Psychology 10th Edition by Carole Wade – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Psychology 10th Edition by Carole Wade – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Name  __________________________________________________________

 

Chapter 6 – Quick Quiz 1

 

 

  1. What is the difference between sensation and perception?
  2. Sensation is the detection of sensory stimuli and perception is the interpretation of sensory information.
  3. Sensation is the interpretation of sensory information and perception is the detection of               sensory stimuli.
  4. Perception refers to what goes on in the sensory organs and sensation is what happens in the brain.
  5. Nothing.  They are the same thing.

 

  1. The _______________ is a measure of the smallest amount of energy a person can detect.
  2. difference threshold                                        c.     jnd
  3. absolute threshold                                           d.     response bias

 

  1. _______________ can cause a visual perception that is constant and unchanging to disappear.
  2. Sensory deprivation                                        c.     Sensory adaptation
  3. Sensory overload                                             d.     Sensory constancy

 

  1. The saturation (colorfulness) of a visual stimulus is related to the _______________ of light.
  2. intensity                                                             c.     amplitude
  3. complexity                                                        d.     wavelength

 

  1. The function of the cornea is to:
  2. focus light on the retina.
  3. control the amount of light entering the eye.
  4. filter out UV radiation.
  5. protect the eye and bend light rays toward the lens.

 

  1. The _______________ describes the processing of color by the cones.
  2. trichromatic theory                                         c.     Greeble theory
  3. opponent-process theory                               d.     signal detection theory

 

  1. The amplitude of a sound wave is related to our perception of _______________.
  2. pitch                                                                   c.     loudness
  3. timbre                                                                d.     tonal quality

 

  1. The actual receptors for taste are called _______________.
  2. papillae                                                              c.     taste buds
  3. olfactory cells                                                   d.     taste receptor cells

 

  1. Which of the following sensory abilities is NOT present at or shortly after birth?
  2. ability to discriminate salty from sweet
  3. ability to discriminate different colors
  4. ability to localize sound
  5. perceptual set ability

 

  1. Which of the following is best supported by research?
  2. subliminal perception                                     c.     telepathy
  3. subliminal persuasion                                     d.     precognitionChapter 6 Sensation and Perception 

     

    [NOTE: Correct answer and item analysis are located ABOVE question.]

     

    Our Sensational Senses

     

    Answer  a     % correct 70      a= 70  b= 16  c= 8  d= 7      r = .32

     

    1. The minimum intensity of physical stimulation required to produce any sensations at all in a person is the ____________.
    2. absolute threshold
    3. difference threshold
    4. minimum threshold
    5. noticeable threshold

     

    Answer  d     % correct 84      a= 3  b= 7  c= 6  d= 84      r = .21

     

    1. Which of the following statements is true?
    2. Only the difference threshold varies from person to person.
    3. Only the absolute threshold is constant for all people.
    4. Both the difference threshold and the absolute threshold are constant for all people at all times.
    5. Both the absolute threshold and the difference threshold vary from person to person over time.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 77      a= 0  b= 77  c= 0  d= 23      r = .47

     

    1. “Sensation is to _______ as perception is to _______.”
    2. psychological; physical
    3. gathering; understanding
    4. understanding; gathering
    5. interpreting; detecting

     

    Answer  c     % correct 94      a= 6  b= 0  c= 94  d= 0      r = .28

     

    1. Detecting environmental stimulation” is one way to define ______.
    2. perception
    3. feeling
    4. sensation
    5. awareness

     

    Answer  c     % correct 54      a= 8  b= 8  c= 54  d= 31      r = .32

     

    1. The process whereby we receive information from the environment through our receptors is _______.
    2. encoding
    3. perception
    4. sensation
    5. transduction

    Answer  b     % correct 58      a= 24  b= 58  c= 8  d= 8      r = .43

     

    1. Sensation is _______.
    2. the organization of stimuli to create meaningful patterns
    3. the stimulation of the senses
    4. the presence of sensory cell activity in the absence of external stimulation
    5. the result of activity in the efferent nervous system

     

    Answer  c     % correct 90      a= 5  b= 2  c= 90  d= 3      r = .24

     

    1. Our ________ enable us to make sense of the sensations that we are continually experiencing.
    2. sensory organs
    3. motor abilities
    4. perceptual abilities
    5. sensory abilities

     

    Answer  b     % correct 85      a= 3  b= 85  c= 10  d= 2      r = .30

     

    1. The components in the sense organs that respond to energy are called _______.
    2. sensor cells
    3. receptor cells
    4. transducers
    5. effector cells

     

    Answer  b     % correct 58      a= 2  b= 58  c= 4  d= 35      r = .43

     

    1. The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time is called the __________.
    2. separation threshold
    3. difference threshold
    4. response threshold
    5. absolute threshold

     

    Answer  d     % correct 74      a= 1  b= 7  c= 17  d= 74      r = .38

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT a measure of threshold?
    2. absolute threshold
    3. difference threshold
    4. just noticeable difference
    5. separation threshold

     

    Answer  d     % correct 66      a= 20  b= 4  c= 11  d= 66      r = .55

     

    1. When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor struck several tuning forks, each of which vibrated at a distinct pitch, and asked her to choose two tones that sounded almost the same in pitch. The doctor was testing Ann’s __________.
    2. auditory convergence
    3. refractory threshold
    4. absolute threshold
    5. difference threshold

     

    Answer  a     % correct 68      a= 68  b= 13  c= 2  d= 17      r = .36

     

    1. The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the __________.
    2. absolute threshold
    3. difference threshold
    4. range threshold
    5. noticeable threshold

     

    Answer  b     % correct 77      a= 1  b= 77  c= 3  d= 19      r = .34

     

    1. The term “just noticeable difference” is loosely synonymous with __________.
    2. separation threshold
    3. difference threshold
    4. response threshold
    5. absolute threshold

     

    Answer  c     % correct 85      a= 15  b= 0  c= 85  d= 0      r = .73

     

    1. Dr. Delmar wants to determine how loud a certain noise must be in order for it to be heard from a distance of 50 feet. Her question involves the concept of:
    2. relative magnitude.
    3. difference threshold.
    4. absolute threshold.
    5. just noticeable difference (jnd).

     

    Answer  a     % correct 39      a= 39  b= 0  c= 22  d= 39      r = .27

     

    1. If a researcher wanted to know how loudly a person must speak in order to be heard above the noise of two other simultaneous conversations, the researcher would likely measure the ________.
    2. difference threshold
    3. marginal intensity
    4. relative magnitude
    5. absolute threshold

     

    Answer  c     % correct 67      a= 6  b= 11  c= 67  d= 17      r = .43

     

    1. _______ theory was developed to isolate separate measures of sensory sensitivity and decision criteria used.
    2. Method of limits
    3. Method adjustment
    4. Signal-detection
    5. Method of constant stimuli

    Answer  b     % correct  67     a= 0  b= 67  c= 22  d= 11      r = .55

     

    1. The relation between the amount of physical energy in a stimulus and the sensory experience of that stimulus is studied by:
    2. encoding psychology.
    3. psychophysics.
    4. sensory physiology.
    5. transduction psychology.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 61      a= 0  b= 6  c= 33  d= 61      r = .23

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT a measure of threshold?
    2. absolute threshold
    3. difference threshold
    4. just noticeable difference threshold
    5. separation threshold

     

    Answer  a     % correct 83      a= 83  b= 8  c= 8  d= 0      r = .66

     

    1. The minimum intensity of physical stimulation required to produce any sensation at all in a person is the _______.
    2. absolute threshold
    3. difference threshold
    4. minimum threshold
    5. noticeable threshold

     

    Answer  d     % correct 83      a= 17  b= 0  c= 0  d= 83      r = .66

     

    1. When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor struck several tuning forks, each of which was a distinct pitch, and asked her to choose two tones that sounded almost the same in pitch.  The doctor was testing Ann’s _______.
    2. auditory convergence
    3. refractory threshold
    4. absolute threshold
    5. difference threshold

     

    Answer  c     % correct 38      a= 15  b= 0  c= 38  d= 46      r = .54

     

    1. When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor presented tones to Ann through earphones.  The tones varied only along the loud-soft dimensions (from very loud to very soft).  The doctor asked Ann to raise her hand whenever she heard a sound.  The doctor was testing Ann’s _______.
    2. auditory convergence
    3. refractory threshold
    4. absolute threshold
    5. difference threshold

    Answer  b     % correct 67      a= 17  b= 67  c= 0  d= 17      r = .69

     

    1. _______ studies the relationship between physical energies and psychological experiences.
    2. Physiology
    3. Psychophysics
    4. Psychometrics
    5. Psychopathology

     

    Answer  c     % correct 78      a= 17  b= 6  c= 78  d= 0      r = .26

     

    1. Professor Zander wants to know how loud a certain noise must be in order to be heard from a distance of 50 feet. This question involves the concept of _______.
    2. relative magnitude
    3. difference threshold
    4. absolute threshold
    5. inverse discrimination

     

    Answer  d     % correct 56      a= 17  b= 6  c= 22  d= 56      r = .28

     

    1. The problem of subjects knowing too much about the sequencing of intensities during sensation studies is overcome by the method of _______.
    2. adjustment
    3. limits
    4. constant stimuli
    5. none of the above

     

     

     

    Vision

     

    Answer  b     % correct 68      a= 14  b= 68  c= 8  d= 9      r = .41

     

    1. The wavelength of the light to reach your eyes determines what __________ you see.
    2. brightness
    3. hue
    4. saturation
    5. fine detail

     

    Answer  b     % correct 68      a= 14  b= 68  c= 8  d= 9      r = .41

     

    1. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the __________.
    2. cornea
    3. pupil
    4. lens
    5. retina

    Answer  a     % correct 93      a= 93  b= 6  c= 1  d= 0      r = .19

     

    1. The pupil is the __________.
    2. opening in the center of the iris
    3. colored part of the eye
    4. white of the eye
    5. lining in the back of the eyeball

     

    Answer  c     % correct 95      a= 1  b= 2  c= 95  d= 3      r = .27

     

    1. The colored part of the eye which contains muscles to contract or expand the pupil is the __________.
    2. lens
    3. fovea
    4. iris
    5. cornea

     

    Answer  c     % correct 54      a= 17  b= 21  c= 54  d= 8      r = .32

     

    1. If you stare for 30 seconds at a red object and then look at a blank sheet of white paper, you will see a greenish image of the object. This phenomenon best supports the:
    2. Young-Helmholtz opponent-process theory of color vision.
    3. Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory of color vision.
    4. Hering opponent-process theory of color vision.
    5. Hering trichromatic theory of color vision.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 77      a= 77  b= 12  c= 7  d= 4      r = .59

     

    1. The depressed spot in the retina which occupies the center of the visual field in which images are focused MOST sharply is called the:
    2. fovea.
    3. cornea.
    4. iris.
    5. optic nerve.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 11  c= 0  d= 0      r = .29

     

    1. The pupil is the:
    2. opening in the center of the iris.
    3. colored part of the eye.
    4. white of the eye.
    5. lining in the back of the eyeball.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 3  c= 5  d= 92      r = .52

     

    1. Which type of receptor cell is associated with seeing colors?
    2. ganglia
    3. bipolar
    4. rods
    5. cones

     

    Answer  b     % correct 77      a= 15  b= 77  c= 8  d= 0      r = .47

     

    1. The lens:
    2. is the transparent outer membrane of the eye that covers the pupil and iris.
    3. allows one to focus on objects at different distances.
    4. allows light initially to enter the eye.
    5. controls the amount of light entering the eye.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 8  c= 0  d= 92      r = .41

     

    1. The eyes convert light energy into neural responses that we experience as sight. The conversion of light energy into sight is done by receptor cells in the _______.
    2. iris
    3. pupil
    4. blind spot
    5. retina

     

    Answer  a     % correct 94      a= 94  b= 0  c= 0  d= 6      r = .20

     

    1. ________ are receptors that are best for seeing details.
    2. Cones
    3. Rods
    4. Bipolar cells
    5. Ganglion cells

     

    Answer  c     % correct 92      a= 8  b= 92  c= 0  d= 0      r = .30

     

    1. For humans, the ability to _______ is probably the most important sense.
    2. hear
    3. taste
    4. see
    5. smell

     

    Answer  a     % correct 58      a= 58  b= 33  c= 0  d= 8      r = .33

     

    1. Light enters the eye through the _______.
    2. cornea
    3. pupil
    4. iris
    5. retina

     

    Answer  b     % correct 83      a= 8  b= 83  c= 8  d= 0      r = .36

     

    1. The inner lining on the back of the eyeball which is sensitive to light is called the _______.
    2. fovea
    3. retina
    4. iris
    5. optic nerve

    Answer  d     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 0  c= 8  d= 92      r = .28

     

    1. Light is focused on the retina by the _______.
    2. cornea
    3. pupil
    4. iris
    5. lens

     

    Answer  a     % correct 77      a= 77  b= 8  c= 0  d= 15      r = .77

     

    1. The depressed spot in the retina which occupies the center of the visual field in which images are focused MOST sharply is called the _______.
    2. fovea
    3. cornea
    4. iris
    5. optic nerve

     

    Answer  c     % correct 92      a= 8  b= 0  c= 92  d= 0      r = .28

     

    1. The shape of the lens adjusts in order to _______.
    2. protect the eye from too much light
    3. let in more light when it is dark
    4. focus on different objects at different distances
    5. allow time for the eye to adjust to bright light

     

    Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 6  c= 0  d= 6      r = .30

     

    1. Rods and cones are found in the _______.
    2. retina
    3. iris
    4. optic nerve
    5. cornea

     

    Answer  b     % correct 75      a= 17  b= 75  c= 8  d=  0     r = .30

     

    1. Rods and cones are connected to ________.
    2. optic neurons
    3. bipolar neurons
    4. interneurons
    5. efferent neurons

     

    Answer  c     % correct 39      a= 6  b= 11  c= 39  d= 44      r = .23

     

