Stern’s Introductory Plant Biology 12th Edition by James Bidlack – Test Bank

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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Stern’s Introductory Plant Biology 12th Edition by James Bidlack – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 06

Stems

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. When three or more leaves occur at a node, the leaf arrangement is said to be
    A.opposite.
    B. triplicate.
    C. alternate.
    D. whorled.
    E. crowded.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #11
 

  1. Axillary buds are found in
    A.axils.
    B. along internodes.
    C. at tips of stems.
    D. on terminal buds.
    E. on roots.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #12
 

  1. A twig’s age can be determined by
    A.counting the number of leaves or leaf scars on it.
    B. counting the number of groups of bud scale scars on it.
    C. measuring the distances between nodes.
    D. counting nodes.
    E. examining its pith.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #13
 

 

  1. Which can be used to determine the age of a woody twig?
    A.leaf scars
    B. vascular bundle scars
    C. lenticels
    D. terminal bud scale scars
    E. birth certificate

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #34
 

  1. Paired appendages associated with leaf petioles are ___________________.
    A. bundle scars
    B.  primordia
    C.  stipules
    D.  cuticles
    E.  leaf scars

 

  1. Leaves and buds are attached to the stem at the
    A.internodes.
    B. axils.
    C. apex.
    D. nodes.
    E. sides.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #32
 

  1. The leaf arrangement of a stem with one leaf at each node is called ____________.
    A. whorled
    B.  decussate
    C.  opposite
    D.  scattered
    E.  alternate

 

 

  1. Most leaves are attached to the stem by the __________.
    A. adventitious buds
    B.  internodes
    C.  petiole
    D.  petiolule
    E.  bud scales

 

  1. An annual ring
    A.consists primarily of cells produced by an apical meristem.
    B. consists of one year’s growth of xylem and phloem.
    C. consists of one year’s growth of xylem.
    D. includes cortex and pith tissue.
    E. conducts food.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #1
 

  1. In a mature, woody dicot stem, the tissue between the xylem and the phloem is the __________.
    A. vascular cambium
    B.  cortex
    C.  apical meristem
    D.  cork cambium
    E.  pith

 

  1. Which of the following gives rise to primary tissues?
    A.procambium
    B. phelloderm
    C. cork cambium
    D. vascular cambium
    E. phloem rays

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #6
 

 

  1. The procambium produces
    A.secondary xylem and phloem.
    B. cortex.
    C. pith.
    D. epidermis.
    E. primary xylem and phloem.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #15
 

  1. The _______________ is a primary meristem that produces parenchyma cells of the cortex.
    A. procambium
    B.  ground meristem
    C.  protoderm
    D.  phelloderm
    E.  pericycle

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #14
 

  1. Primary meristems are produced by cell division in the _____________.
    A. shoot apical meristem
    B.  leaf primordia
    C.  vascular cambium
    D.  cork cambium
    E.  ray initials

 

  1. Which of the following describe leaf gaps and bud gaps?
    A.gaps in the cylinders of xylem and phloem where traces branch off from them
    B. air spaces in leaves
    C. spaces on internodes between leaves
    D. spaces between bud scales
    E. None of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #17
 

 

  1. Cells produced by the vascular cambium do NOT include
    A.tracheids.
    B. vessel elements.
    C. phelloderm.
    D. sieve-tube elements.
    E. companion cells.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #18
 

  1. Increase in girth of a tree is due to the activity of
    A.procambium.
    B. ground meristem.
    C. protoderm.
    D. vascular cambium.
    E. periderm.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #19
 

  1. As woody stems age, lenticels develop directly beneath
    A.outer xylem.
    B. stomata.
    C. axillary buds.
    D. terminal buds.
    E. outer phloem.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #20
 

  1. An increment borer is
    A.a beetle that consumes wood in several small stages.
    B. an instrument used for determining the age of a tree.
    C. a device for calculating the number of leaves on a tree.
    D. a small wood drill.
    E. an electronic instrument used for determining if the wood of a tree is healthy.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #25
 

 

