Piaget thought.

Infants are less competent than Jean Piaget reported.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Nature and nurture

 

Attention in the first year of life is dominated by a(n) _____ process that involves directing attention to potentially important locations in the environment, that is, “where,” and recognizing objects and their features, that is, “what.”

orienting/tracking

sustained/focused attention

habituation/dishabituation

orienting/investigative

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Attention

 

The focusing of mental resources on select information is called _____.

assimilation

attention

habituation

fixation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Attention

 

Farah shows her baby a colorful block several times. The baby looks carefully at the block at first, but then turns her attention to a different toy after seeing the block a few times. The baby is displaying _____.

distraction

imitation

habituation

dishabituation

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

  1. _____ provides a measure of an infant’s maturity and well-being.
    A.

Assimilation

Habituation

Lateralization

Disambiguation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Eight-month-old Andrew suffered brain damage at birth. His identical twin, Alex, had no brain damage. Research on habituation will likely predict that:

Alex will not habituate as well as Andrew.

both twins will habituate at about the same level.

Andrew will not habituate as well as Alex.

Alex will not exhibit any sort of habituation.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

When two individuals focus on the same object or event, the process is called:

sensory attention.

joint attention.

amalgamous attention.

synchronous attention.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Which of the following is a requirement of joint attention?

An ability to manipulate objects

An ability to track another’s behavior

A lack of interest in others

An intense interest in a particular object

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Which of the following statements about joint attention is NOT true?

Joint attention requires the ability to track another’s behavior.

Emerging forms of joint attention occur at about 4 to 5 months.

Joint attention requires that one person directs another person’s attention.

Joint attention requires reciprocal interaction.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

_____ involves the retention of information over time.

Attention

Memory

Cognition

Organization

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Which is the process by which information gets into memory?

Encoding

Encrypting

Enlisting

Enumerating

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Juno is riding a bike. Riding a bike requires Juno to use her memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically; this type of memory is referred to as _____ memory.

explicit

implicit

semantic

episodic

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

When Abraham describes to his friend what he did in his last summer vacation, he relies on his _____ memory.

implicit

explicit

procedural

semantic

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Most researchers find that babies do not show _____ until the second half of the first year.

dishabituation

explicit memory

habituation

implicit memory

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Remembering how to swim is an example of:

implicit memory.

deferred imitation.

joint attention.

explicit memory.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

June knows the names of all the states that comprise the United States. The names of the states are a part of June’s _____ memory.

innate

explicit

distinctive

implicit

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Renee remembers very little about the first three years of her life. Psychologists find this normal and call it:

retroactive memory interference.

infantile amnesia.

child memory loss.

memory trace.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

  1. Most of young infants’ conscious memories appear to be _____, although their implicit memory of perceptual-motor actions can be _____.
    A.

substantial; rather fragile

well-developed; underdeveloped

rather fragile and short-lived; substantial

long-lasting; short-lived

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

From about 6 to 12 months of age, the maturation of the _____ and the surrounding cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, makes explicit memory possible.

amygdala

hippocampus

hypothalamus

cerebellum

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

Mandy sees a little girl in the grocery store throwing a tantrum for a toy. Mandy screams and cries for some candy the following week at the mall. Mandy is displaying:

dishabituation.

habituation.

object permanence.

deferred imitation.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Imitation

 

A newborn baby widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say that this baby is:

exhibiting a reflex.

engaging in true imitation.

showing deferred imitation.

habituating to the mother’s facial expression.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Imitation

 

_____ are cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or ideas.

Symbols

Concepts

Habits

Semantics

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Concept formation and categorization

 

Using habituation experiments, some researchers have found that infants as young as _____ can group together objects with similar appearances.

five to six days

three to four weeks

three to four months

five to six months

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Concept formation and categorization

 

Jean Mandler argues that early categorizations are best described as _____ categorization.

conceptual

textual

factual

perceptual

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Concept formation and categorization

 

In the current version of the Gesell test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development, the subscores obtained from the four and five different categories of Gesell test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development respectively are combined into an overall score that determines the infants’:

intelligence quotient (IQ).

intelligence inventory score (IIS).

developmental quotient (DQ).

early intelligence assessment (EIA).

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

Identify the widely used assessment method of infant development that has five scales—cognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive.

Apgar Scale

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

Gesell test

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

According to the Bayley mental scale, a _____ infant should be able to vocalize pleasure and displeasure, persistently search for objects that are just out of immediate reach, and approach a mirror that is placed in front of the infant by the examiner.

2-month-old

6-month-old

4-month-old

1-month-old

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

According to the Bayley mental scale, by _____ of age, the infant should be able to inhibit behavior when commanded to do so, imitate words the examiner says, and respond to simple requests.

10 weeks

6 months

12 weeks

12 months

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

Charisma is six months old and can vocalize pleasure and displeasure, search for objects out of reach, and approach a mirror that is placed in front of her. According to the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Charisma:

is developing normally.

is developmentally delayed.

has an IQ of 110.

has an IQ of 85.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

  1. The _____ focuses on an infant’s ability to process information in such ways as encoding the attributes of objects, detecting similarities and differences between objects, forming mental representations, and retrieving these representations.
    A.

developmental quotient

Bayley Scales of Infant Development

Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are used to assess Mathias, who does very well on it. A high score on the Bayley mental scale:

indicates that Mathias will perform poorly in social skills quotient (SSQ) tests later in childhood.

indicates that Mathias will have a high score in IQ tests later in childhood.

indicates that Mathias will have a very low IQ score later in childhood.

does not indicate that Mathias will have high IQ scores later in childhood.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Predicting intelligence

 

Jim and Joanna are curious to know if their baby will grow up to be a child with high IQ. Which of the following measures for assessing infant development is correlated with measures of intelligence in older children and would best suit the purpose?

Bayley-III

Gesell test

Fagan test

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Predicting intelligence

 

A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called _____.

syntax

grammar

language

phonology

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Language

 

Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as:

syntax.

phonology.

morphology.

infinite generativity.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Language

 

Which of the following is NOT one of the five rules of language?

Phonology

Syntax

Morphology

Reciprocity

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

The sound system of a language is called _____.

morphology

semantics

phonology

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

A _____ is the basic unit of sound in a language.

morpheme

phoneme

grapheme

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter “m” makes. This sound is called a _____.

morpheme

phoneme

grapheme

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

In the word “falling,” both “fall” and “-ing” are considered _____.

morphemes

phonemes

graphemes

syntax

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

Phonology is to _____ as morphology is to _____.

sound; meaning

meaning; sound

appropriate use of language in different contexts; correct word order

correct word order; appropriate use of language in different contexts

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology
Topic: Phonology

 

A _____ is a minimal unit of meaning; it is a word or a part of a word that cannot be broken into smaller meaningful parts.

symbol

morpheme

phoneme

taxon

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

The rules that govern _____ describe the sound sequences that can occur in a language.

pragmatics

phonology

syntax

morphology

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

The rules of _____ describe the way meaningful units can be combined in words.

morphology

phonology

syntax

pragmatics

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

_____ have many jobs in grammar, such as marking tense and number.

Syntax

Phonemes

Morphemes

Symbols

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

The word “toy” is an example of a _____.

syntax

phoneme

taxon

morpheme

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Morphology

 

How many morphemes does the word “marker” have?

4

1

2

6

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

Consider the sentence: “The boy the ball with a hit bat.” Which of the following rule systems of language does the sentence violate?

Phonology

Syntax

Morphology

Pragmatics

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Syntax

 

_____ involves the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.

Semantics

Phraseology

Syntax

Phonology

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Syntax

 

If Jane says to Harry, “Wilfred gave a gift to Marsha,” Harry knows who gave the gift and who received it because he understands the _____ of the sentence.

syntax

semantics

pragmatics

primitive symbols

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

 

_____ refers to the meaning of words and sentences.

Pragmatics

Syntax

Morphology

Semantics

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Semantics

 

The sentence “The chair told the girl to sit down” is _____ incorrect because people know that chairs cannot talk.

phonologically

syntactically

semantically

pragmatically

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Semantics

 

When one uses polite language in formal conversations and personal, informal language in intimate conversations, one is demonstrating the knowledge of _____, or the appropriate use of language in different contexts.

pragmatics

semantics

syntax

morphology

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Pragmatics

 

Peter shouts and uses profane language while speaking to his teacher. Which of the following rule systems of language is Peter disregarding?

Phonology

Syntax

Morphology

Pragmatics

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Pragmatics

 

Identify the correct sequence of vocalization in infants.

Crying, babbling, cooing

Crying, cooing, babbling

Babbling, crying, cooing

Cooing, crying, babbling

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

At birth, infants communicate by _____.

cooing

crying

gestures

babbling

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

Baby Luis interacts with his grandma and makes gurgling sounds in the back of his throat to express pleasure. This demonstrates _____.

talking

babbling

crying

cooing

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

Kevin loves to say “da, da, da, da” over and over again. What type of communication is Kevin using?

Crying

Cooing

Babbling

Gesturing

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

11-month-old Maya points to her cup when she wants some water to drink. Maya’s behavior:

is considered slow for her age; she should be using simple words by this time.

is considered appropriate for her age.

is considered advanced for her age; most children do not point until after 12 months.

should be discouraged so that she will learn to speak.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Gestures

 

Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. This demonstrates how Kyoko’s _____ vocabulary is more developed than her _____ vocabulary.

expressive; spoken

spoken; receptive

receptive; spoken

spoken; expressive

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

Which of the following statements about first words is NOT correct?

Infants recognize their name by the age of 3 months.

Children understand more words than they can speak.

By 18 months, most children have a spoken vocabulary of about 50 words.

A child’s first words usually include greeting terms.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

  1. The rapid increase in an infant’s vocabulary starting at about 18 months of age is called:
    A.

the secular trend.

telegraphic speech.

the vocabulary spurt.

phonetic advancement.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

Two-year-old Max says the word “bunny” for a large hamster and a white rat. Max’s error is known as:

telegraphic speech.

underextension.

aphasia.

overextension.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

Two-year-old Sarai uses the word “doll” to refer to her own Cabbage Patch doll but does not use the word to refer to her sister’s Barbie doll. Sarai’s error is known as:

underextension.

telegraphic speech.

private speech.

overextension.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

 

“Want ice cream”, “Fall down”, and “Mommy give cookie” are all examples of:

holophrases.

repetitive speech patterns.

telegraphic speech.

reflexive speech patterns.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Two-word utterances

 

Many experts believe that humans acquired language about _____ years ago.