    1. The place in the retina where the axons of all the ganglion cells come together to leave the eye is called the _______.
    2. fovea
    3. optic chiasm
    4. blind spot
    5. optic nerve

     

    Answer  d     % correct 100      a= 0  b= 0  c= 0  d= 100      r = .00

     

    1. Light receptors which see best at night are the _______.
    2. foveas
    3. cones
    4. shafts
    5. rods

     

    Answer  b     % correct 83      a= 8  b= 83  c= 0  d= 8      r = .33

     

    1. The eyes detect different colors by using the _______.
    2. cortex
    3. cones
    4. shafts
    5. rods

     

    Answer  a     % correct 94      a= 94  b= 0  c= 6  d= 0      r = .28

     

    1. The range of electromagnetic wavelengths that we can see is called the:
    2. visible spectrum.
    3. acuity range.
    4. visual field.
    5. visual angle.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 78      a= 78  b= 6  c= 11  d= 6      r = .66

     

    1. What structure in your eye is most like the film in a camera?
    2. the retina
    3. the lens
    4. the cornea
    5. the pupil

     

    Answer  b     % correct 83      a= 8  b= 83  c= 8  d= 0      r = .36

     

    1. Adaptation is the process in which _______.
    2. receptor cells become linked to one another
    3. receptor sensitivity changes depending upon the intensity of the stimulus
    4. visual acuity improves as one centers an object’s light on the fovea
    5. nonspectral colors can be seen

     

    Answer  c     % correct 77      a= 0  b= 15  c= 77  d= 8      r = .47

     

    1. The process by which rods and cones become more sensitive to light in response to lowered levels of illumination is called _______.
    2. afterimage resolution
    3. light adaptation
    4. dark adaptation
    5. afterimage adaptation

    Answer  b     % correct 74      a= 7  b= 74  c= 16  d= 3      r = .39

     

    1. The aspect of color that corresponds to names such as red, green, and blue is __________.
    2. brightness
    3. hue
    4. saturation
    5. fine detail

     

    Answer  b     % correct 60      a= 34  b= 60  c= 0  d= 7      r = .20

     

    1. The purity, richness, or vividness of a hue is known as its __________.
    2. brightness
    3. saturation
    4. additive mix
    5. depth

     

    Answer  b     % correct 66      a= 32  b= 66  c= 1  d= 1      r = .44

     

    1. The vividness or richness of a hue is known as its:
    2. brightness.
    3. saturation.
    4. additive mix.
    5. complement.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 80      a= 3  b= 12  c= 80  d= 4      r = .39

     

    1. Hue, saturation, and brightness are three separate aspects of our experience of:
    2. sensation.
    3. acuity.
    4. color.
    5. night vision.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 51      a= 51  b= 28  c= 9  d= 12      r = .58

     

    1. The trichromat:
    2. can see all colors of the spectrum.
    3. sees only red, green, and white.
    4. cannot see color.
    5. cannot perceive red and green.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 39      a= 17  b= 17  c= 39  d= 27      r = .27

     

    1. The Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision assumes that:
    2. color receptors exist in opposing pairs.
    3. color perception is determined by differences in the firing rates of three types of retinal cells.
    4. there are three different types of cones.
    5. all of the above

    Answer  c     % correct 72      a= 0  b= 8  c= 72  d= 20      r = .23

     

    1. The opponent-process theory of color vision contends that color vision is a result of:
    2. lateral inhibition on the retina itself.
    3. lateral inhibition in the visual cortex.
    4. calculation of differences in the firing rates of three types of retinal cells.
    5. competition between three types of rods and three types of cones.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 83      a= 8  b= 83  c= 0  d= 8      r = .30

     

    1. The wavelength of the light to reach your eyes determines what _______ you see.
    2. brightness
    3. hue
    4. saturation
    5. fine detail

     

    Answer  a     % correct 85      a= 85  b= 0  c= 8  d= 8      r = .21

     

    1. Red, green, and blue are _______.
    2. primary colors
    3. secondary colors
    4. additive colors
    5. complementary colors

     

    Answer  b     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 92  c= 8  d= 0      r = .28

     

    1. A dichromat _______.
    2. sees all colors
    3. is either red-green or yellow-blue color blind
    4. responds only to blue-yellow or red-green
    5. responds only to black and white

     

    Answer  a     % correct 64      a= 64  b= 13  c= 16  d= 6      r = .29

     

    1. Which Gestalt law of organization must always occur even if other laws of organization are also illustrated?
    2. figure-ground
    3. similarity
    4. proximity
    5. closure

     

    Answer  a     % correct 60      a= 60  b= 14  c= 21  d= 4      r = .30

     

    1. Which Gestalt law of organization must always occur even if other laws of organization are also illustrated?
    2. figure-ground
    3. similarity
    4. proximity
    5. closure

     

    Answer  b     % correct 90      a= 5  b= 90  c= 3  d= 2      r = .20

     

    1. Elements that share common features such as size, shape, or color are viewed as a set. This defines which Gestalt law of organization?
    2. figure-ground
    3. similarity
    4. proximity
    5. closure

     

    Answer  d     % correct 76      a= 10  b= 4  c= 10  d= 76      r = .21

     

    1. Perceiving incomplete objects as complete define:
    2. figure-ground.
    3. similarity.
    4. proximity.
    5. closure.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 57      a= 28  b= 13  c= 57  d= 3      r = .22

     

    1. Figure-ground is to _______ as dream interpretation is to psychoanalysis.
    2. structuralism
    3. functionalism
    4. Gestalt
    5. humanism

     

    Answer  b     % correct 80      a= 7  b= 80  c= 3  d= 10      r = .34

     

    1. Experiencing MEANINGFUL patterns in the jumble of sensory information received by the brain is _______.
    2. sensation
    3. perception
    4. adaptation
    5. transduction

     

    Answer  b     % correct 80      a= 7  b= 80  c= 6  d= 7      r = .34

     

    1. Gestalt theorists propose that much of what we see is divided into:
    2. proximal and distal.
    3. figure and ground.
    4. standard and deviant.
    5. chromatic and monocular.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 68      a= 22  b= 6  c= 5  d= 68      r = .21

     

    1. Gestalt theorists are known for explaining:
    2. figure-ground reversals.
    3. the law of similarity.
    4. the law of proximity.
    5. all of the above

    Answer  a     % correct 49      a= 49  b= 30  c= 5  d= 17      r = .23

     

    1. Perceptions differ from sensations in that:
    2. perceptions depend as much on prior experience as they do on neural cues traveling between receptors and the brain.
    3. perceptions are purely psychological, whereas sensations are purely neural.
    4. each sensation is actually a large set of perceptions.
    5. sensations depend mostly on learning, whereas perceptions are innate processes.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 91      a= 2  b= 91  c= 1  d= 5      r = .30

     

    1. Our tendency to see objects as relatively stable and unchanging despite changing sensory information is called perceptual __________.
    2. closure
    3. constancy
    4. reversibility
    5. coherency

     

    Answer  b     % correct 86      a= 2  b= 86  c= 1  d= 10      r = .42

     

    1. When we look at a white house, we can recognize it as a white house by day or night and from any angle. This is due to perceptual __________.
    2. closure
    3. constancy
    4. reversibility
    5. coherency

     

    Answer  c     % correct 88      a= 10  b= 1  c= 88  d= 1      r = .42

     

    1. Whether you are standing right next to it or a mile away from it, you know a tree is the same size because of________
    2. the figure-ground distinction
    3. the phi phenomenon
    4. perceptual constancy
    5. retinal disparity

    Answer  d     % correct 71      a= 4  b= 7  c= 19  d= 71      r = .29

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT a perceptual constancy?
    2. size
    3. shape
    4. brightness
    5. linear perspective

    Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 1  c= 1  d= 9      r = .20

     

    1. People with normal vision will perceive a pyramid whether they see the object from the side, top, or any other angle as long as the object is, in fact, a pyramid. This is the law of:
    2. shape constancy.
    3. size constancy.
    4. figure-ground.
    5. visual angle.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 97      a= 1  b= 0  c= 97  d= 2      r = .22

     

    1. “Single-eye vision is to _______ as double-eye vision is to _______.”
    2. kinetic; monocular
    3. monocular; kinetic
    4. monocular; binocular
    5. binocular; monocular

     

    Answer  c     % correct 85      a= 1  b= 12  c= 85  d= 2      r = .25

     

    1. You are seated at a small table talking to a friend opposite you who is drinking coffee. As she lifts the cup off the saucer and raises it to her mouth, the image made on your retina by the bottom of the cup actually changes shape, but you still “see” it as round due to:
    2. good continuation.
    3. movement parallax.
    4. perceptual constancy.
    5. proximity.

    Answer  b     % correct 91      a= 7  b= 91  c= 1  d=  1     r = .31

     

    1. Our tendency to see objects as relatively stable and unchanging despite changing sensory information is called _______.
    2. closure
    3. constancy
    4. reversibility
    5. coherency

     

    Answer  a     % correct 94      a= 94  b= 1  c= 2  d= 3      r = .31

     

    1. When we look at a white house, we can recognize it as a white house by day or night and from any angle. This is due to perceptual _______.
    2. closure
    3. constancy
    4. reversibility
    5. coherency

    Answer  b     % correct 78      a= 1  b= 78  c= 3  d= 19      r = .48

     

    1. Color, shape, size, and brightness are all types of perceptual _______.
    2. closure
    3. constancy
    4. reversibility
    5. coherency

     

    Answer  a     % correct  53     a= 53  b= 8  c= 4  d= 35      r = .49

     

    1. Size constancy explains why _______.
    2. objects are perceived as having constant dimensions regardless of distance
    3. perception of size is inversely related to distance
    4. closer objects are perceived as smaller than far-away objects
    5. distance affects perceived size

     

    Answer  c     % correct 73      a= 12  b= 3  c= 73  d= 12      r = .34

     

    1. Whether you are standing right next to it or a mile away from it, you know a tree is the same size because of _______.
    2. the figure-ground distinction
    3. the phi phenomenon
    4. perceptual constancy
    5. retinal disparity

     

    Answer  b     % correct 97      a= 2  b= 97  c= 1  d= 0      r = .18

     

    1. When you stand to the side of a window frame, it casts a trapezoidal (nonrectangular) image on your retina. It still seems rectangular to you, though, because of _______.
    2. size constancy
    3. shape constancy
    4. figure-ground constancy
    5. the phi phenomenon

     

    Answer  a     % correct 84      a= 84  b= 1  c= 4  d= 11      r = .37

     

    1. People with normal vision will perceive a pyramid whether they see the object from the side, top, or any other angle as long as the object is, in fact, a pyramid. This is the law of _______.
    2. shape constancy
    3. size constancy
    4. figure-ground
    5. visual angle

    Answer  b     % correct 23      a= 5  b= 23  c= 19  d= 53      r = .28

     

    1. The law of brightness constancy suggests that our perception of an object is a result of the _______ of the light from the object divided by the light surrounding it.
    2. sum
    3. ratio
    4. amount
    5. intensity

    Answer c      % correct 84      a= 9  b= 4  c= 84  d= 4      r = .31

     

    1. The distance cue in which objects at greater distances appear to be smoother is __________.
    2. linear perspective
    3. aerial perspective
    4. texture gradient
    5. motion parallax

     

    Answer  a     % correct 94      a= 94  b= 1  c= 1  d= 4      r = .28

     

    1. The distance cue in which two parallel lines extend into the distance and seem to come together at one point is called __________.
    2. linear perspective
    3. aerial perspective
    4. shadowing
    5. motion parallax

     

    Answer  c     % correct 48      a= 12  b= 3  c= 48  d= 37      r = .31

     

    1. While riding on a train, David notices that the trees and telephone poles close to the tracks seem to flash by, while the buildings, trees, and mountains that are farther away seem to move by more slowly. This phenomenon is called_____________
    2. aerial perspective
    3. subliminal motion
    4. motion parallax
    5. motion differential

     

    Answer  c     % correct 97      a= 1  b= 1  c= 97  d= 1      r = .22

     

    1. “One-eye vision is to _______ as two-eye vision is to ________.”
    2. kinetic; monocular
    3. monocular; kinetic
    4. monocular; binocular
    5. binocular; monocular

     

    Answer  c     % correct 62      a= 7  b= 18  c= 62  d= 13      r = .58

     

    1. How blurry-looking an object appears and linear perspective are cues associated with _______ depth perception.
    2. binocular disparity
    3. kinesthetic
    4. monocular
    5. binocular

     

    Answer  b     % correct 54      a= 20  b= 54  c= 20  d= 6      r = .38

     

    1. Which of the following is an example of a monocular cue?
    2. far objects looking clear, and near ones looking blurry
    3. the trees in a forest converging in the distance
    4. the double image of a finger held in front of one eye
    5. the appearance of a small light making movements against a dark background

     

    Answer  c     % correct 74      a= 8  b= 7  c= 74  d= 11      r = .46

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT a monocular cue?
    2. clearness
    3. linear perspective
    4. retinal disparity
    5. texture

     

    Answer  b     % correct 85      a= 6  b= 85  c= 5  d= 3      r = .31

     

    1. When you look out the window of a car that is traveling 60 mph, objects at different locations appear to move in different directions and different speeds. This apparent motion is known as:
    2. the kinetic depth effect.
    3. motion parallax.
    4. movement illusion.
    5. linear perspective.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 92      a= 92  b= 3  c= 0  d= 5      r = .20

     

    1. When you look out the window of a car that is traveling 60 mph, close objects appear:
    2. to be moving faster than far ones.
    3. to be moving slower than far ones.
    4. to be moving at the same speed as far ones.
    5. to be stationary and the far ones appear to be moving in the opposite direction as the car.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 95      a= 95  b= 1  c= 0  d=  4     r = .33

     

    1. The distance cue in which two parallel lines extend into the distance and seem to come together at one point is called _______.
    2. linear perspective
    3. aerial perspective
    4. shadowing
    5. motion parallax

