Psychology  An Introduction 11th edition by Benjamin Lahey – Test Bank  

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Psychology  An Introduction 11th edition by Benjamin Lahey – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

6 STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Simply defined, consciousness is
  2. A) limited to mammalian species.
  3. B) the state between awake and asleep.
  4. C) a feeling of moral obligation.
  5. D) a state of awareness.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 163

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When a person is aware of events taking place in her or his internal as well as external environment, that person is considered to be in a state of
  2. A) consciousness.
  3. B) transcendence.
  4. C) divided perception.
  5. D) heightened sensation.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 163

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. While driving a long distance on a familiar route, Jim finds his mind wandering from work to family to thoughts of dead relatives and winning the lottery. He has no memory of the actual drive. This is an example of
  2. A) normal dreams.
  3. B) daydreams.
  4. C) abnormal obsessions.
  5. D) divided consciousness.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 164

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Barbara is reading a book she got as a Christmas gift. Her mind keeps wandering to other gifts she has received, and so she has to reread several pages. This is an example of
  2. A) mindless reading.
  3. B) abnormal behavior.
  4. C) obsessions
  5. D) compulsive behavior

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Research about attention has found that
  2. A) players passing a basketball did not notice someone in a gorilla suit.
  3. B) our ability to focus is limited.
  4. C) we exclude some things in order to respond to others in our environment.
  5. D) we do all of these.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 163–164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. You have just read your psychology assignment for the third time in the last hour. You know you looked at each word and turned all the pages. However, you cannot remember a single word you’ve read because you keep thinking about your job interview tomorrow. What have you just experienced?
  2. A) Manifest consciousness
  3. B) Flowing consciousness
  4. C) Transcendental consciousness
  5. D) Divided consciousness

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 164

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When two activities are simultaneously attended to, consciousness is said to be
  2. A) repressed.
  3. B) transcendent.
  4. C) divided.
  5. D) additive.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Lindsay had just won the lottery. She drove to a friend’s house to tell her the good news. After safely arriving at her friend’s house, she realized she had very little recollection of how she got there. This is a demonstration of
  2. A) directed consciousness.
  3. B) flowing consciousness.
  4. C) divided consciousness.
  5. D) depersonalization.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 164

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. According to research, when you are driving, which of the following is the most distracting?
  2. A) Reviewing the day in your head
  3. B) Listening to the radio
  4. C) Conversation on a cell phone
  5. D) Listening to prerecorded music

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The term used to describe a split in conscious awareness that allows us to perform two or more tasks at the same time is
  2. A) dissociated personality disorder.
  3. B) multiple personality disorder.
  4. C) schizophrenia.
  5. D) divided consciousness.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Mental processes that occur without a person being aware of them are
  2. A) daydreams.
  3. B) unconscious.
  4. C) hypnagogic.
  5. D) conscious.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When research participants were asked to repeat a message coming in one ear and ignore a message coming in the other ear, what were the researchers attempting to demonstrate scientifically?
  2. A) Unconscious information processing
  3. B) Flowing consciousness
  4. C) Depersonalization
  5. D) Bipolar consciousness

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 165

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Compared to listening to the car radio or CD, talking on a cell phone
  2. A) is less distracting.
  3. B) has shown no increase in accidents.
  4. C) causes an equal number of accidents.
  5. D) is much more distracting.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The cocktail party phenomenon describes a situation in which individuals
  2. A) process incoming information even if they are not consciously attending to it.
  3. B) who spend time in groups start to think with one mind, following a strong leader.
  4. C) who consume alcohol lose their inhibitions and process information differently.
  5. D) invited to the party exhibit feelings of superiority compared to those not invited.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 165

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. You are at a party and having a nice conversation with someone. All the way across the room someone says your name, and you immediately hear it and pay attention to it? When this happens, it is known as the ______ phenomenon.
  2. A) Ebbinghaus
  3. B) mnemonic device
  4. C) tip-of-the-tongue
  5. D) cocktail party

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 165

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The semi-wakeful period that precedes light sleep is called
  2. A) myoclonia.
  3. B) the hypnagogic state.
  4. C) REM sleep.
  5. D) the transcendental state.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 166

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A concerned friend told you that as her spouse goes to sleep his body is prone to sudden jerks. What should you tell her?
  2. A) Her spouse is a victim of sleep apnea.
  3. B) Her spouse is experiencing abnormal hypnogogia.
  4. C) Her spouse may have narcolepsy.
  5. D) Her spouse is experiencing normal myoclonia.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 166

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following best characterizes a night’s sleep?
  2. A) We begin the night in light sleep and end in deep sleep.
  3. B) We pass from light sleep to dream sleep to deep sleep.
  4. C) Our depth of sleep changes many times during the night.
  5. D) We alternate from the hypnagogic state to dream sleep about six times.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 167

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If a sleeping person’s eyes are moving back and forth rapidly under the eyelids, it is likely that this individual is
  2. A) in the deepest level of sleep.
  3. B) dreaming.
  4. C) in a hypnagogic state.
  5. D) awakening.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 168

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The brain waves of a person in REM sleep are most similar to
  2. A) wakefulness.
  3. B) the hypnagogic state.
  4. C) deep (Stage 4) sleep.
  5. D) light (Stage 2) sleep.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 168

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In general, sleep consumes ______ of our lives.
  2. A) 10%
  3. B) 25%
  4. C) 33%
  5. D) 50%

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 166

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The twilight stage in between wakefulness and sleep is referred to as the
  2. A) myoclonia nervosa.
  3. B) hypnotic stage.
  4. C) hypnagogic state.
  5. D) somnambulism effect.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 166

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following would be an example of myoclonia?
  2. A) Your neck being sore from sleeping in the “wrong” position
  3. B) Your chest throbbing with heartburn
  4. C) Your leg cramping up at night
  5. D) Your body experiencing a sudden jerk

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 166

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. It is 2 a.m. and Allison has been sleeping for several hours. Her heart begins to pound and flutter, her fingers twitch, her eyelids flicker, and her breathing becomes shallow and irregular. A sleep researcher would best describe these phenomena as an example of
  2. A) a night terror.
  3. B) an autonomic storm.
  4. C) non-REM dream patterns.
  5. D) stage one sleep.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 169

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Dreams occurring during ________ sleep are briefer, less bizarre, and contain less negative emotions compared to ________ sleep.
  2. A) REM; non-REM
  3. B) non-REM; REM
  4. C) hypnagogic; REM
  5. D) hypnagogic; non-REM

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 170

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The difference between REM and non-REM dreams is that
  2. A) non-REM dreams have more imagery.
  3. B) REM dreams are less frequent.
  4. C) non-REM dreams have bizarre content.
  5. D) non-REM is more similar than different to REM.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The average college student spends about ______ a night in REM sleep.
  2. A) one hour
  3. B) two hours
  4. C) 30 minutes
  5. D) four hours

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 169

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. During a night of sleep, when does REM sleep occur?
  2. A) In one long episode at the beginning of the night
  3. B) In one long episode at the end of the night
  4. C) In about four to six episodes distributed across the night’s sleep
  5. D) In two long episodes, one at the beginning and one at the end of the night

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 169

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. During REM sleep, ______ the night’s dreams take place.
  2. A) all
  3. B) about half of
  4. C) less than 10% of
  5. D) about 80% of

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A class project required a student nurse to make hourly records of her own blood pressure and body temperature over a 30-day period. When the data were graphed, it became clear that these readings changed in a predictable way on a daily basis. The reason for this regularity is that many physiological processes are
  2. A) determined by subconscious expectations.
  3. B) governed by circadian rhythms.
  4. C) controlled by daily lunar cycles.
  5. D) correlated with lunar rotation.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 170

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which hormone follows a circadian rhythm and peaks just before a person wakes from sleep?
  2. A) Melatonin
  3. B) Growth
  4. C) Cortisol
  5. D) Polactin

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In a sensory-deprivation experiment, Bob was required to remain in a windowless room for several weeks. Based on results from previous research, it is likely that his sleep-wake cycle
  2. A) shortened from 24 hours to 22 hours.
  3. B) remained the same during the experiment.
  4. C) lengthened from 24 hours to 25 hours.
  5. D) adjusted to a lunar cycle of 28 days.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 170–171

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Internally generated cycles lasting about 24 hours a day that regulate sleep and wake cycles, as well as hormone secretion, are called
  2. A) sleep disorders.
  3. B) circadian rhythms.
  4. C) REM periods.
  5. D) astral projections.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The biological cycle of approximately 24 hours in length that regulates our pattern of sleep is called a(n)
  2. A) circadian rhythm.
  3. B) myoclonic event.
  4. C) non-REM sequence.
  5. D) out-of-body experience.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The hormone ______ is a key factor in regulating a person’s level of sleepiness.
  2. A) testosterone
  3. B) melatonin
  4. C) estrogen
  5. D) glutamate

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. How does body temperature change in relation to the circadian rhythm linked to the sleep cycle? Body temperature
  2. A) falls during REM sleep but rises again during the periods of non-REM sleep.
  3. B) falls at the beginning of sleep and starts to rise by the middle of your sleep cycle.
  4. C) falls at the beginning of sleep and continues to fall until the middle of your sleep period.
  5. D) rises during dreams that are anxiety-provoking but rises during dreams that are calm.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 170

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The term “sleep debt” describes a condition in which a sleep-deprived person
  2. A) goes immediately into REM sleep.
  3. B) develops insomnia at night, and narcolepsy occurs during the day.
  4. C) has daily naps that interfere with normal sleeping patterns.
  5. D) afterward falls asleep more quickly and sleeps longer.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 171-172

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. For men who sleep less than four and a half hours per night, this behavior is associated with a ______ in death rates.
  2. A) 50% increase
  3. B) 15% increase
  4. C) 5% decrease
  5. D) 65% decrease

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 172

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Short-term sleep deprivation ______ the body’s immune system.
  2. A) improves
  3. B) accelerates
  4. C) stops
  5. D) slows down

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 172

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Most adults sleep ______ hours per night.
  2. A) seven to eight
  3. B) 9 to 10
  4. C) five to six
  5. D) 11 to 12

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 172

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What did Freud consider to be the “royal road to the unconscious”?
  2. A) Dreams
  3. B) Meditation
  4. C) The ego
  5. D) Hypnosis

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Of the following, which sensation is least likely to be reported after waking from a dream?
  2. A) Smelling a floral aroma
  3. B) Hearing crowd noise
  4. C) Seeing strange people
  5. D) Feeling sexually aroused

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 173

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. While preparing a paper on dreaming, you came across a book that described the meaning of various dream images. The assumption made by the author is that dreams
  2. A) have symbolic meaning.
  3. B) recycle daily residue.
  4. C) are stimulated by real-life events.
  5. D) are analogous to hallucinations.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 175

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. According to research, which term would best describe the actual frequency of sexual dreams?
  2. A) 0%
  3. B) 10%
  4. C) 60%
  5. D) 100%

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 173

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Taylor dreamed she was hearing a phone ringing. Taylor is a telephone receptionist who spends most of her day answering the phone at work. This is an example
  2. A) latent content.
  3. B) stimulus incorporation.
  4. C) day residue.
  5. D) residual sensation.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 174

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In Freud’s theory of dreaming, the story you remember when you wake up is the
  2. A) manifest content.
  3. B) latent content.
  4. C) event sequence.
  5. D) surface structure.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. 4 Sigrid has been studying very hard for her medical school entrance exam. Last night she dreamed she was taking the test and had nothing to write with. Sigrid’s dream is an example of
  2. A) stimulus incorporation.
  3. B) the influence of day residue.
  4. C) the protective feature of dreams.
  5. D) a night terror.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 174

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What percentage of dreams includes tastes or smells?
  2. A) About 25%
  3. B) About 50%
  4. C) Less than 1%
  5. D) Over 99%

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 173

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Of the following, which occurs in your dreams most often?
  2. A) Animals
  3. B) Family members
  4. C) Friends
  5. D) You

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 173

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the dreams we remember?
  2. A) We remember negative dreams because they tend to wake us up.
  3. B) We don’t remember positive dreams because there are so many of them.
  4. C) We remember negative dreams because they are the first dreams of REM sleep.
  5. D) We don’t remember negative dreams because our defense mechanisms protect us.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 174

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Regarding our dreams, the term “day residue” refers to the idea that
  2. A) the amount of sleep at night is related to the number of hours awake during the day.
  3. B) dreams seem to contain at least one character or event from the preceding day.
  4. C) in the morning after a dream, an amount of day residue can be found on your eyes.
  5. D) the hormonal changes during sleep at night are evident in behavioral changes the next day.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 174

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Research indicates that sleeping less than average will
  2. A) alter the efficiency of the brain.
  3. B) increase levels of stress hormones.
  4. C) slow the body’s immune system.
  5. D) do all of these.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 172

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Freud was mostly interested in the ______ of dreams.
  2. A) day residue
  3. B) manifest content
  4. C) stimulus incorporation
  5. D) latent content