  1. This tissue is responsible for the production of cork cells.
    A.procambium
    B. phellem
    C. phylogene
    D. phellogen
    E. phelloderm

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #36
 

  1. Retardation of water loss by cork cells is provided by
    A.suberin and waxes.
    B. lignin.
    C. compressed tissue layers.
    D. stomates.
    E. both [compressed tissue layers and stomates] are correct

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #37
 

  1. Which of the following statements pertaining to monocots is true?
    A.They have no vascular cambium.
    B. Their vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.
    C. Most of them are woody.
    D. They have a definite cortex and pith.
    E. Their stems generally have conspicuous cork.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #2
 

  1. Which of the following function primarily in the lateral conduction of food in a stem?
    A.resin canals
    B. laticifers
    C. tyloses
    D. lenticels
    E. rays

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #4
 

 

  1. The tyloses that prevent conduction of any kind in wood are most frequently found in
    A.laticifers.
    B. sieve-tube elements.
    C. resin canals.
    D. cork cells.
    E. xylem cells.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #7
 

  1. In woody dicots, which of the following may eventually be crushed as growth occurs?
    A. secondary xylem
    B.  cork
    C.  cork cambium
    D.  cortex
    E.  vascular cambium

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #35
 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be part of a stele?
    A.cortex
    B. primary xylem
    C. primary phloem
    D. pith
    E. All of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #21
 

  1. Siphonosteles occur in most
    A.club mosses.
    B. coniferous plants.
    C. monocots.
    D. ferns.
    E. dicots.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #22
 

 

  1. Discrete patches of xylem and phloem found in herbaceous dicot stems are called
    A.lenticels.
    B. steles.
    C. vascular bundles.
    D. annual rings.
    E. tyloses.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #23
 

  1. A discrete region of xylem and phloem in a dicot stem is called a
    A.vascular cambium.
    B. vascular sheath.
    C. vascular bundle.
    D. vascular cortex.
    E. vascular node.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #35
 

  1. Older, nonfunctioning xylem is called
    A.sapwood.
    B. summer wood.
    C. springwood.
    D. winter wood.
    E. heartwood.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #24
 

  1. Which function does the stem have in common with the root?
    A.synthesis of starch
    B. photosynthesis
    C. conduction
    D. absorption
    E. both [photosynthesis and conduction] are correct

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #31
 

 

  1. The stems of all flowering plants and conifers have _________________.
    A. protosteles
    B.  siphonosteles
    C.  woody stems
    D.  eusteles
    E.  stems with pith

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #3
 

  1. In a young stem epidermal tissue, produced by the __________, is replaced by cork tissue, produced by the __________ in woody stems.
    A. protoderm; cork cambium
    B.  ground meristem; apical meristem
    C.  protoderm; vascular cambium
    D.  procambium; vascular cambium
    E.  cork cambium; protoderm

 

  1. Horizontal stems that produce roots and shoots are
    A. cladophylls
    B.  stolons.
    C.  tubers.
    D.  bulbs.
    E.  corms.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #39
 

  1. The “eyes” of the Irish potato are actually
    A.axillary buds.
    B. fibrous roots.
    C. internodes.
    D. adventitious roots.
    E. flower buds.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #40
 

 

  1. Cone-shaped stems surrounded by many scalelike leaves that are modified for food storage are
    A.bulbs.
    B. corms.
    C. tubers.
    D. rhizomes.
    E. stolons.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #41
 

  1. Which of the following specialized stems have relatively long internodes?
    A.rhizomes
    B. stolons
    C. tubers
    D. corms
    E. bulbs

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #5
 

  1. Which is a product of a woody stem?
    A. lumber
    B.  turpentine
    C.  bottle corks
    D.  paper pulp
    E.  All of these answers are correct

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #38
 

  1. Which of the following have no nodes or internodes?
    A.stolons
    B. rhizomes
    C. cladophylls
    D. tubers
    E. none of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #28
 

 

  1. You can determine whether an unknown plant structure that you dig up is a stem or root by ______________.
    A. determining whether it is divided into nodes and internodes
    B.  checking for the presence of a root cap
    C.  checking for the presence of woody tissue and bark
    D.  determining if the structure has protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
    E.  checking to see if it produces lateral roots with root hairs

 

  1. Specialized stems may function as _____________.
    A. photosynthetic organs
    B.  for food storage
    C.  for water storage
    D.  for protection
    E.  All of these are functions of certain specialized stems.