2,000,000

1,000,000

500,000

100,000

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

_____ is an area in the left frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in speech production.

Broca’s area

Wernicke’s area

Morton’s area

SMA area

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

Mariah has suffered damage to the left frontal lobe of her brain. When she tries to speak, she struggles to produce words and is unable to say them correctly. Mariah has sustained injury to the:

Broca’s area.

Wernicke’s area.

SMA area.

Morton’s area.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called _____.

dysphagia

aphasia

autism

mutism

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

_____ is an area in the left temporal lobe of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of speech.

Broca’s area

SMA area

Morton’s area

Wernicke’s area

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

As an infant, Mary suffered damage to _____ of her brain. This injury severly affected her comprehension abilities. Even though her speech is fluent it remains incomprehensible.

Broca’s area

SMA area

Morton’s area

Wernicke’s area

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

Linguist Noam Chomsky said that children are born into the world with a _____, a biological endowment that enables the child to detect certain features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics.

language acquisition device

biological language center

primary language center

biological language device

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

Kuhel is a behaviorist. In the context of language development, he is most likely to believe that language is:

learned with the learning acquisition device.

a special skill that has emerged with biological evolution.

a skill controlled by the left hemisphere of the brain.

acquired through reinforcement.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

A study of young children living in low-income families found that _____ when predicting the vocabulary development of children.

the amount of maternal talk was less important than maternal literacy skills

the amount of maternal talk was more important than the amount of paternal talk

nutrition and SES were more important than the amount of maternal talk or maternal literacy skills

attending preschool or Head Start was more important than paternal talk but less important than maternal talk

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

Child-directed speech is the:

ability of parents to understand their children’s holographic speech.

unique way that parents (and others) talk to babies.

continual correcting of children’s syntax by parents.

special way parents speak to each other in front of their children.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

When Alice speaks to her six-month-old nephew, her voice immediately takes on a higher pitch, her speech becomes slower, and she begins to use more simplistic words and phrases. This change in Alice’s language behavior provides an example of:

echoing.

recasting.

child-directed speech.

morphology.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

As he rolls his truck up and down the sides of the couch, Nezzy points to his truck and says “My truck” to which his father responds with “What’s the truck doing?” This is an example of:

echoing.

recasting.

infant-directed speech.

morphology.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

  1. As they walk in the park together, Damon’s dad points out various objects to him—flowers, birds, butterflies, slides, swings, vehicles, and so on—and helps Damon name each of them. Damon’s dad is using _____ to help his son learn language.
    A.

echoing

encoding

labeling

recasting

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

Rebecca says “Milk spill” to which her grandfather replies “Yes, the milk spilled on the floor.” This is an example of:

reframing.

expanding.

correcting.

labeling.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

In her book Growing Up with Language, Naomi Baron provided which of the following suggestions for facilitating language development in toddlers?

Remember to listen.

Supply words and thoughts for the child to avoid frustration.

Use questions that encourage the child to answer “yes” or “no.”

Let the toddler know when he or she is not being clear in communication.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Interactionist view

 

The interactionist view of language development emphasizes that:

the primary language center and the biological language device are both needed for language to develop.

language development occurs largely due to positive reinforcement.

the development of receptive language is universal, whereas the development of spoken language differs across cultures.

both biology and experience contribute to language development.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Interactionist view

 

Short Answer Questions

Identify the theorist who developed a cognitive development theory that suggests that development is universal and occurs in a fixed stage-like sequence. He or she proposed that infants are in the stage of “sensorimotor development.”

 

 

Jean Piaget

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

Identify the theorist who developed a measure to test infant cognitive development designed to distinguish normal babies from abnormal ones. The current version of this theorist’s test combines the infant’s performance in four domains into an overall score called the developmental quotient.

 

 

Arnold Gesell

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

 

Identify the theorist who developed a scale to assess infant behavior and predict later development. The current version, which is Bayley-III, has five scales: cognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive.

 

 

Nancy Bayley

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

Identify the linguist who proposed that humans are biologically prewired to learn language. He or she proposed that infants are born into the world with a language acquisition device that enables the child to detect certain features and rules of language.

 

 

Noam Chomsky

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Biological influences

 

According to Jean Piaget, identify the actions or mental representations that organize knowledge.

 

 

Schemes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Schemes

Eighteen-month-old Moira knows that her mother is “mommy”, but she now calls all women she meets “mommy.” According to Piaget, this illustrates _____.

 

 

assimilation

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation

 

  1. Identify Jean Piaget’s concept that describes the cognitive conflict that occurs when information in the environment is inconsistent with the child’s current schemes. This conflict is the motivation to modify schemes or develop new schemes that are more consistent with the outside world.

 

Disequilibrium

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Equilibration

According to Jean Piaget, identify the first substage of sensorimotor thought. This substage is apparent at birth and lasts approximately one month. Sensation and action are coordinated primarily through reflexive behaviors.

 

 

Simple reflexes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

According to Jean Piaget, identify the sixth and final substage of sensorimotor thought. This substage is apparent in children between 18 and 24 months of age. The infant develops the ability to use primitive symbols in this substage.

 

 

Internalization of schemes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

While nine-month-old Mave is playing with a ball, her brother takes it and hides it behind a pillow. Mave cries and crawls over to the pillow to get the ball. Which Piagetian concept is represented in this scenario?

 

 

Object permanence

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Identify the memory without conscious recollection. This includes memories of skills and routine procedures (such as crawling) that are performed automatically.

 

 

Implicit memory

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

Identify the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules.

 

 

Infinite generativity

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Language

 

Shelby babbles using the sounds “ba, ba, ba” or “ch, ch, ch.” These basic units of sound that our language is composed of are known as _____.

 

 

phonemes

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Phonology

Identify a special way that adults speak to babies that is characterized by language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, the use of simple words, and the use of simple sentences.

 

 

Child-directed speech

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

 

Define schemes. What are the processes of accommodation and assimilation? How are they related to schemes?

 

 

Schemes are actions or mental representations that organize knowledge. According to Piaget, as the infant or child seeks to construct an understanding of the world, the developing brain creates schemes. To explain how children use and adapt their schemes, Piaget offered two concepts: assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation occurs when children use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences. Accommodation occurs when children adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Assimilation and accommodation
Topic: Schemes

  1. List in order Jean Piaget’s six substages of the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.

 

Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage into six substages: (1) simple reflexes; (2) first habits and primary circular reactions; (3) secondary circular reactions; (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions; (5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity; and (6) internalization of schemes.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

 

Jean Piaget observes that at 1 year and 2 months, his daughter Jacqueline holds in her hands an object which is new to her: a round, flat box which she turns all over, shakes, [and] rubs against the bassinet. She lets it go and tries to pick it up. But she only succeeds in touching it with her index finger, without grasping it. She nevertheless makes an attempt and presses on the edge. The box then tilts up and falls again. Jacqueline shows an interest in this result and studies the fallen box. Which of Piaget’s six substages of sensorimotor development does this behavior reflect?

 

 

Jacqueline’s behavior is characteristic of Piaget’s tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity stage, which is the fifth sensorimotor substage. It develops between 12 and 18 months of age. In this substage, infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things that they can make happen to objects. Tertiary circular reactions are schemes in which the infant purposely explores new possibilities with objects, continually doing new things to them and exploring the results. Piaget says that this stage marks the starting point for human curiosity and interest in novelty.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.1: Summarize and evaluate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
Topic: Sensorimotor stage

A recent study revealed that habituation assessed at 3 or 6 months of age was linked to verbal skills and intelligence assessed at 32 months of age. How can parents use the concepts of habituation and dishabituation to better interact with their babies and maybe boost their verbal skills and intelligence in the process?

 

 

Knowing about habituation and dishabituation can help parents interact effectively with infants. Infants respond to changes in stimulation. Wise parents sense when an infant shows an interest and realize that they may have to repeat something many times for the infant to process information. But if the stimulation is repeated often, the infant stops responding to the parent. In parent-infant interaction, it is important for parents to do novel things and to repeat them often until the infant stops responding. The parent stops or changes behaviors when the infant redirects his or her attention.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Synthesis
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Habituation and dishabituation

 

Distinguish between explicit memory and implicit memory.

 

 

Implicit memory refers to memory without conscious recollection—memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically. A child riding a bike draws on his or her implicit memory every time he or she performs the task. In contrast, explicit memory refers to the conscious memory of facts and experiences. One’s memories of the last vacation taken and the ability to recall the names of previous U.S. Presidents are examples of explicit memory.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

What is infantile amnesia? What are two explanations given for this phenomenon?

 

 

Most adults can remember little if anything from the first three years of their life. This is called infantile or childhood amnesia. One reason for this phenomenon is that during the early years of life the prefrontal lobes of the brain—which are believed to play an important role in storing memories for events—are immature.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe how infants learn and remember.
Topic: Memory

 

How is the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence different from the Gesell test and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development?

 

 

The Gesell test and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development focus on infant behavior and do not specifically test the infant’s ability to process information. On the other hand, the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence focuses on the infant’s ability to process information in such ways as encoding the attributes of objects, detecting similarities and differences between objects, forming mental representations, and retrieving these representations. The Gesell test and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development have low correlations with later measures of IQ, while the Fagan test is correlated with measures of intelligence in older children.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 5.3: Discuss infant assessment measures and the prediction of intelligence.
Topic: Measures of infant development

Long before infants speak recognizable words, they produce a number of vocalizations. Describe some of these vocalizations in the order that they appear in infants.

 

 

Babies’ sounds or vocalizations go through this sequence during the first year:
1) Crying: Babies cry even at birth. Crying can signal distress, but there are different types of cries that signal different things.
2) Cooing: Babies first coo at about 2 to 4 months. These are gurgling sounds that are made in the back of the throat and usually express pleasure during interaction with the caregiver.
3) Babbling: In the middle of the first year, babies babble—that is, they produce strings of consonant-vowel combinations, such as “ba, ba, ba, ba.”

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Babbling and other vocalizations

 

Define receptive vocabulary and spoken vocabulary. What is the relationship between the two?

 

 

Receptive vocabulary refers to the words that the child understands, whereas spoken vocabulary refers to the words that the child uses. Receptive vocabulary always precedes and exceeds spoken vocabulary.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: First words

What is child-directed speech? What are some other strategies adults use to increase infants’ acquisition of language?