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A terrifying kind of dream that occurs during REM sleep and whose content is exceptionally frightening or uncomfortable is called a(n)
  2. A) nightmare.
  3. B) night terror.
  4. C) autonomic storm.
  5. D) REM fright.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Billy, a toddler, awoke suddenly during non-REM sleep screaming and with no recollection of a dream. This is most likely an example of
  2. A) a nightmare.
  3. B) a night terror.
  4. C) a sleep disorder.
  5. D) sleep-talking.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 175

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If your spouse engages in frequent sleep-talking, you know that this is a
  2. A) common sleep phenomenon.
  3. B) phenomenon that only occurs in Stage 1 sleep.
  4. C) serious sleep disorder associated with sleepwalking.
  5. D) phenomenon that occurs only in REM sleep.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. You are experiencing ______ if your dream during REM sleep is particularly frightening and you are upset enough to wake up from your dream.
  2. A) nightmares
  3. B) night terrors
  4. C) night sweats
  5. D) narcolepsy

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 175

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Night terrors tend to occur
  2. A) in adults much more often than children.
  3. B) during the deepest phases of non-REM sleep.
  4. C) with the temporary stoppage of breathing.
  5. D) with individuals who are malnourished.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Sleep-talking occurs during ______ phase of the sleep cycle.
  2. A) the deepest
  3. B) the non-REM
  4. C) any
  5. D) the REM

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Jerry is in the process of getting a divorce and is having trouble at his job. He has a lot of trouble going back to sleep once something awakens him during the night. Which disorder has he most likely developed?
  2. A) Sleep apnea
  3. B) Narcolepsy
  4. C) Insomnia
  5. D) Sleep-talking

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 176

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Lucy wants to go to sleep at 10 p.m. because she gets up for work at 5:30 a.m. She has been trying for a month to fall asleep by 10 but can’t seem to fall asleep until after 11 p.m. Lucy most likely has
  2. A) early-awakening insomnia.
  3. B) sleep-onset insomnia.
  4. C) latent insomnia.
  5. D) sleep-latency insomnia.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 176

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If you find that you are waking up frequently during the night or often wake up an hour or two before your alarm goes off, you may have
  2. A) manifest insomnia.
  3. B) sleep-onset insomnia.
  4. C) sleep-latency insomnia.
  5. D) early-awakening insomnia.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 176

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by
  2. A) sleepwalking and sleep-talking.
  3. B) an anxious, panicky feeling.
  4. C) irresistible urges to fall asleep.
  5. D) excessively long sleep periods.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 176

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. During a night’s sleep, frequently occurring apnea may cause symptoms similar to
  2. A) narcolepsy.
  3. B) night terrors.
  4. C) latent insomnia.
  5. D) sleep-onset insomnia.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 176

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In ______ insomnia, individuals wake up sooner than desired, perhaps in the middle of the night or closer to the morning.
  2. A) latent content
  3. B) manifest content
  4. C) sleep-onset
  5. D) early-awakening

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 176

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The sleep disorder of narcolepsy occurs when individuals
  2. A) fall unexpectedly into a deep sleep in the middle of daily activities.
  3. B) have difficulty falling asleep at the hour at which they would like.
  4. C) wake up earlier than desired, sometimes several times a night.
  5. D) stop breathing while they are sleeping.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 176

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What do drugs, mediation, and intense religious experiences or sexual orgasms have in common?
  2. A) They produce the same brain-wave activity.
  3. B) They produce extreme negative emotional states.
  4. C) They produce high levels of consciousness.
  5. D) They produce altered states of consciousness.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 177

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Alan took a drug and then described how he had gained a unique insight into a social problem. However, he has no justification or proof to back up his thoughts. Which characteristic of altered states of consciousness best fits this example?
  2. A) Sense of unity
  3. B) Self-evident reality
  4. C) Transcendent
  5. D) Distortion of perception

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When Pilar reached the top of a Himalayan peak, she experienced an intense, indescribable positive sensation. Her experience may best be described as
  2. A) Depersonalization.
  3. B) Stimulus incorporation.
  4. C) Altered state.
  5. D) Astral projection.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 177

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Kathy says that when she meditates she feels like she becomes one with the universe. Kathy has experienced
  2. A) an altered state of consciousness.
  3. B) latent mesmerism.
  4. C) the hypnagogic state.
  5. D) a period of divided consciousness.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 177

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of an altered state of consciousness?
  2. A) Sense of division
  3. B) Illogical
  4. C) Clear perception
  5. D) Describable

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 177

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Distortions of perception, intense positive emotions, and a self-evident reality are all characteristics that describe
  2. A) circadian arrhythmia.
  3. B) myoclonic narcolepsy.
  4. C) altered states of consciousness.
  5. D) night terrors.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 177–178

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. An altered state of consciousness that is sometimes achieved during meditation and that transcends normal human experience is called
  2. A) a transcendental mantra.
  3. B) a transcendental state.
  4. C) supreme meditation.
  5. D) astral meditation.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 178

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Those who wish to reach a more perfect state of consciousness often engage in
  2. A) hypnotic control.
  3. B) divided consciousness.
  4. C) depersonalization.
  5. D) meditation.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 178

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A method of relaxation that involves focusing one’s concentration on rhythmic breathing and not on thoughts or feelings is called
  2. A) astral projection.
  3. B) depersonalization.
  4. C) meditation.
  5. D) hypnosis.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 178

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. While most people who master the practice of meditation report feeling relaxed, some report feeling a state that goes beyond normal experience. This altered state of consciousness is called
  2. A) the transcendental state.
  3. B) astral projection.
  4. C) the universal state.
  5. D) self-evident reality.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Charles has been told he must reduce his sympathetic autonomic arousal. What consciousness-altering technique may help Charles?
  2. A) Depersonalization
  3. B) Stimulus incorporation
  4. C) Meditation
  5. D) Astral projection

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In considering the world around you, the opposite of meditation is
  2. A) mindfulness.
  3. B) sleepwalking.
  4. C) mesmerism.
  5. D) hypnosis.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 178–179

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Mindfulness involves a state of being where a person
  2. A) concentrates on how past events will predict future events.
  3. B) is completely aware of what is going on at the present moment.
  4. C) watches the behavior of others while ignoring their own behavior.
  5. D) relaxes to the point of sleepiness by the repeated use of a mantra.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 178–179

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In terms of states of consciousness, hypnosis involves a
  2. A) high degree of controlled processing.
  3. B) strong defense against suggestibility.
  4. C) sense of deep relaxation and susceptibility to suggestion.
  5. D) dependence on a belief in supernatural powers.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 179

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If Juan is hypnotized and he loses the sense of touch or pain in his right hand, what is occurring?
  2. A) A hypnagogic state
  3. B) Hypnotic relaxation
  4. C) Hypnotic analgesia
  5. D) Hypnotic conversion

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 179

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What do most experts believe about hypnotic age regression?
  2. A) It is very useful in child abuse cases.
  3. B) It can help people clearly recall painful experiences from the past.
  4. C) It does not improve the recall of childhood events.
  5. D) It is only useful for recalling the details of non-traumatic experiences.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 179

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What did Mesmer believe was the cause of his patients’ medical and psychological problems?
  2. A) Their autonomic nervous systems were overly aroused.
  3. B) They were unable to relax completely.
  4. C) They had an excess of body fluids.
  5. D) Their bodies’ magnetic forces were out of balance.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 180

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The term “hypnotic analgesia” refers to the situation that occurs when a person is hypnotized, they
  2. A) see flowers that do not exist.
  3. B) sense deep relaxation and peacefulness.
  4. C) lose the sense of touch or pain.
  5. D) pass back in time to an earlier life stage.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 179

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The perceptual experience of one’s body becoming distorted or unreal coupled with a sense of strange distortions in one’s surroundings is called
  2. A) mesmerism.
  3. B) self-evident reality.
  4. C) transcendental projection.
  5. D) depersonalization.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 180

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The perception that your mind has left your body is known as
  2. A) mesmerism.
  3. B) astral meditation.
  4. C) transcendental state.
  5. D) astral projection.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 180

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A spontaneous state of consciousness that occurs when one experiences one’s own body becoming distorted or unreal in some way is referred to as
  2. A) mantrafication.
  3. B) mindfulness.
  4. C) mesmerism.
  5. D) depersonalization.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 180

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. An astral projection can be thought of in common terms as a(n)
  2. A) out-of-body experience.
  3. B) mindful state of tranquility.
  4. C) manifest content dream.
  5. D) stimulus incorporation event.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 180

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Drugs that alter conscious experience are known as ______ drugs.
  2. A) psychotropic
  3. B) illicit
  4. C) pharmaceutical
  5. D) over-the-counter (OTC)

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 181–182

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Gillian bought some cocaine that she felt gave her a great experience. When she bought more cocaine from the same dealer, it did not give her the same experience. Given this information, what best explains why her experiences differed?
  2. A) Expectation
  3. B) Drug purity
  4. C) Personal characteristics
  5. D) Social situation

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 183

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Personal expectations, social situations, and moods are factors that may
  2. A) explain why we sleep and dream.
  3. B) affect the onset of a narcoleptic attack.
  4. C) influence an individual’s response to drugs.
  5. D) increase the likelihood of astral projection.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When taking a drug for the first time, people should be aware that _______ can make the drug’s effects unpredictable.
  2. A) withdrawal
  3. B) psychological dependence
  4. C) tolerance
  5. D) personal characteristics

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When Bob drinks a few scotch and sodas in public he is viewed by others as very witty and fun to be with. However, when Bob drinks a few scotch and sodas at home, his family reports that he becomes sad and regretful. What is most likely affecting Bob’s differing responses to alcohol?
  2. A) The purity of the alcohol
  3. B) The social situation
  4. C) Bob’s expectations
  5. D) The stimulant effect of alcohol

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 183

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The broad name for the class of drugs that alter conscious experience in any way is
  2. A) stimulants.
  3. B) psychotropic drugs.
  4. C) narcotics.
  5. D) antagonists.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 181–182

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In trying to gauge a person’s reaction to psychotropic drug use, you might consider if they are consuming the drug alone or with others. This drug use factor is know as
  2. A) mood and expectation.
  3. B) personal characteristics.
  4. C) the social situation.
  5. D) dosage and purity.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Psychotropic drugs that increase the activity of the central nervous system, providing a sense of energy and wellbeing, are called
  2. A) depressants.
  3. B) tranquilizers.
  4. C) hallucinogens.
  5. D) stimulants.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 182–183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If you took a drug that lessened your feelings of fatigue, created an elevated mood, and decreased your appetite, which of the following did you probably take?
  2. A) Amphetamine
  3. B) Alcohol
  4. C) Heroin
  5. D) Valium

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Coca-Cola’s original ingredient, used to market it as a “nerve tonic,” was _______, and was replaced by _______ in 1906.
  2. A) cocaine; caffeine
  3. B) cocaine; cola extract
  4. C) nicotinic extract; caffeine
  5. D) pure caffeine; cola extract

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 184

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The reaction to the excessive use of stimulants that results in distorted thinking, confused emotions, and intense suspiciousness is known as
  2. A) amphetamine psychosis.
  3. B) astral projection.
  4. C) hypnotic mesmerism.
  5. D) runner’s high.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Stimulant is to depressant as
  2. A) alcohol is to cocaine.
  3. B) codeine is to alcohol.
  4. C) Dexedrine is to alcohol.
  5. D) cocaine is to Dexedrine.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 182

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Tranquilizers and alcohol belong to a drug category called
  2. A) stimulants.
  3. B) narcotics.
  4. C) depressants.
  5. D) sedatives.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 182

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Drugs that create a sense of relaxation and lowered inhibitions by reducing the activity of the central nervous system are called
  2. A) inhalants.
  3. B) stimulants.
  4. C) hallucinogens.
  5. D) depressants.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 182

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Tranquilizers, sedatives, and narcotics all belong to the category of ______ drugs.
  2. A) stimulant
  3. B) depressant
  4. C) hallucinogenic
  5. D) inhalant

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 182

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Also known as ma huang, ______ is an herbal stimulant sold as a dietary supplement.
  2. A) epinephrine
  3. B) ephedra
  4. C) ecstasy
  5. D) endorphin

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 184

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In general, sedatives are prescribed to treat ______ and tranquilizers are prescribed to treat ______.
  2. A) anxiety; sleep problems
  3. B) drug overdoses; sleep problems
  4. C) sleep problems; anxiety
  5. D) anxiety; drug overdoses

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 184

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Your neighbor has just confided in you that he is an addict. You have never seen him drink alcohol, smoke, or pop pills, but you have seen many small paper bags lying around his garage. Given this evidence, to which category of drug might your neighbor be addicted?
  2. A) Hallucinogens
  3. B) Depressants
  4. C) Inhalants
  5. D) Stimulants

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 185

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which drug is not physically addictive but can cause psychological withdrawal symptoms, decreased cognition efficiency, and weakened immune system with prolonged use?
  2. A) Opium
  3. B) Marijuana
  4. C) LSD
  5. D) Caffeine

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185–186

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Despite being not physically addictive, marijuana, used on a prolonged basis,
  2. A) reduces the risk of serious mental health problems.
  3. B) has never been proven to be harmful.
  4. C) reduces cognitive efficiency.
  5. D) produces only short-term health risks.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185–186

