Nursing Research Methods And Critical Appraisal for Evidence Based Practice 8th Edition by Geri LoBiondo – Test Bank  

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Nursing Research Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence Based Practice, 8th Edition by Geri LoBiondo – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 06: Qualitative Approaches to Research

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which qualitative research approach is used by researchers for the purpose of theory building?
a. Case study
b. Phenomenology
c. Grounded theory
d. Ethnographic method

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A case study focuses on the peculiarities or commonalities of specific clinical scenarios or situations.
B Phenomenology focuses on the lived experience of persons dealing with a particular phenomenon.
C Grounded theory is associated with building of theory about basic social processes. The theory evolves or emerges during data collection and analysis.
D Ethnographic methods focus on cultures or subcultures within larger social contexts.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)                  REF:   Page 116-118

 

  1. Which qualitative approach would be most appropriate for a nurse researcher to use when studying the daily experience of women undergoing radiation treatment for breast cancer?
a. Case study
b. Phenomenology
c. Grounded theory
d. Ethnographic method

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A A case study focuses on the peculiarities or commonalities of specific clinical scenarios or situations.
B Phenomenology is most appropriate because it focuses on the day-to-day lived experiences of persons dealing with a situation or phenomenon.
C Grounded theory is focused on social interactions in a particular context or situation.
D Ethnographic methods focus on cultures or subcultures within larger social contexts.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 112-115

 

  1. When a researcher analyzes data from a phenomenologic study, what is the final synthesis of participants’ reported experiences?
a. Description of the lived experience
b. Identification of thought sequences
c. Generalization of the findings
d. Classification of recurring themes

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The final synthesis of a phenomenologic study elaborates the lived experience of participants as a narrative.
B Identification of thought sequences refers to the auditability of the study.
C Qualitative results are not generalized.
D Classification of reoccurring themes occurs during data analysis.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 113-115

 

  1. When reviewing the report of a phenomenologic study, the nurse finds there is no section that describes or reports the research question. What approach should be used to determine the research question?
a. Examination of the themes that emerged from the study
b. Examination of the data analysis methods used in the study
c. Examination of the questions or statements posed to the study participants
d. Examination and critical analysis of the articles reported in the literature review

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Themes do not provide information about the research question. They pertain to results of the study.
B Data analysis methods do not indicate the research question.
C Examination of questions posed to participants tells the reader what human phenomenon is of interest to the researcher.
D Research articles can provide insight into the topic but not the specific research question.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 112-115

 

  1. When reading a report of a phenomenologic study, the nurse finds direct quotes from the participants threaded throughout the narrative. What is the significance of this observation?
a. The researcher is supporting the study’s findings.
b. The researcher is attempting to make the report more personal.
c. The technique violates the protection of human subjects.
d. The technique ensures that the proper level of data saturation has been reached.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Direct quotes allow the reader to evaluate what the participants said and how the researcher labeled what was said.
B Using quotes is not a researcher’s attempt to make a report personal. Using direct quotes in consistent with phenomenologic method.
C Using direct quotes does not violate human subject rights as long as the researcher does not cite the participant’s real name.
D Use of direct quotes is a part of data reporting and not related to data saturation.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 115

 

  1. What is the foundation for the grounded theory method of qualitative research?
a. Philosophy
b. Spirituality
c. Cultural anthropology
d. Social science

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Ethnographic studies emerged from cultural anthropology.
B Spirituality is not a source of research.
C Phenomenology stems from philosophy.
D Grounded theory was originally developed as a tool to study interactions in social settings.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 115

 

  1. What is the purpose of grounded theory?
a. To expand the scope of nursing practice into areas formerly reserved for other disciplines
b. To provide an exhaustive description of how individuals or groups have experienced an event
c. To examine patterns of action and interaction between and among various types of social units
d. To identify precepts and mores common to all members of a distinct cultural or ethnic group

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Expanding research into other disciplines is not a focus of grounded theory.
B Phenomenology examines lived human experience.
C Grounded theorists are interested in social process and human interaction.
D Ethnographic studies examine cultural aspects.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)                  REF:   Page 116

 

  1. Why is the literature review often limited in a study using grounded theory methods?
a. Research using grounded theory methods is sparse.
b. Grounded theory is more sensitive to cultural values than to the researcher’s values.
c. Theories are expected to emerge directly from the data and not from previous research.
d. Limiting the literature review ensures that the researcher’s personal biases are bracketed.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Grounded theory studies are not sparse.
B Grounded theory does not focus specifically on cultural values.
C Grounded theory emerges from the data and reflects the contextual values that are integral to the social processes being studied.
D Limiting the literature review is not necessary for a researcher to bracket preconceived notions of a phenomenon.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 116

 

  1. Which feature is characteristic of the grounded theory method of qualitative research?
a. Data gathering and data analysis occur simultaneously.
b. The researcher has also experienced the phenomenon being studied.
c. A grounded theory study is based on only a single research question.
d. Participants in a grounded theory study must experience the phenomenon currently, during the study.