     

    Answer  b     % correct 64      a= 16  b= 64  c= 14  d= 6      r = .43

     

    1. The distance cue in which faraway objects appear to be hazy and have a blurred outline is called _______.
    2. linear perspective
    3. aerial perspective
    4. shadowing
    5. motion parallax

     

    Answer  a     % correct 71      a= 71  b= 2  c= 8  d= 20      r = .34

     

    1. An object’s elevation is a perspective cue to _______.
    2. distance
    3. shape
    4. shadowing
    5. size

     

    Answer  b     % correct 94      a= 3  b= 94  c=  3 d= 0      r = .31

     

    1. Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become _______.
    2. more detailed in the distance
    3. less detailed in the distance
    4. more detailed as brightness increases
    5. less detailed as brightness increases

     

    Answer  c     % correct 86      a= 4  b= 2  c= 86  d=  8     r = .43

     

    1. Shadowing is a cue to _______.
    2. linear perspective
    3. width perception
    4. depth perception
    5. color perception

     

    Answer  d     % correct 39      a= 38  b= 5  c= 17  d= 39      r = .37

     

    1. Which of the following choices is NOT a monocular cue that painters can incorporate into their work to convey information about the relative distances of objects?
    2. superposition
    3. linear perspective
    4. aerial perspective
    5. convergence

     

    Answer  b     % correct 64      a= 18  b= 64  c= 3  d= 16      r = .31

     

    1. The monocular distance cue in which objects closer than the point of visual focus seem to move in the direction opposite to the viewer’s moving head, and objects beyond the viewing point move in the same direction as the viewer’s head is _______.
    2. retinal disparity
    3. motion parallax
    4. subliminal motion
    5. motion differential

    Answer  c     % correct 85      a= 4  b= 3  c= 85  d= 8      r = .32

     

    1. While riding on a train, David notices that the trees and telephone poles close to the tracks seem to flash by, while the buildings, trees, and mountains that are farther away seem to move by more slowly. This phenomenon is called ________.
    2. aerial perspective
    3. subliminal motion
    4. motion parallax
    5. motion differential

     

    Answer  c     % correct 67      a= 12  b= 2  c= 67  d= 19      r = .46

     

    1. Clearness and linear perspective are examples of _______ cues for depth perception.
    2. binocular
    3. kinetic
    4. monocular
    5. all of the above

     

    Answer  b     % correct 93      a= 4  b= 93  c= 1  d= 2      r = .20

     

    1. If perceptual information aiding in depth perception must be drawn simultaneously from both eyes, it is referred to as _______.
    2. a monocular cue
    3. a binocular cue
    4. contralateral input
    5. a duoretinal image

     

    Answer  d     % correct 91      a= 4  b= 2  c= 3  d= 91      r = .28

     

    1. The impression of depth can be created or enhanced in visual art by encouraging the person viewing a drawing to assume that converging lines are actually parallel. This artistic ploy uses the depth cue of _______.
    2. interposition
    3. elevation
    4. accommodation
    5. linear perspective

     

    Answer  b     % correct 87      a= 8  b=  87 c= 4  d= 1      r = .32

     

    1. A drawing of a gravel road depicts the tiny rocks as becoming smaller and less distinct as one looks “down the lane.” This simulation of depth on a two-dimensional sheet of paper is an example of the _______ cue.
    2. interposition
    3. texture gradient
    4. elevation
    5. shadowing

    Answer  b     % correct 62      a= 15  b= 62  c= 14  d= 8      r = .46

     

    1. Which of the following is an example of a monocular cue?
    2. far objects looking clear, and near ones looking blurry
    3. the trees in a forest converging in the distance
    4. the double image of a finger held in front of one eye
    5. the appearance of a small light making movements against a dark background

     

    Answer  b     % correct 90      a= 1  b= 90  c= 8  d= 1      r = .36

     

    1. Railroad tracks converging in the distance best illustrate which monocular cue?
    2. texture gradient
    3. linear perspective
    4. texture gradient and linear perspective
    5. clearness and texture gradient

    Answer  a     % correct 67      a= 67  b= 17  c= 6  d=       r = .33

     

    1. An illusion due to misleading cues in stimuli which cause us to create perceptions that are inaccurate or impossible is called a(n) _______ illusion.
    2. perceptual
    3. induced
    4. physical
    5. stroboscopic

     

     

     

    Hearing

     

    Answer  c     % correct 81      a= 10  b= 1  c= 81  d= 7      r = .22

     

    1. The physical stimuli for the sense of hearing are called __________ waves.
    2. alpha
    3. infrared
    4. sound
    5. sine

     

    Answer  b     % correct 53      a= 15  b= 53  c= 20  d= 9      r = .27

     

    1. The changes in pressure caused when molecules of air or fluid collide with one another then move apart again are called __________.
    2. hertz
    3. sound waves
    4. decibels
    5. pitch

    Answer  c     % correct 40      a= 40  b= 8  c= 40  d= 11      r = .20

     

    1. The structures in the inner ear that are particularly sensitive to body rotation are the __________.
    2. vestibular sacs
    3. saccules
    4. semicircular canals
    5. papillae

     

    Answer  a     % correct 81      a= 81  b= 9  c= 10  d= 0      r = .26

     

    1. Hertz is a unit of measurement of __________.
    2. frequency
    3. amplitude
    4. loudness
    5. overtones

     

    Answer  b     % correct 32      a= 52  b= 32  c= 0  d= 16      r = .46

     

    1. The part of the ear that equalizes the pressure in the inner ear when the stirrup hits against the oval window is called the:
    2. cochlea.
    3. round window.
    4. earlobe.
    5. organ of Corti.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 67      a= 0  b= 33  c= 0  d= 67      r = .20

     

    1. The middle ear includes the ______.
    2. ear canal
    3. round window
    4. hammer
    5. basilar membrane

     

    Answer  d     % correct 69      a= 0  b= 23  c= 8  d= 69      r = .66

     

    1. The flexible membrane inside the cochlea is called the:
    2. round window.
    3. eardrum.
    4. oval window.
    5. basilar membrane.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 77      a= 15  b= 77  c= 8  d= 0      r = .58

     

    1. The oval window, cochlea, and basilar membrane are all part of the:
    2. middle ear.
    3. inner ear.
    4. external ear.
    5. auditory chamber.

    Answer  b     % correct 72      a= 11  b= 72  c= 11  d= 6      r = .53

     

    1. An increase in the frequency of sound waves will correspond most directly to an increase in _______.
    2. amplitude
    3. pitch
    4. loudness
    5. decibels

     

    Answer  c     % correct 85      a= 8  b= 8  c= 85  d= 0      r = .60

     

    1. As sounds become louder, their ______ increases.
    2. frequency
    3. pitch
    4. amplitude
    5. hertz

     

    Answer  d     % correct 50      a= 22  b= 11  c= 17  d= 50      r = .76

     

    1. The boundary between the middle and inner ear is the:
    2. basilar membrane.
    3. cochlea.
    4. eardrum.
    5. oval window.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 83      a= 8  b= 8  c= 83  d= 0      r = .27

     

    1. The physical stimuli for the sense of hearing are called _______ waves.
    2. alpha
    3. radio
    4. sound
    5. beta

     

    Answer  a     % correct 75      a= 75  b= 8  c= 8  d= 8      r = .69

     

    1. Frequency determines _______.
    2. pitch
    3. amplitude
    4. timbre
    5. overtones

     

    Answer  b     % correct 92      a= 8  b= 92  c= 0  d= 0      r = .58

     

    1. The height of a sound wave represents its _______.
    2. pitch
    3. amplitude
    4. timbre
    5. overtones

    Answer  a     % correct 67      a= 67  b= 17  c= 17  d= 0      r = .35

     

    1. Hertz is a unit of measurement of _______.
    2. frequency
    3. amplitude
    4. loudness
    5. overtones

     

    Answer  c     % correct 72      a= 11  b= 17  c= 72  d= 0      r = .51

     

    1. Decibels are used to measure _______.
    2. frequency
    3. amplitude
    4. loudness
    5. overtones

     

    Answer  b     % correct 92      a= 8  b= 92  c= 0  d= 0      r = .20

     

    1. The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are the _______.
    2. three components of the eardrum
    3. three tiny bones in the middle ear
    4. membranes in the oval window
    5. three components of the basilar membrane cochlea

     

    Answer   b    % correct 92      a= 0  b= 92  c= 8  d= 0      r = .20

     

    1. Hearing begins when sound waves bump against the _______.
    2. earlobe
    3. eardrum
    4. oval window
    5. round window

     

    Answer  a     % correct 72      a= 72  b= 27  c= 0  d= 0      r = .34

     

    1. The hammer, anvil, and stirrup are all located in the _______.
    2. middle ear
    3. inner ear
    4. external ear
    5. oval window

     

    Answer  c     % correct 76      a= 0  b= 5  c= 76  d= 18      r = .58

     

    1. An oscilloscope is used to _______.
    2. transmit air conduction sound
    3. measure the intensity of light
    4. convert sound waves to visible waves
    5. view the entire spectrum of light

    Answer  a     % correct 83      a= 83  b= 6  c= 11  d= 0      r = .63

     

    1. The place theory and the frequency theory help to explain _______.
    2. how a wide range of frequencies is heard by the ear
    3. how amplitude is regulated by the ear
    4. how sounds are located
    5. how “boilermakers’ deafness” occurs

     

     

     

    Other Senses

     

    Answer  c     % correct 49      a= 35  b= 3  c= 49  d= 13      r = .18

     

    1. The patch of nasal membrane tissue that houses receptor cells for smell is the __________.
    2. olfactory bulb
    3. Golgi tendon organ
    4. olfactory epithelium
    5. olfactory mucosa

     

    Answer  d     % correct 89      a= 6  b= 6  c= 0  d= 89      r = .20

     

    1. The four primary taste sensations are sweet, bitter, sour, and _______.
    2. neutral
    3. tart
    4. acid
    5. salt

     

    Answer  c     % correct 87      a= 1  b= 1  c= 87  d= 11      r = .49

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four primary taste qualities that humans perceive?
    2. bitter
    3. sour
    4. tart
    5. salt

     

    Answer  c     % correct 91      a= 8  b= 2  c= 91  d= 0      r = .31

     

    1. Flavor is:
    2. taste.
    3. smell.
    4. a combination of taste and smell.
    5. a combination of touch and taste.

    Answer  a     % correct 83      a= 83  b= 8  c= 0  d= 8      r = .56

     

    1. Taste buds are contained in the tongue’s _______.
    2. papillae
    3. hair cells
    4. underside
    5. saccules

     

    Answer  c     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 8  c= 92  d= 0      r = .23

     

    1. A spook house in a local carnival offered its potential patrons free admission if they would allow themselves to be blindfolded and then to eat raw worms. Although they were actually fed cold spaghetti, most of the customers believed they were swallowing real worms.  What is the MOST plausible explanation for this finding?
    2. The cold spaghetti dulled nerve endings in the taste buds.
    3. This particular food failed to depolarize adjacent neurons in the tongue.
    4. Food flavor is really a composite of taste, smell, sight, and texture.
    5. Sensory receptors in the brain were not activated.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 42      a= 46  b= 42  c= 6  d= 5      r = .23

     

    1. Axons from the nerve cells in the nose carry messages directly to the __________ of the brain.
    2. olfactory epithelium
    3. olfactory bulbs
    4. papillae
    5. vomeronasal organ

     

    Answer  a     % correct 48      a= 48  b= 29  c= 20  d= 3      r = .22

     

    1. The first location to receive smell information in the brain is the __________.
    2. olfactory bulb
    3. olfactory epithelium
    4. thalamus
    5. vomeronasal organ

     

    Answer  d     % correct 53      a= 3  b= 11  c= 34  d= 53      r = .27

     

    1. According to the __________ theory, distinct receptors exist for the sensation of temperature.
    2. magnitude estimation
    3. place
    4. vascular
    5. specific receptor

     

    Answer  a     % correct 94      a= 94  b= 6  c= 0  d= 0      r = .23

     

    1. What sensations are detected by the skin?
    2. pressure, pain, warmth, and cold
    3. only pain, warmth, and cold
    4. only pressure, pain, and warmth
    5. only pressure and pain

     

    Answer  d     % correct 91      a= 3  b= 3  c= 3  d= 91      r = .45

     

    1. When a warm object is placed against a “cold spot” on our skin, we feel cold. This is known as _______.
    2. transference
    3. the vascular effect
    4. temperature reversal
    5. paradoxical cold

     

    Answer  b   p. 136   % correct 89   a= 2 b= 89 c= 6 d= 4   r = .21

     

    1. Experimenter bias can best be controlled using ________.
    2. a placebo
    3. double-blind control
    4. randomization
    5. subjects who do not know the purpose of the study

     

    Answer  b   p. 136   % correct 79   a= 2 b= 79 c= 16 d= 4   r = .46

     

    1. Mr. Marshall hired June to collect data from a group of subjects. Neither June nor the subjects were aware of the independent variable that Mr. Marshall had manipulated. This is an example of _______.
    2. randomization
    3. a placebo
    4. double-blind control
    5. experimenter bias

     

    Answer  c   p. 136   % correct 97   a= 2 b= 1 c= 97 d= 1   r = .20

     

    1. A “fake treatment” is one way to define a ______.
    2. decoy
    3. demand characteristic
    4. control group
    5. placebo

    Answer  d   p. 136   % correct 81   a= 7 b= 6 c= 6 d= 81   r = .39

     

    1. Dr. Welsh is doing experiments using drugs. He is concerned that his subjects will respond to demand characteristics. He may want to control for this by using which of the following?
    2. stratification
    3. two independent variables
    4. a placebo
    5. randomization

     

     

     

    Perceptual Powers:  Origins and Influences

     

    Answer  a     % correct 94      a= 94  b= 5  c= 0  d= 1      r = .27

     

    1. The visual cliff is a device for studying __________.
    2. depth perception in human infants
    3. visual acuity
    4. color vision
    5. gross motor coordination

     

    Answer  b     % correct 89      a= 0  b= 89  c= 6  d= 5      r = .37

     

    1. The apparatus used to study infants’ depth perception is the _________.
    2. looking platform
    3. visual cliff
    4. binocular mirror box
    5. visual platform

     

    Name  __________________________________________________________

     

    Chapter 7 – Quick Quiz 1

     

     

    1. In Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning in dogs, the food dish was the _______________.
    2. conditioned stimulus                                        c.     conditioned response
    3. unconditioned stimulus                                   d.     unconditioned response

     

    1. _______________ occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
    2. Learning                                                             c.     Spontaneous recovery
    3. Extinction                                                           d.     Stimulus generalization

     

    1. When the conditioned response reappears after extinction followed by a rest period, _______________ has

    occurred.