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A substance is considered an inhalant if when inhaled it produces
  2. A) substantial drowsiness.
  3. B) a sense of intoxication.
  4. C) extreme depression.
  5. D) myoclonic events.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. PCP or angel dust falls into to psychotropic drug category of
  2. A) opiates.
  3. B) depressants.
  4. C) hallucinogens.
  5. D) stimulants.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following outcomes does marijuana smoking share with cigarette smoking?
  2. A) Increases in the action of male sex hormones
  3. B) Strengthening of the body’s immune system
  4. C) Increases in the efficiency of cognitive processing
  5. D) Increases to the risk of lung cancer

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 186

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Evidence suggests that the use of the designer drug Ecstasy causes lasting damage to neurons resulting in
  2. A) declines in verbal memory.
  3. B) increases in excitability.
  4. C) increases in depression.
  5. D) declines in autonomic nervous system.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 186

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Nicotine is highly addictive because it stimulates
  2. A) GABA production.
  3. B) pleasure centers in the limbic system.
  4. C) largely increases alertness.
  5. D) the immune system.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 190

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The drug Ecstasy operates by reducing the transmission of neurons that use ______ as a neurotransmitter.
  2. A) acetylcholine
  3. B) epinephrine
  4. C) serotonin
  5. D) norepinephrine

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 186

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the reasons that people become addicted to psychoactive drugs?
  2. A) Blockage of pleasure receptors
  3. B) Operant conditioning
  4. C) Disconnection of reward systems
  5. D) Reduction of negative feelings

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 187

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In the United States, about one in ______ adolescents and adults have a substance-abuse problem during some point in their lives.
  2. A) four
  3. B) 10
  4. C) 50
  5. D) 100

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 187

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. People with less education and lower incomes are ______ likely to abuse drugs compared to persons with more money.
  2. A) less
  3. B) more
  4. C) just as
  5. D) not very

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 187

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Based on research, American Indians living on reservations have a ______ rate of alcohol abuse.
  2. A) nonexistent
  3. B) low
  4. C) very high
  5. D) moderate

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 187

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

True/False Questions

 

  1. Consciousness is simply defined as a state of awareness.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 163

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In general, cell phones do not distract drivers and do not cause accidents.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Divided consciousness was a mythical form of awareness debunked by Ernest Hilgard.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When listening to two voices and told to pay attention to one, nothing from the other voice (not attended to) is processed by the brain.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 164

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. We always go directly from wakefulness to sleep.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 166

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Sleep is not a single state; instead, it’s a complex combination of states, some involving conscious awareness.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 166

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The hypnagogic state is the second level of sleep.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 166

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Non-REM dreams contain much more negative emotion and realistic content compared to REM dreams.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. REM sleep stands for rapid-eye-movement sleep.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 168

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The circadian rhythm for humans is about 12 hours.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Body temperature follows a circadian rhythm.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 170

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome:  1.3

 

  1. If an individual misses some sleep, a sleep debt is created.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 171

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. About 10% of all dreams involve sexual body sensations.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 173

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Incorporating an event from the day into your current dream is called day residue.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 174

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The visual images in dreams are usually as bright and clear as waking images, but they are not as colorful.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 173

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Night terrors are vivid dreams remembered upon wakening.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Sleep-talking can occur during any phase of the sleep cycle.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Fortunately, sleep disorders are highly treatable disorders.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Sleepwalking occurs during the deepest parts of non-REM sleep.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 175

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Sleep apnea is the sleep disorder where individuals have a hard time falling asleep.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 176

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. An altered state of consciousness often results in a sense of unity.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 177

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A word that may be repeated over and over during meditation is called a mantra.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 178

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Meditation involves a free association of thoughts to solve difficult life problems.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 178

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. During hypnotic age regression, a sense of deep relaxation and peacefulness exists.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 179

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Another name for an out-of-body experience is astral projection.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 180

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Depersonalization usually occurs during hypnotic trances.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 180

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A person’s personality can influence a drug’s effect.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Stimulants product a dreamlike alteration to perceptual experiences.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Cocaine is a stimulant.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 183

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A feature of all psychotropic drugs is the production of hallucinations.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Cocaine is highly addictive with a wide variety of tolerance in users

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 184

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. All addictive drugs stimulate dopamine transmitters that mediate pleasure and reward.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 187

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The derivates of opium are known as opiates.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. LSD and mescaline belong to the psychotropic drug category opiates.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Inhalants are most often abused by children.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 185

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Ecstasy is an example of a designer drug.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 186

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The reduction of negative feelings is one reason that individuals become dependent on drugs.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 187

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Three out of every four individuals in the United States have a substance abuse problem some time in their life.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 187

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

7 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. An essential factor in the definition of learning is that the learned behavior
  2. A) must result from maturation.
  3. B) must be unmotivated.
  4. C) has a biological cause.
  5. D) is relatively permanent.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 194

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Learning is defined as a _______ change in behavior due to _______.
  2. A) temporary; experience
  3. B) biological; reinforcement
  4. C) relatively permanent; experience
  5. D) biological; maturation

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 194

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Some kindergarten children were shown a film on how to brush their teeth. If a change in behavior is not immediately obvious after viewing the instructional film, you may conclude that
  2. A) learning has not occurred.
  3. B) there is a potential for a behavioral change.
  4. C) maturation has interfered with learning.
  5. D) the children were obviously not paying attention.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 195

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When a baby is born, it shows no preference for its father’s voice, but after a month of living with Dad, a baby will show a clear preference for Dad’s voice over other men’s voices. This new preference is an example of
  2. A) maturation.
  3. B) genetics.
  4. C) insight.
  5. D) learning.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 195

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A major league baseball pitcher changes his arm strength by taking steroids, which in turn changes his pitching. Is this change in pitching due to learning?
  2. A) No, because the change was not due to experience.
  3. B) No, because arm strength has nothing to do with pitching.
  4. C) Yes, because the pitcher learned to take steroids.
  5. D) Yes, because changes from steroids are permanent.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 194

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Using Pavlov’s idea of learning through association, a(n) ______ stimulus comes to elicit a response over time.
  2. A) learned
  3. B) original
  4. C) neutral
  5. D) inborn

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 196

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In Pavlov’s classic studies with dogs and digestion, what was the response that Pavlov measured?
  2. A) Amount of food presented
  3. B) Footsteps in the laboratory
  4. C) Sound of a metronome
  5. D) Amount of salivation

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 195

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Pavlov found that a neutral stimulus was more likely to produce dogs to salivate if the stimulus
  2. A) was delivered on a variable interval schedule.
  3. B) positively reinforced salivation.
  4. C) and food were frequently associated.
  5. D) followed the salivation by one second.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 195

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In Pavlov’s experiments, which condition of association produced the best results?
  2. A) When the metronome preceded the food powder by 10 seconds
  3. B) When the food powder and metronome were presented simultaneously
  4. C) When the food powder preceded the metronome by 10 seconds
  5. D) When the metronome preceded the food powder by half a second

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 197

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Frequency and timing of the association of two neutral stimuli are important to the formation of what?
  2. A) classical conditioning
  3. B) unconditioned stimulus
  4. C) shaped behavior
  5. D) Thorndikian learning

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 196–197

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A fleck of dust or dirt in your eye automatically causes the eye to produce tears to wash out the dirt. If this were part of a classical conditioning experiment, the fleck of dust or dirt would be labeled as the
  2. A) unconditioned stimulus.
  3. B) unconditioned response.
  4. C) conditioned stimulus.
  5. D) conditioned response.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 197

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In classical conditioning, an unlearned, inborn reaction to an unconditioned stimulus is a(n)
  2. A) unconditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned stimulus.
  4. C) unconditioned response.
  5. D) conditioned response.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 197

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In order to cry during a particular scene, an actor held a handkerchief soaked in onion juice close to her nose. The onion juice served as a(n)
  2. A) conditioned response.
  3. B) unconditioned response.
  4. C) conditioned stimulus.
  5. D) unconditioned stimulus.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 197

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In classical conditioning, which of the following is true of the unconditioned stimulus?
  2. A) It becomes associated with the response after learning.
  3. B) It causes the response only in the presence of the conditioned stimulus.
  4. C) It elicits the response without any learning.
  5. D) It is emitted by the unconditioned response.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 197

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A parent brings his 15-month-old to the pediatrician’s office for her first shot. The child is happy and playful right up until the time the shot is injected. Now, every time the child sees someone in a white lab coat, she cries in terror. The injection in this scenario served as the
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) unconditioned stimulus.
  4. C) unconditioned response.
  5. D) conditioned response.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 197

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Women who breastfeed their babies often notice that the crying of any infant may result in milk ejection. In this case, the crying of any infant is a(n)
  2. A) unconditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned stimulus.
  4. C) unconditioned response.
  5. D) conditioned response.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 198

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In an experiment, participants are to learn a classically conditioned response. Which of the following will occur on the first learning trial?
  2. A) The participant cannot make a UCR.
  3. B) The UCR will elicit a CS.
  4. C) The CS will not elicit a CR.
  5. D) The CS will elicit a UCR.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 198

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Let’s say you have a hungry cat in your kitchen. You use your electric can opener, which makes a rather loud sound, to open a can of cat food. You have done this many times before. The hungry cat comes running toward the kitchen at the sound of the can opener, not at the sight of the food. In this example, the sound of the can opener is the
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus.
  5. D) unconditioned response.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 198

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Let’s say you have a hungry cat in your kitchen. You use your electric can opener, which makes a rather loud sound, to open a can of cat food. You have done this many times before. The hungry cat comes running toward the kitchen at the sound of the can opener, not at the sight of the food. In this example, the running into the kitchen at the sound of the can opener is the
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus.
  5. D) unconditioned response.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 198

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Let’s say you have a hungry cat in your kitchen. You use your electric can opener, which makes a rather loud sound, to open a can of cat food. You have done this many times before. The hungry cat runs toward the plate of food when it sees it being set on the floor. In this example, the placement of the food on the floor is a(n)
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus.
  5. D) unconditioned response.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 197

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Let’s say you have a hungry cat in your kitchen. You use your electric can opener, which makes a rather loud sound, to open a can of cat food. You have done this many times before. The hungry cat runs toward the plate of food when it sees it being set on the floor. In this example, running toward a plate of food when set in front of the cat is a(n)
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus.
  5. D) unconditioned response.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 197

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If classical conditioning has been successfully accomplished, what type of response follows the presentation of a conditioned stimulus?
  2. A) Conditioned response
  3. B) Neutral response
  4. C) Conditioned stimulus
  5. D) Neutral stimulus

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 198

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Joe has been afraid of cats since childhood when he was attacked and scratched by a neighborhood stray. A fear such as Joe’s may best be explained by
  2. A) classical conditioning.
  3. B) observational learning.
  4. C) operant conditioning.
  5. D) insight learning.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 198

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When counterconditioning is used, a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that is _______ the conditioned response.
  2. A) reinforced by
  3. B) extinguished by
  4. C) associated with
  5. D) incompatible with

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 201

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When a sexual fetish develops, the conditioned stimulus is
  2. A) sexual behavior.
  3. B) a nonsexual object.
  4. C) an erotic picture.
  5. D) a primary reinforcer.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 202

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The origins of unusual sexual fetishes may best be explained by
  2. A) learned helplessness.
  3. B) the partial reinforcement effect.
  4. C) superstitious behavior.
  5. D) classical conditioning.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 202

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The study of “Little Albert” is a famous example of the study of learned that was conducted by
  2. A) Pavlov.
  3. B) Watson.
  4. C) Thorndike.
  5. D) Bandura.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 201

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In classical conditioning, one has the ability to “undo” the association of neutral stimuli with fearful responses by using the process of
  2. A) stimulus generalization.
  3. B) stimulus discrimination.
  4. C) counterconditioning.
  5. D) spontaneous recovery.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 201

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Learning from the consequences of our behavior, which in turn leads to the strengthening, or weakening of behaviors is called
  2. A) observational learning.
  3. B) latent learning.
  4. C) classical conditioning.
  5. D) operant conditioning.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 203

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Thorndike’s “law of effect” suggests that
  2. A) the consequences of a behavior influence the probability of that behavior being repeated.
  3. B) the more we observe positive models in our environment, the more we emulate those models.
  4. C) when a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly followed by an unconditioned stimulus, learning occurs.
  5. D) the more we know, the more we comprehend that we don’t know.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 203

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is a key element in operant conditioning?
  2. A) The type of stimulus used
  3. B) The nature of the learning task
  4. C) The consequences of a behavior
  5. D) Whether a response is elicited or not

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 203

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Learning that occurs as a result of the consequences of our behavior is called _______ conditioning.
  2. A) classical
  3. B) Pavlovian
  4. C) operant
  5. D) observational

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 203

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When voluntary behaviors are either strengthened or weakened by their outcomes, the behavioral changes result from
  2. A) insight learning.
  3. B) classical conditioning.
  4. C) observational learning.
  5. D) operant conditioning.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 203

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the law of effect?
  2. A) A conditioned stimulus will produce a conditioned response.
  3. B) The consequence of a response determines whether the response will be repeated.
  4. C) Reinforcers should be given immediately after a response.
  5. D) Behaviors will be elicited if the conditioned response is strong.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 203