 

 

Child-directed speech is language spoken in a higher pitch and slower pace than normal and uses simple words and sentences. It has the important function of capturing the infant’s attention and maintaining communication. Adults often use strategies other than child-directed speech to enhance the child’s acquisition of language, including recasting, expanding, and labeling.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 5.4: Describe the development of language in infancy.
Topic: Environmental influences

Chapter 07

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

The Reggio Emilia approach is a(n):

nutrition program for young children.

educational program for young children.

program for training kindergarten and elementary school teachers.

parenting education program.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Body growth and change

 

Sandra has been informed by a pediatrician about the weight gained by her 4-year-old son, Manuel, over the last one year. She learns that Manuel has gained 6 pounds. Sandra should:

be alarmed because this is too much weight gain.

be concerned because this is too little weight gain.

be positive and change Manuel’s diet.

be content that this is normal for Manuel’s age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Height and weight

 

During early childhood, girls are _____ than boys.

much lighter

more muscular

slightly smaller

considerably taller

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Height and weight

 

By the end of early childhood, girls have more _____ tissue than boys.

fatty

muscle

epithelial

nervous

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Height and weight

 

When comparing the heights and weights of preschool children around the world, it can be observed that there are:

congenital differences.

ethnic differences among them.

no visible differences.

cases of hyperthyroidism.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Height and weight

 

What are the two most important contributors to height differences among children the world over?

Nationality and culture

Education and exercise

Prenatal care and emotional challenges

Ethnic origin and nutrition

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Height and weight

 

Who among the following 5-year-olds is most likely to be the tallest?

Timothy—White boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and later-born

Tina—White girl, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn

Tyrone—African American boy, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, and firstborn

Tucker—African American boy, rural, lower-socioeconomic-status, and later-born

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Height and weight

 

Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is TRUE?

The development that occurs inside the brain ends at the onset of adolescence.

By the time a child is 3 years of age, the brain is 25 percent of its adult size.

By age 6, the brain has reached about 95 percent of its adult size.

The brain of a 5-year-old is 60 percent the size of an adult brain.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Brain development

 

_____ is a process in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells.

Centration

Myelination

Tropism

Neurogenesis

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Brain development

 

_____ involves an increase in the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system during brain development in children between the ages of 3 and 15.

Centration

Myelination

Tropism

Neurogenesis

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Brain development

 

Scientists have found that there _____ the brains of children between the ages of 3 and 15.

are dramatic changes in local patterns within

are phenomenal increases in the overall size of

are insignificant anatomical changes in

are hardly any internal metamorphisms within

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Brain development

 

Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the _____ lobe areas of the brain.

temporal

parietal

frontal

occipital

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Brain development

 

Toby is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping around. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he fidgets and wiggles. It is especially frustrating for his parents when Toby does not sit still through dinner. Which of the following should Toby’s parents do?

They should have him tested for attention deficit disorder.

They should start him on a behavior modification program.

They should provide structured, cognitively challenging activities for Toby to develop his attention span.

They should treat this behavior as normal and avoid being panicked, as Toby’s behavior is normal for kids in his age group.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Gross motor skills

 

When 4- and 5-year-olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they demonstrate their:

cognitive skills.

fine harboring skills.

gross motor skills.

reflective skills.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Gross motor skills

 

Fred and Wayne are 4-year-olds. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, these activities will:

help the boys develop their gross motor skills.

stop when their brains become better myelinated.

be temporary as they will not be friends for long.

help the boys overcome narcolepsy.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Gross motor skills

 

Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as _____ is to _____.

jumping; writing

running; swimming

laughing; shouting

hopping; walking

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Fine motor skills
Topic: Gross motor skills

 

Debra is a very active child. She loves to tumble and show off. She is always trying what her parents consider hair-raising stunts. She also loves running and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of:

1-year-olds.

2-year-olds.

3-year-olds.

5-year-olds.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Gross motor skills

 

Three-year-old Ashley is putting together a jigsaw puzzle. As is typical of her age, she:

places the pieces awkwardly.

is focused and excels in the task.

cannot identify the correct sections.

is precise in joining the bits.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Fine motor skills

 

Four-year-old Nathan is good at stacking his playing blocks to make tall structures. However, he still knocks them over occasionally. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this?

His gross motor skills are underdeveloped.

He tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other, upsetting those already stacked.

His coordination skills are not developing normally for his age.

He is showing signs of dyslexia.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Fine motor skills

 

Leopold asks his pediatrician how many hours of sleep his young child should be getting each night. He is told that _____ hours of sleep is essential for the child.

8 to 9

7 to 8

9 to 10

11 to 13

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Sleep

 

Children can experience a number of sleep problems including narcolepsy which is characterized by:

extreme daytime sleepiness.

difficulty in going to sleep.

difficulty in staying asleep.

nightmares.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Sleep

 

Researchers have found that children who have sleep problems:

exhibit no related outcomes in adolescence.

are less likely to consume alcohol in adolescence.

are unlikely to show any variations in brain development.

are more likely to be overweight.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Sleep

 

Short sleep duration in children is linked with being:

dyslexic.

myopic.

overweight.

paraplegic.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Sleep

 

Which of the following should be minimized in order to improve eating behavior of children?

Competing activities

A predictable schedule

Parents eating healthy food

Making mealtimes pleasant occasions

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

Which of the following determines the categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight?

Weight

Average calories consumed daily

Waist-to-hip ratio

Body mass index

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only children and adolescents at or above the _____ percentile are classified as obese.

97th

95th

90th

88th

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a person with a BMI at the 90th percentile is:

obese.

overweight.

at risk of being overweight.

underweight.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

6-year-old Gina has a BMI at the 95th percentile. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, she is:

obese.

overweight.

at risk for being overweight.

not at risk for being overweight.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?

Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at the risk of being overweight at age 12.

There is no indication that overweight children will become overweight adults.

Obesity is not linked to type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes in children.

Obesity actually leads to decrease in hypertension levels in children when they are 5 years of age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

Guidelines recommend that preschool children engage in _____ of physical activity per day.

half an hour

two hours

one hour

four hours

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

Which of the following helps in increasing the physical activity of preschool children?

Family members watching sports on TV together

Parents’ perception that it is safe for their children to play outside

Participating in sedentary outdoor play

Incorporation of an “observe and learn” activity curriculum

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

Shawn’s mother took him to the doctor as he frequently complained of fatigue. The doctor diagnosed his condition as _____ that results from the failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables.

growth hormone deficiency

binge eating disorder

iron deficiency anemia

hemophilia

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Malnutrition

 

Young children from _____ families are the most likely to develop iron deficiency anemia.

urban

elementary

nuclear

low-income

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Malnutrition

 

The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:

heart disease.

malnutrition.

motor vehicle accidents.

domestic violence.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Illness and death

 

Which of the following statements about parental smoking is true?

Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.

Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in the home.

Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are not more likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking families.

Parental smoking is the leading cause of death in young children in the United States.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Illness and death

 

Which of the following can enhance a child’s safety and reduce the likelihood of injury?

Decreasing home/school partnerships

Reducing playground hazards

Reducing pool fencing

Reducing frequent parent protective behaviors

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Illness and death

 

The poor are the majority in nearly one of every _____ nations of the world.

five

ten

two

eight

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Illness and death

 

Deaths in young children due to HIV/AIDS especially occur in countries:

in the northern hemisphere.

with high rates of poverty and low levels of education.

where other common children’s health problems like malnutrition do not exist.

where the society is affluent.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Illness and death

 

Many of the deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by a reduction in:

nutrition.

sanitation.

poverty.

education.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Illness and death

 

The second Piagetian stage of development is the preoperational stage that lasts from approximately _____ years of age.

1 to 3

2 to 7

4 to 10

5 to 12

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Preoperational stage

 

Six-year-old Patricia loves to draw pictures and describe them. Her ideas are more balanced now. She has started to analyze and understand things. However, she is egocentric and holds what her parents describe as “magical beliefs.” Patricia is in Piaget’s _____ stage of development.

sensorimotor

concrete operational

formal operational

preoperational

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Preoperational stage

 

Piaget’s preoperational stage is so named because he believed that children in this stage of development:

cannot yet perform reversible mental actions.

cannot yet form stable concepts.

are unable to reason.

cannot operate electronic devices like TVs.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Preoperational stage

 

Three-year-old Betty’s favorite pastime is scribbling designs that represent her parents, cat, bicycle, and home. This indicates that Betty is in the _____ substage of Piaget’s preoperational stage.

symbolic function

intuitive thought

operational

sensorimotor

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

Three-year-old Ruth draws a picture with lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. “It is a boat in the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains to her teacher. Which of the following does this explain?

Animism

Conservation

Intuitive thought

Symbolic function

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is known as _____.

animism

empathy

egocentrism

symbolism

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

While talking to his grandmother on the phone, five-year-old Danny suddenly exclaims “Oh, look at that pretty bird!” When his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Danny says “Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!” He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:

animism.

egocentrism.

intuitive thought.

symbolic function.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

A young child might be heard saying “That tree pushed the leaf off and it fell down.” The child’s belief that the tree is capable of action is referred to as _____.

egocentrism

conservation

animism

kineticism

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

“My computer doesn’t like me. It keeps eating my pictures” says 3-year-old Kimberly. This is an example of:

animism.

intuitive thinking.

conservation.

egocentrism.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the use of:

reversible mental actions.

egocentric views.

primitive reasoning.

symbolic thought.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Intuitive thought substage

 

4-year-old Ethan reasons that every time he sees a lightning bolt in the sky, angels are turning on their flashlights. Ethan’s primitive reasoning about lightning is characteristic of:

symbolic function.

intuitive thought.

egocentrism.

centration.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Intuitive thought substage

 

Piaget called the second substage in preoperational thought intuitive because of the absence of the use of _____ by children in this stage.

symbolic function

primitive reasoning

centration

rational thinking

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Intuitive thought substage

 

Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne’s cookie into four pieces to enable her to eat it easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair for his sister to get so many cookies when he only has one. Juan is showing a lack of:

constancy.

conservation.

intuition.

symbolic function.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Conservation

 

Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?

Conservation requires centration.

Centration is due to lack of conservation.

Centration is reflected in lack of conservation.

Conservation is independent of centration.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Centration

 

Centration inhibits the ability to categorize items because it prevents one from:

focusing only on one feature.

considering combinations of features.

having a perspective that is different from one’s own.

distinguishing between animate and inanimate objects.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Centration

 

In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement:

do not change an object’s basic properties.

affect an object’s inherent features.

determine the total volume needed for a given task.

must be considered before the characteristics of an object can be determined.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Centration

 

In Piaget’s theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates:

that a child is at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.

that a child is unable to think fluidly.

centration.

rational thought.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Centration

 

According to Rochel Gelman, _____ is especially important in explaining conservation.

the age of a child

heredity

attention

intuition

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Centration

 

Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for:

a young adult’s cognitive development achieved through interaction with children.

the variety of work that a child can do with ease at a particular stage of cognitive development.

how the environment and a child’s genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.

the range of tasks difficult for a child to master alone but that can be learned with help from adults.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:

the toddler has mastered all the skills necessary.

parents or teachers do not interfere.

the task is too difficult for the child to accomplish on his own.

the toddler takes no help from a parent or teacher.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

Kevin is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support. He can walk into the middle of a room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Kevin’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?