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Data analysis and data gathering occur simultaneously. Emerging patterns are identified by the researcher.
B The researcher does not need to have experienced the phenomenon of interest.
C Grounded theory studies often have multiple questions as the data emerge.
D Study participants do not have to be currently experiencing the phenomenon. The participants can provide a present account of a past experience.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 116

 

  1. Which statement is consistent with an emic view of a factor or situation?
a. Health care provider’s statement that Native Americans are stoic in the experience of pain
b. Kindergarten teacher’s statement that there are fewer discipline problems among Asian children
c. The National Cancer Institute’s report that the incidence rate of prostate cancer is high among African American men
d. White teenager’s statement that being “skinny” is more socially acceptable than having a higher weight

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The health care provider’s statement provides an outsider’s view or etic view.
B The kindergarten teacher’s statement provides an etic view.
C The National Cancer Institute’s report provides an etic view.
D Emic refers to an “insider’s” view. The teenager’s statement provides a view on weight as it is experienced by the teenager.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 118

 

  1. Which title suggests an ethnographic study?
a. The phenomenon of breast self-examination among African American women
b. The lived experience of breast cancer in postmenopausal women
c. The need for culturally sensitive cancer prevention patient education materials
d. The challenge of retaining femininity after mastectomy

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Researchers use the ethnographic method to examine cultural variations in health. The other answers do not refer to issues of cultural behavior.
B Lived experience is consistent with phenomenology research.
C The need for culturally sensitive educational material is a patient need but not a research study.
D Femininity after mastectomy is not a research topic that specifically addresses issues of cultural variations.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 118

 

  1. What criterion of scientific rigor for qualitative research is met when the research report leads the reader from the research question and raw data through the steps of analysis and interpretation of the data?
a. Confirmability
b. Auditability
c. Fittingness
d. Credibility

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A “Confirmability” refers to the degree the research findings can be confirmed or corroborated by other studies.
B “Auditability” refers to the adequacy of information that leads a reader through the steps of data analysis to interpretation of the findings.
C “Fittingness” refers to the study’s faithfulness to everyday reality (e.g., if the findings “ring true” to the reader).
D “Credibility” refers to measures taken to ensure the accuracy of the findings, usually by cross-checking information with the participants.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 125-126

 

  1. Which factor in a research report indicates that the study used a qualitative design?
a. Hypotheses are stated.
b. The sample is described as convenient.
c. People who participated in the study are described as informants.
d. Participants completed a questionnaire to measure their understanding of the topic.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Hypotheses are stated in correlational and experimental quantitative research studies.
B The sample in qualitative studies is purposive, meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria.
C The term “informants” points to a qualitative study, specifically ethnographic design studies.
D Questionnaires suggest survey research or tests to measure knowledge, which are associated with quantitative, not qualitative, research.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)                  REF:   Page 119

 

  1. The nurse planning to conduct a qualitative research study should have which understanding about ethical issues in naturalistic settings?
a. It is not possible to obtain informed consent from study participants.
b. The emerging nature of the research design may require ongoing negotiation of consent.
c. The researcher-participant interaction is intentionally therapeutic in nature.
d. Validation of data by cross-checking research findings with participants taints the study.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Informed consent is required for studies in naturalistic settings.
B The emerging nature of the design might require ongoing consent related to possible risks posed by the study.
C The intent of the researcher is not to be therapeutic because this is not a treatment relationship.
D Data validation by participants often occurs in studies, but it varies on the basis of the research approach.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 124-125

 