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Fred asks his mom for a cookie, but the answer is no. He whines and cries, so his mom gives him a cookie and he calms down. According to the principles of operant conditioning, what can be expected?
  2. A) Mom will be less likely to give cookies in the future.
  3. B) Fred will whine and cry more often in the future.
  4. C) Fred will cry whenever he is hungry.
  5. D) Fred will enjoy his cookie less than if he had received it after the first request.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 204

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The Smiths’ new puppy cries in the middle of the night. Various family members periodically check the dog, who responds by happily wagging his tail. Lately, his crying has actually increased. This increase is likely due to
  2. A) positive punishment.
  3. B) positive reinforcement.
  4. C) negative reinforcement.
  5. D) classical conditioning.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 204

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A child cries until his mother gives him a piece of candy. The candy is a(n)
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) unconditioned response.
  4. C) positive reinforcer.
  5. D) secondary reinforcer.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 204

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. 38. Research on operant conditioning suggests that the longer a reward for a good deed is delayed, the
  2. A) less of an impact the reward has.
  3. B) more tantalizing the reward becomes.
  4. C) more strength gained by the conditioned stimulus.
  5. D) less necessary is the unconditioned response.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 204

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What is the overall effect of delay of reinforcement?
  2. A) It slows learning.
  3. B) It speeds learning.
  4. C) It has no effect on learning.
  5. D) It accelerates learning.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 204

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. At the beginning of a learning process using positive reinforcement, it is important to
  2. A) only use secondary reinforcement.
  3. B) progress very slowly.
  4. C) avoid using extrinsic rewards.
  5. D) use consistent reinforcement.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 204–205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Jill was trying to operantly condition her dog to roll over. Each time her dog rolled over she immediately said “good dog.” However, the dog did not learn to roll over on command. Which of the following may best explain why?
  2. A) Jill used inconsistent reinforcement.
  3. B) The CS did not match the CR.
  4. C) Jill should have delayed the reinforcement.
  5. D) Saying “good dog” was not reinforcing to her dog.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 204

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When using positive reinforcement, the _______ should immediately follow the _______.
  2. A) CS; UCS
  3. B) UCR; CS
  4. C) reinforcer; response
  5. D) response; reinforcer

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 204

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Regarding learning, ______ has occurred when the consequence of a behavior leads to an increased probability of that behavior being repeated in the future.
  2. A) observational learning
  3. B) positive reinforcement
  4. C) punishment
  5. D) latent learning

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 204

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In positive reinforcement, the consequences of a behavior are ______ and the behavior is likely to occur ______.
  2. A) positive; less
  3. B) negative; less
  4. C) positive; more
  5. D) negative; more

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 204

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In positive reinforcement, the behavior that becomes more frequent is called the
  2. A) latent reaction.
  3. B) punisher.
  4. C) effected law.
  5. D) operant response.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 204

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The idea of delay of reinforcement suggests that the ______ delay of reinforcement, the ______ the learning.
  2. A) greater; slower
  3. B) less; slower
  4. C) greater; more accurate
  5. D) less; less accurate

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 204

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer?
  2. A) Grades
  3. B) Food
  4. C) Applause
  5. D) Money

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
  2. A) Physical activity
  3. B) Food
  4. C) Money
  5. D) Water

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Food, water, warmth, novel stimulation, physical activity, and sexual gratification are all examples of
  2. A) primary reinforcers.
  3. B) secondary reinforcers.
  4. C) tertiary reinforcers.
  5. D) latent learning.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Primary reinforcer is to secondary reinforcer as
  2. A) classical conditioning is to operant conditioning.
  3. B) operant conditioning is to classical conditioning.
  4. C) unlearned is to learned.
  5. D) learned is to unlearned.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 205

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Reinforcers that are acquired through learning are called _______ reinforcers.
  2. A) primary
  3. B) secondary
  4. C) classical
  5. D) conditioned

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Many psychiatric hospitals offer patients the chance to perform chores in exchange for tokens. The patients can use these tokens to purchase items at the hospital store. This system is an example of
  2. A) secondary reinforcement.
  3. B) primary reinforcement.
  4. C) negative reinforcement.
  5. D) cognitive restructuring.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 2105

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A slot machine is programmed to pay the grand prize jackpot only once during every 100,000 plays. This is an example of a
  2. A) fixed-ratio schedule.
  3. B) variable-ratio schedule.
  4. C) fixed-interval schedule.
  5. D) variable-interval schedule.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When every response is followed by a reinforcer, this is known as
  2. A) stimulus generalization.
  3. B) continuous reinforcement.
  4. C) intermittent reinforcement.
  5. D) extinction.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If a student in a classroom was given a piece of candy for every five words spelled correctly, the student’s behavior is being reinforced on a ______ schedule.
  2. A) fixed-interval
  3. B) variable-ratio
  4. C) fixed-ratio
  5. D) continuous

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If a student in a classroom was given a piece of candy for, on average, every three words correctly spelled, this would be an example of being reinforced on a ______ schedule.
  2. A) continuous
  3. B) variable-interval
  4. C) fixed-ratio
  5. D) variable-ratio

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 206

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. An interval schedule in operant conditioning, whether fixed or variable, is based on
  2. A) the passage of time.
  3. B) the number of responses.
  4. C) the intensity of the response.
  5. D) continuous reinforcement.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 206

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Assume that your class is going to have an oral quiz on the material in this chapter. For every two questions in a row that a student gets correct, the professor will add one point to the classroom participation grade. This is an example of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. A) variable-ratio
  3. B) fixed-ratio
  4. C) fixed-interval
  5. D) variable-interval

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 205–206

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. An example of a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is the case of the
  2. A) student who is greeted every fifth time she arrives in class.
  3. B) instructor who is paid every two weeks during the year.
  4. C) dean who visits the instructor’s class when the mood strikes.
  5. D) dog who retrieves the paper every day but gets rewarded infrequently.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205–206

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement?
  2. A) Reinforcement occurs every three minutes.
  3. B) Reinforcement occurs after two rewards.
  4. C) Two reinforcers are given every four minutes.
  5. D) Reinforcement occurs after every 15th correct response.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205–206

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Slot machines are set to pay off on the average of once in every 1,000,000 plays. This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. A) variable-ratio
  3. B) fixed-ratio
  4. C) variable-interval
  5. D) fixed-interval

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 206

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. At the beginning of the semester your history instructor announced that you will have a test every three weeks until the end of the semester. What schedule of reinforcement was being used?
  2. A) Fixed ratio
  3. B) Fixed interval
  4. C) Variable ratio
  5. D) Variable interval

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 206

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. John’s toaster is malfunctioning. Sometimes his toast is ready in 10 seconds. Sometimes he must wait 30 seconds. At times, it can even take several minutes before the toast is done. The toaster has John on a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. A) fixed-ratio
  3. B) fixed-interval
  4. C) variable-ratio
  5. D) variable-interval

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 206

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If students in your class wait to read and prepare for an exam until the day before each regularly scheduled exam, how can you increase their studying time on a day-to-day basis?
  2. A) Punish the lack of studying done by students.
  3. B) Implement penalties for wrong answers from one to two points per question.
  4. C) Start to praise more in class.
  5. D) Start giving unannounced pop quizzes.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 205–206

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Sometimes your old car’s starter will start the car on the first turn of the key, while other times the starter won’t work until you turn the key numerous times. Your car starter has created a _______ schedule of reinforcement for your behavior.
  2. A) variable-ratio
  3. B) fixed-ratio
  4. C) variable-internal
  5. D) fixed-interval

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 206

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A strategy of reinforcing successive approximations to a complex behavior is known as
  2. A) modeling.
  3. B) shaping.
  4. C) interval training.
  5. D) aversive conditioning.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 207

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When an instructor commends students for asking tentative questions in order to encourage the asking of more detailed and technical questions, the instructor is using
  2. A) classical conditioning.
  3. B) a conditioned response.
  4. C) shaping.
  5. D) primary reinforcement.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 207

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Maria’s boss was unhappy with the way her grooming and dress had deteriorated over the last few years. Rather than reprimand her, the boss decided to lavishly praise Maria on days when she was neater and gradually raise his requirements for praise as Maria became neater and neater. The technique being planned was
  2. A) extinction.
  3. B) shaping.
  4. C) fixed-interval reinforcement.
  5. D) variable-interval reinforcement.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 207

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The method of successive approximations is used to achieve the learning goal of
  2. A) extinction.
  3. B) shaping.
  4. C) generalization.
  5. D) discrimination.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 207

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. With shaping, the desired outcome or behavior that is the ultimate goal is called
  2. A) continuous behavior.
  3. B) the secondary reinforcer.
  4. C) the target response.
  5. D) intermittent succession.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 207

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A teenager has been grounded by her parents for not doing the dishes. Mom tells the teenager that if you do the dishes, then you will not be grounded anymore. This attempt at behavior change is best described as
  2. A) habituation.
  3. B) extinction.
  4. C) positive reinforcement.
  5. D) negative reinforcement.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 208

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Escape conditioning causes a behavior to ______, while avoidance conditioning causes a behavior to ______.
  2. A) stop; not happen
  3. B) not happen; stop
  4. C) start; accelerate
  5. D) accelerate; start

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 208

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The termination of a behavior is known as ______ conditioning, while preventing the behavior from occurring all along is known as ______ conditioning.
  2. A) avoidance; escape
  3. B) generalized; specified
  4. C) escape; avoidance
  5. D) specified; generalized

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 208

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A student comes to college and is extremely anxious about doing poorly and flunking out. To calm her fears, the student studies hard and receives all A’s the first semester. This student has been
  2. A) positively reinforced.
  3. B) negatively reinforced.
  4. C) classically conditioned.
  5. D) vicariously punished.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 208

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. After John was ridiculed by the teacher in his high school English class, he began cutting class. This can be seen as an example of
  2. A) avoidance conditioning.
  3. B) discriminative conditioning.
  4. C) positive reinforcement.
  5. D) punishment.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 208

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. You fear that your date may not be receptive to your idea of seeing a new play, so you do not even mention it. This is an example of
  2. A) escape behavior.
  3. B) extinction.
  4. C) primary reinforcement.
  5. D) avoidance behavior.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 208

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of avoidance conditioning?
  2. A) Missing a curfew and getting grounded for two weeks
  3. B) Getting an A on this psychology examination
  4. C) Taking an aspirin to get rid of a headache
  5. D) Taking the garbage out before your parents yell at you

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 208

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
  2. A) Learning to avoid your boss by hiding when he comes by your office
  3. B) Doing your work fast to avoid your boss’s constant nagging about deadlines
  4. C) Doing your work to gain a bonus
  5. D) Complimenting your boss every time you see him

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 208

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Increase behavior is to decrease behavior as
  2. A) positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement.
  3. B) punishment is to positive reinforcement.
  4. C) negative reinforcement is to punishment.
  5. D) punishment is to primary reinforcement.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 208

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. An animal in a Skinner box received a brief electric shock each time a bar was pressed. Subsequently, the animal stopped pressing the bar due to
  2. A) escape conditioning.
  3. B) disinhibition.
  4. C) negative reinforcement.
  5. D) punishment.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 208

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Mr. Harper used to yell at Mrs. Harper for trumping cards unnecessarily when they played bridge. Instead of improving her play, Mrs. Harper gave up bridge altogether. This is an example of
  2. A) the punished individual turning the punishment into reinforcement.
  3. B) the punished individual learning to dislike the punisher.
  4. C) punishment’s generalized inhibiting effect.
  5. D) the punisher feeling reinforced for giving out punishment.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 209

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A parent’s spanking behavior increased dramatically after she initially used it to stop her children from whining. Which danger of punishment has been demonstrated here?
  2. A) The criticism trap
  3. B) Learned helplessness
  4. C) Punishment is reinforcing to the punisher.
  5. D) There is no danger demonstrated in the example.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 209

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If a parent threatens a punishment and then backs down when the child begs for mercy, what will the parent accomplish?
  2. A) The threatening behavior will be extinguished.
  3. B) The begging behavior will be negatively reinforced.
  4. C) The parent will adhere to the guidelines for punishment.
  5. D) The child’s inappropriate behavior will be extinguished.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 209

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Punishment involves a ______ consequence that leads to a(n) ______ in the frequency of a behavior.
  2. A) negative; increase
  3. B) negative; decrease
  4. C) positive; increase
  5. D) positive; decrease

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 209

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When researchers conclude that punishment has “generalized inhibiting effect,” what does that mean?
  2. A) The person delivering the punishment actually experiences negative reinforcement.
  3. B) Punishing for one negative behavior generalizes to other negative behaviors.
  4. C) Most behaviors tend to stop after punishment, including the positive behaviors.
  5. D) We begin to dislike those individuals who deliver the punishment.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 209

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When trying to reduce the frequency of behavior using punishment, criticism is often used by parents and teachers. However, researchers have argued that this leads to the criticism trap. What is the criticism trap?
  2. A) The criticism of our children, for any type of misbehavior, can lead to the decline or inhibition of all behaviors, including positive ones.
  3. B) Researchers have criticized the use of punishment because of its cruel nature, especially with the risks of child abuse.
  4. C) One of the criticisms of punishment is that although it might reduce the frequency of an undesirable behavior, it does not strengthen an alternative desirable behavior.
  5. D) Criticism intending to be a negative consequence is perceived as attention by the child and therefore is a positive reinforcer.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 209