Kevin learning to run after he has mastered walking by himself

Kevin going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk by himself

Kevin walking alone by holding onto a piece of furniture with his hands

Kevin learning to walk by having his parents hold one of his hands

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

Three-year-old Sharon can solve 4-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own but needs her parents’ help to solve 6-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?

Sharon moving on to 10-piece puzzles

Sharon solving a 6-piece puzzles on her own

Sharon helping her 2-year-old brother with 4-piece puzzles

Sharon mastering 4-piece puzzles

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

Which of the following did Vygotsky call the “buds” or “flowers” of development?

Tasks a child can accomplish independently

Intuitive thinking and rational thinking

A child’s cognitive skills in the process of maturing

A child’s gross motor skills that are fully developed

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children indicate that they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw the support. This shows the adults’ involvement in the children’s:

zone of proximal development.

development of conservational abilities.

enhancement of intuitive reasoning.

process of centration.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

Which of the following refers to teachers’ adjustment of their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student?

Accommodation

Regulation

Scaffolding

Assimilation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Scaffolding

 

Over the past week, Walter has been trying to learn to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother held his hands and worked his fingers through the process. Now that Walter is better at it, she only guides him verbally. Which of the following is this an example of?

How heredity shapes cognitive development

Intuitive reasoning

Scaffolding

Conservation

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

When four-year-old Jared plays, he often talks to himself. This form is self-talk is used for self-regulation. Developmentalists call this:

mindstream.

drawling.

lisping.

private speech.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Language and thought

 

Which of the following describes what Lev Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?

Thought and language are merged early in development and later separate.

Thought depends on language, so they are merged throughout development.

Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.

Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Language and thought

 

In the development of language and thought, _____.

internal speech precedes private speech

internal and external speech develop simultaneously

external speech precedes internal speech

external speech develops after internal speech

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Language and thought

 

4-year-old Michelle talks to herself frequently and especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Michelle is:

engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.

likely to be socially competent.

functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD).

engaging in scaffolding.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Language and thought

 

3-year-old Amy walks by her grandmother’s collection of glass animals and says “Those are a ‘no-no’; don’t touch.” It would appear that Amy is using _____ to regulate her own behavior.

mindstream

intuitive reasoning

private speech

symbolic function

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Language and thought

 

Which of the following is true of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications?

IQ should be assessed to test a child’s learning capabilities.

A child should learn on his or her own to realize his or her capabilities.

A child’s use of private speech reflects immaturity and egocentrism.

Teaching should begin toward the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Teaching strategies

 

Which of the following scenarios best represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?

A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.

An instructor helps students with laboratory work showing them how to do things the students cannot yet do.

A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and assesses their learning capabilities.

An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to evaluate their mental abilities on varying subjects.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Teaching strategies

 

Which of the following educational strategies would Vygotsky say should be incorporated in classrooms?

Making each child responsible for his or her work without relying on peers or teachers for support

Formal, standardized tests to assess children’s learning

Discouraging distractions like self-talk or private talk

Offering just enough assistance to a child to accomplish a task

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Teaching strategies

 

Vygotsky’s view of the importance of _____ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.

autonomy

sociocultural influences

economic status of teachers

scaffolding

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

 

In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from:

the individual to collaboration.

collaboration to sociocultural activity.

construction to discovery.

socializing to operational thought.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

 

Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through:

self-discovery.

social interaction.

reorganization of existing knowledge.

transforming previous knowledge.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

 

Tools of the Mind is a program that is grounded in _____ theory of cognitive development.

Vygotsky’s

Erikson’s

Sternberg’s

Piaget’s

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

 

In a Tools of the Mind classroom, _____ has a central role.

nutrition

didactic lecture

dramatic play

abstract presentation

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

 

Tale is in a Tools of the Mind classroom. His teacher guides him to plan his own message by drawing a line to stand for each word he says. Tale then repeats the message, pointing to each line as he says the word. Finally, he writes on the lines, trying to represent each word with some letters or symbols. This process is called:

model drawing.

scaffolding writing.

word visualizing.

positive role-play.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

 

Which of the following is a criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?

Vygotsky was specific about age-related changes and generalized all individuals.

Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking.

Vygotsky particularly described how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development, which is highly subjective.

Vygotsky laid no emphasis on guidance, which plays an important role in learning.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

 

_____ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.

Salient

Relevant

Executive

Sustained

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Attention

 

_____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.

Salient

Relevant

Executive

Sustained

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Attention

 

A police officer visits Ben and Heather’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and many jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Heather tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Heather obviously paid more attention to what was _____.

salient

relevant

habituated

intended

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Attention

 

A police officer visits Timothy and Evelyn’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and many jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Timothy tells his parents about all the safety rules the officer discussed. Timothy obviously paid attention to what was _____.

salient

relevant

habituated

superfluous

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Attention

 

After the age of _____, children attend more efficiently to the dimensions of the task that are relevant.

3 or 4

4 or 5

6 or 7

5 or 6

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Attention

 

When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment, exhibiting a lack of:

conservation.

attention to the salient.

centration.

planfulness.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Attention

 

In Central European countries, such as Hungary, kindergarten children participate in exercises designed to improve their _____. An eye-contact exercise in which the teacher sits in the center of a circle of children and each child is required to catch the teacher’s eye before being permitted to leave the group is an example of this type of exercise.

hand-eye coordination

attention

social skills

creativity

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Attention

 

In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to _____ if there is no rehearsal of the information.

30 seconds

15 minutes

5 hours

2 days

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

 

Irene is taking a test where she hears a random list of numbers that she is asked to repeat in the right order. Irene is having her _____ memory tested.

recognition

implicit

procedural

short-term

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

 

Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means:

preparing for a memory-span test.

doing mental exercises daily to keep the mind sharp.

repeating information after it has been presented.

taking regular memory-span tests.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

 

Research with the memory-span task suggests that:

short-term memory increases during early childhood.

long-term memory reaches maturation by early childhood.

memory span depends on one’s ethnic origin.

heredity is one of the major factors affecting memory.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

 

In a study comparing the memory spans of preschool and elementary school children, the latter group consistently scored better. This apparent increase in memory span with age could be explained partly by how:

the peer group plays a part in short-term memory.

older children rehearse the digits from the test more than younger children do.

elementary schools practice scaffolding.

memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Analyze
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

 

Six-year-old Shirley, a witness to a robbery, was asked to testify at the trial. The defense argued that her testimony would be invalid because:

at her age, she has no long-term memories.

her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.

she is more likely to embellish her memories.

children cannot recall details of events sequentially.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

 

The theory of _____ refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

self-awareness

recognition

mind

consciousness

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

In the context of perception, by _____ years of age, a child recognizes that another person will see what is in front of his or her own eyes instead of what is in front of the child’s eyes.

2

3

4

5

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

18-month-old Alan hates spinach but says “Yum!” when he sees his mother eating her favorite spinach casserole. This indicates that:

he will also like spinach when he grows up.

he recognizes that someone else may have different desires from his own.

he has started to recognize false beliefs.

he has started to understand that people can have ambivalent feelings.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

The realization that people can have false beliefs develops in a majority of children by the time they are _____ years old.

2

3

4

5

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

One of the criticisms for using a false-belief task as an indicator for understanding the thoughts of children is that:

a false-belief task is a complicated one that involves a number of factors.

it has at least four possible outcomes.

a false belief task is too simple.

it is irrelevant, as by the preschool years children have a deepening appreciation of the mind.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

It is only by age 7 that children begin to recognize all of the following EXCEPT:

there can be more than one correct opinions on an issue.

people’s behaviors do not necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings.

people have different interpretations of the same event.

people can have ambivalent feelings.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

Several operations, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and may also be connected to theory of mind development are known as:

operational thought.

instrumental activities.

executive function.

intuitive reasoning.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

A group of children were put through a task in which they were asked to say the word “night” when they saw a picture of a sun and the word “day” when they saw a picture of a moon and stars. This is an example of a(n) _____ function that describes several functions, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior.

executive

social

recall

dynamic

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

Approximately _____ children is estimated to have some sort of autism spectrum disorder.

1 in 50

1 in 150

1 in 300

1 in 500

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

It is now accepted that autism is linked to:

genetic and brain abnormalities.

personality characteristics of the parents.

ineffective vaccination.

proximity to toxic waste disposal sites.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

Cynthia shows a number of behaviors different from children her age, including deficits in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive behaviors or interests. She is indifferent toward others and prefers to be alone. She is more interested in objects than people. It is MOST likely that she suffers from _____.

insomnia

narcolepsy

anemia

autism

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

Which of the following statements regarding autism in children is TRUE?

Higher-functioning children with autism show reasonable progress in understanding others’ desires.

Children with autism have difficulty in understanding others’ beliefs and emotions solely due to theory of mind deficits.

Children with autism are a homogeneous group.

Children with autism usually perform well on false-belief tasks.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

Pointing to a tree, young Leo says “Bird flied away.” Leo’s interesting but incorrect use of “-ed” in “flied” shows that he is trying to learn the _____ rules of language.

phonological

morphological

pragmatic

syntactic

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.3: Summarize how language develops in early development.
Topic: Understand phonology and morphology

 

3-year-old Zelda always asks questions like “Where Daddy is going?” and “What Mommy is doing?” This indicates that she is yet to learn the auxiliary-inversion rule and also to apply the rules of:

pragmatics.

morphology.

syntax.

phonology.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.3: Summarize how language develops in early development.
Topic: Changes in syntax and semantics

 

Jean Berko’s experiment involving “wugs” demonstrated that young children who took part in the experiment knew:

the phonological rules.

the rules of syntax.

the pragmatic rules.

the morphological rules.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.3: Summarize how language develops in early development.
Topic: Understand phonology and morphology

 

By the time they enter first grade, it is estimated that children know about _____ words.

1,200

8,000

14,000

5,000

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.3: Summarize how language develops in early development.
Topic: Understand phonology and morphology

 

Around _____ years of age, children learn to change their speech style to suit the situation.

6 to 7

7 to 8

2 to 3

4 to 5

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.3: Summarize how language develops in early development.
Topic: Advances in pragmatics

 

Five-year-old Donna speaks in shorter, simpler sentences to her baby brother. She speaks in a very informal way with her friends and uses a more formal language with her father’s friends. Donna is demonstrating her grasp of:

pragmatics.

morphology.

syntax.

phonology.