  1. A nurse researcher has chosen to use the phenomenologic method. What feature distinguishes the intensive dialogue the researcher will use in this method from a simple interview?
a. Notes are made about the participant’s responses during the interview.
b. The researcher is fully engaged, becoming a thoughtful presence during the interview.
c. The questions posed during the interview were developed before the actual interview occurred.
d. The researcher completes the questionnaire for the participant to avoid misunderstanding or confusion.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Notes can be taken both in an intensive dialogue and a simple interview.
B Dialogue extends beyond the simple interview because the interviewer is actively present and engaged in the dialogue.
C Questions can be developed beforehand both for an intensive dialogue or a simple interview.
D Researchers do not complete questionnaires for participants because the goal is to hear the lived experience through the words of the participant.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 112

 

  1. The nurse researcher has opted to use grounded theory as the research method. Compared with phenomenologic research, which data-gathering technique is unique to grounded theory research?
a. Face-to-face interviews
b. Tape-recorded interviews
c. Participant-written responses to written questions
d. Skilled observation of individuals in a social setting

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Phenomenologists can use face-to-face interviews.
B Phenomenologists can use tape-recorded interviews.
C Phenomenologists can use participant-written responses.
D Grounded theorists observe participants in their natural settings. This observation practice is referred to as “fieldwork.” Phenomenologists do not use fieldwork.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 116

 

  1. Which research question is appropriate for a grounded theory approach?
a. How do incarcerated prisoners interact with fellow prisoners who are known pedophiles?
b. How do Native American teenage girls select a method of contraception?
c. What percent of primary education teachers also have a degree in nursing?
d. How is the total number of clinical hours in a nursing program related to National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) pass rates?

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The research question is appropriate because it focuses on human interaction.
B The question does not focus on social processes related to human interactions.
C The question does not focus on social processes related to human interactions.
D The question does not focus on social processes related to human interactions.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 115

 

  1. The nurse researcher opts to use grounded theory as the research method. Which action or behavior should be avoided in such a study?
a. Following hunches about emerging patterns before data collection is completed
b. Expressing the researcher’s opinions or values to the participants
c. Changing the way experiences are collected or selected after the study has been initiated
d. Expanding codes or data categories as the study progresses

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Grounded theorists often pursue hunches as data emerge.
B Researchers want to observe participants interacting in natural social settings. Interjection of the researcher’s opinions and values disrupts the natural setting.
C Emerging data can cause a researcher to change how experiences are observed or how data are collected.
D Expanding data codes and categories is expected as data emerge.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 119

 

  1. How can computer management of qualitative data assist a nurse researcher in the research process?
a. Interpretation of data
b. Organization of data
c. Credibility of data
d. Synthesis of data

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Interpretation of data must be done by researchers.
B Computer management of qualitative data allows for easier coding of data and assists with the grouping or organizing of data. Some computer software can also assist in finding patterns in the interviews or field notes.
C Credibility of data is established by researchers.
D Analysis of the meaning of data is accomplished by researchers.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 117

 

  1. In an ethnographic study titled, “How do rural Appalachian families with preschool children define and practice health?” the researcher gathered data from mothers who were identified as the primary directors of health care within the family unit. What role did the mothers have in this study?
a. Community informants
b. General informants
c. Local informants
d. Key informants

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A “Community informants” is not the proper term for the participants.
B “General informants” is not the proper term for these participants.
C “Local informants” is not the proper term for these participants.
D Key informants are individuals who have special knowledge and, therefore, can teach the ethnographer about a phenomenon.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 119

 

  1. Which research question will indicate to the nurse researcher that an ethnographic approach was used in the research study?
a. In what ways do Puerto Rican women learn about health information?
b. What is the quality of life for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?
c. What was Nightingale’s involvement in sanitary reforms during the 1860s?
d. How do individuals who have heart disease experience anger?

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Ethnographic studies address questions that concern how cultural knowledge, norms, values, and other contextual variables influence a person’s health experience.
B Quality of life is a day-to-day experience, more consistent with phenomenology than ethnography.
C An examination of Nightingale would be a historical study.
D The experience of anger is consistent with a phenomenologic approach.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 118

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. A nurse researcher conducts a grounded theory study examining the process of social support that occurs within interactions between nursing students and clinical faculty in the hospital setting. Which research activities are consistent with a grounded theory study? (Select all that apply.)
a. Using theoretical sampling
b. Having one set of predetermined interview questions
c. Visiting the archives at the school of nursing
d. Changing approaches to data collection as data emerge
e. Asking only one research question to avoid confusing participants

 

 

ANS:  A, D

 

  Feedback
Correct Theoretical sampling is used in grounded theory research.