 

  1. A very thin sheet of desirable wood that is carefully cut so as to produce the best possible view of the grain and then glued to cheaper lumber is called
    A.excelsior.
    B. cooperage.
    C. quartersawed wood.
    D. veneer.
    E. piling wood.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #9
 

  1. A wood’s capacity to withstand decay organisms is referred to as its
    A.density.
    B. specific gravity.
    C. durability.
    D. seasoning capacity.
    E. charcoal capacity.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #10
 

 

  1. Wood cells are composed primarily of cellulose and
    A.lignin.
    B. pectin.
    C. starch.
    D. glucose.
    E. suberin.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #29
 

  1. The bases of lost branches that have become covered over with new annual rings of wood are called
    A.veneer.
    B. traces.
    C. seasoned wood.
    D. knots.
    E. lignum vitae.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #30
 

  1. The pattern of growth in a woody stem that allows someone to determine the age of the stem results from
  2. growth of the apical meristem
  3. growth of the cork cambium
  4. production of spring and summer wood by vascular cambium
  5. development of knots
  6. all of these answers are correct

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #8
 

  1. When comparing woody stems to herbaceous stems, woody stems typically ______________.
    A. have no vascular cambium
    B.  produce new growth each season
    C.  normally live only one season
    D.  are usually green and soft
    E.  both [produce new growth each season and are usually green and soft] are correct

 

 

  1. Rays consist primarily of
    A.dead cells.
    B. long-lived parenchyma.
    C. tracheids.
    D. vessel elements.
    E. sieve tubes.

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #26
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. The cortex and the pith consist primarily of parenchyma cells.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #42
 

  1. Most stem tips have caps over them that protect them while they are growing.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #43
 

  1. Lenticels and stomata function in gas exchange.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #44
 

  1. An increment borer is a common pest of woody stems.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #45
 

 

  1. Phloem rays appear to be continuous with xylem rays.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #46
 

  1. The difference between the inner bark and the outer bark is that the outer bark is aged inner bark tissue.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #47
 

  1. Nearly all plants produce laticifers.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #48
 

  1. Lignin, which is found in the walls of xylem cells, makes the cells tough and hard.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #49
 

  1. Quartersawed boards are those that have been cut along rays, or parallel to the rays.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #50
 

  1. A cladophyll is a stem with thick bark.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #51
 

 

  1. Knots are branch bases that have become covered over by new wood.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #52
 

  1. Corms and bulbs differ in that corms have fleshy leaves whereas bulbs do not.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #53
 

  1. Specialized stems that aid grape vines and Boston ivy in climbing are called stipules.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #54
 

  1. Adventitious roots may be produced on rhizomes.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 006 Chapter… #55
 

  1. Monocot plants frequently develop woody stems.
    FALSE

 

Chapter 07

Leaves
Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Typical leaves function as _______________ in the plant.
    A. a heat source
    B.  solar panels
    C.  mineral absorption organs
    D.  storage organs
    E.  water absorption organs

 

  1. Plants whose leaves fall off at the end of the growing season are
    A.partially evergreen.
    B. conifers.
    C. biennials.
    D. deciduous.
    E. dying.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #38
 

  1. A cluster of leaflets attached to the end of the petiole would be characteristic of a
    A. pinnately compound leaf.
    B.  palmately compound leaf.
    C.  twice pinnately compound leaf.
    D.  whorled leaf.
    E.  simple leaf.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #34
 

 

  1. A leaf that lacks a petiole is termed
    A.clasping.
    B. sheathing.
    C. emergent.
    D. dentate.
    E. sessile.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #35
 

  1. All leaves originate as
    A.bud scales.
    B. primordia.
    C. axillary buds.
    D. terminal buds.
    E. stipules.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #22
 