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.3: Summarize how language develops in early development.
Topic: Advances in pragmatics

 

Developmentally appropriate practices at the kindergarten level are likely to be:

child-centered.

standardized.

purpose-centered.

achievement-oriented.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Early childhood education

 

The _____ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

child-centered kindergarten

Montessori approach

developmentally appropriate practice

developmentally inappropriate practice

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Montessori approach

 

Nurturing is a key aspect of the _____, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.

child-centered kindergarten

Montessori approach

developmentally appropriate practice

Reggio Emilia approach

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Child-centered education

 

Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with the different toys she chooses, and her teacher acts as a facilitator rather than a director. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy’s preschool using?

Kindergarten

Rogerian

Montessori

Success-oriented

 

 

APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Montessori approach

 

Which of the following is a criticism related to the Montessori approach?

It lays too much emphasis on social interaction.

It does not employ self-corrective materials.

It lays too much emphasis on imaginative play.

It neglects children’s socioemotional development.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Montessori approach

 

_____ is based on knowledge of the typical progress of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child.

The child-centered kindergarten

Developmentally appropriate practice

The Montessori approach

The success-oriented approach

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Developmentally appropriate practice

 

In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children in the United States through:

the Maria Montessori Program.

Emancipation Undertaking.

the Reggio Emilia Project.

Project Head Start.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Project head start

 

Early Head Start was established in 1995 to serve children from _____ of age.

3 to 5 years

birth to 6 years

5 to 7 years

birth to 3 years

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Project head start

 

Which of the following is TRUE about Head Start programs?

They only provide for low-income families.

They focus on children of a particular ethnic origin.

They have negative effect on young children’s language development.

They are funded by the private corporate sector.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Project head start

 

Two current controversies in early childhood education involve:

curriculum and universal preschool education in the United States.

the quality of inner-city schools and free education to all.

the use of corporal punishment in schools and the use of uniforms.

Christian holidays for all and boarding schools.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Universal preschool education

 

Competent early childhood programs should focus:

on cognitive development and socioemotional development.

exclusively on cognitive development.

on preoperational skills.

on academics alone.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Universal preschool education

 

Which of the following was cited by Zigler and his colleagues supporting universal preschool in the United States?

It is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding preschool education for all 4-year-old children.

The quality of inner-city schools has often been found to be questionable.

Research has proven that the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often overstated.

Universal preschool would bring billions of dollars of cost savings because of a diminished need for remedial and justice services.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Universal preschool education

 

Critics of universal preschool education argue that:

quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.

research has not proven that non-disadvantaged children benefit from attending a preschool.

the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often understated.

quality preschool programs increase the likelihood that the child will drop out of school later.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Universal preschool education

 

Critics of universal preschool education say that:

quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.

it is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding preschool education for all 4-year-old children.

preschool programs decrease the likelihood that once children go to elementary and secondary school they will be retained in a grade or drop out of school.

there is too much pressure on young children to achieve and that universal preschool education does not provide any opportunities to actively construct knowledge.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Universal preschool education

 

Short Answer Questions

Identify the researcher who showed that when the child’s attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve.

 

 

Rochel Gelman

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Centration

Identify a cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.

 

 

Lev Vygotsky

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Language and thought

 

Identify an Italian physician-turned-educator who at the beginning of the twentieth-century crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education. In this approach, children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

 

 

Maria Montessori

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Montessori approach

Identify a common nutritional problem in early childhood that results from the failure to eat adequate amounts of quality meats and dark green vegetables and causes chronic fatigue.

 

 

Iron deficiency anemia

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.
Topic: Exercise

 

Identify the substage of preoperational thought in which the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.

 

 

Symbolic function substage

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

Identify the inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and the perspective of another.

 

 

Egocentrism

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

Identify the term for awareness of young children that helps them to know that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties.

 

 

Conservation

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Conservation

Identify the term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but that can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children.

 

 

Zone of proximal development

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Zone of proximal development

 

Identify the term that refers to the awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

 

 

Theory of mind

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

Aubrey is in a school that takes into account the typical development of children within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child. It also emphasizes the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect the child’s interests and capabilities. This view represents a _____.

 

 

developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Developmentally appropriate practice

 

Define what Piaget meant by an operation. What would be one task that preoperational children fail at because they lack operations?

 

 

An operation is a reversible mental action that allows children to do mentally what before they could only do physically. Tasks that illustrate lack of operations could be conservation, serration, the three mountain task, and so on.

 

APA LO: 1.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Preoperational stage

Briefly describe the two stages of preoperational thought. Provide an example of children’s thinking at each stage.

 

 

The Piagetian preoperational stage in cognitive development can be divided into two substages: the symbolic function substage and the intuitive thought substage. The symbolic function substage occurs roughly between the ages of 2 and 4. In this substage, the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present but still suffer from limitations like egocentrism and animism. The intuitive thought substage occurs between approximately 4 and 7 years of age when children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Intuitive thought substage
Topic: Symbolic function substage

 

What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)? What are its lower and upper limits? How can one use peer scaffolding to teach children mathematics within the zone?

 

 

The zone of proximal development (ZPD), developed by Lev Vygotsky, consists of the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. The lower limit of the ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Scaffolding
Topic: Zone of proximal development

List three ways by which Lev Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms.

 

 

Some of the ways by which Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms are:

1) Assess the child’s zone of proximal development.
2) Use the child’s ZPD in teaching.
3) Use more-skilled peers as teachers.
4) Place instruction in a meaningful context.
5) Transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Teaching strategies

 

Briefly state two criticisms leveled against Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development.

 

 

One criticism of Vygotsky’s theory is that Vygotsky was not specific enough about age-related changes. Another criticism is that Vygotsky did not adequately describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Evaluating Vygotsky’s theory

Describe two reasons for developmental changes in memory span.

 

 

One of the reasons that memory span improves with age is that rehearsal of information is important in increasing short-term memory. Older children rehearse the digits from the test more than younger children do. Speed—especially the speed with which memory items can be identified—and efficiency of processing information are important, too.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

 

Identify the factors that can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory.

 

 

Several factors can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory. There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion. Preschoolers are the most suggestible age group in comparison with older children and adults. There are individual differences in susceptibility. Some preschoolers are highly resistant to interviewers’ suggestions, whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestion. Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Memory

Briefly describe what is meant by a child’s theory of mind? How are false-beliefs tasks useful in assessing the theory of mind?

 

 

Even young children are curious about the nature of the human mind. They have a theory of mind, which refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others. One of the ways to assess a child’s theory of mind is by false-belief tasks. The realization that people can have false beliefs—beliefs that are not true—develops in a majority of children by the time they are 5 years old. This point is often described as a pivotal one in understanding the mind— recognizing that beliefs are not just mapped directly into the mind from the surrounding world, but that different people can also have different, and sometimes incorrect, beliefs.

 

APA LO: 1.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.
Topic: Theory of mind

 

What are the criticisms of the Montessori approach to early education?

 

 

Critics of the Montessori approach believe that it neglects children’s socioemotional development. For example, although Montessori fosters independence and the development of cognitive skills, it deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child and between peers. Montessori’s critics also argue that it restricts imaginative play and that its heavy reliance on self-corrective materials may not adequately allow for creativity and for a variety of learning styles.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Montessori approach

What are the current controversies in early childhood education?

 

 

Two current controversies in early childhood education involve (1) what the curriculum for early childhood education should be, and (2) whether preschool education should be universal in the United States.

 

APA LO: 1.1
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 7.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.
Topic: Curriculum

Chapter 11

Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Which of the following is a more accurate vision of adolescence?

For most individuals, adolescence is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and carving out a place in the world.

For most individuals, adolescence is a time of rebellion, crisis, pathology, and deviance.

Most adolescents have a brush with juvenile delinquency.

Very few adolescents contribute positively to their communities and make a successful transition through adolescence.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.1: Discuss the nature of adolescence.
Topic: Nature of Adolescence

 

Which theorist proposed the “storm-and-stress” view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings?

Anna Freud

Jean Piaget

  1. Stanley Hall

Daniel Offer

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.1: Discuss the nature of adolescence.
Topic: Nature of Adolescence

 

When Daniel Offer and his colleagues studied the self-images of adolescents in the United States, Australia, Bangladesh, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and West Germany, at least _____ percent of the adolescents displayed a healthy self-image.

25

48

60

73

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.1: Discuss the nature of adolescence.
Topic: Nature of Adolescence

 

For the majority of teens, adolescence is marked by:

stress and storm.

delinquency.

a healthy self-image.

low self-esteem.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.1: Discuss the nature of adolescence.
Topic: Nature of Adolescence

 

Public attitudes about adolescence:

emerge from a combination of personal experience and media portrayals.

reflect an objective picture of how normal adolescents develop.

portray today’s adolescents as less troubled, less self-centered, less assertive, and less adventurous than in the past.

paint an unrealistically positive picture of adolescents.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.1: Discuss the nature of adolescence.
Topic: Nature of Adolescence

 

Puberty refers to a period of:

declining abstract thought and emotional maturation during late adolescence involving neural and synaptic development in the brain.

declining gross motor development during late childhood due to the maturation of the temporal and parietal lobes.

rapid psychological and emotional maturation that lasts through adolescence and is a product of enhanced cognitive development.

rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occurs primarily during early adolescence.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Puberty

 

Puberty:

is the same as adolescence.

ends long before adolescence does.

occurs in a single, sudden event.

has an easily identifiable beginning and ending.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Puberty

 

Ms. Chang is trying to prepare her health-class students for the onset of puberty. What should she tell the boys that they are likely to experience first?

The first ejaculation

Voice changes

Increased penis and testicle size

Growth of facial hair

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

 

Which of the following is typically the last male pubertal characteristic to occur?

The first ejaculation

Voice changes

Increased penis and testicle size

Growth of facial hair

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

 

  1. A girl’s first menstruation is called _____.
    A.

gonadarche

spermarche

menarche

adrenarche

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

 

Which of the following statements is true?

Boys go through growth spurts earlier than girls do.

Both boys and girls who are shorter than their peers before puberty will actually surpass their peers during adolescence.

By the end of adolescence, most girls will be taller than boys.

Marked weight gains coincide with the onset of puberty for both boys and girls.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

 

The growth spurt that characterizes pubertal change occurs approximately _____ for girls than for boys.

two years earlier

one year earlier

two years later

one year later

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

 

The mean age at the beginning of the growth spurt in girls is _____.

6

14

12

9

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

 

The peak rate of pubertal change occurs at _____ years for girls and _____ years for boys.