The researcher in a grounded theory study may change approaches to data collection.

Incorrect A grounded theory study may have multiple questions as data are collected and interpreted.

Visiting archives would be consistent with a historical study.

The researcher in a grounded theory study may develop multiple questions as data are collected.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 116

 

  1. A nurse researcher is critiquing a research report of a phenomenologic study that examined the lived experience of domestic violence. The nurse should recognize which elements as consistent with a phenomenologic research report? (Select all that apply.)
a. Open-ended questions were used to ask participants to describe experiences with domestic violence.
b. Data about domestic violence reported by participants are presented in the form of narrative text.
c. The natural setting in which fieldwork was conducted is described in detail.
d. The data analysis section discusses use of a statistical software package.
e. The sampling section indicates the criteria for participation included a current unstable domestic relationship.

 

 

ANS:  A, B

 

  Feedback
Correct Open-ended questions are used in phenomenologic studies to encourage participants to describe their experiences in their own words.

Phenomenologic studies present data in the form of narrative text.

Incorrect Fieldwork is more commonly associated with ethnographic research.

Statistical analysis is conducted in quantitative research.

Participants would not be required to be in a violent domestic relationship at the present time. Phenomenologists believe that past experiences can also be shared in the present moment.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 113-115

 

  1. Which are ethical concerns that the nurse must consider when evaluating qualitative research? (Select all that apply.)
a. Researchers can focus on the emic, rather than the etic, view of participants’ experiences.
b. Researchers and participants may develop relationships that blur boundaries of their interactions.
c. Researchers may want to speak to participants on more than one occasion.
d. Researchers serve as instruments for data interpretation.
e. Researchers may change the research design as knowledge emerges, thus altering risks to participants.

 

 

ANS:  B, D, E

 

  Feedback
Correct Designs that require interactions between participants and researchers over time can result in blurred relationship boundaries.

Researchers serve as instruments for data interpretation, so personal viewpoints can blur proper interpretation of participant accounts.

An emergent design, such as grounded theory, might cause the researcher to change the approaches of the study and, therefore, alter risks to participants.

Incorrect The researcher’s goal is to describe participant experiences from the emic perspective.

It is not unusual for participants to be interviewed more than once in qualitative studies.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 124-125

 

  1. Which criteria are used to judge a qualitative study’s scientific rigor? (Select all that apply.)
a. Reality based
b. Credibility
c. Confidentiality of participants
d. Auditability
e. Recordkeeping
f. Fittingness

 

 

ANS:  B, D, F

 

  Feedback
Correct This is the truth of the findings as judged by the participants and others within the discipline.

This is accountability as judged by the adequacy of the information leading the reader from the research question and raw data through various steps of analysis to the interpretation of findings.

This is faithfulness to everyday reality of the participants, described so that others in the discipline can evaluate importance for their own practice, research, and theory development.

Incorrect “Reality based” is not a criterion used to judge a study’s scientific rigor.

“Confidentiality of participants” is not a criterion used to judge a study’s scientific rigor.

“Recordkeeping” is not a criterion used to judge a study’s scientific rigor.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)                  REF:   Page 124-125

 

  1. A nurse researcher critiques a phenomenologic study for fittingness. The researcher will examine the study to see whether the study included which of these elements? (Select all that apply.)
a. Queried participants to confirm identified themes
b. Documented the bracketing process used to maintain proper perspective
c. Described the experiences of participants in a way that “rings true” for the reader
d. Presented narrative in a way that captures everyday reality of participants
e. Discussed in detail the process through which identified themes emerged

 

 

ANS:  C, D

 

  Feedback
Correct Describing the experiences in a way that “rings true” is an example of fittingness.

Using narrative helps to keep the research faithful to the experience of participants and provides support for fittingness.

Incorrect Cross-checking with participants helps to support credibility of the study.

Bracketing also helps to support credibility of the study.

Detailing the process by which themes emerge is part of the study’s auditability.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Table 6-2

 

  1. What similarities exist between grounded theory and ethnographic studies? (Select all that apply.)
a. Participants are observed in natural settings.
b. Researchers immerse themselves in the culture of study participants.
c. Researchers bracket their personal opinions and biases during the study.
d. Data gathering and data analysis occur simultaneously.
e. Techniques for data collection can change as the study progresses.