  1. The plant part that facilitates a leaf blade being oriented at right angles to the sun is a/an
    A.stipule.
    B. axillary bud.
    C. terminal bud.
    D. midrib.
    E. petiole.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #16
 

  1. Which of the following is a function of a stoma?
    A. diffusion of oxygen to the interior of a leaf
    B.  diffusion of carbon dioxide out of the leaf
    C.  allowing light to reach the interior of a leaf
    D.  facilitating transpiration
    E.  all of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #18
 

 

  1. Which of the following is primarily responsible for forcing water out of hydathodes?
    A.root pressures
    B. transpiration
    C. osmosis
    D. photosynthesis
    E. none of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #11
 

  1. A __________ leaf has a single expanse of blade tissue.
    A. pinnately compound
    B.  palmately compound
    C.  simple
    D.  rachis
    E.  bipinnately compound

 

  1. The arrangement of leaves on a stem is referred to as __________________.
    A. the venation
    B.  alternate
    C.  nodular
    D.  phyllotaxy
    E.  random distribution

 

  1. Bracts are
    A.modified flower petals.
    B. reproductive leaves.
    C. found at the bases of flowers or flower stalks.
    D. the general name for insect-trapping leaves.
    E. leaves modified as spines.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #8
 

 

  1. A leaf arrangement in which there are three or more leaves at a node is called
    A.alternate.
    B. opposite.
    C. palmate.
    D. whorled.
    E. pinnate.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #10
 

  1. A leaf arrangement in which there are two leaves at a node is called _________.
    A.  alternate
    B.  opposite
    C.  palmate
    D.  whorled
    E.  crowded

 

  1. The venation that forks repeatedly in leaves is termed
    A.pinnate.
    B. palmate.
    C. dichotomous.
    D. bilateral.
    E. parallel.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #15
 

  1. Which of the following do guard cells and palisade mesophyll cells have in common?
    A.cuticle wax
    B. thick walls
    C. chloroplasts
    D. vascular bundles
    E. fibers

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #1
 

 

  1. Leaf veins are located in which of the following?
    A.upper epidermis
    B. enations
    C. lower epidermis
    D. endodermis
    E. mesophyll

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #2
 

  1. A bundle sheath is a jacket of fibers surrounding
    A.a vein.
    B. the cortex.
    C. the mesophyll.
    D. stomata.
    E. a petiole.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #6
 

  1. The jacket of cells surrounding a leaf vein is usually termed a/an
    A.bundle sheath.
    B. protective parenchyma layer.
    C. fiber-tracheid layer.
    D. ray.
    E. myelin sheath.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #19
 

  1. The epidermis of leaves normally is coated with
    A.suberin.
    B. lignin.
    C. resin.
    D. latex.
    E. cutin.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #7
 

 

  1. In a leaf such as a sunflower, the average number of stomates on the lower surface is approximately ___________.
    A. 2,000,000
    B.  18,000
    C.  5,000.
    D.  250.
    E.  25.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #12
 

  1. The osmotic response of guard cells is governed by ______ levels in the guard cells.
    A. salt
    B.  chlorophyll
    C.  water
    D.  acid
    E.  sodium

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #13
 

  1. Another name for mesophyll cells is
    A.collenchyma.
    B. chlorenchyma.
    C. sclerenchyma.
    D. cortex.
    E. pith.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #17
 

  1. The large cells of certain grass leaves that permit the leaves to roll up under dry conditions are
    A.pulvinar cells.
    B. collenchyma cells.
    C. bulliform cells.
    D. aerenchyma cells.
    E. aridophile cells.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #20
 

 

  1. In most leaves the number of stomata per square centimeter of surface is
    A.25–50.
    B. 100–200.
    C. 250–500.
    D. 500–750.
    E. over 1,000.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #21
 

  1. Because of the greater light intensity and heat absorption on the upper surface of the leaf, the upper surface has
    A.more stomates than the lower surface.
    B. fewer stomates than the lower surface.
    C. a thicker cuticle than the lower surface.
    D. both [more stomates than the lower surface and a thicker cuticle than the lower surface] are correct
    E. both [fewer stomates than the lower surface and a thicker cuticle than the lower surface] are correct