13; 14½

12½; 11½

11½; 13½

10½; 13

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

 

Behind the first whisker in boys and the widening of hips in girls is a flood of _____, powerful chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream.

amino acids

phospholipids

enzymes

hormones

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Hormonal Changes

 

The hormone that is associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development in girls is:

progesterone.

estradiol.

luteinizing hormone.

gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Hormonal Changes

 

_____ is a hormone associated in boys with genital development, increased height, and deepening of the voice.

Testosterone

Estrogen

Estradiol

Progestin

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Hormonal Changes

 

  1. Thirteen-year-old Grace’s blood tests indicate that her levels of testosterone are about twice as high as they were a few years ago, and that her estradiol levels are about eight times higher than earlier. Grace is most likely experiencing:
    A.

normal changes during puberty.

difficulties due to significant imbalances in hormonal levels.

abnormal development of male physical characteristics.

abnormal development of female physical characteristics.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Hormonal Changes

 

Fourteen-year-old Kent recently received his blood test results which indicate an eighteen-fold increase in testosterone levels and a twofold increase in estradiol over the past few years. It appears that Kent:

is experiencing normal changes during puberty.

will be put on hormone therapy to correct the significant imbalances in hormonal levels.

has abnormal levels of male sex hormones.

has abnormal levels of female sex hormones.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Hormonal Changes

 

In the United States, the average age of menarche has _____ since the mid-nineteenth century.

increased marginally

declined significantly

increased significantly

not changed

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Timing and Variations in Puberty

 

Which of the following statements about the timing and variations in puberty is true?

Children in European countries mature up to a year earlier than their American counterparts.

For girls, menarche is considered within the normal range if it appears between the ages of 9 and 15.

Genes have little to do with when and how puberty develops.

Non-Latino White girls experience puberty earlier than African American girls.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Timing and Variations in Puberty

 

Who amongst the following is most likely to be dissatisfied with body image as pubertal change proceeds?

A girl in early adolescence

A girl in late adolescence

A boy in early adolescence

A boy in late adolescence

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Body Image

 

In the Berkeley Longitudinal Study some years ago, early-maturing boys perceived themselves _____ than did their late-maturing counterparts. When the late-maturing boys were in their thirties, however, they had developed a _____ than the early-maturing boys had.

as an anomaly; stronger feeling of inadequacy

more positively; stronger sense of identity

as misfits; a more negative self-image

more negatively; deeper sense of regret

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Early and Late Maturation

 

In the sixth grade, early-maturing girls show _____ with their figures than do late-maturing girls, but by the tenth grade late-maturing girls are more _____.

greater satisfaction; satisfied

less confidence; conflicted

greater preoccupation; preoccupied

more unhappiness; unhappy

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Early and Late Maturation

 

Recent research has found that early-maturing girls are more likely than late-maturing girls to be:

satisfied with their figures in late adolescence.

taller and thinner when they reach high school.

less popular with males their own age.

depressed, become alcoholic, and/or have an eating disorder.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Early and Late Maturation

 

Maggie is 14 years old and has not yet matured physically. According to recent research, which of the following will be most likely to occur by the time Maggie reaches tenth grade?

She will be more satisfied with her figure than early-maturing girls.

She will be less satisfied with her figure than early-maturing girls.

She will be more likely to have an eating disorder than early-maturing girls.

She will be more likely to drop out of school than early-maturing girls.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Early and Late Maturation

 

  1. The _____, where fibers connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence, and this improves adolescents’ ability to process information.
    A.

amygdala

corpus callosum

parietal lobe

temporal lobe

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Brain Development

 

Donna is concerned about her adolescent daughter’s tendency to flare up at the mildest provocations. Donna says that her daughter refuses to see reason sometimes and seems unable to exercise much self-control. As a specialist in the development of adolescents, you would tell Donna that her daughter’s behavior could partly be explained by the biological reason that:

the prefrontal cortex—involved in reasoning and self-control—has developed fully by early adolescence.

the corpus callosum, where fibers connect the brain’s left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence.

by the end of adolescence, individuals have fewer, less selective, less effective neuronal connections than they did as children.

the amygdala—the seat of emotions such as anger—matures earlier than the prefrontal cortex in adolescents.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Brain Development

 

Leading researcher Charles Nelson proposed the view that, although adolescents are capable of very strong emotions, their prefrontal cortex has not adequately developed to the point at which they can control these passions. His view reflects the rapidly emerging field of _____, which involves connections between development, the brain, and cognitive or socioemotional processes.

socioemotional neuroscience

biosocial neuroscience

psychosocial neuroscience

developmental social neuroscience

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Brain Development

 

In a U.S. national survey conducted in 2011, _____ percent of twelfth-graders reported that they had experienced sexual intercourse, compared with _____ percent of ninth-graders.

20; 10

63; 33

77; 90

60; 52

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Timing of Sexual Behaviors

 

According to a U.S. national survey, by age 20, _____ percent of U.S. youth have engaged in sexual intercourse.

77

62

90

52

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Timing of Sexual Behaviors

 

In a U.S. national survey, it was found that nationally, _____ percent of twelfth-graders reported being sexually active.

70.75

15.5

47.5

80.10

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Timing of Sexual Behaviors

 

In a national survey, _____ percent of U.S. 15- to 19-year-old boys and _____ percent of girls said they had engaged in oral sex.

70; 60

55; 54

15; 22

8; 10

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Timing of Sexual Behaviors

 

Recent research concerning the prevalence of oral sex in the U.S. indicates that:

oral sex is a common occurrence among adolescents.

a very small percentage of adolescent girls engage in oral sex.

oral sex is common among adults but not adolescents.

a much higher percentage of girls engage in oral sex than boys.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Timing of Sexual Behaviors

 

Juanita, a Latino girl, is entering adolescence and her mother wants to keep her from risky sexual behavior. According to research, her mother should:

engage in a lower level of parental monitoring.

avoid emphasizing the need for academic excellence.

regularly talk to Juanita about sex and the risk factors associated with it.

keep Juanita away from adolescent males at all times until she reaches an appropriate age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Risk Factors

 

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):

are rarely passed through oral sex.

can be prevented through the use of contraceptive pills or implants.

rarely occur in U.S. adolescents.

are contracted primarily through sexual contact.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

 

In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _____ percent risk of getting HIV.

1

10

25

50

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

 

In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _____ percent risk of acquiring genital herpes.

10

50

30

70

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

 

In a single act of unprotected sex with an infected partner, a teenage girl has a _____ percent risk of contracting gonorrhea.

20

30

40

50

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

 

With reference to cross-cultural comparisons, which of the following statements about adolescent pregnancies in the U.S. is true?

In 2012, births to adolescent girls fell to a record low.

The U.S. adolescent pregnancy rate is much lower than in the Netherlands.

Adolescents in the U.S. are more sexually active than adolescents in the Netherlands.

The U.S. adolescent birth rate increased significantly from 2007 to 2009.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

In the United States, _________ percent of pregnancies to mothers 15 to 19 years of age are unintended.

23

82

47

15

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

Daughters of teenage mothers are:

unlikely to become pregnant during adolescence.

likely to be highly intelligent.

more likely to use contraceptives.

at increased risk for teenage childbearing.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

Research has shown that infants born to adolescent mothers are more likely to have:

high birth weight.

Down syndrome.

childhood illnesses.

type II diabetes.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

Based on data from 2011, which of the following individuals was most likely to get pregnant as a teen?

Sofia, a Non-Latina White

Makiko, an Asian American

Olivia, a Latino

Tara, an African American

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

Which of the following ethnic groups had the highest teen birth rate in 2009?

Non-Latina White

Asian American

Latino

African American

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.5
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

One strategy for reducing adolescent pregnancy is the _____ that focuses on engaging adolescents in volunteer community service and stimulates discussions that help adolescents appreciate the lessons they learn through volunteerism.

Health Bridge program

Teen Outreach program

Girls, Inc., program

Will Power/Won’t Power program

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

A number of leading experts on adolescent sexuality conclude that abstinence-only programs:

are less effective at reducing the risk of adolescent pregnancy than sex-education programs.

prevent adolescent pregnancies better than sex-education programs emphasizing contraceptive knowledge.

are more effective at reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections than sex-education programs.

provide useful knowledge about safe sex to sexually active adolescents.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

A number of leading experts on adolescent sexuality conclude that education programs that emphasize contraceptive knowledge:

are less likely to reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy than abstinence-only programs.

do not increase the incidence of sexual intercourse.

are no more likely to reduce the risk of sexually-transmitted infections than abstinence-only programs.

result in an increase in the incidence of sexual intercourse.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Adolescent Pregnancy

 

National data indicates that the percentage of overweight U.S. 12- to 19-year-olds increased from _____ percent in the early 1990s to nearly _____ percent in 2011–2012.

60; 80

39; 48

11; 21

20; 25

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Nutrition and Exercise

 

A recent national study revealed that approximately _____ percent of U.S. 15-year-olds met the federal government’s exercise recommendations (a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per day).

29

50

83

12

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Nutrition and Exercise

 

Which of the following describes the federal government’s exercise recommendations?

A minimum of 15 minutes of mild exercise per day.

A maximum of 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per day.

A minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise per day.

A maximum of 15 minutes of mild exercise per day.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Nutrition and Exercise

 

A national study of U.S. adolescents revealed that physical activity:

increased until 13 years of age but then declined through 18 years of age.

in childhood and early adolescence would persist through to adulthood.

increased until 13 years of age and then remained stable throughout adulthood.

decreased until 13 years of age and then stabilized to last through 18 years of age.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Nutrition and Exercise

 

According to a national survey, _____ boys exercised the most, _____ girls the least.

Latino; Latina

African American; non-Latino White

Latino; African American and Asians

non-Latino White; African American and Latino

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
APA LO: 2.5
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Nutrition and Exercise

 

Exercise is related to all of the following positive outcomes in adolescence, EXCEPT:

a lower incidence of type I diabetes.

reduced triglyceride levels.

lower blood pressure.

normal weight status.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Nutrition and Exercise

 

Which of the following describes the findings of the U.S. survey conducted by the National Sleep Foundation?

The majority of the adolescents got less than eight hours of sleep on school nights.

Older adolescents got markedly less sleep on school nights than younger adolescents.

A higher number of adolescents in ninth grade were getting inadequate sleep on school nights than adolescents in twelfth grade.