    1. learning                                                               c.     spontaneous recovery
    2. extinction                                                           d.     stimulus generalization

     

    1. One of the first psychologists to recognize the real-life implications of classical conditioning

    was _______________, who founded American behaviorism.

    1. B. F. Skinner                                                      c.     William James
    2. John B. Watson                                                 d.     Edward Tolman

     

    1. What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement?
    2. There is no difference—the two terms are synonymous.
    3. Punishment involves presentation of an aversive consequence, but negative reinforcement involves

    removal of a positive consequence.

    1. Negative reinforcement is part of operant conditioning, but punishment is used in classical conditioning.
    2. Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior, but punishment weakens it.

     

    1. Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
    2. Food                                                                    c.     Attention
    3. Money                                                                d.     Gold stars

     

    1. Keller and Marian Breland were unable to teach a pig to drop a “coin” in a box because of _______________.
    2. shaping                                                               c.     instinctive drift
    3. intermittent reinforcement                              d.     successive approximations

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT true?
    2. Skinner invented an Air-Crib for his daughter.
    3. Skinner won the Humanitarian of the Year Award in 1972.
    4. Skinner insisted that free will is an illusion.
    5. Skinner denied the existence of human consciousness.

     

    1. Albert Bandura is well known for his study of _______________.
    2. observational learning                                     c.     conditioned taste aversion
    3. latent learning                                                    d.     punishment

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT a guideline for behavior modification?
    2. Accentuate the positive.
    3. Reinforce small improvements.
    4. Use intermittent reinforcement right from the beginning.
    5. Set realistic goals.

    Chapter 7 Learning and Conditioning

     

     

     

    [NOTE: Correct answer and item analysis are located ABOVE question.]

     

     

    Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 2  c= 5  d= 4      r = .40

     

    1. The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior is known as __________.
    2. learning
    3. intelligence formation
    4. imprinting
    5. cognition

     

    Answer  b     % correct 80      a= 10  b= 80  c= 10  d= 0      r = .25

     

    1. Learning is a process by which experience results in __________.
    2. acquisition of motivation
    3. relatively permanent behavior change
    4. amplification of sensory stimuli
    5. delayed genetic behavioral contributions

     

    Answer  b     % correct 90      a= 5  b= 90  c= 1  d= 4      r = .36

     

    1. Learning is a process by which experience results in:
    2. acquisition of motivation.
    3. relatively permanent behavior change.
    4. delayed genetic behavioral contributions.
    5. amplification of sensory stimuli.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 81      a= 6  b= 81  c= 1  d= 12      r = .21

     

    1. Which of the following statements about learning is TRUE?
    2. Learning can be directly observed and measured.
    3. Learning cannot be directly observed or measured, so performance is observed and learning is inferred based on what the person is able to do.
    4. The results of learning must immediately change behavior.
    5. None of the above

     

    Answer  c     % correct 96      a= 1  b= 0  c= 96  d= 3      r = .24

     

    1. The process by which experience results in a relatively permanent change in what one is capable of doing is called:
    2. knowledge.
    3. intelligence.
    4. learning.
    5. performance.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 82      a= 11  b= 0  c= 7  d= 82      r = .26

     

    1. Which of the following is an example of learning?
    2. The human brain continues to grow and develop after birth.
    3. A human male develops the capacity to produce sperm cells at puberty.
    4. Drinking coffee makes a person more aroused.
    5. A student does not swat at a wasp buzzing around her head.

     

     

     

     

    Classical Conditioning

     

    Answer  a     % correct 77      a= 77  b= 16  c= 4  d= 1      r = .29

     

    1. Thorndike was known for his work with __________.
    2. a puzzle box
    3. modeling
    4. monkeys
    5. a Skinner box

     

    Answer  d     % correct 95      a= 0  b= 0  c= 5  d= 95      r = .27

     

    1. Ivan Pavlov is most closely associated with __________.
    2. vicarious learning
    3. the Law of Effect
    4. operant conditioning
    5. classical conditioning

     

    Answer  a     % correct 88      a= 88  b= 3  c= 7  d=       r = .42

     

    1. By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, the presentation of the meat was the:
    2. unconditioned stimulus.
    3. unconditioned response.
    4. conditioned stimulus.
    5. conditioned response.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 81      a= 86  b= 6  c= 4  d= 9       r = .23

     

    1. An experiment finds that a certain male subject always has an increased heartbeat when he hears a certain piece of music. The experimenter sounds a buzzer and then plays the piece of music.  The experimenter repeats this procedure until the man responds with an increased heartbeat to the sound of the buzzer alone.  In this situation the UNCONDITIONED response is the:
    2. increased heartbeat.
    3. piece of music.
    4. sound of the buzzer.
    5. listening to the music.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 79      a= 1  b= 79  c= 0  d= 20      r = .35

     

    1. Many individuals decide that they feel hungry and eat lunch when they see both hands of the clock on the 12, indicating that it is noontime. This may occur regardless of how recently they ate breakfast.  In this example, the conditioned response is:
    2. the act of eating breakfast.
    3. the act of eating lunch.
    4. the counting of the number of hours since breakfast.
    5. the watching of the hands of the clock.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 89      a= 3  b= 3  c= 4  d= 89      r = .30

     

    1. Some of the simplest and most basic learning that involves the acquisition of fairly specific patterns of behaviors in the presence of well-defined stimuli is:
    2. motivation.
    3. cognitive dissonance.
    4. integration.
    5. conditioning.

     

    1. Classical conditioning was discovered by:
    2. Pavlov.
    3. Watson.
    4. Thorndike.
    5. Skinner.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 95      a= 5  b= 0  c= 0  d= 95      r = .25

     

    1. We associate the name of _______ most closely with classical conditioning.
    2. B. F. Skinner
    3. Robert Rescorla
    4. Albert Bandura
    5. Ivan Pavlov

     

    Answer  a     % correct 38      a= 38  b= 35  c= 23  d= 3      r = .40

     

    1. Thorndike conducted research on:
    2. operant conditioning.
    3. classical conditioning.
    4. shaping.
    5. higher-order conditioning.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 65      a= 3  b= 19  c= 65  d= 13      r = .25

     

    1. Thorndike’s main apparatus in his operant conditioning research was:
    2. a wire monkey.
    3. a cognitive map.
    4. a puzzle box.
    5. a buzzer.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 80      a= 80  b= 5  c= 8  d= 8      r = .20

     

    1. Classical conditioning was discovered by _______.
    2. Pavlov
    3. Watson
    4. Thorndike
    5. Skinner

     

    Answer  c     % correct 38      a= 38  b= 8  c= 38  d= 16      r = .43

     

    1. What must be paired together for classical conditioning to occur?
    2. unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response
    3. conditioned response and unconditioned response
    4. neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus
    5. neutral stimulus and conditioned stimulus

     

    Answer  a     % correct 38      a= 38  b= 8  c= 7  d= 47      r = .20

     

    1. When Ivan Pavlov presented meat powder, the dog salivated. The meat powder was the ________ and salivation was the ________.
    2. UR, US
    3. US, UR
    4. CS, CR
    5. CR, CS

     

    Answer  c     % correct 92      a= 5  b= 1  c= 92  d= 1      r = .22

     

    1. By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, the ringing of the bell was the __________.
    2. unconditioned stimulus
    3. unconditioned response
    4. conditioned stimulus
    5. conditioned response

     

    Answer  d     % correct 93      a= 6  b= 0  c= 1  d= 93      r = .23

     

    1. Rachel has found that when she opens the cupboard door to get the cat food, the cats come running to the kitchen. Rachel knows that this is classical conditioning and that the conditioned stimulus is the __________.
    2. cat food
    3. cat
    4. running of the cats
    5. cupboard door opening

     

    Answer  d     % correct 67      a= 24  b= 1  c= 7  d= 67      r = .23

     

    1. Which of the following illustrates an unconditioned stimulus (US)?
    2. blinking when air is blown into your eye
    3. blinking, when you hear your favorite song
    4. your favorite song
    5. a puff of air to your eye

     

    Answer  a     % correct 81      a= 81  b= 17  c= 1  d= 1      r = .37

     

    1. A research participant hears a tone followed by a puff of air directed toward his eye. Later, he blinks when he hears the tone. Before ending the experiment, what could the researcher do in order to extinguish the blinking to that tone?
    2. present the tone alone repeatedly
    3. present the puff of air alone repeatedly
    4. increase the loudness of the tone
    5. increase the amount of air that is directed toward the eye

     

    Answer  c     % correct 94      a= 3  b= 0  c= 94  d= 3      r = .21

     

    1. When Casey opens the closet door to get some dog food, her dog salivates. What is the conditioned stimulus in this example?
    2. dog food
    3. the cat running
    4. the sound of the closet door opening
    5. the dog

     

    Answer  a     % correct 74      a= 74  b= 4  c= 17  d= 4      r = .58

     

    1. By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, the presentation of the meat was the __________.
    2. unconditioned stimulus
    3. unconditioned response
    4. conditioned stimulus
    5. conditioned response

     

    Answer  a     % correct 74      a= 74  b= 0  c= 3  d= 23      r = .61

     

    1. Rachel has found that when she opens the cupboard door to get the cat food, the cats come running to the kitchen. Rachel knows that this is classical conditioning and that the unconditioned stimulus is the __________.
    2. cat food
    3. cat
    4. running of the cats
    5. cupboard door opening

     

    Answer  a     % correct 61      a= 61  b= 14  c= 7  d= 18      r = .33

     

    1. A kind of therapy closely related to classical conditioning is known as __________ therapy.
    2. desensitization
    3. conditioned
    4. psychoanalytic
    5. response

     

    Answer  a     % correct 83      a= 83  b= 3  c= 6  d= 9      r = .25

     

    1. Which of the following statements about classical conditioning is true?
    2. Most classical conditioning requires repeated trials.
    3. One trial is usually enough for conditioning to occur
    4. Learning will continue to increase indefinitely
    5. Learning is more effective if trials follow each other very quickly.

     

    Answer  d     % correct  66     a= 16  b= 12  c= 5  d= 66      r = .43

     

    1. New learning that works in the opposite direction from the original learning results in ________.
    2. shaping
    3. generalization
    4. spontaneous recovery
    5. extinction

     

    Answer  c     % correct 57      a= 23  b= 3  c=  57 d= 16      r = .55

     

    1. Instinctive or involuntary behavior would probably be BEST modified by ___________ .
    2. operant conditioning
    3. trial and error
    4. classical conditioning
    5. shaping

     

    Answer  d     % correct 99      a= 1  b= 0  c= 0  d= 99      r = .03

     

    1. We associate the name of ___________ most closely with classical conditioning.
    2. B. F. Skinner
    3. Robert Rescorla
    4. Albert Bandura
    5. Ivan Pavlov

     

    Answer  a     % correct 76      a= 76  b= 2  c= 20  d= 0      r = .26

     

    1. Rachel has found that when she opens up the cupboard door to get the cat food, the cats come running to the kitchen. Rachel knows that this is classical conditioning, that the unconditioned stimulus is the __________ and that the conditioned stimulus is the ___________.
    2. cat food; cupboard door opening
    3. kitchen; cat food
    4. cupboard door opening; cat food
    5. cat food; kitchen

     

    Answer  c     % correct 95      a= 2  b= 3  c= 95  d= 0      r = .24

     

    1. In classical conditioning, the interstimulus interval refers to the amount of time between ________.
    2. learning trials
    3. extinction trials
    4. presentation of the conditioned stimulus and presentation of the unconditioned stimulus
    5. experimental sessions

     

    Answer  c     % correct 52      a= 30  b= 6  c= 52  d= 11      r = .42

     

    1. Presenting the unconditioned stimulus before the conditioned stimulus is known as _________ conditioning.
    2. classical
    3. operant
    4. backward
    5. aversive

     

    Answer  d     % correct 83      a= 4  b= 3  c= 10  d= 83      r = .31

     

    1. An automatic, innate, and involuntary response to an environmental event is an ________.
    2. UR
    3. reflexive response
    4. unconditioned response
    5. all of the above

     

    Answer  a     % correct 77      a= 77  b= 2  c= 7  d= 15      r = .40

     

    1. In classical conditioning, when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that naturally elicits a response, the neutral stimulus eventually elicits a similar response or becomes a/an _______ stimulus.
    2. conditioned
    3. discriminative
    4. higher-order
    5. unconditioned

     

    Answer  c     % correct 64      a= 11  b= 21  c= 64  d= 3      r = .35

     

    1. How does one know he/she has classically conditioned a person or an animal?
    2. The unconditioned stimulus all by itself elicits the unconditioned response.
    3. The unconditioned stimulus all by itself elicits the conditioned response.
    4. The conditioned stimulus all by itself elicits the conditioned response.
    5. The unconditioned response all by itself elicits the conditioned response.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 6  c= 3  d= 2      r = .47

     

    1. Which of the following is an example of classical conditioning?
    2. A child learns to blink her eyes to a bell because the ringing of the bell has been followed by a puff of air to the eye.
    3. A pigeon learns to peck at a disk in a Skinner box to get food.
    4. Rich saw that when Donna banged her fist against a particular vending machine, she got a free soft drink, so now he bangs his fist against that machine when he wants a free soft drink.
    5. A monkey learns to escape from a cage.