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #39
 

  1. The spongy mesophyll is so named because it
    A.has numerous intercellular spaces.
    B. absorbs and holds quantities of water.
    C. is soft and delicate and easily damaged.
    D. is in the middle of the leaf.
    E. both [absorbs and holds quantities of water and is soft and delicate and easily damaged] are correct

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #40
 

 

  1. Chlorenchyma would be found as part of the
    A.veins.
    B. epidermis.
    C. spongy mesophyll.
    D. palisade mesophyll.
    E. none of these answers are correct

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #41
 

  1. Sugars produced in photosynthesis are “loaded” into the ______ of the leaf.
    A.mesophyll
    B. phloem
    C. xylem
    D. bundle fibers
    E. cuticle

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #42
 

  1. A conspicuous organelle at the light microscope level in cells of the palisade mesophyll would be
    A.chloroplasts.
    B. nucleoli.
    C. mitochondria.
    D. vacuoles.
    E. ribosomes.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #44
 

  1. Stomata are part of this tissue.
    A.spongy mesophyll
    B. palisade mesophyll
    C. vascular bundles
    D. epidermis
    E. phloem parenchyma

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #45
 

 

  1. Which leaf cells often resemble jigsaw puzzle pieces when viewed from the top?
    A.epidermal cells
    B. palisade mesophyll cells
    C. spongy mesophyll cells
    D. vein phloem cells
    E. none of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #29
 

  1. Leaf venation patterns in _____________ leaves are usually netlike or reticulate.
    A. dicot
    B.  monocot
    C.  grass
    D.  very small
    E.  large leaves such as banana

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a specialized leaf?
    A.Venus flytrap
    B. Irish (white) potato
    C. pitcher of a pitcher plant
    D. tendril of a pea plant
    E. sundew “trap”

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #5
 

  1. With which of the following specialized leaves are ants commonly associated?
    A.window leaves
    B. flower pot leaves
    C. reproductive leaves
    D. storage leaves
    E. tendrils

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #9
 

 

  1. Flower pot leaves provide  __________________.  In turn, adventitious roots harvest minerals from the resulting accumulation of nutrient-rich material.
    A. a haven for ant nests
    B.  succulent leaves with water storage
    C.  a trap for dust and rain
    D.  storage of excess starch
    E.  a place for seeds to germinate

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #26
 

  1. Which is a morphological adaptation to reduce water loss from the leaf?
    A. thin cuticle
    B.  densely hairy leaves
    C.  stomates on upper surface only
    D.  extra pigmentation
    E.  flat, broad leaves

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #14
 

  1. Which of the following is known to be modified as a tendril?
    A. rachis
    B. leaflet
    C. stipule
    D. petiole
    E. all of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #23
 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of a shade leaf (as opposed to a leaf of the same plant that is fully exposed to the sun)?
    A.thicker blade
    B. larger number of hairs
    C. more chloroplasts
    D. fewer, well-defined mesophyll layers
    E. smaller in overall size

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #24
 

 

  1. In spines most of the normal leaf tissue is replaced with
    A.collenchyma.
    B. chlorenchyma.
    C. sclerenchyma.
    D. ray cells.
    E. cortex.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #25
 

  1. Which of the following insect-trapping leaves do NOT have active traps?
    A.sundews
    B. pitcher plants
    C. butterworts
    D. bladderworts
    E. Venus flytraps

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #27
 

  1. Modified leaves are used by insectivorous plants to trap insects. One such plant that has movable modified leaves is
    A.Venus flytrap.
    B. sun mellon.
    C. pitcher plant.
    D. bladderwort.
    E. both [Venus flytrap and pitcher plant] are correct

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #43
 

  1. Which of the following leaf pigments is/are red if the cell sap is slightly acid and blue if the cell sap is slightly alkaline?
    A.carotenes
    B. xanthophylls
    C. chlorophyll a
    D. anthocyanins
    E. chlorophyll b

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #4
 

 