Adolescents who got inadequate sleep were no more likely to be in a depressed mood than those who got adequate sleep.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Sleep

 

  1. Mary Carskadon and her colleagues’ research on adolescent sleep patterns found that:
    A.

when given the opportunity, adolescents will sleep an average of 9 hours and 25 minutes a night.

adolescents’ biological clocks undergo a shift as they get older, so that older adolescents start to feel sleepy an hour earlier than younger adolescents.

younger adolescents tend to be sleepier during the day than older adolescents.

increased sleepiness in adolescents during the day was primarily due to academic work or social pressures.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Sleep

 

Mary Carskadon and her colleagues concluded from their research of the sleep patterns of U.S. adolescents that:

schools should start and end earlier to help adolescents to keep to earlier bedtimes.

early school starting times may be linked to negative outcomes for adolescents.

early school starting times are conducive to the sleep patterns of older adolescents but not to those of younger adolescents.

early school starting times are most conducive to the sleep patterns of adolescents.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Sleep

 

Almost half of all deaths from 15 to 24 years of age are due to:

a chronic disease.

suicide.

homicide.

unintentional injuries.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Causes of Death

 

The majority of unintentional injuries in adolescence involve:

motor vehicle accident.

firearms.

homicide.

sports-related injury.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Causes of Death

 

In about _____ percent of motor vehicle fatalities involving adolescents, the driver was found to be intoxicated.

10

30

50

80

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Causes of Death

 

_____ is the second leading cause of death in adolescence.

Motor vehicle accidents

Suicide

Homicide

Chronic diseases

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Causes of Death

 

Since the 1950s, the adolescent suicide rate has:

stayed the same.

decreased.

doubled.

tripled.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Causes of Death

 

In which of the following groups is death through homicide especially common in adolescence?

African American males

Latino males

Non-Latino White American males

Asian American males

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.5
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Causes of Death

 

According to the study by Lloyd Johnston and his colleagues at the Institute of Social Research at the University of Michigan monitoring the drug use of America’s high school seniors in a wide range of public and private high schools, the percentage of illicit drug use:

declined in the late 1990s.

was highest during the early 1990s.

has been at the same level since 1990.

increased significantly between 2000 and 2005.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

_____ is the illicit drug most widely used in the United States, and its use by adolescents increased from 2008 to 2013.

Heroin

Cocaine

Marijuana

MDMA

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Adolescent use of alcohol has recently shown a(n) _____.

insignificant change

sizeable decline

mild increase

significant increase

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Which of the following has been found to be TRUE about binge drinking?

Binge drinking has declined among high school seniors since 1980.

Binge drinking has increased for students in the eighth grade in recent years.

Binge drinking has increased for students in the tenth grade in recent years.

Females engage in more binge drinking than males.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Which of the following qualifies as binge drinking as defined in the University of Michigan surveys?

Having less than five drinks in the last two weeks.

Having seven or more drinks in a row in the last two weeks.

Having less than four drinks in the last week.

Having five or more drinks in a row in the last two weeks.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

In the University of Michigan Monitoring the Future Study, _____ percent of high school seniors said they had been in a vehicle with a drugged or drinking driver in the past two weeks.

30

70

20

40

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents:

peaked in 2005 and has gradually declined since then.

has been increasing every year.

peaked in 1996 and has gradually declined since then.

has not seen a decline.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Bill wants to know how he can prevent drug abuse by his adolescent son. You would suggest that Bill:

have family dinners most nights of the week.

discourage his son from making more friends at school.

engage in lesser parental monitoring and control.

cease to emphasize educational success.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Recent research revealed that _____ parenting was linked to lower adolescent alcohol consumption.

authoritarian

authoritative

neglectful

indulgent

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

According to a recent large-scale study of eighth- and tenth-graders, amongst the various risk factors, which of the following is the strongest predictor of substance abuse?

Monitoring in schools

Genetic predisposition

Ethnicity

Peer relations

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Slightly less than _____ percent of American girls develop anorexia nervosa.

1

10

5

15

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Anorexia nervosa is a(n):

eating disorder that involves a binge-and-purge sequence on a regular basis.

anxiety disorder whose chief symptom is unrealistic fear of food.

drug-induced reaction that produces tremors and vomiting.

eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

A person suffering from anorexia nervosa would have a weight less than _____ percent of what is considered normal for their age and height.

25

60

85

65

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

_____ refers to a lack of menstruation in girls who have reached puberty.

Amenorrhea

Anemia

Menarche

Anorexia

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Which of the following is one of the main characteristics of people suffering from anorexia nervosa?

Higher than average body weight

Higher than average height

A distorted image of the body shape

A constant need to consume food

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Which of the following is one of the main characteristics that applies to people suffering from anorexia nervosa?

Precocious puberty in girls

Amenorrhea in girls who have reached puberty

Body weight that falls in the 98th percentile of the BMI scale

Binge eating followed by purging

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Which of the following characterizes a person suffering from anorexia nervosa?

A relentless pursuit of weight gain through binge eating

A positive image of the body shape

An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss

A high level of self-efficacy

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Based on age of onset, when is anorexia nervosa most likely to begin?

Childhood

Late adulthood

Emerging adulthood

Early to middle adolescent years

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Anorexia nervosa is about _____ likely to occur in females than males.

twice more

10 times more

half as

three times more

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Katie weighs less than 85 percent of what is considered normal for her age and height. Yet, she sees herself as too fat and starves to become thinner. Katie most likely suffers from:

anorexia nervosa.

bulimia nervosa.

sickle-cell anemia.

hypochondria.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Anorexia and bulimia nervosa affect:

men and women equally.

men more than women.

women more than men.

women more than older men, but less than younger men.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

The Family Matters program was designed to help families of adolescents to reduce the amount of:

domestic violence.

cigarette and alcohol use.

adolescent pregnancies.

juvenile delinquency.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Adolescents in the Family Matters program reported:

no change in alcohol and cigarette use at three months, but a marked decline at one year.

lower alcohol and cigarette use at three months, but the positive effect seemed to wear off about one year after the program had been completed.

no change in alcohol use, but a marked decrease in cigarette smoking.

lower alcohol and cigarette use at three months and at one year after the program had been completed.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Substance Use and Abuse

 

Most anorexics are young adult females from:

middle- and upper-income families.

poor and working-class families.

Asian American and African American families.

families with low achievement demands.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Anorexic people use food as a means of:

control.

reward.

punishment.

gaining popularity.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Jackie, a 15-year-old girl, has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. It is most likely that Jackie:

sets very low standards for herself.

is not very concerned about how others perceive her.

is competitive and high-achieving.

is an African American from a low-income family.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Amanda’s mother suffers from anorexia nervosa. Which of the following statements about Amanda is TRUE?

Amanda is highly likely to have a more positive body-image.

Amanda is at risk of becoming anorexic herself.

Amanda is more likely to have healthy eating habits.

Amanda is not at risk for anorexia due to increased awareness.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

Anorexic people and bulimic people differ in the:

severity of their disorders.

degree of restrictions they place on food intake.

psychological factors underlying their disorders.

degree of control they have over their families’ demands of them.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

Dalia tends to go on eating binges and then purges by self-inducing vomiting or using a laxative. Which of the following conditions does Dalia suffer from?

Hypochondria

Anemia

Anorexia

Bulimia

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

Which of the following is a similarity between anorexics and bulimics?

They are highly perfectionistic.

They are severely underweight.

They have a positive body image.

They have a fear of weight loss.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

Identify the similarity between anorexics and bulimics.

They are unconcerned about their weight.

They are severely underweight.

They have a distorted body image.

They maintain a healthy, well-balanced diet.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

Jordan is very afraid of gaining weight but she cannot control her eating habits. She has been making up for her eating binges by vomiting immediately after a meal or by purging with laxatives. This pattern of behavior has been occurring thrice a week for the past four months. Jordan is most likely suffering from:

anorexia nervosa.

bulimia nervosa.

sickle-cell anemia.

hypochondria.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

Penny has been diagnosed as suffering from bulimia nervosa. It is most likely that she:

has a positive body image.

also suffers from anorexia.

is severely underweight.

falls within a normal weight range.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

Approximately _____ percent of U.S. women are estimated to develop bulimia nervosa.

1 to 2

5 to 6

10 to 12

15 to 20

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in:

late adulthood.

childhood.

late adolescence or early adulthood.

early- to mid-adolescence.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

About _____ percent of individuals with bulimia nervosa eventually recover from their disorders.

25

40

90

70

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

 

According to Jean Piaget, around age 11, the fourth stage of cognitive development, the _____ stage, begins.

concrete operational

formal operational

postoperational

passive operational

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

Which of the following is the final stage of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

Concrete operational stage

Passive operational stage

Preconventional reasoning stage

Formal operational stage

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

The abstract quality of thinking during the _____ stage is evident in the adolescent’s verbal problem-solving ability.

passive operational

concrete operational

formal operational

conventional reasoning

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

During the beginning of the _____ stage, when assimilation dominates, an adolescent’s thoughts are full of idealism and possibilities.

formal operational

preconventional reasoning

concrete operational

conventional reasoning

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

In the formal operational stage, adolescents begin to think more as a scientist thinks, devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions. This type of problem solving requires _____.

trial-and-error reasoning

hypothetical-deductive reasoning

concrete operational reasoning

preconventional reasoning

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

  1. In contrast to Piaget’s views, the development of formal operational thinking:
    A.

does not occur during adolescence.

is promoted by education in the logic of science and mathematics.

is unaffected by the influence of culture and education.

is commonly seen among all American adults.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

Who is the founder of the present field of cognitive development?

Jean Piaget

Lawrence Kohlberg

Albert Bandura

Erik Erikson

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

Adolescent _____ is the heightened self-consciousness of adolescents.

mirror complex

ethnocentrism

solipsism

egocentrism

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

According to David Elkind, personal fable and imaginary audience are parts of adolescent:

co-rumination.

expression.

egocentrism.

solipsism.

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

  1. The _____ is adolescents’ belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior—attempts to be noticed, visible, and “on stage.”
    A.

personal fable

stage fear

imaginary audience

collective myth

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

The _____ is the part of adolescent egocentrism involving a sense of uniqueness and invincibility.

personal fable

self-fulfilling prophecy

imaginary audience

collective myth

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

Fifteen-year-old Juanita wants to skip school today because she is having a bad hair day and is convinced that everybody will notice and think badly of her. Which aspect of adolescent egocentrism is Juanita experiencing?

Personal fable

Imaginary audience

Fight-or-flight response

Top-dog phenomenon

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

Leila, a 14-year-old girl, feels that nobody understands her, especially her parents and teachers. Leila’s feelings reflect the _____ aspect of an adolescent’s egocentrism.

personal fable

imaginary audience

self-fulfilling prophecy

collective myth

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

“I know I can handle the car at high speeds much better than others can”, says 18-year-old Jake. This reflects the tendency of adolescents to engage in:

personal fable.

collective myths.

imaginary audience.

perspective taking.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

_____ involves being aware that options and alternatives are available and adapting to the situation.

Transitivity

Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive flexibility

Disequilibrium

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Cognitive Control

 

An aspect of _____ that involves having the confidence in one’s ability to adapt one’s thinking to a particular situation is important in being cognitively flexible.

self-esteem

self-efficacy

self-concept

self-image

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Cognitive Control

 

George wants to ensure that his sons become competent decision makers. Which of the following is a strategy you would suggest for improving their decision making?