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If you are going to use punishment, which of the following would be recommendations based on psychological research?
  2. A) Do not use physical punishment.
  3. B) Punish behavior after a time delay.
  4. C) Only deliver half the punishment necessary.
  5. D) Punish the person, not the behavior.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Classically conditioned behaviors are associated with the ______ nervous system, and operantly conditioned behaviors are associated with the ______ nervous system.
  2. A) somatic; autonomic
  3. B) autonomic; somatic
  4. C) sympathetic; parasympathetic
  5. D) parasympathetic; sympathetic

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 211

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. It is ______ conditioning that studies the relationship between a response and the resulting consequence.
  2. A) counter
  3. B) classical
  4. C) operant
  5. D) Pavlovian

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which type of conditioning typically involves involuntary, reflexive behaviors?
  2. A) Observational
  3. B) Vicarious
  4. C) Operant
  5. D) Classical

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In classical conditioning, what does the person (or animal) have to do in order for learning to occur? The organism (human or animal)
  2. A) does not have to do anything.
  3. B) needs to be ready to receive positive reinforcement.
  4. C) must be resistant to multiple forms of punishment.
  5. D) has to have reached the age of maturity.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 211–212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ from each other in that operant conditioning
  2. A) involves reflexive or involuntary behavior.
  3. B) occurs independently of behavior.
  4. C) occurs only if the response being conditioned has been emitted.
  5. D) is not contingent on the occurrence of a response.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211–­212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. How does classical conditioning differ from operant conditioning? Classical conditioning involves an association between
  2. A) two stimuli.
  3. B) two reinforcers.
  4. C) a response and a stimulus.
  5. D) a behavior and a CR.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211–­212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If an association is made independent of behavior, what type of learning occurs?
  2. A) Classical conditioning
  3. B) Insight learning
  4. C) Operant conditioning
  5. D) Observational learning

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211–212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. John loves to receive mail. Over the years, he has learned to tell the difference between the sound of the mail truck and the other cars and trucks that pass his house. What process is at work here?
  2. A) Stimulus discrimination
  3. B) Stimulus generalization
  4. C) Response generalization
  5. D) Vicarious reinforcement

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A pigeon learned to peck a lighted disc for a few bits of grain. The bird does not peck when the light is off because no grain will be forthcoming. The light is called the
  2. A) generalized stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned stimulus.
  4. C) conditioned response.
  5. D) discriminative stimulus.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 212

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. There are two vending machines in your dorm. The one on the left always works; the one on the right is usually broken. You put your money only in the machine on the left. This is
  2. A) stimulus generalization.
  3. B) external disinhibition.
  4. C) stimulus discrimination.
  5. D) superstitious behavior.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 212

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If the state troopers drive yellow Fords in your state, there may be an immediate braking response when you see any yellow Ford. This reaction is known as
  2. A) an escape response.
  3. B) stimulus discrimination.
  4. C) superstitious behavior.
  5. D) stimulus generalization.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 212

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The tendency for similar stimuli to elicit the same response is called
  2. A) stimulus discrimination.
  3. B) stimulus disinhibition.
  4. C) response generalization.
  5. D) stimulus generalization.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If your beagle lies down when you say “Dead!,” and you discover that he will do the same trick when you say the words red, head, or bed, what has taken place?
  2. A) Stimulus discrimination
  3. B) Response discrimination
  4. C) Stimulus generalization
  5. D) Vicarious generalization

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 212

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. An animal emits a response in the presence of a certain tone. If a slightly higher pitched tone elicits the same response, then stimulus _______ has taken place.
  2. A) generalization
  3. B) chaining
  4. C) discrimination
  5. D) disinhibition

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 212

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The idea that we can tell the difference between the appropriate occasion for a response and an inappropriate occasion for a response is known as
  2. A) the law of effect.
  3. B) stimulus discrimination.
  4. C) stimulus generalization.
  5. D) vicarious learning.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 219

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The opposite of stimulus discrimination is
  2. A) stimulus acceptance.
  3. B) delay of inhibition.
  4. C) stimulus generalization.
  5. D) spontaneous recovery.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When the original source of learning is removed and a particular response diminishes, ______ has occurred.
  2. A) extinction
  3. B) habituation
  4. C) disinhibition
  5. D) excitation

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 214

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to the ______, responses that have been continuously reinforced are extinguished more quickly than responses that were reinforced on variable interval or variable ratio schedules.
  2. A) stimulus generalization theory
  3. B) partial reinforcement effect
  4. C) spontaneous recovery phenomenon
  5. D) law of effect

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Avoidance responses can be extinguished rapidly by using
  2. A) secondary reinforcers.
  3. B) spontaneous recovery.
  4. C) response prevention.
  5. D) stimulus discrimination.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The notion of response prevention suggests that avoidance responses can be extinguished by
  2. A) pairing two new incompatible responses.
  3. B) removing the primary reinforcer.
  4. C) preventing the avoidance from occurring.
  5. D) pairing new responses with old responses.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. How does extinction occur in classical conditioning?
  2. A) The CS is presented without the UCS.
  3. B) The CR is presented without the UCR
  4. C) The emitted response is negatively reinforced.
  5. D) The emitted response is punished.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. You trained a rat to press a lever using positive reinforcement. When the behavior was well learned you stopped giving the reward for the lever-pressing behavior. Most likely, you next discovered that the
  2. A) lever-pressing behavior increased.
  3. B) rat developed an avoidance response.
  4. C) lever-pressing behavior was extinguished.
  5. D) rat learned stimulus discrimination.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 215

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Maria, who is fearful of mice, took a job as a lab assistant and found she was required to handle mice. Gradually, Maria’s fear of mice diminished as she continued to handle mice. Now Maria is interested in having mice as pets. How was Maria’s fear removed?
  2. A) Extinction
  3. B) Discrimination
  4. C) Generalization
  5. D) Spontaneous recovery

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 215

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Suppose that your cat has learned to jump up on your lap during dinner to get food. In order to stop this, you do not give food to your cat when he jumps onto your lap. This is an example of
  2. A) extinction in classical conditioning.
  3. B) extinction in operant conditioning.
  4. C) generalization in classical conditioning.
  5. D) generalization in operant conditioning.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 215

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Compared to continuous schedules of reinforcement, partial schedules of reinforcement
  2. A) produce the greatest stimulus generalization.
  3. B) produce lower rates of responding.
  4. C) are more resistant to extinction.
  5. D) are less resistant to extinction.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When a conditioned response that was extinguished suddenly returns after an interval of rest, what has occurred?
  2. A) External disinhibition
  3. B) Internal disinhibition
  4. C) Negative reinforcement
  5. D) Spontaneous recovery

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 216

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Snickers, your cocker spaniel, barked at squirrels. After successfully removing this behavior, you find she has started barking again. This is an example of
  2. A) stimulus generalization.
  3. B) response generalization.
  4. C) spontaneous recovery.
  5. D) superstitious behavior.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 216

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Spontaneous recovery and external disinhibition can occur
  2. A) only during classical conditioning.
  3. B) only during operant conditioning.
  4. C) during both operant and classical extinction.
  5. D) during both stimulus generalization and discrimination.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 216

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In a classical conditioning situation, you present the CS, but it is no longer paired with the UCS. After a period of time has passed, you present the CS and the CR returns. When the CR returns during the course of extinction, it is called
  2. A) stimulus generalization.
  3. B) stimulus discrimination.
  4. C) response prevention.
  5. D) spontaneous recovery.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 216

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following statements would be a cognitive explanation for learning?
  2. A) A rat turns right in a maze because it knows where the food has been left.
  3. B) A rat presses a bar because a connection was made between brain regions.
  4. C) A person flinches because neural connections to the muscles cause it.
  5. D) A person stops at a red traffic light because of the connection made in the brain.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 218

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The connectionist theory of learning suggests that
  2. A) learning takes place due to changes in thinking patterns in the brain.
  3. B) neural connections between stimuli and responses are established in the brain.
  4. C) behavior improves due to thinking, expectations, beliefs, and perceptions.
  5. D) behavior improves when cognitive processes are linked to other cognitive processes.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 218

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Of the following statements, which one would most likely be made by someone who supports the cognitive view of learning?
  2. A) We must focus only on readily observable behaviors.
  3. B) The individual expected the stimulus to occur.
  4. C) Neural connections in the brain are responsible for behavioral change.
  5. D) A rat does not learn anything unless it is rewarded.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 218

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is best associated with place learning?
  2. A) Acquiring fixed patterns of muscle movements
  3. B) Acquiring knowledge of the location of the reinforcer
  4. C) Learning based on some instinctive, unlearned capacity
  5. D) Kinesthetic and proprioceptive feedback

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 218

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Edward Tolman developed some ingenious experiments that involved timing how fast rats could run through mazes to reach a reward. The experiments tended to support
  2. A) the cognitive view of learning.
  3. B) classical conditioning.
  4. C) the connectionist view of learning.
  5. D) vicarious reinforcement.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 218

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. An experimental group of rats was not reinforced for solving a maze problem for a few days. Several days later, they were reinforced and subsequently showed similar scores in the maze as rats that had been reinforced from the beginning of the experiment. Tolman referred to this phenomenon as _______ learning.
  2. A) latent
  3. B) place
  4. C) insight
  5. D) modeled

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 218–219

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What explanation did Harlow use to explain why problem-solving ability improved over trials in his study in which apes had to locate food under objects?
  2. A) The apes acquired a learning set.
  3. B) The apes developed a cognitive map.
  4. C) The apes emitted conditioned responses.
  5. D) The apes were vicariously reinforced.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 220

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Wolfgang Köhler, a Gestalt psychologist, described a type of learning that involved a sudden cognitive change. The term used to describe this learning is
  2. A) reinforcement.
  3. B) trial and error.
  4. C) connectionism.
  5. D) insight.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 220

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When rats learn to navigate a maze based on the location of food rather than a series of left-right turns, this study by Tolman lead to the concept of
  2. A) retroactive disinhibition.
  3. B) spontaneous recovery.
  4. C) a cognitive map.
  5. D) response blockage.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 218

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Researchers have demonstrated that learning can occur in the absence of a reinforcer. This learning is demonstrated at a later time. The name for this type of learning is
  2. A) spontaneous recovery.
  3. B) observational learning.
  4. C) classical conditioning.
  5. D) latent learning.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 218

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A sudden cognitive change that allows a problem to be solved is
  2. A) insight.
  3. B) disinhibition.
  4. C) recognition.
  5. D) superstition.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 220

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Bandura’s famous study with the children and the Bobo doll was a demonstration of
  2. A) operant conditioning.
  3. B) stimulus generalization.
  4. C) learning set.
  5. D) modeling.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 221–222

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Reinforcing the behavior of a model will increase the probability of the same behavior in the observer. This is called
  2. A) external disinhibition.
  3. B) vicarious reinforcement.
  4. C) negative reinforcement.
  5. D) spontaneous learning.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 222

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to research studies, what should happen if Scott observes Allison being rewarded for picking up toys?
  2. A) Picking up toys will become a discriminate stimulus for Scott.
  3. B) Scott’s toy picking up behavior will increase.
  4. C) Scott’s toy picking up behavior will be extinguished.
  5. D) Scott will associate Allison with secondary reinforcers.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 222

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Solid experimental evidence suggests that children learn behaviors from television through
  2. A) latent learning.
  3. B) modeling.
  4. C) stimulus generalization.
  5. D) shaping.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 222

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When we see someone else get rewarded for a particular behavior, what is likely to occur?
  2. A) External disinhibition
  3. B) Indirect reinforcement
  4. C) Superstitious behavior
  5. D) Vicarious reinforcement

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 222

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Bandura’s term for learning by watching others is
  2. A) dissociation.
  3. B) modeling.
  4. C) inhibition.
  5. D) disinhibition.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 222

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When learning by watching others, we tend to learn more from a model we see being reinforced. Learning by watching someone else’s reinforcement is called ______ reinforcement.
  2. A) continuous
  3. B) classical
  4. C) vicarious
  5. D) intermittent

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 222

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When observing others modeling behavior for us, which of the following characteristics would lead to the highest likelihood of imitating the model’s behavior?
  2. A) Very unsuccessful
  3. B) Not likable
  4. C) Unattractive
  5. D) High status

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 222

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. It is easier to classically condition a fear of ______ compared to a fear of ______.
  2. A) snakes; lunch boxes
  3. B) electrical outlets; blood
  4. C) candy; heights
  5. D) skate keys; alligators

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 222

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When the pairing of a food and nausea occur once yet lead to the avoidance of that food, this describes the classical conditioning process of
  2. A) fixed-ratio reinforcement.
  3. B) the law of effect.
  4. C) learned taste aversion.
  5. D) superstitious food behavior.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 223

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. 138. The fact that it is easier to condition a fear of things that have some intrinsic association with danger suggests that people are _______ prepared to learn certain kinds of fear.
  2. A) psychologically
  3. B) biologically
  4. C) intuitively
  5. D) latently