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D, E

 

  Feedback
Correct In both methods, researchers encounter participants in natural settings.

In both methods, researchers set aside or bracket their personal biases.

In both methods, data gathering and data analysis occur simultaneously.

In both methods, researchers use a variety of data collection methods as studies progress.

Incorrect Immersion into the culture of participants is consistent only with ethnography.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 119

Chapter 07: Appraising Qualitative Research

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In the report of a qualitative research study, what does a theme represent?
a. A guideline for evaluating the appropriateness of the study
b. The operational definition of the study’s conceptual framework
c. A label that describes key ideas shared by study participants
d. The relationship between the study’s hypotheses and the research questions

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A A theme is not a guideline for evaluation of the study.
B Conceptual frameworks are found in reports of quantitative, not qualitative, studies.
C A theme is a label (concept or phrase) that describes in a condensed way a key idea shared by study participants, usually derived from interviews.
D Hypotheses are characteristic of quantitative, not qualitative, studies.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 132

 

  1. The identification of themes is important when reviewing findings of a qualitative research report because themes do what?
a. Reflect congruence between the questions asked and the methodology
b. Allow description of a large quantity of data in a condensed format
c. Demonstrate both the emic and etic views of a topic
d. Explain the nature of differences reported by participants experiencing a common phenomenon

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Themes do not reflect congruence between the study’s questions and methods.
B Themes allow a condensed representation of quotes or indicators of the same idea from multiple participants.
C Themes reflect emic, not etic, perspectives.
D Differences reported by participants are not reflected in a single theme.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 132

 

  1. Which of these titles of a research report indicates the study is qualitative, rather than quantitative?
a. Predicting the treatment choice for women older than age 50 experiencing breast cancer
b. Evaluating nursing interventions for complex oncology clinical phenomena
c. Using virtual reality as a distraction method during chemotherapy
d. Transcending pain during bone marrow aspiration

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A This title suggests a quantitative study in which statistical analysis is used.
B This title suggests a quantitative study that predicts a treatment choice.
C This title suggests a quantitative study in which virtual reality is the experimental variable.
D This title suggests a qualitative study because it describes responses to a human experience.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 133-134

 

  1. Which outcome or overall purpose would be consistent with a qualitative study?
a. Development of creative solutions to practical problems
b. Prediction and control of a human phenomenon
c. Description of behavior within a context-free theoretical framework
d. Use of statistical analyses to determine significant differences between variables

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A characteristic of many qualitative research studies is the development of new and creative solutions to practical problems.
B Prediction and control of phenomena are characteristic of quantitative research.
C Both quantitative and qualitative research studies must be interpreted within context.  Theoretical frameworks are consistent with both qualitative and quantitative research.
D Statistical analysis to determine significant differences is characteristic of quantitative studies.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying (Application)                         REF:   Page 134

 

  1. Which criterion helps to determine whether the results of a qualitative study can be applied beyond the study sample or population?
a. Evidence of fittingness or transferability of the findings
b. Evidence of trustworthiness or validity of the findings
c. Credentials and experience of the person applying the findings
d. Statistical significance and reliability of the findings

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The findings of qualitative studies should not be applied beyond the study sample unless evidence is provided for the study’s transferability or fittingness.
B Evidence of trustworthiness or validity of the findings applies to the study, only, and does not imply transferability beyond the study population.
C Although credentials of the person applying the findings are important, they do not guarantee that the application beyond the study population is appropriate.
D The statistical significance and reliability measurements of findings are characteristics of quantitative research findings.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 154

 

  1. Before applying the results of a qualitative study in practice, the nurse should take several actions including which of these actions?
a. Use triangulation to combine quantitative and qualitative methods in a replication study.
b. Evaluate the credentials and experience of the researcher who conducted the study.
c. Determine if the concepts/themes identified in the study support the work completed by other researchers.
d. Be sure that the study’s findings were significant at the 0.05 or greater level of probability.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Triangulation is used to strengthen the research design of a study by combining multiple measures (e.g., qualitative and quantitative methods). The consumer of research need not replicate a study before using the findings.
B Although credentials of the investigator are important, they do not ensure the applicability of a study in actual practice.
C One way to determine generalizability of findings is to determine if the study supports the work completed by other researchers.
D Statistical significance generally is not measured in qualitative studies.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 136

 

  1. What information in the report of a qualitative research study indicates to the nurse that the research meets the criterion of auditability?
a. The study’s participants recognize the experience described as their own.
b. The results are meaningful to individuals beyond those in the study population.
c. The projected significance of the study to nursing is described.
d. The researcher documented how the data led to the conclusions.