     

    Answer  b     % correct  63     a= 26  b= 63  c= 8  d= 4      r = .41

     

    1. Most young children put their hands over their ears when they hear the loud boom of firecrackers at a Fourth of July festival, but at first pay just scant attention to the person lighting the firecrackers. However, after just a few firecrackers have been exploded, some of the children put their hands over their ears as soon as they see the person approach the firecracker with a match!  What is the unconditioned stimulus?
    2. the person lighting the firecrackers
    3. the loud booming sound made by the firecrackers
    4. the children putting their hands over their ears when they see the person about to light the firecrackers
    5. the children putting their hands over their ears when the firecrackers explode

     

    Answer  a     % correct 74      a= 74  b= 11  c= 15  d= 0      r = .36

     

    1. Most young children put their hands over their ears when they hear the loud boom of firecrackers at a Fourth of July festival, but at first pay scant attention to the person lighting the firecrackers. However, after just a few firecrackers have been exploded, some of the children put their hands over their ears as soon as they see the person approach the firecracker with a match!  What is the conditioned stimulus?
    2. the person lighting the firecrackers
    3. the loud booming sound made by the firecrackers
    4. the children putting their hands over their ears when they see the person about to light the firecrackers
    5. the children putting their hands over their ears when the firecrackers explode

     

    Answer  d     % correct 52      a= 6  b= 3  c= 38  d= 52      r = .47

     

    1. Most young children put their hands over their ears when they hear the loud boom of firecrackers at a Fourth of July festival, but at first pay scant attention to the person lighting the firecrackers. However, after just a few firecrackers have been exploded, some of the children put their hands over their ears as soon as they see the person approach the firecracker with a match!  What is the unconditioned response?
    2. the person lighting the firecrackers
    3. the loud booming sound made by the firecrackers
    4. the children putting their hands over their ears when they see the person about to light the firecrackers
    5. the children putting their hands over their ears when the firecrackers explode

     

    Answer  d     % correct 69      a= 7  b= 22  c= 2  d= 69      r = .20

     

    1. Classical conditioning:
    2. is primarily concerned with reflexes.
    3. is primarily concerned with involuntary responses.
    4. is passive.
    5. all of the above

     

    Answer  a     % correct 76      a= 76  b= 8  c= 10  d= 4      r = .35

     

    1. Bobby and Sue were parked at Lover’s Lane. When Bobby kissed Sue, his breathing accelerated.  Sue always wore Chanel #5 when she went out with Bobby.  Whenever Bobby smelled Chanel #5, he began to breathe faster.  Sue’s kiss was the:
    2. US.
    3. UR.
    4. CS.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 79      a= 2  b= 79  c= 2  d= 18      r = .34

     

    1. Bobby and Sue were parked at Lover’s Lane. When Bobby kissed Sue, his breathing accelerated.  Sue always wore Chanel #5 when she went out with Bobby.  Bobby’s accelerated breathing when he and Sue kissed is the:
    2. US.
    3. UR.
    4. CS.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 69      a= 26  b= 2  c= 69  d= 2      r = .33

     

    1. Bobby and Sue were parked at Lover’s Lane. When Bobby kissed Sue, his breathing accelerated.  Sue always wore Chanel #5 when she went out with Bobby.  Chanel #5 is the:
    2. US.
    3. UR.
    4. CS.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 70      a= 3  b= 20  c= 7  d= 70      r = .29

     

    1. Bobby and Sue were parked at Lover’s Lane. When Bobby kissed Sue, his breathing accelerated.  Sue always wore Chanel #5 when she went out with Bobby.  Bobby’s faster breathing rate when he smells Chanel #5 is the:
    2. US.
    3. UR.
    4. CS.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 65      a= 15  b= 65  c= 15  d= 4      r = .45

     

    1. In classical conditioning, one must pair the _______ before conditioning can occur.
    2. US and CR
    3. US and CS
    4. CR and CS
    5. UR and CR

     

    Answer  c     % correct 69      a= 10  b= 3  c= 69  d= 18      r = .44

     

    1. Of the four basic elements of classical conditioning, the one the organism learns to respond to is the:
    2. US.
    3. UR.
    4. CS.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 77      a= 77  b= 10  c= 1  d= 13     r = .40

     

    1. As she walked through her neighborhood, Jodie, a 6 year old girl, frequently saw a large brown dog. She repeatedly walked to the dog to pet it, but as her hand approached the animal, it barked and bit her.  The bite was painful and caused her to cry.  Now Jodie cries when she sees dogs of any color or size.  In the example, the dog’s bark and bite is the:
    2. US.
    3. CS.
    4. UR.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 6  c= 2  d= 92      r = .21

     

    1. As she walked through her neighborhood, Jodie, a 6 year old girl, frequently saw a large brown dog. She repeatedly walked to the dog to pet it, but as her hand approached the animal, it barked and bit her.  The bite was painful and caused her to cry.  Now Jodie cries when she sees dogs of any color or size.  Jodie’s crying when she sees dogs is the:
    2. US.
    3. CS.
    4. UR.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 54      a= 18  b= 54  c= 8  d= 21      r = .53

     

    1. As she walked through her neighborhood, Jodie, a 6 year old girl, frequently saw a large brown dog. She repeatedly walked to the dog to pet it, but as her hand approached the animal, it barked and bit her.  The bite was painful and caused her to cry.  Now Jodie cries when she sees dogs of any color or size.   The sight of dogs is the:
    2. US.
    3. CS.
    4. UR.
    5. CR.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 55      a= 19  b= 5  c= 21  d= 55      r = .44

     

    1. Paul is coming down with the flu, but he eats spaghetti anyway and subsequently becomes violently ill. A month later he sees that spaghetti is being served in the dining hall and is overcome by nausea.  What type of learning is illustrated by this episode?
    2. operant conditioning
    3. cognitive learning
    4. latent learning
    5. classical conditioning

     

    Answer  c     % correct 84      a= 10  b= 5  c= 84  d= 0      r = .37

     

    1. In classical conditioning the stimulus that normally evokes an automatic response even without new learning is called the:
    2. conditioned stimulus.
    3. reflexive stimulus.
    4. unconditioned stimulus.
    5. orienting stimulus.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 71      a= 71  b= 3  c= 22  d= 4      r = .28

     

    1. When Luke kissed Laura, her heart rate increased. Luke always wore Old Spice After Shave.  Whenever Laura smelled Old Spice, her heart raced.  Luke’s kiss was the:
    2. unconditioned stimulus.
    3. unconditioned response.
    4. conditioned stimulus.
    5. conditioned response.

     

    Answer  b      % correct 61      a= 5  b= 61  c= 4  d= 30      r = .41

     

    1. When Luke kisses Laura, her heart rate increases. Luke always wore Old Spice After Shave.  Whenever Laura smelled Old Spice, her heart raced.  Laura’s increased heart rate when Luke kissed her was the:
    2. unconditioned stimulus.
    3. unconditioned response.
    4. conditioned stimulus.
    5. conditioned response.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 80      a= 2  b= 11  c= 80  d= 6      r = .32

     

    1. When Luke kissed Laura, her heart rate increases. Luke always wore Old Spice After Shave.  Whenever Laura smelled Old Spice thereafter, her heart raced.  Old Spice After Shave was the:
    2. unconditioned stimulus.
    3. unconditioned response.
    4. conditioned stimulus.
    5. conditioned response.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 77      a= 11  b= 1  c= 11  d= 77      r = .39

     

    1. When Luke kissed Laura, her heart rate increases. Luke always wore Old Spice After Shave.  Whenever Laura smelled Old Spice, her heart would race.  Laura’s increased heart rate when she smelled Old Spice was the:
    2. unconditioned stimulus.
    3. unconditioned response.
    4. conditioned stimulus.
    5. conditioned response.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 72      a= 72  b= 6  c= 8  d= 14      r = .40

     

    1. In classical conditioning, one must be sure to pair the:
    2. US and CS.
    3. US and UR.
    4. CS and CR.
    5. CS and UR.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 92      a= 1  b= 92  c= 4  d= 3      r = .31

     

    1. Pairing the US and CS is essential for _______ to occur.
    2. extinction
    3. classical conditioning
    4. operant conditioning
    5. shaping

     

    Answer  a     % correct 67      a= 3  b= 67  c= 6  d= 24      r = .35

     

    1. By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, the presentation of the meat was the _______.
    2. unconditioned stimulus
    3. unconditioned response
    4. conditioned stimulus
    5. conditioned response

     

    Answer  c     % correct 89      a= 7  b= 2  c= 89  d= 2      r = .33

     

    1. By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, the ringing of the bell was the _______.
    2. unconditioned stimulus
    3. unconditioned response
    4. conditioned stimulus
    5. conditioned response

     

    Answer  b     % correct 74      a= 5  b= 74  c= 2  d= 19      r = .28

     

    1. By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, salivation to the meat was the _______.
    2. unconditioned stimulus
    3. unconditioned response
    4. conditioned stimulus
    5. conditioned response

     

    Answer  d     % correct 79      a= 3  b= 16  c= 2  d= 79      r = .46

     

    1. By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, salivation to the meat was the _______.
    2. unconditioned stimulus
    3. unconditioned response
    4. conditioned stimulus
    5. conditioned response

     

    Answer  a     % correct 61      a= 61  b= 0  c= 6  d= 31      r = .49

     

    1. Rachel has found that when she opens up the cupboard door to get the cat food, the cats come running to the kitchen. Rachel knows that this is classical conditioning and that the unconditioned stimulus is the _______.
    2. cat food
    3. cats
    4. running of the cats
    5. cupboard door opening

     

    Answer  a     % correct 79      a= 79  b=  10 c= 4  d= 7      r = .41

     

    1. An experimenter finds that a certain male subject always has an increased heartbeat when he sees a picture of a nude female. The experimenter sounds a buzzer and then presents such a picture.  The experimenter repeats this procedure until the man responds with an increased heartbeat to the sound of the buzzer alone.  In this situation the UNCONDITIONED response is the _______.
    2. increased heartbeat
    3. female’s picture
    4. sounds of the buzzer
    5. viewing of the picture

     

    Answer  a     % correct 91      a= 91  b= 1  c= 6  d= 2      r = .21

     

    1. An experimenter finds that a certain male subject always has an increased heartbeat when he sees a picture of a nude female. The experimenter sounds a buzzer and then presents such a picture.  The experimenter repeats this procedure until the man responds with an increased heartbeat to the sound of the buzzer alone.  In this situation the CONDITIONED response is the ________.
    2. increased heartbeat
    3. nude female’s picture
    4. sounds of the buzzer
    5. viewing of the picture

     

    Answer  b     % correct 81      a= 11  b= 81  c= 6  d= 2      r = .31

     

    1. When a stimulus similar to the CS also elicits the CR, the phenomenon is called _______.
    2. stimulus discrimination
    3. stimulus generalization
    4. spontaneous recovery
    5. 2nd order conditioning

     

    Answer  d     % correct 64      a= 9  b= 18  c= 9  d= 64      r = .23

     

    1. If a researcher presents the US first, then presents the CS, the pairing method used is _______.
    2. trace
    3. delay
    4. simultaneous
    5. backward

     

    Answer  a     % correct 82      a= 82  b= 2  c= 11  d= 5      r = .43

     

    1. Repeatedly presenting a CS by itself will result in ________.
    2. extinction
    3. spontaneous recovery
    4. stimulus discrimination
    5. stimulus generalization

     

    Answer  d     % correct 78      a= 2  b= 2  c= 18  d= 78      r = .26

     

    1. As she walked through her neighborhood, Jodie, a 6-year-old girl, frequently saw a large brown dog. She repeatedly walked to the do to pet it, but as her hand approached the animal, it barked and bit her.  The bite was painful and caused her to cry.  Now Jodie cries when she sees dogs of any color or size.  Jode’s crying when she sees dogs is the ________.
    2. US
    3. CS
    4. UR
    5. CR

     

    Answer  d     % correct 81      a= 4  b= 6  c= 9  d= 81      r = .38

     

    1. Spontaneous recovery:
    2. occurs before the pairing of the CS and US.
    3. occurs after a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement.
    4. is an unlearned response.
    5. can occur once a response has been extinguished

     

     

     

     

    Classical Conditioning in Real Life

     

    Answer  a     % correct 91      a= 91  b= 0  c=0  d= 9      r = .28

     

    1. Taste aversions seem to be specific examples of what type of learning?
    2. classical conditioning
    3. insight learning
    4. vicarious learning
    5. operant conditioning

     

    Answer  c     % correct 57      a= 2  b= 4  c= 57  d= 37      r = .31

     

    1. In the experiment with Little Albert, the unconditioned stimulus was _______.
    2. the experimenter
    3. the laboratory
    4. the loud noise
    5. the rat

     

    Answer  d     % correct 49      a= 2  b= 0  c= 49  d= 49      r = .19

     

    1. In the experiment with Little Albert, the conditioned stimulus was _______.
    2. the experimenter
    3. the laboratory
    4. the loud noise
    5. the rat

     

    Answer  a     % correct 66      a= 66  b= 31  c= 0  d= 2      r = .51

     

    1. In the experiment with Little Albert, the unconditioned response was _______.
    2. fear of the loud noise
    3. fear of the rat
    4. fear of the experimenter
    5. fear of the laboratory

     

    Answer  c     % correct 82      a= 5  b= 4  c= 82  d= 9      r = .25

     

    1. One of the best known examples of classical conditioning in humans was the Little Albert study, conducted by _______.
    2. Pavlov
    3. Freud
    4. Watson
    5. Skinner

     

    Answer  a     % correct 63      a= 63  b= 1  c= 34  d= 2      r = .39

     

    1. In the classic study of fear conditioning in a human infant (the “Albert” experiment), what was the CS?
    2. the rat
    3. the rabbit
    4. the loud noise
    5. the crying response