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 223

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Helen used to love bananas. Then one day she ate nine bananas and got sick. Over the next 45 years, Helen never ate another banana. Helen’s behavioral change concerning bananas is called a
  2. A) learning set.
  3. B) vicarious punishment.
  4. C) learned taste aversion.
  5. D) stimulus discrimination.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 223

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. J. J. became extremely nauseous two hours after eating a fried corn dog at the county fair. Through this experience she learned to dislike corn dogs. What was the UCS in this example?
  2. A) The corn dog
  3. B) Time
  4. C) The county fair
  5. D) Nausea

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 223

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Some guidelines for chemotherapy patients have been developed through our understanding of how learned taste aversions are conditioned. Which of the following would help a chemotherapy patient avoid a learned taste aversion?
  2. A) Eating ice cream after a treatment
  3. B) Fasting before a treatment and playing video games
  4. C) Waiting two hours after a treatment before eating
  5. D) Eating novel foods with the meal preceding the treatment

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 224

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Learned taste aversions are an example of the role of _______ factors in learning.
  2. A) biological
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) experiential
  5. D) maturational

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 223

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

True/False Questions

 

  1. All changes in behavior are the result of learning.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page:194

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior due to the passage of time.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 194

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Ivan Pavlov is considered one of the first to study what is now called classical conditioning.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 195

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The key element in classical conditioning is association.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 196

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In classical conditioning, learning will occur more quickly when the UCS precedes the CS.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 203–204

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In Pavlov’s classic experiment, the unconditioned stimulus was the sound of a metronome.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 195–197

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The abbreviation UCS stands for uncontrollable stimulus.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 197

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. For an infant to unlearn a fear response that has been classically conditioning, the process of counterconditioning can be used.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 201

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Observational learning is the form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the likelihood of that behavior reoccurring.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 203

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Operant conditioning was first described by John B. Watson based on the study of Little Albert.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 203

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment are terms associated with operant conditioning.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 204–205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Positive reinforcement is more effective when the delay of reinforcement is minimized.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 204

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Secondary reinforcers are acquired through learning.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Money is a primary reinforcer.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. On a variable interval schedule, the reinforcer is obtained only after a varying number of responses have been made.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205–206

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In a ratio schedule of reinforcement, the number of responses made determines when the reinforcer will be given.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 205

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The method of successive approximations is also called shaping.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 207

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The ultimate goal of negative reinforcement is to strengthen behavior.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 207

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Escape conditioning is a type of positive reinforcement.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 207

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When the frequency of a behavior decreases following a negative consequence, punishment has occurred.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 209

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The ultimate goal of punishment is to strengthen behavior.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 209

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In operant conditioning, the individual does not have to do anything for learning to occur.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In classical conditioning behaviors are elicited, while in operant conditioning behaviors are emitted.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Stimulus discrimination occurs in classical conditioning but not in operant conditioning.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 211–212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The opposite of stimulus discrimination is stimulus generalization.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 212

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS, eventually the CR will no longer appear because the original learning environment has changed. This process is called extinction.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 214

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Responses that have been continuously reinforced are harder to extinguish than responses that have been reinforced on a variable ratio schedule.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Response prevention is a technique used to extinguish avoidance responses.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If after some extinction has occurred, the CS is presented and an occasional CR is observed, this is called response prevention.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 215

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The cognitive view of learning suggests that learning occurs due to neural connections in the brain.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 217

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Edward Tolman’s work on place learning and latent learning supported the cognitive interpretation of learning.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 218–219

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Harlow’s work with monkeys showed that learning sets enhance insight learning.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 220

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Rats who know where something is in a maze relative to a starting place possess a cognitive map.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 218

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The process of watching another person receiving reinforcement is called vicarious reinforcement.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 222

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Learning by observing the behavior of others is called modeling.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 221–222

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Learned taste aversion is an example of operant conditioning at work.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 223

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

11 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Why are motivation and emotion closely linked concepts?
  2. A) Motives are often accompanied by emotion.
  3. B) Both involve homeostatic mechanisms.
  4. C) They are opponent processes.
  5. D) Emotions are primary motives.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 351

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Because motivation cannot be directly observed, it must be inferred from
  2. A) psychophysiology.
  3. B) emotions.
  4. C) behaviors.
  5. D) EEG patterns.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The best definition of emotion would include
  2. A) feelings, arousal, and behavior.
  3. B) sensations and cognitions.
  4. C) environmental changes and subjectivity.
  5. D) homeostasis and primary motives.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. How are motivation and emotion similar?
  2. A) They both develop incentives.
  3. B) They both satisfy needs.
  4. C) They both activate behavior.
  5. D) They both regulate homeostasis.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Motivation concerns the ______ state that activates and gives direction to thought.
  2. A) internal
  3. B) external
  4. C) neutral
  5. D) extrinsic

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The definition of emotion includes both ______ and ______ feelings that are accompanied by arousal and behavior.
  2. A) intrinsic; extrinsic
  3. B) positive; negative
  4. C) past; future
  5. D) internal; external

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a primary motive?
  2. A) Praise
  3. B) Satisfaction
  4. C) Food
  5. D) Money

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Primary motives are important because if we do not satisfy these motives, we
  2. A) have low self-esteem.
  3. B) are dissatisfied.
  4. C) are lonely.
  5. D) die.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What is the direct role of homeostatic mechanisms?
  2. A) To maintain a balance of the body’s essential needs
  3. B) To minimize pain and maximize pleasure
  4. C) To seek daring sensations and to avoid danger
  5. D) To avoid danger and seek out safety

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 352

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Internal mechanisms of the body that regulate essential life elements are known as
  2. A) homeostatic mechanisms.
  3. B) primary drives.
  4. C) secondary drives.
  5. D) maintenance mechanisms.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 352

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Human body temperature fluctuates around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. The body maintains this temperature through a process called
  2. A) primary motivation.
  3. B) drive reduction.
  4. C) homeostasis.
  5. D) optimal arousal.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 352

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The reason that the sex motive is considered a primary motive is that
  2. A) sex is primarily instinctual rather than learned.
  3. B) the sex drive is not a biologically regulated mechanism.
  4. C) sex is not a bodily need necessary for personal health.
  5. D) sex is essential for the survival of the species.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 366

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What do hunger, thirst, and temperature regulation have in common?
  2. A) They are controlled by the thalamus.
  3. B) They are under homeostatic control.
  4. C) They are understood by the Yerkes-Dodson law.
  5. D) They are not self-regulating.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 352

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is a primary motive?
  2. A) Sex
  3. B) Acceptance
  4. C) Love
  5. D) Achievement

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 366

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If the feeding center in a rat’s hypothalamus is destroyed, what will happen to the rat’s behavior?
  2. A) The rat will continue to eat normally.
  3. B) The rat will crave fat-laden foods.
  4. C) The rat will stop eating.
  5. D) The rat will overeat to obesity.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 353

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A condition called hyperphagia will occur if which brain area is damaged?
  2. A) Paraventricular nucleus
  3. B) Lateral hypothalamus
  4. C) Feeding center
  5. D) Satiety center

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 353

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Your hunger center is located in the __________ hypothalamus, and your satiety center is located in the __________ hypothalamus.
  2. A) lateral; paraventricular
  3. B) ventromedial; lateral
  4. C) paraventricular; ventromedial
  5. D) lateral; ventromedial

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 353

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. How do stomach contractions cue the regulation of hunger?
  2. A) They release glucose into the bloodstream.
  3. B) They signal the lateral hypothalamus.
  4. C) They stimulate the satiety center.
  5. D) They produce a state of hyperphagia.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 353

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The brain area responsible for controlling blood-sugar levels is the
  2. A) paraventricular nucleus.
  3. B) lateral hypothalamus.
  4. C) satiety center.
  5. D) feeding center.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 353

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Jennifer had a craving for milk and dairy products, which she normally avoids. Later, she learned she had a calcium deficiency. Her craving could have been the result of
  2. A) a specific hunger.
  3. B) hyperphagia.
  4. C) an incentive.
  5. D) homeostasis.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 353

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When our bodies need certain food substances, like a vitamin or protein,
  2. A) the thalamus initiates eating behavior.
  3. B) blood fat and blood sugar levels rise.
  4. C) specific hungers may develop.
  5. D) homeostasis creates pituitary activation.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 353

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Laboratory research with animals indicated that weight can be pushed above the natural set point by
  2. A) intrinsic motivation.
  3. B) homeostasis.
  4. C) novel stimulation.
  5. D) incentives.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 354

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following plays the largest role in the control of hunger?
  2. A) Stomach
  3. B) Hypothalamus
  4. C) Small intestine
  5. D) Large intestine

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 352

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The feeding system is located in the ______ hypothalamus, and the satiety system is located in the ______ hypothalamus.
  2. A) ventromedial; lateral
  3. B) upper; lower
  4. C) lateral; ventromedial
  5. D) lower; upper

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 353

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If a person is satiated, it means that she is
  2. A) hungry and will gorge herself for hours.
  3. B) full but still wants more dessert.
  4. C) hungry yet has no desire to eat.
  5. D) full and does not need to eat anymore.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 353

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Concerning body weight, your set point is analogous to a
  2. A) thermostat.
  3. B) drill press.
  4. C) dishwasher.
  5. D) garden hose.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 354

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The rate at which cells use energy is called
  2. A) hyperphagia.
  3. B) metabolism.
  4. C) set point.
  5. D) calorization.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 354

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A decrease in total body fluids causes an increase in cellular
  2. A) activity.
  3. B) hydration.
  4. C) sodium concentration.
  5. D) potassium concentration.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 355

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When an antidiuretic hormone is secreted into the bloodstream and reaches the kidneys, the kidneys
  2. A) release insulin into the bloodstream.
  3. B) increase water consumption.
  4. C) shut down.
  5. D) conserve water.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 355

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Even though the center for hunger and thirst is in the _______, different _______ are involved.
  2. A) liver; incentives
  3. B) kidneys; insulin levels
  4. C) small intestine; receptor sites
  5. D) hypothalamus; neurotransmitters

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 355

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Surgical destruction of the drink center causes an animal to
  2. A) have a very dry mouth.
  3. B) drink excessive amounts of water.
  4. C) refuse water.
  5. D) secrete ADH.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 355

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The message to drink fluids is sent to the cerebral cortex when the level of sodium salts _______ on the _______ of body cells.
  2. A) increases; outside
  3. B) increases; inside
  4. C) decreases; outside
  5. D) decreases; inside

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 355

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If specialized cells in the drink center become dehydrated, what will happen next?
  2. A) The kidneys will produce angiotensin.
  3. B) The hypothalamus will produce sodium.
  4. C) The pituitary gland will release ADH.
  5. D) Sodium salts will enter body cells.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 355

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is a cue that regulates drinking?
  2. A) Blood potassium levels
  3. B) Blood sugar levels
  4. C) Total blood volume
  5. D) Intracellular blood volume

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 355–356

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A message to drink is sent when
  2. A) too little ADH is detected by the kidneys.
  3. B) the kidneys detect too much glycogen.
  4. C) ADH is detected by the hypothalamus.
  5. D) angiotensin is detected by the hypothalamus.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 355–356

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Avoidance of boredom is best classified as an example of which of the following needs?
  2. A) A primary need
  3. B) A psychological need
  4. C) The need for affiliation
  5. D) A homeostatic need

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 356

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Experiments have shown that monkeys will work quite hard to peer through a window at such things as model trains going around. What best explains why they will do this?
  2. A) It satisfies a homeostatic drive.
  3. B) It provides novel stimulation.
  4. C) It satisfies the Yerkes-Dodson law.
  5. D) Watching fulfills a biological incentive.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 357

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Suppose you have noticed that people waiting to see a physician prefer to wait in a room with pictures and plants rather than in a room without them. This suggests a need for
  2. A) affiliation.
  3. B) belonging.
  4. C) social stimulation.
  5. D) novel stimulation.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 357

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. You are working for a promotion to a higher-paying job. You learned that to qualify you must earn a score of 80 percent on a placement test. Therefore, you buy three practice books and take an expensive, time-consuming course to guarantee that your score will be much higher than the required 80 percent. You are expressing
  2. A) the need for attention.
  3. B) optimal arousal.
  4. C) the need for power.
  5. D) achievement motivation.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 360

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following people is displaying the highest achievement motivation?
  2. A) A person who prepares nutritious meals for health purposes.
  3. B) A person who strives to prepare meals that bring enjoyment.
  4. C) A person who strives to master the fine art of cooking.
  5. D) A person who wants to reward a colleague with a fine meal.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 360

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In a research study of achievement motivation, students who made the lowest grades in a course rated themselves low in the area of _______ at the beginning of the course.
  2. A) performance-avoidance goals
  3. B) opponent goals
  4. C) mastery goals
  5. D) extrinsic performance goals

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 361

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Jami has traced his restless feelings to the dull, repetitious, unexciting lifestyle he has been leading. He plans to bring some fun into his life by doing at least one highly physical activity each week. The source of Jami’s motivation is most likely
  2. A) drive reduction.
  3. B) opponent processes.
  4. C) need for affiliation.
  5. D) optimum arousal.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 358

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which theory proposes that behavior may be aimed at increasing or decreasing alertness and activity depending on the circumstances?
  2. A) Optimal level of arousal
  3. B) Yerkes-Dodson law
  4. C) James-Lange theory
  5. D) Novel stimulation theory