  1. The leaf pigments mostly responsible for gold to orange leaf colors in the fall are
    A.xanthophylls.
    B. anthocyanins.
    C. betacyanins.
    D. carotenes.
    E. chlorophylls.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #28
 

  1. In the abscission zone of the leaf, which of the following is closest to the stem?
    A.separation layer
    B. gelatinous layer
    C. protective layer
    D. hormonal layer
    E. None of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #30
 

  1. Which of the following may cause pectins in the middle lamella of cells of the separation layer to break down in the fall?
    A.decreasing daylengths
    B. lower temperatures
    C. decreasing light intensities
    D. lack of adequate water
    E. all of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #31
 

  1. Which of the following drugs is NOT obtained from leaves?
    A.cocaine
    B. penicillin
    C. belladonna
    D. digitalis
    E. lobeline sulphate

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #32
 

 

  1. Which of the following beverages is manufactured or brewed from leaves?
    A.tequila
    B. absinthe
    C. pulque
    D. mate
    E. all of these answers are correct.

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #33
 

  1. Which of these plants produce leaves with chemicals that affect the behavior and/or mood of people?
    A. tobacco
    B.  tea
    C.  coca
    D.  marijuana
    E.  all of these

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #3
 

  1. In an energy-conscious world, people may plant more trees around their homes because ______________.
    A. they may use the trees for fuel
    B.  leaves of trees provide shade and reduce energy use for cooling homes
    C.  the leaves serve as insulation during winter
    D.  leaves may be composted for soil fertility
    E.  trees protect the roof from wind damage

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #36
 

 

  1. Leaves of ______________ provide fibers for production of cordage, ropes, and other textiles.
    A. Manila hemp, a relative of the banana,
    B.  cotton
    C.  flax
    D.  nettle
    E.  lacebark elm

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #37
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. A green twig with several simple leaves is called a compound leaf.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #46
 

  1. Dicots generally have net-veined leaves.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #47
 

  1. Leaf mesophyll consists primarily of chlorenchyma tissue.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #48
 

  1. If you were looking for bundle sheath cells in a leaf, you would usually find them forming a layer next to the upper epidermis.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #49
 

 

  1. Stomata open when the water content of the guard cells increases.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #50
 

  1. Bracts function as little windows that admit light to the interior of the leaf.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #51
 

  1. All the leaves of insectivorous plants function, when they are healthy, in actively trapping insects and other small organisms.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #52
 

  1. The protective layer of an abscission zone forms on the stem side of a leaf petiole.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #53
 

  1. Anthocyanins are the principal pigments responsible for yellow and orange colors in fall leaves.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #54
 

  1. Most natural ropes and twines are made from leaf fibers.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #55
 

 

  1. Pinnately compound leaves have leaflets in pairs along a rachis.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #56
 

  1. Most photosynthesis in a leaf takes place in the spongy mesophyll.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #57
 

  1. Betacyanins are pigments that are usually red.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #58
 

  1. Few, if any, drugs are obtained from leaves.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #59
 

  1. All leaves originate as primordia.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 007 Chapter… #60
 

Chapter 09

Water in Plants
Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Pressure that develops within a living cell as a result of water entering the cell is called
    A.turgor.
    B. osmosis.
    C. plasmolysis.
    D. transpiration.
    E. water potential.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #2
 

  1. Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion in which water molecules
    A.move across a selectively permeable membrane.
    B. move from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
    C. exhibit random kinetic motion.
    D. move through suberin.
    E. both [move across a selectively permeable membrane and move from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration] are correct

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #7
 

  1. If the concentration of solutes outside the plant cell is greater than the concentration on the inside, water will
    A.move into the cell.
    B. move in both directions equally.
    C. move against a concentration gradient.
    D. move out of the cell.
    E. none of these answers are correct

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #8
 

 

  1. Pressure sufficient to prevent the rise of fluid in an osmometer tube, when applied to the top of the tube, is called
    A.pressure diffusion.
    B. turgor pressure.
    C. osmotic pressure.
    D. pressure potential.
    E. water potential.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #16
 