     

    Answer  c     % correct 66      a= 30  b= 3  c= 66  d= 1      r = .42

     

    1. In the classic study of fear conditioning in a human infant (the “Albert” experiment), what was the US?
    2. the rat
    3. the rabbit
    4. the loud noise
    5. the crying response

     

    Answer  b     % correct 63      a= 1  b= 63  c= 36  d= 0      r = .49

     

    1. In the experiment with Little Albert, the conditioned stimulus was __________.
    2. Albert
    3. the rat
    4. the loud noise
    5. the laboratory room

     

    Answer  d     % correct 98      a= 0  b= 2  c= 0  d= 98      r = .25

     

    1. Who was Little Albert?
    2. developer of the concept of classical conditioning
    3. an animal trained by using operant conditioning procedures
    4. creator of methods for teaching children
    5. a child who developed a fear as part of a demonstration of classical conditioning

     

    Answer  c     % correct 97      a= 1  b= 1  c= 97  d= 1      r = .24

     

    1. Little Albert (Watson, 1920) learned through classical conditioning to fear ______.
    2. brown cats
    3. black dogs
    4. white rats
    5. his mother

     

     

     

     

    Operant Conditioning

     

    Answer c      % correct 99      a= 0  b= 0  c= 99  d= 1      r = .02

     

    1. A grandmother gives her grandchild a cookie because the child cleaned up her room. What is the cookie in this example? 8)
    2. conditioned response
    3. punisher
    4. positive reinforcer
    5. negative reinforcer

     

    Answer  a     % correct 59      a= 59  b= 18  c=  15 d= 9      r = .45

     

    1. A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ________ and thus ________ the probability of a response.
    2. removed; increases
    3. presented; decreases
    4. removed; decreases
    5. presented; increases

     

    Answer  a     % correct 98      a= 99  b= 0  c= 0  d= 1      r = .01

     

    1. Which of the following is an example of punishment?
    2. taking away a child’s favorite toy for hitting another child
    3. removing a penalty you imposed on a child after he began acting better
    4. giving a child a star for telling a lie
    5. giving a child a cookie for cleaning her room

     

    Answer  c     % correct 97      a= 2  b= 1  c= 97  d= 0      r = .20

     

    1. When you were first learning to make your bed, your parents told you that you did a good job when you got the bedspread pulled up, even though the bed was still a little messy. For the next week they showed you how to be a little neater each time you made the bed. What operant conditioning procedure did your parents use?
    2. generalization
    3. extinction
    4. shaping
    5. punishment

     

    Answer  a     % correct 86      a= 86  b= 0  c= 1  d= 13      r = .30

     

    1. A child is praised for using his fork instead of his fingers to eat some spaghetti. This is an example of __________ reinforcement.
    2. positive
    3. extrinsic
    4. higher-order
    5. secondary

     

    Answer  c     % correct 85      a= 2  b= 11  c= 85  d= 1      r = .30

     

    1. A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is a __________.
    2. primary reinforcer
    3. positive reinforcer
    4. negative reinforcer
    5. secondary reinforcer

     

    Answer  b     % correct 72      a= 6  b= 72  c= 3  d= 18      r = .49

     

    1. On a variable-interval schedule, reinforcement is given for the __________.
    2. first correct response after a fixed amount of time has passed
    3. first correct response after varying amounts of time have passed
    4. next correct response after a fixed number of responses have occurred
    5. next correct response after a varying number of responses have occurred

     

    Answer  d     % correct 60      a= 39  b= 0  c= 2  d= 60      r = .34

     

    1. Elizabeth was given a $1000 raise after her last performance evaluation. Her raise is a
    2. primary reinforcer.
    3. punisher.
    4. negative reinforcer.
    5. secondary reinforcer.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 64      a= 4  b= 29  c= 64  d= 2      r = .40

     

    1. What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?
    2. positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. punishment
    5. positive reinforcement

     

    Answer  b     % correct 96      a= 2  b= 96  c= 1  d= 1      r = .26

     

    1. A positive reinforcer is a stimulus that is ________ and thus ________ the probability of a response.
    2. removed; decreases
    3. presented; increases
    4. presented; decreases
    5. removed; increases

     

    Answer  c     % correct 59      a= 6  b= 10  c= 59  d= 26      r = .47

     

    1. Any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur is __________.
    2. a secondary reinforcer
    3. an aversive stimulus
    4. punishment
    5. negative reinforcement

     

    Answer  c     % correct 66      a= 12  b= 20  c= 66  d= 3      r = .25

     

    1. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
    2. a bar of candy
    3. warm, physical contact
    4. money
    5. a drink of water

     

    Answer  a     % correct 61      a= 61  b= 29  c= 1  d= 9      r = .22

     

    1. Nagging someone to do something until they do it is an example of __________.
    2. negative reinforcement
    3. aversive conditioning
    4. punishment
    5. positive reinforcement

     

    Answer  a     % correct 99      a= 99  b= 0  c= 0  d= 1      r = .05

     

    1. A reinforcer that adds something rewarding to a situation is called a(n) __________ reinforcer.
    2. positive
    3. additive
    4. primary
    5. secondary

     

    Answer  b     % correct 89      a= 10  b= 89  c= 0  d= 1      r = .23

     

    1. When someone uses negative reinforcement to change a behavior the behavior is likely to __________ .
    2. occur less frequently
    3. occur more frequently
    4. occur at the same rate
    5. completely stop

     

    Answer  c     % correct 34      a= 2  b= 8  c= 34  d= 56      r = .29

     

    1. A camp leader repeatedly hugs a camper after she helps her friend. Each time, the camper is embarrassed and shies away from future acts of assistance.  In the example, “Hugging the camper” is _______.
    2. a positive reinforcer
    3. a primary reinforcer
    4. a punishment
    5. none of the above

     

    Answer  b     % correct 62      a= 34  b= 62  c= 4  d= 0      r = .41

     

    1. Mary arrives home to find her son washing the dirty dishes left from his party the night before. When she discovers his first-semester grade report on the table and sees that he got straight A’s, Mary rewards him by relieving him of the unpleasant task of finishing the dishes.  Which operant process does the example illustrate?
    2. positive reinforcement
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. extinction
    5. punishment

     

    Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 0  c= 5  d= 6      r = .53

     

    1. Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer?
    2. water
    3. a thank-you letter
    4. a smile from a loved one
    5. money

     

    Answer  c     % correct 79      a= 12  b= 2  c= 79  d= 6      r = .40

     

    1. Wearing sunglasses ALL THE TIME because people tell you they make you look “irresistible” is an example of which of the types of punishment and reinforcement?
    2. aversive punishment
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. positive reinforcement
    5. response cost

     

    Answer  d     % correct 79      a= 10  b= 11  c= 0  d= 79      r = .52

     

    1. Negative reinforcement is best thought of as:
    2. reinforcement for an undesirable activity.
    3. punishment.
    4. something that was predicted to serve as reinforcement but did not do so.
    5. stimuli whose termination or removal increases behavior.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 34      a= 8  b= 34  c= 51  d= 5      r = .37

     

    1. Putting on sunglasses to relieve glare is an example of which of the types of punishment and reinforcement?
    2. aversive punishment
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. positive reinforcement
    5. response cost

     

    Answer  b     % correct 52      a= 8  b= 52  c= 38  d= 1      r = .36

     

    1. To avoid getting a headache, Lory always lets her dog outside when it sits by the door and howls. This is an example of which type of punishment or reinforcement?
    2. aversive punishment
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. positive reinforcement
    5. response cost

     

    Answer  b     % correct 78      a= 12  b= 78  c= 9  d= 0      r = .31

     

    1. Training a rat to push a lever to escape from an electric shock is an example of:
    2. aversive punishment.
    3. negative reinforcement.
    4. positive reinforcement.
    5. response cost.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 96      a= 3  b= 1  c= 96  d= 0      r = .22

     

    1. Positive reinforcers:
    2. weaken behaviors they follow.
    3. are always learned.
    4. strengthen behaviors they follow.
    5. are always unlearned.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 91      a= 1  b= 2  c= 91  d= 5      r = .33

     

    1. Which of the following statements about positive reinforcers is accurate?
    2. They are used in negative reinforcement.
    3. They weaken behaviors that they follow.
    4. They strengthen behaviors that they follow.
    5. They strengthen behaviors that lead to their removal.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 93      a= 2  b= 93  c= 2  d= 3      r = .41

     

    1. If a POSITIVE REINFORCER is added after a behavior and the behavior is strengthened/increased, the process used is called:
    2. negative reinforcement.
    3. positive reinforcement.
    4. extinction.
    5. punishment.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 68      a= 68  b= 23  c= 9  d= 0      r = .36

    1. Mom and Dad think it is real funny, and laugh when their 2-year-old, Bruce, says dirty words. When Bruce is sent home from kindergarten because of swearing, they don’t understand why he cusses.  Now when he cusses at home they ignore the cussing (they don’t think it’s cute anymore).  Laughing in this example is:
    2. positive reinforcer.
    3. a negative reinforcer.
    4. a primary reinforcer.
    5. a neutral stimulus.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 87      a= 3  b= 87  c= 3  d= 7      r = .42

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT a negative reinforcer?
    2. turning off an electric shock
    3. giving a spanking
    4. removing a noxious odor
    5. silencing a banging door

     

    Answer  c     % correct 85      a= 5  b= 2  c= 85  d= 8      r = .40

     

    1. Animals exposed to unavoidable, uncontrollable aversive stimulation exhibit _______ when later trained in an avoidance procedure.
    2. experimental neurosis
    3. better learning
    4. learned helplessness
    5. enhanced performance

     

    Answer  b     % correct 53      a= 11  b= 53  c= 20  d= 16      r = .33

     

    1. Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
    2. grades
    3. water
    4. money
    5. recognition

     

    Answer  c     % correct 83      a= 1  b= 2  c= 83  d= 14      r = .27

     

    1. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
    2. water
    3. food
    4. grades
    5. physical support

     

    Answer  b     % correct 96      a= 1  b= 96  c= 0  d= 3      r = .20

     

    1. At the National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C., a polar bear suffered a broken tooth, and keepers needed a safe way of treating the problem. The bear was rewarded first for sticking its nose through a slot in the cage door, then for allowing a keeper to lift its lip and touch its teeth.  Finally, a veterinarian was able to treat the damaged tooth while the bear waited placidly for its familiar reward.  This is an example of _______.
    2. modeling
    3. shaping
    4. negative reinforcement
    5. secondary learning

     

    Answer  d     % correct 97      a= 2  b= 0  c= 1  d= 97      r = .25

     

    1. Anything that increases the likelihood that a behavior will increase is called a(n) _______.
    2. aversive control
    3. punishment
    4. antecedent
    5. reinforcer

     

    Answer  b     % correct 42      a= 44  b= 42  c= 6  d= 8      r = .29

     

    1. When someone uses negative reinforcement to change a behavior, the behavior is likely to ______.
    2. decrease
    3. increase
    4. remain the same
    5. completely stop

     

    Answer  a     % correct 93      a= 93  b= 4  c= 1  d= 2      r = .27

     

    1. When someone uses punishment to change a behavior, the behavior is likely to ______.
    2. decrease
    3. increase
    4. remain the same
    5. generalize

     

    Answer  a     % correct  75     a= 75  b= 3  c= 8  d= 14      r = .29

     

    1. Which of the following statements is true?
    2. Punishment does not always work.
    3. The effectiveness of punishment depends solely on its force.
    4. Punishment should be applied intermittently.
    5. Punishment usually enhances the learning process.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 76      a= 7  b= 76  c= 11  d= 6      r = .26

     

    1. Which of the following statements about punishment is NOT true?
    2. Punishment does not always work.
    3. Rewards should always immediately follow punishments.
    4. Effective punishment is consistent punishment.
    5. In itself, punishment serves to inhibit responses.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 87      a= 87  b= 0  c= 9  d= 4      r = .21

     

    1. A reinforcer that adds something rewarding to a situation is called a ________ reinforcer.
    2. positive
    3. negative
    4. primary
    5. secondary

     

    Answer  b     % correct 80      a= 15  b= 80  c= 0  d= 5      r = .44

     

    1. A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is called a ________ reinforcer.
    2. positive
    3. negative
    4. primary
    5. secondary

     

    Answer  c     % correct 70      a= 26  b= 1  c= 70  d= 3      r = .42

     

    1. The 5-year-old of two very busy parents has been throwing tantrums. Whenever the child goes off the deep end, one or both of his parents immediately come to his side and fuss over and cajole him.  Nevertheless, his tantrums do not diminish; they even seem to increase.  We may assume that his parents’ fussing over him serves as a _______.
    2. negative reinforcer
    3. punisher
    4. positive reinforcer
    5. model

     

    Answer  b     % correct 68      a= 30  b= 68  c= 0  d= 2      r = .36

     

    1. A child is scolded for using his fingers instead of his fork to eat some spaghetti. The scolding stops when he picks up his fork.  This is an example of _______ reinforcement.
    2. positive
    3. negative
    4. tertiary
    5. secondary

     

    Answer  b     % correct 74      a= 21  b= 74  c= 3  d= 0      r = .55

     

    1. Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
    2. money
    3. a bar of candy
    4. a buzzer
    5. poker chips

     

    Answer  a     % correct 83      a= 83  b= 9  c= 7  d= 1      r = .45

     

    1. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
    2. money
    3. a bar of candy
    4. attention
    5. a drink of water

     

    Answer  b     % correct 74      a= 1  b= 74  c= 22  d= 3      r = .20

     

    1. Which of the following would be classified as a secondary reinforcer?
    2. a sandwich
    3. the word “good’
    4. reduction of pain
    5. a drink of soda

     

    Answer  a     % correct 77      a= 77  b= 15  c= 5  d= 3      r = .52

     

    1. Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
    2. a sandwich
    3. praise
    4. money
    5. grades

     

    Answer  c     % correct 51      a= 28  b= 12  c= 51  d= 9      r = .30

     