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 358

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following situations is a clear violation of the optimal level of arousal theory?
  2. A) A tired new mother takes a relaxing bath while her child cries.
  3. B) An overburdened student starts a new job during finals week.
  4. C) An anxiety-ridden secretary decides to change jobs.
  5. D) A stressed executive watches a movie during lunch break.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 358

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, performance is generally best under which condition?
  2. A) High arousal
  3. B) Low arousal
  4. C) Moderate arousal
  5. D) No arousal

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 358

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If you were a very good tennis player, having lots of people in the stands would likely
  2. A) not affect your performance.
  3. B) detract from your performance.
  4. C) enhance your performance.
  5. D) minimize your arousal.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 358

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is best linked to the activity of the reticular formation?
  2. A) Hunger
  3. B) Arousal
  4. C) Thirst
  5. D) Affiliation

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 358

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. How are psychological motives and biological motives related?
  2. A) Psychological motives are not directly related to biological survival.
  3. B) Psychological motives are completely driven by biological needs.
  4. C) Biological needs are rarely influenced by psychological motives.
  5. D) Psychology motives and biological motives are synonymous.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 357

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following statements most accurately depicts what is meant by seeking novel stimulation? Humans and other animals tend to
  2. A) prefer physical stimulation over psychological stimulation.
  3. B) try to find novel situations and environments.
  4. C) stimulate themselves prior to stimulating others.
  5. D) seek out the most soothing environments available.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 357

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Too little arousal and performance may be inadequate; too much arousal and performance may be disrupted and disorganized. The notion that the optimal arousal level is somewhere between these two extremes is known as the
  2. A) Nelson hypothesis.
  3. B) James-Lange theory.
  4. C) Yerkes-Dodson law.
  5. D) Cannon-Bard theory.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 358

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Generally speaking, humans prefer to have regular contact with other people, and this preference is known as
  2. A) self-actualization.
  3. B) the Yerkes-Dodson law.
  4. C) optimal arousal theory.
  5. D) need for affiliation.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 359

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If you work very hard in your psychology class to avoid getting a low grade, then you would be said to have
  2. A) performance-avoidance goals.
  3. B) mastery goals.
  4. C) performance approach goals.
  5. D) low grade orientation.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 360

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following statements is a component of Solomon’s opponent-process theory of motivation?
  2. A) A positive feeling is followed by a feeling of numbness.
  3. B) Positive feelings turn out to just be nonnegative feelings.
  4. C) A positive feeling is followed by a contrasting negative feeling.
  5. D) Feelings are neither positive nor negative, but merely neutral.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 361

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is the opponent-process theory particularly good at explaining?
  2. A) Motives that are difficult to understand
  3. B) How primary motives are learned
  4. C) The motivation for novel stimulation
  5. D) How people become self-actualized

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 361

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Jim drinks on a daily basis because of the euphoria he feels. If you follow the opponent-process model, you would predict that over time Jim would feel his euphoria _______ intensely and his withdrawals _______ intensely.
  2. A) less; less
  3. B) less; more
  4. C) more; more
  5. D) more; less

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 361–362

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The opponent-process principle of emotions is exemplified in which of the following situations?
  2. A) Tom became angry when Jim asked Darlene to the prom before Tom had a chance to ask her.
  3. B) The promotion was thrilling, but once the novelty wore off there was somewhat of a letdown.
  4. C) Foot racers run faster when they are in actual competition than in practice alone.
  5. D) Performance on a history test will deteriorate if you are either too nervous or too apathetic about it.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 361–362

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In spite of the fact that he sold only two paintings in his entire life, Vincent van Gogh painted for hours each day. He most likely was motivated by
  2. A) opponent-processes.
  3. B) extrinsic factors.
  4. C) intrinsic factors.
  5. D) novel stimulation.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 362–363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. An internal desire to do good just for the sake of doing good is evidence of _______ motivation.
  2. A) competence
  3. B) incentive
  4. C) extrinsic
  5. D) intrinsic

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 362–363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A parent who pays a child for good grades is offering the child _______ motivation.
  2. A) extrinsic
  3. B) intrinsic
  4. C) incentive
  5. D) internal

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. A child who cleans up his room every day because he wants his $2 allowance on Saturday is
  2. A) self-actualizing.
  3. B) extrinsically motivated.
  4. C) intrinsically motivated.
  5. D) probably a Type B personality.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. There is evidence to suggest that if a behavior is infrequent and low in intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation will
  2. A) cause the individual to seek other activities.
  3. B) have very little effect on the behavior.
  4. C) decrease the frequency of the behavior.
  5. D) increase the frequency of the behavior.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Research indicates that if a behavior is intrinsically motivated, giving a reward will
  2. A) heighten intrinsic motivation.
  3. B) diminish intrinsic motivation.
  4. C) not affect motivation.
  5. D) increase the behavioral repertoire.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If the inherent nature of an activity is rewarding to you, then ______ motivation may be the explanation for why you participate in that activity.
  2. A) extrinsic
  3. B) medial
  4. C) external
  5. D) intrinsic

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If you are paying your child for every correct math problem on tonight’s homework, and the child wouldn’t even work on math if left up to him, the use of money would be taken as an example of ______ motivation.
  2. A) extrinsic
  3. B) intrinsic
  4. C) natural
  5. D) paid

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 363

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Praise can increase intrinsic motivation when the praise
  2. A) implies that success was due to natural ability.
  3. B) does not compare the child to other children.
  4. C) states that the adult is actually controlling the child.
  5. D) does compare the child to other children.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In Maslow’s hierarchy of motives, lower needs
  2. A) tend to be satisfied last.
  3. B) are never really satisfied.
  4. C) must be satisfied before higher needs.
  5. D) are just as important as all other needs.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 364

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The highest and most difficult need to be satisfied in Maslow’s hierarchy of motives is
  2. A) socialization.
  3. B) belongingness.
  4. C) safety.
  5. D) self-actualization.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 364

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. “Higher motives become unimportant when lower motives are unmet” is a prediction based on whose theory?
  2. A) Maslow
  3. B) Cannon
  4. C) James
  5. D) Bard

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 364

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The lowest or most basic needs in Maslow’s classification system are called _______ needs.
  2. A) biological
  3. B) safety
  4. C) social
  5. D) self-esteem

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 364

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of intrinsic motivation?
  2. A) Going to a show early to get the best seat
  3. B) Working hard to make more money
  4. C) Playing sports because you love to
  5. D) Achieving goals because others want you to

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 362–363

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to Maslow’s needs hierarchy, what motives will be most prominent in a person’s behavior?
  2. A) Self-actualization motives
  3. B) Social and self-esteem motives
  4. C) Primary drives that are easily attained
  5. D) The lowest, unsatisfied motives

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 364–365

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Research concerning Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has suggested that
  2. A) self-actualization does not exist.
  3. B) love appears to be a greater need than safety.
  4. C) self-esteem is extrinsically motivated.
  5. D) higher needs may be pursued while lower needs are unmet.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 364–365

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The first phase of the sexual response cycle is the ______ phase.
  2. A) excitement
  3. B) orgasmic
  4. C) plateau
  5. D) resolution

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The involuntary and simultaneous experience of involuntary spasms of many muscle groups during a sexual experience is known as
  2. A) resolution.
  3. B) an orgasm.
  4. C) Nirvana.
  5. D) the plateau.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The refractory period during sexual activity occurs only in
  2. A) adults over 65 years of age.
  3. B) those taking medication.
  4. C) men.
  5. D) women.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Masters and Johnson identified four components of the human sexual response cycle. What are they (in the order that they occur)?
  2. A) Resolution, excitement, orgasmic, plateau
  3. B) Resolution, excitement, plateau, orgasmic
  4. C) Excitement, plateau, orgasmic, resolution
  5. D) Plateau, resolution, excitement, orgasmic

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Changes in physiological arousal are first detected in the _______ phase of the sexual response cycle.
  2. A) plateau
  3. B) resolution
  4. C) orgasmic
  5. D) excitement

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The second phase in the human sexual response cycle is the
  2. A) excitement phase.
  3. B) plateau phase.
  4. C) orgasm phase.
  5. D) resolution phase.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When sexual pleasure is very high but not yet at its peak, the person has most likely reached the _______ phase of sexual response.
  2. A) excitement
  3. B) orgasmic
  4. C) refractory
  5. D) plateau

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The shortest phase of the sexual response cycle is the
  2. A) refractory period.
  3. B) orgasmic phase.
  4. C) excitement phase.
  5. D) resolution phase.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. If Joe is in the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, he
  2. A) may be experiencing a refractory period.
  3. B) will be able to produce an erection.
  4. C) has not yet achieved orgasm.
  5. D) All of the above are correct.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. During which phase of the human sexual response cycle does the refractory period occur?
  2. A) Resolution
  3. B) Plateau
  4. C) Orgasmic
  5. D) Ejaculatory

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The major difference(s) between the male and female sexual response cycle(s) is/are that
  2. A) males experience refractory periods.
  3. B) males do not experience the plateau phase and have a shorter excitement phase than females.
  4. C) females reach the plateau phase only after multiple orgasms.
  5. D) males experience refractory periods, and females may experience multiple orgasms.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 367

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In addition to regulating hunger and thirst, which brain structure is involved in the sexual motive?
  2. A) Prostate gland
  3. B) Pineal gland
  4. C) Hippocampus
  5. D) Hypothalamus

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 368

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What is the name given to the pattern of behavior that occurs when a sexually fatigued male regains sexual vigor following introduction to a new sex partner?
  2. A) Coolidge effect
  3. B) Sexual machismo
  4. C) Krafft-Ebing effect
  5. D) Refractory period

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 368

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The study of the sexual life style of the Mangaians serves as an example that the sexual motive is
  2. A) affected by the Coolidge effect.
  3. B) necessary for individual survival in some cultures.
  4. C) very different from other primary motives.
  5. D) influenced by learning.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 368

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Although the sex drive itself is biological, the way it is expressed is largely a matter of
  2. A) drives, motives, and needs.
  3. B) innate behaviors.
  4. C) learning.
  5. D) predisposition.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 368

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. For many mammals, variety in partners is a powerful external factor in understanding sexual motivation. This preference for variety is also know as the
  2. A) Coolidge effect.
  3. B) exhibitionism preference.
  4. C) law of fertilization.
  5. D) harassment phenomenon.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 368

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In the animal world, what does it mean to be “in heat”?
  2. A) Females are receptive to sexual intercourse because they are ovulating.
  3. B) Males are receptive to sexual intercourse because they are producing sperm.
  4. C) Females are receptive to sexual intercourse because the critical period has arrived.
  5. D) Males are receptive to sexual intercourse because they are experiencing pain.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 369

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In many lower animals, sexual motivation is most closely driven by
  2. A) biological factors.
  3. B) individual survival.
  4. C) psychological factors.
  5. D) level of male estrogen.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 369–370

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following factors is most relevant to human sexual behavior?
  2. A) The odors produced by possible sexual partners
  3. B) The availability of an attractive sexual partner in an appropriate setting
  4. C) The phase of the female menstrual cycle
  5. D) The time that has expired between sexual encounters

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 370

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When a biologist tells you it is the rutting season for deer, it means the _______ deer are _______.
  2. A) female; ovulating
  3. B) male; producing sperm
  4. C) female; infertile
  5. D) male; infertile

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 370

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What percentage of people in committed relationships reported that they receive great physical pleasure from sex?
  2. A) 90%
  3. B) 77%
  4. C) 63%
  5. D) 51%

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Sexual attitude surveys of men and women reveal great differences between these groups. Which of the following might explain some of the differences?
  2. A) Most women are not telling the truth about their sexual feelings.
  3. B) Most men are bragging about their preferences.
  4. C) A small group of women say they would prefer no sex at all during the next 30 years.
  5. D) A small group of men say they would prefer a great many sex partners.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 371

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. About ______ of males and ______ of females have had five or more sex partners in the past year according to research.
  2. A) 2%; 5%
  3. B) 5%; 2%
  4. C) 5%; 9%
  5. D) 9%; 5%

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 371

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The technical term for someone who is sexually attracted to both same-sex and opposite sex partners is
  2. A) homosexual.
  3. B) bisexual.
  4. C) heterosexual.
  5. D) transsexual.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Among men, what percentage report that they have had sex with another male since puberty?
  2. A) 0.9%
  3. B) 9%
  4. C) 19%
  5. D) 29%

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Among women, what percentage identifies themselves as lesbian or bisexual?
  2. A) 0.28%
  3. B) 2.8%
  4. C) 0.14%
  5. D) 1.4%

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Homosexual and heterosexual are terms that distinguish
  2. A) what sex you are.
  3. B) sexual orientation.
  4. C) sexual identity.
  5. D) gender identity.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Those who are sexually attracted to both members of their same sex and members of the other sex are said to be
  2. A) androgynous.
  3. B) homosexual.
  4. C) bisexual.
  5. D) unisexual.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Whether a man develops a heterosexual or homosexual orientation may be biologically related to the
  2. A) daily level of circulating testosterone.
  3. B) structure of his hypothalamus.
  4. C) inheritance of an XXY chromosome pattern.
  5. D) release of female sex hormones during puberty.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 374