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The participants’ recognition of the experience described as their own is part of the study’s credibility.
B The application of findings to persons beyond the study sample is part of the study’s transferability.
C The significance of the study to nursing is part of the study’s implications.
D Auditability is determined by the researcher’s documentation of the research process leading to the study’s conclusions.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 153

 

  1. The nurse researcher reports that after data collection was completed, a follow-up focus group session with participants was used to validate that the participants agreed the findings were true to their own experiences. What aspect of the study does this support?
a. The study’s credibility
b. The study’s auditability
c. The study’s transferability
d. The study’s fittingness

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The participants’ agreement with the study’s findings supports the study’s credibility.
B Auditability of the study requires that others can follow the evidence trail of the primary researcher.
C Transferability refers to the usefulness of the study beyond the sample population.
D Fittingness is another term for transferability, which refers to the usefulness of the study beyond the sample population.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 153

 

  1. Qualitative research is designed to describe what?
a. Results of hypothesis testing
b. Definitive conclusions to research questions
c. Insiders’ views of a human phenomenon
d. Findings derived from a large, randomly selected sample

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Hypothesis testing is characteristic of quantitative studies.
B Definitive conclusions are typical of quantitative studies.
C Qualitative research studies insider or emic knowledge of a phenomenon.
D Large, random samples are typical of quantitative studies.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge)                  REF:   Page 131-132

 

  1. Which activity represents attention to credibility in a qualitative study?
a. Ensuring that all subjects self-identified with a specific ethnic group.
b. Providing direct quotations from study participants.
c. Identifying the basic social psychological process (BSP) under study.
d. Determining usefulness of the data outside of the study.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A Ensuring subject identification with an ethnic group helps to identify the characteristics of the study sample.
B Using selected quotes of participants to support themes enhances a study’s credibility.
C The BSP, or core variable, under study characterizes grounded theory studies.
D Determining the usefulness of the data outside of the study is related to transferability of the study’s findings.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 132

 

  1. During the critique of a qualitative research study, the nurse notes the statement, “Saturation was achieved at the completion of 20 interviews.” What is the significance of this statement?
a. The investigator should collect additional data.
b. The data collection period has ended.
c. Purposive sampling is now required.
d. Random sampling should be initiated.

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A There is no need to collect additional data once saturation has been achieved.
B Saturation refers to the end of data collection because the results become repetitive, indicating that no additional knowledge is to be gained by continuing to add participants.
C Purposive sampling is done from the initiation of data collection.
D Random sampling is a characteristic of quantitative research studies.

 

 

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  1. One outcome of collecting evidence about a phenomenon of interest in a qualitative research study may be what?
a. Triangulation
b. Participant cross-checking
c. Metasynthesis
d. Instrument development

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A Triangulation is used to strengthen the research design of a study by combining multiple measures in the study’s methodology.
B Cross-checking participants’ data helps in establishing a study’s credibility.
C Metasynthesis is a method of synthesizing findings from a number of qualitative research studies.
D Instrument development may be an outcome of a qualitative research study.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 136

 

  1. Which study characteristic would indicate that a grounded theory approach, rather than a phenomenologic approach, was used?
a. Data were collected by more than one person.
b. Participants reviewed and evaluated the transcripts for accuracy.
c. The focus was on the process elements of the phenomenon.
d. It studied a lived human experience.

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A Collection of data by more than one person is a characteristic of many types of study.
B Checking of participants’ transcripts for accuracy is used in many types of qualitative study.
C Grounded theory focuses on identifying the process elements of a phenomenon, not only on describing the phenomenon.
D All types of qualitative study including phenomenology are focused on lived human experience.

 

 

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  1. The nurse is critiquing a qualitative research study. Which question would be appropriate for the nurse to ask when critiquing the study’s methodology?
a. Are the informants who were chosen appropriate to inform the research?
b. If a particular approach is used to guide the inquiry, does the researcher complete the study according to the processes described?
c. Does the researcher address the credibility, auditability, and fittingness of the data?
d. Does the researcher place the report in the context of what is already known about the phenomenon (e.g., the existing literature)?