Provide more opportunities for them to engage in role playing and peer group problem solving.

Encourage the presence of peers in risk-taking situations.

Supply contexts where substances and other temptations are readily available, testing their willingness to make risky decisions.

Keep them in a sequestered environment where they will not have to face decision-making in real-world contexts.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Decision Making

 

If _____ are not developed during childhood, critical thinking skills are unlikely to mature in adolescence.

moral values

hypothetical-deductive reasoning skills

formal operations

fundamental skills

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Critical Thinking

 

When students make the transition to middle or junior high school, they experience the _____ phenomenon, moving from being the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students in the elementary school to being the youngest, smallest, and least powerful students in the middle or junior high school.

big-brother

top-dog

domino effect

underdog

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Transition to Middle/Junior High School

 

The Carnegie Corporation evaluated U.S. middle schools and recommended that:

smaller “communities” or “houses” should be developed to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools.

schools improve their use of technology, computers, and skills that will be needed in the 21st century.

schools add more grade levels to encompass a wider age range to reflect differences in adolescent development.

middle schools be integrated with high schools so that the younger adolescents can take advantage of having older adolescents as role models.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
APA LO: 2.4
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Effective Schools

 

Which of the following is a concern related to U.S. high school education?

High expectations for success

High standards for learning

Fostering of passivity in students

Too much variety in the pathways students can take

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: High School

 

In the last half of the twentieth century and the first several years of the twenty-first century, U.S. high school dropout rates:

increased.

declined.

remained unchanged.

plateaued.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Dropout Rates

 

The lowest school dropout rate in the United States occurred for:

Latinos.

Native Americans.

African Americans.

Asian Americans.

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Dropout Rates

 

In a study, almost 50 percent of high school dropouts cited _____ reasons for leaving school.

economic

peer-related

school-related

family-related

 

 

APA LO: 2.2
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Dropout Rates

 

Identify a strategy that can help prevent students from dropping out of school.

Enrolling the students only in a community-based education and reducing parental monitoring.

Provide early intervention for reading problems

Facilitating and emphasizing peer learning

Rotating the students through teachers in high school

 

 

APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Dropout Rates

 

A dropout prevention program functions by “adopting” entire grades from public elementary schools, or corresponding age cohorts from public housing developments. These children are then provided with a program of academic, social, cultural, and recreational activities throughout their elementary, middle school, and high school years. Identify this program.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation program

The Growing Together program

“I Have a Dream” (IHAD) program

The Teen Outreach Program (TOP)

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Dropout Rates

 

_____ learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community.

Service

Social

Collaborative

Cooperative

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.5
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Service Learning

 

Service learning is often more effective when two conditions are met: (1) giving students some degree of choice in the service activities in which they participate, and (2) _____.

fixing certain minimum levels of compliance

guiding students in their tasks

providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation

limiting the amount of time spent volunteering

 

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Service Learning

 

Short Answer Questions

Which famous theorist proposed that adolescence was a turbulent time of “storm-and-stress” in 1904?

 

 

  1. Stanley Hall

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.1: Discuss the nature of adolescence.
Topic: Nature of Adolescence

Which researcher, in 2003, suggested adolescents have difficulty controlling their emotions because their prefrontal cortex has not yet fully developed.

 

 

Charles Nelson

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Brain Development

 

Identify the theorist who along with her colleagues conducted extensive research into adolescent sleep patterns, and found that when given the opportunity, adolescents will sleep an average of 9 hours and 25 minutes a night.

 

 

Mary Carskadon

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Sleep

Identify the theorist who suggested that adolescent egocentrism is characterized by “the imaginary audience” and the “personal fable.”

 

 

David Elkind

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

 

Identify the theorist who suggested that, in the later years of childhood and continuing in adolescence, individuals approach cognitive levels that may or may not be achieved, in contrast to the largely universal cognitive levels that young children attain.

 

 

Deanna Kuhn

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Information Processing

What is the term used to refer to a period of rapid physical maturation, occurring primarily during adolescence, involving hormonal and bodily changes?

 

 

Puberty

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Puberty

 

  1. What is the term for a girl’s first menstruation?

 

Menarche

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Sexual Maturation, Height, and Weight

What is the term for an eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation?

 

 

Anorexia nervosa

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Anorexia Nervosa

 

What is the term for the belief, reflecting adolescents’ egocentrism, that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior—attempts to be noticed, visible, and “on stage”?

 

 

Imaginary audience

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

What is the term for a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community?

 

 

Service learning

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Service Learning

 

Explore the link between hormones and behavior in adolescence.

 

 

The influx of hormones that causes physiological changes in adolescence may also contribute to psychological development. In one study of boys and girls ranging in age from 9 to 14, a higher concentration of testosterone was present in boys who rated themselves as more socially competent. However, hormonal effects by themselves do not account for adolescent development. For example, in one study, social factors were much better predictors of young adolescent girls’ depression and anger than hormonal factors. Behavior and moods also can affect hormones. Stress, eating patterns, exercise, sexual activity, tension, and depression can activate or suppress various aspects of the hormonal system. In sum, the hormone-behavior link is complex.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Hormonal Changes

Discuss how early or late maturation affects boys and girls.

 

 

In the Berkeley Longitudinal Study some years ago, early-maturing boys perceived themselves more positively and had more successful peer relations than did their late-maturing counterparts. When the late-maturing boys were in their thirties, however, they had developed a stronger sense of identity than the early-maturing boys had. For girls, early and late maturation have been linked with body image. In the sixth grade, early-maturing girls show greater satisfaction with their figures than do late-maturing girls, but by the tenth grade late-maturing girls are more satisfied. An increasing number of researchers have found that early maturation increases girls’ vulnerability to a number of problems. Early-maturing girls are more likely to smoke, drink, be depressed, have an eating disorder, struggle for earlier independence from their parents, and have older friends; and their bodies are likely to elicit responses from males that lead to earlier dating and earlier sexual experiences. Early maturing girls also are less likely to graduate from high school and they cohabit and marry earlier.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as the changes in the adolescent brain.
Topic: Early and Late Maturation

 

Why is bulimia often more difficult to detect than anorexia?

 

 

Unlike anorexics, who exhibit the tell-tale signs of a weight at or below 85 percent than normal for their age and height, people who binge and purge typically fall within a normal weight range, making bulimia more difficult to detect.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Bloom’s: Remember
Difficulty Level: Easy
Learning Objective: 11.3: Identify adolescent problems related to health.
Topic: Bulimia Nervosa

What are the characteristics of the formal operational stage?

 

 

During the formal operational stage, Piaget’s fourth stage of cognitive development, thought is more abstract, idealistic, and logical than during the concrete operational stage. An indication of the abstract quality of adolescents’ thought is their increased tendency to think about thought itself. Formal operational thought is also full of idealism and possibilities, especially during the beginning of the formal operational stage, when assimilation dominates. Logical thought also increases as is reflected in adolescents’ ability to engage in hypothetical-deductive reasoning, which involves creating a hypothesis and deducing its implications, steps that provide ways to test the hypothesis.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Formal Operational Stage

 

Discuss two key components of adolescent egocentrism according to David Elkind.

 

 

David Elkind points out that adolescent egocentrism has two key components—the imaginary audience and personal fable. The imaginary audience is adolescents’ belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are, as well as attention-getting behavior—attempts to be noticed, visible, and “on stage”. The personal fable is the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves a sense of uniqueness and invincibility or invulnerability that the adolescent feels, often leading them to engage in risky behavior.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Egocentrism

  1. Discuss the importance of controlling one’s attention during adolescence.

 

Controlling attention is a key aspect of learning and thinking in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Distractions that can interfere with attention in adolescence and emerging adulthood come from the external environment or intrusive distractions from competing thoughts in the individual’s mind. Self-oriented thoughts, such as worrying, self-doubt, and intense emotionally laden thoughts may especially interfere with focusing attention on thinking tasks.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Cognitive Control

 

Outline the cognitive changes that occur in adolescence and allow improved critical thinking.

 

 

For adolescents with adequately developed fundamental skills, cognitive changes that allow improved critical thinking in adolescence include the following: (1) increased speed, automaticity, and capacity of information processing, which free cognitive resources for other purposes; (2) more breadth of content knowledge in a variety of domains; (3) increased ability to construct new combinations of knowledge; and (4) a greater range and more spontaneous use of strategies or procedures for applying or obtaining knowledge, such as planning, considering alternatives, and cognitive monitoring.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
Topic: Critical Thinking

What role does the top-dog phenomenon play when adolescents make the transition to middle or to junior high school?

 

 

When students make the transition to middle or junior high school, they experience the top-dog phenomenon, moving from being the oldest, biggest, and most powerful students in the elementary school to being the youngest, smallest, and least powerful students in the middle or junior high school. This could potentially cause a drop in school satisfaction and cause stress.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Transition to Middle/Junior High School

 

In 1989, the Carnegie Corporation issued an extremely negative evaluation of U.S. middle schools. They made several recommendations for how to improve schools. Imagine you are a middle school principal and can institute any changes you want. Based on these recommendations what kind of things would you do to create a more effective schools for adolescents?

 

 

In 1989, the Carnegie Corporation issued an extremely negative evaluation of U.S. middle schools. It recommended that the nation should develop smaller “communities” or “houses” to lessen the impersonal nature of large middle schools, have lower student-to-counselor ratios (10 to 1 instead of several hundred to 1), involve parents and community leaders in schools, develop new curricula, have teachers team teach in more flexibly designed curriculum blocks that integrate several disciplines, boost students’ health and fitness with more in-school programs, and help students who need public health care to get it.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 1.3
APA LO: 2.1
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Bloom’s: Apply
Difficulty Level: Hard
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Effective Schools

 

A high school principal sends home a letter to parents stating that she is instituting a service learning component and all students are required to participate. What is service learning? When is it most effective and why would schools want to use them?

 

 

Service learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community. Service learning is often more effective when two conditions are met: (1) giving students some degree of choice in the service activities in which they participate, and (2) providing students opportunities to reflect about their participation.

 

APA LO: 1.1
APA LO: 1.2
APA LO: 2.2
APA LO: 2.3
Bloom’s: Understand
Difficulty Level: Medium
Learning Objective: 11.5: Summarize key aspects of how schools influence adolescent development.
Topic: Service Learning