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to Watson and Tellegen’s emotional map, all human emotions can be thought of as different combinations of
  2. A) love and hate.
  3. B) happiness and sadness.
  4. C) positive and negative emotions.
  5. D) arousal and experience.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 376

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In the Watson and Tellegren model of emotion, what distinguishes fear from anger?
  2. A) The higher negative emotional value of anger
  3. B) Situational factors
  4. C) The type of physiological arousal
  5. D) The higher positive emotional value of fear

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 377

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The theory that suggests that all human emotions can be thought of as the combination of two basic elements—positive and negative emotions—comes from
  2. A) James and Lange
  3. B) Watson and Tellegen
  4. C) Schachter and Singer
  5. D) Cannon and Bard

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 376

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In understanding emotions, it is the ______ that provokes a reaction from an individual.
  2. A) related behavior
  3. B) physiological arousal
  4. C) stimulus situation
  5. D) conscious experience

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 377

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following would be an accurate depiction of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
  2. A) Sorry feelings and crying are unrelated.
  3. B) We cry and feel sorry simultaneously.
  4. C) We cry because we feel sorry.
  5. D) We feel sorry because we cry.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 377

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Of the 44 muscles in the human face, ______ are devoted solely to emotional expression.
  2. A) 40
  3. B) 30
  4. C) 20
  5. D) 10

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 37–3787

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The ______ theory of emotion suggests that we first interpret the incoming stimuli from the environment, and then interpret the stimuli from the body from the autonomic arousal caused.
  2. A) Izard
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) Cannon-Bard
  5. D) James-Lange

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 379

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Internal organs respond too slowly to autonomic nervous system stimulation to provide the nearly instantaneous emotions involved in highly arousing experiences. This was a criticism of the _______ theory of emotion.
  2. A) Yerkes-Dodson
  3. B) James-Lange
  4. C) Schachter-Singer
  5. D) Cannon-Bard

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 377

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to the James-Lange theory, an environmental stimulus
  2. A) is perceived as emotional by the hypothalamus.
  3. B) triggers a bodily reaction that is labeled by the brain.
  4. C) is emotional because of cultural and social expectations.
  5. D) causes arousal if it appears to be threatening.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 377

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to the predictions of the James-Lange theory of emotions, which of the following is true?
  2. A) You have an emotional reaction and then you respond.
  3. B) Perceptions follow emotional arousal.
  4. C) You interpret your body’s reactions as emotions.
  5. D) You feel sad, so you begin to frown and cry.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 377

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which theory of emotion supports the belief that the experience of an emotion occurs simultaneously with bodily arousal?
  2. A) Opponent-process
  3. B) James-Lange
  4. C) Cannon-Bard
  5. D) Facial feedback

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 378–379

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. You see a grizzly bear in the forest. You are afraid and start to run away. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, what is the precise relationship between the fear and the running?
  2. A) Fear is followed by running.
  3. B) Fear and running happen simultaneously.
  4. C) Running is followed by fear.
  5. D) Running and fear are unrelated.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 378–379

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Cognitive theories of emotion predict that we
  2. A) think before we feel.
  3. B) feel before we think.
  4. C) act before we feel.
  5. D) act before we think.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 379

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to Schachter and Singer, the specific emotion we experience depends on the
  2. A) rate of firing of neurons leading from the hypothalamus to the neocortex.
  3. B) specific patterns of heart rate, blood pressure, and skin resistance.
  4. C) the sensory feedback from the reaction of facial muscles to a specific stimulus.
  5. D) environmental circumstances to which we attribute our arousal.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 379

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In their studies of emotion, Schachter and Singer concluded that the autonomic arousal that accompanies emotion
  2. A) is not important to the cognitive interpretation of emotion.
  3. B) is similar for all emotions.
  4. C) occurs after the emotion has been interpreted.
  5. D) can be used to determine the emotion being experienced.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 379

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotions,
  2. A) you feel nervous because you notice yourself sweating.
  3. B) you sweat because you feel nervous.
  4. C) your sweating coincides with feeling nervous.
  5. D) you feel nervous after you stop sweating.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 378–379

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The Cannon-Bard theory of emotions claims that the physiological arousal associated with emotion _______ the cognitive experience of emotion.
  2. A) is independent of
  3. B) leads to
  4. C) is caused by
  5. D) interferes with

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 378–379

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When in a room watching a film containing pain and injury, which of the following statements accurately depicts the cultural differences in the public expression of negative emotions?
  2. A) The Americans tend to express fewer negative emotions.
  3. B) The Japanese tend to express fewer negative emotions.
  4. C) The Americans tend to express no emotion at all.
  5. D) The Japanese tend to express more negative emotions.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 381–382

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. College students from African countries are more likely to believe that their negative emotions as being caused by
  2. A) environmental toxins.
  3. B) internal thoughts.
  4. C) other people.
  5. D) abject poverty.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 382

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The psychological study of happiness has
  2. A) been a topic of study for over 100 years.
  3. B) been a serious topic of research for only 10–15 years.
  4. C) been studied so long that only conflicting theories persist.
  5. D) led to no new insights about motivation.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 382

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Surveys of happiness in different countries around the world reveal that
  2. A) rich and poor people experience comparable levels of happiness.
  3. B) rich people suffer more stress and less happiness than poor people.
  4. C) rich people label themselves as happy more often than poor people.
  5. D) happiness does not depend on being rich or poor.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 383

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Rich people report more feelings of happiness than do poor people. One possible explanation is that
  2. A) people from countries that enjoy more freedoms are usually more affluent.
  3. B) rich people are smarter than average.
  4. C) poor people lack introspection and knowledge of their feelings.
  5. D) rich people, when surveyed, tend to avoid mentioning any negative feelings.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 383

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. People with strongly held religious beliefs
  2. A) may be happier than others.
  3. B) may be less happy than others.
  4. C) can’t be predicted to be happier because of these beliefs or feelings.
  5. D) All of the above are research-based findings.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 383

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Personality and happiness are
  2. A) unrelated traits.
  3. B) environmentally determined or linked.
  4. C) genetically determined or linked.
  5. D) based upon cultural factors that shape learning.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 383–384

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What is the relationship between the number of friends a person has and their happiness?
  2. A) The number of friends a person has is not related to a person’s overall happiness.
  3. B) People with more friends tend to be much happier than people with fewer friends.
  4. C) People with the fewest number of friends actually turn out to be the happiest people.
  5. D) People with more friends tend to be slightly happier than people with fewer friends.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 383

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Which of the following holds true for those who are happy with their work?
  2. A) They are deeply involved in their daily activities.
  3. B) They are extrinsically motivated to perform well.
  4. C) They have insurmountable challenges to overcome.
  5. D) They are driven to make a lot of money.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 383

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. To say that someone is extroverted means that they are socially
  2. A) shy.
  3. B) outgoing.
  4. C) inept.
  5. D) competent.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 383

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. People who tend to score ______ on neuroticism tend to score _____ on happiness.
  2. A) low; low
  3. B) high; high
  4. C) low; high
  5. D) middle; high

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 383–384

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What is the leading cause of death for African-American males?
  2. A) Cigarette smoking
  3. B) Violence
  4. C) Heart disease
  5. D) Diabetes

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Freud’s instinct theory suggests that people ______ aggressive instincts.
  2. A) never really possess
  3. B) learn from their parents
  4. C) develop over time
  5. D) are born with

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The Freudian term for releasing instinctual aggressive energy is
  2. A) catharsis.
  3. B) manifest content.
  4. C) sublimation.
  5. D) latent content.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. It is the ______ theory that suggests that aggression is a natural reaction to one’s inability to attain desired goals.
  2. A) Freudian instinct
  3. B) frustration-aggression
  4. C) Izard cognitive
  5. D) social learning

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to social learning theory, people are aggressive because
  2. A) they were born with aggressive tendencies and have no other choice.
  3. B) the attainment of an important goal was blocked.
  4. C) they learned there was a benefit to being aggressive.
  5. D) they realize that others around them are superior to themselves.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 387

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Based on research, which of the following is one of the five basic beliefs thought to foster war?
  2. A) Trusting government
  3. B) Just society
  4. C) Inferiority
  5. D) Helplessness

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 387–388

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. What term did Freud use to describe the release of pent-up emotional energy?
  2. A) Frustration
  3. B) Catharsis
  4. C) Cathexis
  5. D) Projection

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Aggression brought on when you are blocked from attaining a goal is called
  2. A) catharsis.
  3. B) cathexis.
  4. C) frustration.
  5. D) projectionism.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 387

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The belief that engaging in competitive sports or watching violent sports can lead to a reduction of violent behavior is compatible with
  2. A) social learning theory.
  3. B) frustration-aggression theory.
  4. C) Freud’s instinct theory.
  5. D) Bandura’s theory of aggression.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The frustration-aggression hypothesis maintains that
  2. A) frustration is a natural consequence of aggressive behavior.
  3. B) frustration and aggression are unlearned patterns of behavior.
  4. C) aggression is a natural reaction to frustration.
  5. D) both frustration and aggression result from social learning.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 386

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. You attend a seminar on aggression, and a speaker says that the frequency of violent acts is correlated with high unemployment rates. What theory of aggression would the speaker most likely agree with?
  2. A) Freud’s instinct theory
  3. B) Frustration-aggression theory
  4. C) Cannon-Bard theory
  5. D) Bandura’s social learning theory

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 38–3876

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Social learning theory suggests that catharsis in the form of hitting a punching bag or throwing things will lead to
  2. A) fewer violent acts when frustrated.
  3. B) an increase in violent behavior.
  4. C) better social interactions.
  5. D) learning acceptable ways to vent frustration.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 387

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Research studies examining the heat and aggression theory have found correlations between high temperatures and
  2. A) robberies.
  3. B) deadly assaults.
  4. C) overall crime rates.
  5. D) stalking.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386–387

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Recent research indicates that the number of youth joining gangs is ______ and the amount of violence committed by gangs is ______.
  2. A) increasing; increasing
  3. B) increasing; decreasing
  4. C) decreasing; increasing
  5. D) decreasing; decreasing

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 388

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Who is most likely to respect an aggressive adolescent?
  2. A) A high school teacher
  3. B) Another aggressive adolescent
  4. C) A parent
  5. D) Another nonaggressive adolescent

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 388

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

True/False Questions

 

  1. Motivation refers to external stimuli that give direction to our actions.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The most important aspect of emotion is that it gives direction to our thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Motivation refers to an external state that activates and gives direction to our thoughts.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The need for food and water is a primary motive.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Primary motives are necessary for survival.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 351

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The biological control center for hunger is the homeostatic relationship between stomach fullness and emptiness.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 352

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Body fat levels are detected by the hypothalamus and are a cue for the long-term maintenance of body weight.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 353

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The stop feeding system for food is located in the ventromedial hypothalamus.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 3532

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The pituitary gland is involved in the monitoring of thirst levels.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 355

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Mouth dryness is the main cue that regulates drinking.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 355

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Optimal arousal theory states that too much stimulation will motivate us to find ways to decrease the stimulation.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 357

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, high levels of arousal are always associated with high levels of performance.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 358

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The Yerkes-Dodson law offers a plausible explanation for humanity’s need for achievement.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 358

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The opponent-process theory of motivation suggests that every negative feeling is followed by a contrasting positive feeling.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 361

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. According to the opponent-process theory of motivation, when a feeling is experienced over and over, it loses its intensity.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 361

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. People with high mastery goals are extrinsically motivated to achieve.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 360

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. When intrinsic motivation to perform a behavior is high, giving external rewards will increase the frequency of the behavior.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. People who are highly motivated to achieve financial success are also highly self-actualized.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 365

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Intrinsic motivation occurs with activities where motivation is not inherent to the task.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 362–363

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The highest level in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is belongingness.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 364

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The degree of sexual pleasure is highest during the excitement phase of the human sexual response cycle.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The last phase of the sexual response cycle is the resolution phase.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 367

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The hypothalamus is the brain center that controls sexual motivation.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 378

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. One reason human sexual motivation is like other primary motives is because it is under hypothalamic control.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 368

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In nonhuman animals, males will engage in sexual intercourse only during the time when they are producing sperm—the name for this time is “in heat.”

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 369

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The University of Chicago sex survey found that most American adult women and men have sex with their partners a little less than once a week.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 371

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. In the United States, about 28% of males identify themselves as homosexual.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Compared to men, fewer women report having same-sex experiences.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 372

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The sexual practices of the Sambian people of New Guinea support the idea of a learned homosexual identity.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 374

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. An emotion map has two poles.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 376

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. All theories of emotion agree that emotion is accompanied by a state of physiological arousal.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 377

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The cognitive theory of emotion centers on the interpretation of stimuli.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 379

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Facial expressions do not play an important role in the interpretation of emotion.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 377

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The more jobs a person has, the happier they tend to be.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 383

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Violent crimes are the leading cause of death in the United States.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Freud believed that people have an instinctual need to aggress.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 386

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. Ervin Staub’s theory explaining increases in gang violence incorporates elements of frustration-aggression theory and social learning theory.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 388

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2

 

  1. The amount of violence committed by gangs is on the rise.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 388

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.2