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A A question about the informants chosen concerns the study’s sample selection.
B A question about the study’s approach or processes for conducting the study concerns its methodology.
C Questions about credibility, auditability, and fittingness concern the analysis of data.
D A question about placing the report in the context of what is already known concerns the study’s findings.

 

 

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  1. The nurse is critiquing a qualitative research study. Which question would be appropriate for the nurse to ask when critiquing the study’s sample selection?
a. Are the informants who were chosen appropriate to inform the research?
b. If a particular approach is used to guide the inquiry, does the researcher complete the study according to the processes described?
c. Does the researcher address the credibility, auditability, and fittingness of the data?
d. Does the researcher place the report in the context of what is already known about the phenomenon (e.g., the existing literature)?

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A A question about the informants who were chosen concerns the study’s sample selection.
B A question about the study’s approach or processes for conducting the study concerns its methodology.
C Questions about credibility, auditability, and fittingness concern the analysis of data.
D A question about placing the report in the context of what is already known concerns the study’s findings.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 131

 

  1. The nurse is critiquing a qualitative research study. Which question would be appropriate for the nurse to ask when critiquing the study’s credibility?
a. Has adequate time been allowed to fully understand the phenomenon?
b. Are the results meaningful to individuals not involved in the research?
c. Does the investigator document the research process?
d. What is the projected significance of the research to nursing?

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A The study’s credibility is addressed in a question about sufficient time to fully understand the phenomenon.
B A study’s fittingness (transferability) is addressed in a question about the meaningfulness of the study’s results to persons not involved in the research concerns.
C A study’s auditability is addressed in a question about documentation of the research process.
D A study’s purpose is addressed in a question about the significance of the study to nursing.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 133

 

  1. The nurse is critiquing a qualitative research study. Which question would be appropriate for the nurse to ask when critiquing the study’s fittingness?
a. Has adequate time been allowed to fully understand the phenomenon?
b. Are the results meaningful to individuals not involved in the research?
c. Does the investigator document the research process?
d. What is the projected significance of the research to nursing?

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A The study’s credibility is addressed in a question about sufficient time to fully understand the phenomenon.
B A study’s fittingness (transferability) is addressed in a question about the meaningfulness of the study’s results to persons not involved in the research concerns.
C A study’s auditability is addressed in a question about documentation of the research process.
D A study’s purpose is addressed in a question about the significance of the study to nursing.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 133

 

  1. When critiquing a report of a qualitative research study, the nurse asks, “How has the researcher made explicit the significance of the study to nursing theory, research, or practice?” This question is critiquing what section of the report?
a. Data analysis
b. Data collection
c. Statement of the phenomenon of interest
d. Conclusions, implications, and recommendations

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A This question does not address the study’s data analysis.
B This question does not address the study’s data collection.
C This question does not address the statement of the phenomenon of interest.
D This question addresses the study’s conclusions, implications, and recommendations.

 

 

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  1. When critiquing a report of a qualitative research study, the nurse asks, “Is protection of human participants addressed?” This question is critiquing what section of the report?
a. Data analysis
b. Data collection
c. Statement of the phenomenon of interest
d. Conclusions, implications, and recommendations

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A This question does not address the study’s data analysis.
B This question addresses the study’s data collection.
C This question does not address the statement of the phenomenon of interest.
D This question does not address the study’s conclusions, implications, and recommendations.

 

 

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  1. When critiquing a qualitative research study, the nurse asks, “Has the researcher remained true to the data?”  This question is critiquing which area of the report?
a. Method
b. Data collection
c. Data analysis
d. Findings

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A This question does not address the study’s methods.
B This question does not address the study’s data collection.
C This question addresses the study’s data analysis.
D This question does not address the study’s findings.

 

 

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MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which of the following elements would the nurse expect to see in a report of a grounded theory study? (Select all that apply).
a. Hypotheses
b. Independent variable
c. Themes
d. Basic social psychological process
e. Statistical procedures
f. Participant quotes
g. Purposive sample

 

 

ANS:  C, D, F, G

 

  Feedback
Correct Themes are identified in a grounded research study.

A basic social psychological process (BSP) is defined in a grounded research study.

Participant quotes are included in a grounded research study to fully describe the phenomenon in a grounded research study.

A purposive sample is selected for a grounded research study.

Incorrect Hypotheses are used in quantitative, not qualitative, research studies.

Independent and dependent variables are found in quantitative, not qualitative, research studies.