    1. Electric shock, scoldings, and bad grades are:
    2. secondary reinforcers.
    3. primary reinforcers.
    4. aversive stimuli.
    5. conditioned stimuli.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 78      a= 2  b= 0  c= 78  d= 20      r = .27

     

    1. A woodchuck tries to crack a walnut shell in two different ways–with his paws and with his teeth. The last method worked and the first did not; hence, the woodchuck will be more likely to rely on his teeth for splitting the next nut.  This observation illustrates the:
    2. the discrimination principle.
    3. the law of practice.
    4. the law of effect.
    5. the Premack principle.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 71      a= 10  b= 71  c= 10  d= 9      r = .49

     

    1. When the removal of an event increases the likelihood of a prior response, _______ has occurred.
    2. positive reinforcement
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. positive punishment
    5. negative punishment

     

    Answer  b     % correct 61      a= 6  b= 61  c= 13  d= 20      r = .36

     

    1. The Internal Revenue Service threatens Sue with a penalty if she fails to pay her back taxes. She pays, and the threat is withdrawn.  In the future, she is more prompt in meeting her obligation.  This is an example of the use of _______ to control behavior.
    2. positive reinforcement
    3. negative reinforcement
    4. positive punishment
    5. negative punishment

     

    Answer  b     % correct 58      a= 9  b= 58  c= 13  d= 20      r = .50

     

    1. What is the typical dependent variable used in studies of the operant conditioning of lever pressing in rats?
    2. the number of responses per minute
    3. the cumulative record of lever presses
    4. the average intensity of lever presses
    5. none of the above

     

    Answer  d     % correct 94      a= 1  b= 3  c= 2  d= 94      r = .24

     

    1. If a rat has learned to press a lever to obtain pellets of food and, all of a sudden, the response permanently ceases to produce any food, then _______ will occur.
    2. shaping
    3. discrimination
    4. generalization
    5. extinction

     

    Answer  a     % correct 66      a= 66  b= 4  c= 20  d= 11      r = .47

     

    1. Which of the following is a conditioned positive reinforcer?
    2. money
    3. sex
    4. food
    5. warmth

     

    Answer  d     % correct 60      a= 21  b= 6  c= 13  d= 60      r = .38

     

    1. The presentation of an aversive stimulus following a particular operant response is called:
    2. negative reinforcement.
    3. discrimination training.
    4. aversion conditioning.
    5. punishment.

     

    Answer  b     % correct  67     a= 10  b= 67  c= 7  d=  16    r = .44

     

    1. Analogy: Negative reinforcement is to punishment as _______ is to _______.
    2. presenting; withdrawing
    3. withdrawing; presenting
    4. aversive; pleasant
    5. give; take

     

    Answer  b     % correct 89      a= 3  b= 89  c= 3  d= 5      r = .35

     

    1. Which of the following is NOT a negative reinforcer?
    2. turning off an electric shock
    3. giving a spanking
    4. removing a noxious odor
    5. silencing a banging door

     

    Answer b      % correct 88      a= 3  b= 88  c= 5  d= 5      r = .46

     

    1. Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
    2. grades
    3. water
    4. money
    5. recognition

     

    Answer  b     % correct 74      a= 5  b= 74  c= 12  d= 8      r = .35

     

    1. Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
    2. grades
    3. water
    4. money
    5. recognition

     

    Answer  d     % correct 78      a= 5  b= 16  c= 0  d= 78      r = .42

     

    1. Billy throws rocks. Each time he throws a rock, he is immediately spanked.  Spanking is a ________.
    2. positive reinforcer
    3. negative reinforcer
    4. secondary reinforcer
    5. punishment

     

    Answer  c     % correct 50      a= 23  b= 15  c= 50  d= 12      r = .39

     

    1. Negative reinforcement is negative in the sense that:
    2. a consequence stimulus is delivered in a negative manner.
    3. it results in the removal of the behavior.
    4. the behavior results in the removal of a negative reinforcer.
    5. the behavior is decreased/weakened.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 86      a= 2  b= 2  c= 10  d= 86      r = .26

     

    1. Aunt Bea gave Opie fried chicken livers every time he made his bed. Opie began making his bed more often than he used to.  In this example, chicken livers are a _______ reinforcer.
    2. neutral
    3. negative
    4. secondary
    5. primary

     

     

     

     

    Principles of Operant Conditioning

     

    Answer  b     % correct 84      a= 1  b= 84  c=  9 d= 5      r = .32

     

    1. The apparatus that has come to symbolize the theory of operant conditioning is the:
    2. Rubik’s cube.
    3. Skinner box.
    4. Pavlov bell.
    5. Thorndike puzzle.

     

    Answer  c     % correct       a= 9  b= 5  c= 65  d= 21      r = .52

     

    1. Which two learning processes seem to be opposites?
    2. acquisition and generalization
    3. discrimination and extinction
    4. discrimination and generalization
    5. acquisition and discrimination

     

    Answer  a     % correct 65      a= 65  b= 9  c= 13  d= 13      r = .42

     

    1. Giving different responses to the same stimuli to which you were classically conditioned illustrates ____________ .
    2. response generalization
    3. spontaneous recovery
    4. stimulus generalization
    5. vicarious conditioning

     

    Answer  b     % correct 82      a= 1  b= 82  c= 11  d= 6      r = .43

     

    1. A pigeon learns to peck only at a red disk. It will not peck at an identical disk of any other color.  This illustrates the concept of ___________.
    2. extinction
    3. discrimination
    4. avoidance training
    5. desensitization

     

    Answer  a     % correct 91      a= 91  b= 4  c= 2  d= 3      r = .39

     

    1. The process of presenting the conditioned stimulus alone so often that the learner no longer associates it with the unconditioned stimulus and stops making the conditioned response is called _________ .
    2. extinction
    3. generalization
    4. spontaneous recovery
    5. shaping

     

    Answer  d     % correct 81      a= 1  b= 5  c= 13  d= 81      r = .57

     

    1. The process of learning to respond only to a single specific object or event is called _________ .
    2. extinction
    3. inhibition
    4. stimulus generalization
    5. discrimination

     

    Answer  a     % correct 72      a= 72  b= 21  c= 2  d= 4      r = .42

     

    1. Reacting to a stimulus that is similar to the one you have learned to react to is called ___________ .
    2. stimulus generalization
    3. response generalization
    4. higher-order conditioning
    5. modeling

     

    Answer  a     % correct 71      a= 71  b= 6  c= 22  d= 1      r = .35

     

    1. If a dog salivates when it sees a green light or a yellow light, it is exhibiting ________.
    2. generalization
    3. discrimination
    4. higher-order conditioning
    5. extinction

     

    Answer  b     % correct 70      a= 8  b= 70  c= 17  d= 4      r = .42

     

    1. The spread of conditioning to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus is called:
    2. associative linkage.
    3. generalization.
    4. higher-order conditioning.
    5. spontaneous recovery.

     

    Answer  c     % correct 89      a= 8  b= 1  c= 89  d= 2      r = .38

     

    1. Of the following phenomena, which one best explains the spreading of phobias to objects similar to the one to which the phobia was originally acquired?
    2. discrimination
    3. extinction
    4. generalization
    5. spontaneous recovery

     

    Answer  b     % correct 83      a= 12  b= 83  c= 4  d= 0      r = .34

     

    1. A small boy has just recently delighted his parents because he learned to call his father “daddy.” However, it has now become an embarrassment to his mother when she takes him out with her because he keeps calling other men “daddy.”  This is an example of:
    2. associative linkage.
    3. generalization.
    4. higher-order conditioning.
    5. spontaneous recovery.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 45      a= 45  b= 18  c= 24  d= 12      r = .33

     

    1. Once conditioning has been acquired, presenting just the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus produces:
    2. extinction.
    3. generalization.
    4. a new conditioned response.
    5. spontaneous recovery.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 76      a= 76  b= 5  c= 12  d= 7      r = .46

     

    1. Repeatedly presenting a CS by itself will result in:
    2. extinction.
    3. spontaneous recovery.
    4. stimulus discrimination.
    5. stimulus generalization.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 10  c= 0  d= 2      r = .30

     

    1. As she walked through her neighborhood, Jodie, a 6 year old girl, frequently saw a large brown dog. She repeatedly walked to the dog to pet it, but as her hand approached the animal, it barked and bit her.  The bite was painful and caused her to cry.  Now Jodie cries when she sees dogs of any color or size.  Jodie now cries when she sees any dog, big or small, brown or black, etc.  This illustrates which of the following?
    2. generalization
    3. discrimination
    4. extinction
    5. spontaneous recovery

     

    Answer  c     % correct 81      a= 6  b= 8  c= 81  d= 5      r = .46

     

    1. When a CS is repeatedly presented by itself, ______ will occur.
    2. generalization
    3. discrimination
    4. extinction
    5. stimulus substitution

     

    Answer  a     % correct 91      a= 91  b= 7  c= 0  d= 2      r = .21

     

    1. John’s heart has been conditioned to beat rapidly whenever he smells Windsong perfume on a woman. However, John’s heart also races when he smells Chanel #5 and other perfumes.  This illustrates:
    2. stimulus generalization.
    3. discrimination.
    4. extinction.
    5. spontaneous recovery.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 74      a= 0  b= 25  c= 1  d= 74      r = .34

     

    1. Stimulus discrimination:
    2. is a response followed by a reinforcer.
    3. occurs when responses are made to stimuli that are similar to the original CS.
    4. is the removal of a stimulus.
    5. occurs when responses are made to certain stimuli, but not to others.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 86      a= 86  b= 3  c= 3  d= 8      r = .45

     

    1. The process of presenting the conditioned stimulus alone so often that the learner no longer associates it with the unconditioned stimulus and stops making the conditioned response is called _______.
    2. extinction
    3. generalization
    4. spontaneous recovery
    5. shaping

     

    Answer  c     % correct 93      a= 0  b= 4  c= 93  d= 3      r = .38

     

    1. When a CR has been conditioned to a particular stimulus, the organism will also tend to make the CR in response to other stimuli. This phenomenon is called:
    2. discrimination.
    3. spread of effect.
    4. generalization.
    5. response shifting.

    .

    Answer  b     % correct 93      a= 5  b= 93  c= 2  d= 1      r = .46

     

    1. Laura’s heart rate had been conditioned to increase whenever she smelled Old Spice After Shave. However, her heart would also race to the aroma of Brut and English Leather.  This reaction is known as:
    2. shaping.
    3. stimulus generalization.
    4. operant conditioning.
    5. discrimination.

     

    Answer  d     % correct 95      a= 3  b= 0  c= 2  d= 95      r = .22

     

    1. Stimulus generalization occurs:
    2. only when a response is followed by a reinforcer.
    3. only to those with a high capacity to learn.
    4. after extinction.
    5. when a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli similar to the CS.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 75      a= 75  b= 8  c= 8  d= 8      r = .47

     

    1. This is the first exam you have ever taken in Professor Smith’s class. You know nothing about her tests, and she has never done anything harmful to you or anyone else.  Nonetheless, you are anxious about the test.  Your anxiety in this situation is an example of:
    2. generalization.
    3. discrimination.
    4. backward conditioning.
    5. none of the above.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 96      a= 1  b= 96  c= 3  d= 0      r = .32

     

    1. Corky’s mouth waters when he sees Ball Park Franks, but not when he sees other brands of franks. This response is known as:
    2. extinction.
    3. discrimination.
    4. generalization.
    5. intelligence.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 90      a= 90  b= 1  c= 0  d= 9      r = .32

     

    1. The opposite of stimulus generalization is:
    2. stimulus discrimination
    3. unconditioned stimulus.
    4. conditioned stimulus.
    5. response generalization.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 51      a= 51  b= 44  c= 2  d=3       r = .39

     

    1. Reacting to a stimulus that is similar to the one which you have learned to react is called _______.
    2. stimulus generalization
    3. response generalization
    4. higher-order conditioning
    5. modeling

     

    Answer  d     % correct 77      a= 2  b= 12  c= 9  d= 77      r = .45

     

    1. The process of learning to respond only to a single specific object or event is called _______.
    2. extinction
    3. inhibition
    4. stimulus generalization
    5. discrimination

     

    Answer  d     % correct 82      a= 1  b= 5  c= 12  d= 82      r = .38

     

    1. A person is conditioned to fear white rats. Soon after, she also begins to fear white cats, white dogs, and white rabbits.  Her new, unconditioned fears result from _______.
    2. modeling
    3. discrimination
    4. response generalization
    5. stimulus generalization

     

    Answer  c     % correct 63      a= 3  b= 4  c= 63  d=30       r = .27

     

    1. A person originally feared great heights, such as standing on top of tall buildings. Now the person has also developed fears of flying in airplanes, standing on ladders, and even watching high-wire artists perform.  These new fears are probably the result of _______.
    2. modeling
    3. discrimination
    4. stimulus generalization
    5. response generalization

     

    Answer  b     % correct 85      a= 1  b= 85  c= 9  d= 5      r = .32

     

    1. A pigeon learns to peck only at a red disk. It will not peck at an identical disk of any other color.  This illustrates the concept of _______.
    2. extinction
    3. discrimination
    4. avoidance training
    5. desensitization

     

    Answer  c     % correct 44      a= 17  b= 39  c= 44  d= 0      r = .32

     

    1. A child who calls all four-legged animals “dogs” is exhibiting ______.
    2. simplification
    3. response generalization
    4. stimulus generalization
    5. equipotentiality

     

    Answer  b     % correct 72      a= 8  b= 72  c= 4  d= 16      r = .34

     

    1. An example of a behavior that is learned through operant conditioning is _____________.
    2. blinking in response to a flash of light
    3. studying in order to get a teacher’s approval
    4. sneezing in response to dust
    5. pulling one’s hand away from a flame

     

    Answer  a     % correct 77      a= 77  b= 3  c= 14  d= 6      r = .37

     