Statistical procedures are used in quantitative studies but generally are not used in qualitative studies.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 132, 152-153

Chapter 11: Systematic Reviews and Clinical Practice Guidelines

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What terms means a summation and assessment of research studies found in the literature based on a clearly focused question?
a. Meta-analysis
b. Systematic review
c. Cochrane collaboration
d. Integrative review

 

 

ANS:  B

 

  Feedback
A A meta-analysis is a systematic summary using statistical techniques to assess and combine studies of the same design to obtain a precise estimate of effect (impact of an intervention on the dependent variable/outcomes or association between variables).
B A systematic review is a summation and assessment of research studies found in the literature based on a clearly focused question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, critically appraise, and analyze relevant data from the selected studies to summarize the findings in a focused area.
C The Cochrane Collaboration is an international organization that prepares and maintains a body of systematic reviews that focus on health care interventions.
D An integrative review is the broadest category of review. It can include theoretical literature, research literature, or both, and may include methodology studies, a theory review, or the results of differing research studies with wide-ranging clinical implications.

 

 

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  1. The highest level of evidence is known to be provided by what?
a. Meta-analysis
b. Systematic review
c. Effect size
d. Integrative review

 

 

ANS:  A

 

  Feedback
A Meta-analysis provides Level I evidence, the highest level of evidence, as it statistically analyzes and integrates the results of many studies.
B Systematic review is not known to provide the same level of evidence as meta-analysis.
C Effect sizes are calculated using the difference in the averages scores between the intervention and control groups from each study.
D Integrative review is not known to provide the same level of evidence as meta-analysis.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 219-220

 

  1. What is known to contain bibliographic information on articles and books on reviewing research and methodological studies?
a. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
b. Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects
c. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials
d. Cochrane Methodology Register

 

 

ANS:  D

 

  Feedback
A The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews contains full text Cochrane reviews.
B The Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects (DARE) contains critical assessments and abstracts of other systematic reviews that conform to quality criteria.
C The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) contains information on studies published in conference proceedings and other sources not available in other databases.
D The Cochrane Methodology Register is known to contain bibliographic information on articles and books on reviewing research and methodological studies.

 

 

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  1. What source contains information on studies published in conference proceedings and other sources not available in other databases?
a. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
b. Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects
c. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials
d. Cochrane Methodology Register

 

 

ANS:  C

 

  Feedback
A The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews contains full text Cochrane reviews.
B The Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects (DARE) contains critical assessments and abstracts of other systematic reviews that conform to quality criteria.
C The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) contains information on studies published in conference proceedings and other sources not available in other databases.
D The Cochrane Methodology Register is known to contain bibliographic information on articles and books on reviewing research and methodological studies.

 

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension)          REF:   Page 224

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Which are methods for searching and integrating the literature related to a specific clinical issue? (Select all that apply.)
a. Meta-analysis
b. Systematic review
c. Cochrane collaboration
d. Integrative review

 

 

ANS:  B, D

 

  Feedback
Correct Systematic and integrative reviews are not designs per se but rather methods for searching and integrating the literature related to a specific clinical issue.
Incorrect A meta-analysis is a systematic summary using statistical techniques to assess and combine studies of the same design to obtain a precise estimate of effect (impact of an intervention on the dependent variable/outcomes or association between variables).

The Cochrane Collaboration is an international organization that prepares and maintains a body of systematic reviews that focus on health care interventions.

 

 

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COMPLETION

 

Number the pieces of information in the order that they should be found in a Cochrane Review.

 

  1. ___ data collection

 

ANS:  10

 

  1. ___ plain language summary

 

ANS:  3

 

  1. ___ type of studies reviewed

 

ANS:  7

 

  1. ___ authors and contact person

 

ANS:  1

 

  1. ___ abstract

 

ANS:  2

 

  1. ___ background of the question

 

ANS:  4

 

  1. ____ types of participants

 

ANS:  8

 

  1. ___ objectives of the search

 

ANS:  5

 

  1. ___ implications for research and practice

 

ANS:  14

 

  1. ___ methods for selecting studies for review

 

ANS:  6

 

  1. ___ search methods for finding studies

 

ANS:  9

 

  1. ___ analysis of the located studies

 

ANS:  11

 

  1. ___ results

 

ANS:  12

 

  1. ___ references and tables

 

ANS:  15

 

  1. ___ discussion

 

ANS:  13

 

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