    1. Emitted, voluntary behavior is BEST modified by _____________.
    2. operant conditioning
    3. trial and error
    4. classical conditioning
    5. extinction

     

    Answer  d     % correct 45      a= 24  b= 7  c= 23  d= 45      r = .55

     

    1. Shaping is achieved through:
    2. discrimination training.
    3. generalization.
    4. higher-order conditioning.
    5. successive approximations.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 91      a= 4  b= 91  c= 1  d= 4      r = .33

     

    1. To teach a tiger to jump through a flaming hoop, the tiger is first reinforced for jumping up on a certain pedestal, then for leaping from that pedestal to another. Next the tiger has to jump through a hoop between the pedestals to get the reward.  Finally, the hoop is set afire and the tiger must jump through it to get the reward.  This is an example of __________ .
    2. modeling
    3. shaping
    4. negative reinforcement
    5. secondary learning

     

    Answer  d     % correct 45      a= 1  b= 3  c= 51  d= 45      r = .27

     

    1. A young girl is just learning to dress herself. At first, the parents call her a “big girl” just for putting on her clothes “frontwards,” even if they are not buttoned.  Then, they call her a “big girl” if she tries to button them–even if the buttons are not in the right holes.  Then, they call her a “big girl” only if she buttons them correctly.  They have been using:
    2. discrimination.
    3. generalization.
    4. higher-order conditioning.
    5. successive approximation.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 55      a= 55  b= 16  c= 10  d= 19      r = .47

     

    1. Operant conditioning assumes that:
    2. events that follow behavior affect whether the behavior is repeated in the future.
    3. one’s mental processes (e.g., memory and perception) mediate what behaviors one does in a situation.
    4. voluntary behaviors are reflexive.
    5. one learns by watching others’ behavior.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 88      a= 88  b= 4  c= 4  d= 5      r = .48

     

    1. Peggy wanted to teach her dog how to roll over. She tried giving him instructions, but it didn’t work.  She tried waiting for him to roll over so she could reinforce the behavior, but she had to go to bed before the dog rolled.  Finally, she began reinforcing the dog when it made behaviors that more closely resembled rolling over.  At last, using _______, she was able to teach the dog to do the trick.
    2. shaping
    3. positive reinforcement
    4. positive reinforcers
    5. secondary reinforcers

     

    Answer  b     % correct 88      a= 4  b= 88  c= 4  d= 3      r = .25

     

    1. Reinforcing behaviors that more closely resemble a final, terminal behavior is called:
    2. positive reinforcement.
    3. shaping.
    4. positive reinforcers.
    5. secondary reinforcers.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 86      a= 6  b= 86  c= 7  d= 0      r = .39

     

    1. A procedure used to teach a whole behavior by first training its parts is called:
    2. higher order conditioning.
    3. shaping.
    4. modeling.
    5. response generalization.

     

    Answer  b     % correct 88      a= 11  b= 88  c= 0  d= 1      r = .20

     

    1. Changing behavior through the reinforcement of partial responses is called _______.
    2. modeling
    3. shaping
    4. negative reinforcement
    5. classical conditioning

     

     

     

     

    Learning and the Mind

     

    Answer  d     % correct 68      a= 16  b= 5  c= 11  d= 68      r = .35

     

    1. The type of learning that involves a sudden coming together of the elements of a situation so that the solution to a problem is instantly clear is __________.
    2. cognitive mapping
    3. vicarious learning
    4. latent learning
    5. insight

     

    Answer  d     % correct 93      a= 1  b=2   c= 4  d= 93      r = .18

     

    1. Which type of learning occurs when we observe other people act?
    2. operant conditioning
    3. classical conditioning
    4. insight learning
    5. observational learning

     

    Answer  c     % correct 73      a= 16  b= 0  c= 73  d= 7      r = .32

     

    1. What do we call learning that has taken place but is not demonstrated?
    2. insight learning
    3. serial enumeration
    4. latent learning
    5. shaping

     

    Answer  c     % correct 63      a= 6  b= 28  c= 63  d= 1      r = .39

     

    1. Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called __________.
    2. vicarious learning
    3. innate learning
    4. latent learning
    5. insight

     

    Answer  d     % correct 70      a= 7  b= 11  c= 11  d= 70      r = .33

     

    1. In a study on learning, the psychologist conducting the study seeks to explain the inner needs and desires that made learners pursue their goals. She is interested in the inner processes that result in learning.  She is studying ___________ .
    2. neurophysiological learning
    3. primary learning
    4. secondary learning
    5. social-cognitive learning

     

    Answer  d     % correct 23      a= 13  b= 10  c= 54  d= 23      r = .38

     

    1. In Bandura’s classic (1965) study of children exposed to a film of an adult hitting a Bobo doll, __________ .
    2. children who saw the model punished learned to be more aggressive than children who say the model rewarded
    3. children who saw the model rewarded learned to be more aggressive than children who say the model punished
    4. children who saw the model punished performed more aggressively in a free play situation than children who saw the model rewarded
    5. children who saw the model rewarded performed more aggressively in a free play situation than children who saw the model punished

     

    Answer  d     % correct 85      a= 5  b= 1  c= 9  d= 85      r = .23

     

    1. Learning that depends on mental processes that are not able to be observed directly is called _________ learning.
    2. autonomic
    3. primary
    4. secondary
    5. cognitive

     

    Answer  d     % correct 61      a= 6  b= 13  c= 20  d= 61      r = .47

     

    1. The concept of latent learning was developed by __________ .
    2. Watson
    3. Skinner
    4. Thorndike
    5. Tolman

     

    Answer  d     % correct 54      a= 12  b= 25  c= 9  d= 54      r = .49

     

    1. Social learning theory’s foremost proponent is __________ .
    2. Watson
    3. Thorndike
    4. Skinner
    5. Bandura

     

    Answer  d     % correct 71      a= 13  b= 7  c= 9  d=  71     r = .20

     

    1. A key to social learning theory is ____________ .
    2. insight learning
    3. cognitive mapping
    4. latent learning
    5. observational learning

     

    Answer  d     % correct 33      a= 14  b= 21  c= 33  d= 33      r = .39

     

    1. Cognitive learning involves:
    2. an association between events or phenomena.
    3. an association between responses.
    4. an association between behavior and its consequences.
    5. internal representations of events in the world.

    Answer  b     % correct 73      a= 7  b= 73  c= 4  d= 16      r = .24

     

    1. During your very first visit to your campus, you probably needed a map to get around efficiently. However, a little while later you no longer needed the map, because _______ had occurred.
    2. classical conditioning
    3. social- cognitive learning
    4. instrumental conditioning
    5. operant conditioning

     

    Answer  b     % correct 37      a= 27  b= 37  c= 7  d= 29      r = .41

     

    1. Cognitive learning theories attempt to explain how learning occurs using:
    2. observation and imitation.
    3. unobservable mental processes.
    4. classical conditioning processes.
    5. classical, operant, and observational processes.

    Chapter 9 Thinking and Intelligence

     

     

     

    [NOTE: Correct answer and item analysis are located ABOVE question.]

     

    Thought: Using What We Know

     

    Answer c   p. 217   % correct 77   a= 23 b= 0 c= 77 d= 0   r = .44

     

    1. Cognition is a synonym for __________.
    2. perception
    3. learning
    4. thinking
    5. intelligence

     

     

     

     

    Reasoning Rationally

     

    Answer  b     % correct 92      a= 4  b= 92  c= 4  d= 0      r= .76

     

    1. Problem-solving methods that guarantee solutions if appropriate and properly executed are called __________.
    2. prototypes
    3. algorithms
    4. heuristics
    5. noncompensatory models

     

    Answer  b     % correct 96      a= 4  b= 96  c= 1  d= 0      r= .62

     

    1. A formula is an example of a(n) __________.
    2. logarithm
    3. algorithm
    4. response set
    5. heuristic

     

    Answer  b     % correct 88      a= 4  b= 88  c= 4  d= 4      r= .69

     

    1. Rules of thumb that do not guarantee a solution but may help bring one within reach are called __________.
    2. functional sets
    3. heuristics
    4. algorithms
    5. problem states

     

     

    Answer  a     % correct 62      a= 62  b= 19  c= 4  d= 15      r= .47

     

    1. A special kind of problem solving in which we already know all the possible solutions or choices is __________.
    2. decision making
    3. divergent thinking
    4. functional thinking
    5. convergent thinking

     

     

     

     

    Barriers to Reasoning Rationally

     

    Answer  a     % correct 58      a= 58  b= 4  c= 0  d= 38      r= 50.

     

    1. An admissions director for a college decides to keep the existing admissions policy since 80 percent of the students admitted eventually graduate. Unknown to her, 90 percent of the rejected applicants would also have been successful graduates. Her decision-making process is hampered by __________.
    2. the availability heuristic
    3. creating subgoals
    4. hill-climbing
    5. the representativeness heuristic

     

    Answer  a     % correct 81      a= 81  b= 12  c= 8  d= 0      r= .19

     

    1. The tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways is called __________.
    2. mental set
    3. prototypical idealization
    4. noncompensatory modeling
    5. means-end analysis

     

    Answer  c     % correct 77      a= 12  b= 11  c=   d= 0      r= .22

     

    1. Ivan is a consultant who has been asked to solve a technical problem for an electronics firm. When he arrives at the firm, he finds that the problem is exactly like a problem he has solved before. The first time he solved the problem it took him 37 hours. This time it takes him 26 hours. The MOST likely reason for his faster solution this time is __________.
    2. means-end analysis
    3. hill-climbing
    4. mental set
    5. creating subgoals

     

     

     

     

     

    Measuring Intelligence: The Psychometric Approach

     

    Answer  c     % correct 52      a= 25  b= 17  c= 52  d= 6      r = .21

     

    1. Which of these might be an example of a performance item on the Wechsler tests of intelligence?
    2. repeating a series of digits
    3. defining a word such as lunch
    4. using blocks to make a design like one shown in a picture
    5. adding a series of orally presented numbers

     

    Answer  c     % correct 79      a= 11  b= 4  c= 79  d= 7      r = .20

     

    1. The Binet intelligence test measured children on what new concept?
    2. divergent thinking
    3. mental set
    4. mental age
    5. creativity

     

    Answer  a     % correct 66      a= 66  b= 10  c= 7  d= 15      r = .43

     

    1. The Binet scale was originally developed to __________.
    2. identify children who might have difficulty in school
    3. identify gifted children
    4. measure scholastic achievement
    5. measure the intelligence of normal children

     

    Answer  a     % correct 48      a= 48  b= 44  c= 5  d= 3      r = .04

     

    1. What score indicates how one individual compares to others on an intelligence test?
    2. intelligence quotient
    3. deviation
    4. intelligence component
    5. mental estimate

     

     

     

     

    Dissecting Intelligence: The Cognitive Approach

     

    Answer  b     % correct 71      a= 2  b= 71  c= 24  d= 3      r = .33

     

    1. Which of these is one of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
    2. poetic
    3. naturalistic
    4. creative
    5. digital

     

    Answer  c     % correct 65      a= 11  b= 7  c= 65  d= 17      r = .40

     

    1. The ability to produce work that is both novel and appropriate is called
    2. insight.
    3. heuristics.
    4. creativity.
    5. latent learning.

     

    Answer  a     % correct 79      a= 79  b= 2  c= 16  d= 2      r = .43

     

    1. A committee has been set up to identify young people who are likely to become great Olympics skaters. In addition to physical skills, the committee believes that an understanding of one’s emotions is a plus because it will help the skaters through training and competitions. Using Howard Gardner’s types of intelligences, which two should be the focus of their search?
    2. bodily kinesthetic and intrapersonal
    3. logical/mathematical and visual/spatial
    4. visual/spatial and interpersonal
    5. verbal/linguistic and logical/mathematical

     

    Answer  a     % correct 39      a= 39  b= 23  c= 30  d= 8      r = .08

     

    1. The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by __________.
    2. Gardner
    3. Sternberg
    4. Thurstone
    5. Spearman

     

    Answer  d     % correct 52      a= 6  b= 19  c= 23  d= 52      r = .29

     

    1. __________ percent of the population has IQ scores between 70 and 130.
    2. Sixty-five
    3. Seventy-five
    4. Eighty-five
    5. Ninety-five

     

    Answer  b     % correct 92      a= 0  b= 92  c= 7  d= 2      r = .23

     

    1. A form of intelligence that refers to how effectively people perceive and understand their own feelings and the feelings of others is __________ intelligence.
    2. fluid
    3. emotional
    4. bodily-kinesthetic
    5. crystallized

     

    Answer  b     % correct 77      a= 1  b= 77  c= 1  d= 22      r = .40

     

    1. Which of these is one of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
    2. poetic
    3. naturalistic
    4. digital
    5. creative

     

    Answer  c     % correct 65      a= 7  b= 21  c= 65  d= 7      r = .11

     

    1. Which of these might be an example of a performance item on the Wechsler tests of intelligence?
    2. defining a word such as lunch
    3. repeating a series of digits
    4. using blocks to make a design like one shown in a picture
    5. adding a series of orally presented numbers

     

    Answer  a     % correct 63      a= 63  b= 10  c= 17  d= 8      r = .32

     

    1. Sal is being evaluated as a possible candidate for the space program. On which of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences would we expect him to excel if he is a good candidate?
    2. spatial reasoning
    3. interpersonal
    4. naturalist
    5. intrapersonal

     

     

     

     

    Animal Minds

     

    Answer  a     % correct 73      a=73   b= 0  c= 4  d= 23      r= .21

     

    1. Laboratory experiments suggest that animals have __________.
    2. some cognitive capacities
    3. cognitive capacities better than most humans
    4. almost no cognitive capabilities
    5. cognitive capabilities similar to most humans

     

    Answer  d     % correct 77      a= 0  b= 8  c= 15  d= 77      r= .39

     

    1. Among animals, the most impressive cognitive abilities show up in __________.
    2. whales
    3. rhesus monkeys
    4. dolphins
    5. chimpanzees