  1. The pressure required to prevent osmosis from taking place is referred to as:
    A.water potential
    B. osmotic potential
    C. pressure potential
    D. turgor pressure
    E. none of these answers are correct

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #30
 

  1. Water potential is calculated by _____________________.
    A. subtracting turgor pressure from osmotic potential
    B.  calculating the rate of diffusion of water molecules in dry soil
    C.  combining osmotic potential and pressure potential of a plant cell
    D.  determing the rate of plasmolysis
    E.  none of these

 

  1. The movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration is
    A. osmosis
    B.  movement against the concentration gradient
    C.  Brownian motion
    D.  diffusion
    E.  only common in gases such as oxygen

 

 

  1. Molecules that, due to their symmetry, have slightly different electric charges at each end are said to be
    A.polar.
    B. colloidal.
    C. unbalanced.
    D. electrocharged.
    E. covalent.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #17
 

  1. Which of the following plays a role in plasmolysis?
    A.water potential
    B. vacuole
    C. plasma membrane
    D. protoplasm
    E. all of these answers are correct

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #27
 

  1. When an entire plant wilts, it is due to _____________.
    A. the lack of mineral nutrients
    B.  the decrease in salt concentration
    C.  the plasmolysis of leaf and stem cells
    D.  excessive turgor pressure
    E.  a decrease in cellulose and lignin strengthening cell walls

 

  1. When starch and cellulose molecules are exposed to water, they develop electrical charges and form ____________.
    A. ionic bonds with water
    B.  an electric current
    C.  covalent bonds with water
    D.  static electricity charges
    E.  hydrogen bonds with water

 

 

  1. _______________ occurs when water forms hydrogen bonds with large organic molecules such as cellulose in living or dead tissues.
    A. Imbibition
    B.  Turgor pressure
    C.  Plasmolysis
    D.  Active transport
    E.  Guttation

 

  1. Imbibition is responsible for _______________________.
    A. plants wilting on sunny days
    B.  breaking open the seed coat of germinating seeds
    C.  osmosis
    D.  turgor pressure in cells
    E.  expansion of the vacuole inside the living cell

 

  1. Active transport in plants apparently involves an enzyme complex that forms a/an __________.
    A. channel through the cell membrane
    B.  passive transport system
    C.  energy-free transport system
    D.  proton pump
    E.  sodium/potassium pump

 

  1. Substances are absorbed and retained against a concentration gradient, through the expenditure of energy, by _____________________.
    A. active transport
    B.  passive transport
    C.  imbibition
    D.  osmosis
    E.  none of these answers are correct

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #26
 

 

  1. Most of the water that enters a plant via the roots leaves the same plant by the process of
    A.guttation.
    B. plasmolysis.
    C. osmosis.
    D. root pressure.
    E. transpiration.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #3
 

  1. In which of the following are guard cells (that form stomata) not directly involved?
    A.photosynthesis
    B. active transport
    C. transpiration regulation
    D. imbibition
    E. accumulation of potassium ions

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #4
 

  1. Liquid water is forced out of the leaf when leaf pores are closed at night in a process called
    A.transpiration.
    B. translocation.
    C. evaporation.
    D. guttation.
    E. diffusion.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #5
 

  1. The cohesion of water molecules and their adhesion to the walls of narrow tubes that results in water rising in the tubes is called
    A.imbibition.
    B. capillarity.
    C. active transport.
    D. guttation.
    E. transpiration pull.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #10
 

 

  1. Changes in solute ion concentrations that are involved in the opening and closing of stomata pertain primarily to which of the following?
    A.cobalt
    B. calcium
    C. magnesium
    D. potassium
    E. iron

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #12
 

  1. Hydathodes are involved directly in which of the following?
    A.transpiration
    B. imbibition
    C. plasmolysis
    D. respiration
    E. guttation

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #13
 

  1. The early scientist who suggested that cells surrounding xylem vessels perform a pumping action that propels water through a plant was
    A.Nehemiah Grew.
    B. J. B. van Helmont.
    C. Frits Went.
    D. Joshua Doolittle.
    E. Hans Krebs.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #15
 

  1. The rise of water in plants is presently most satisfactorily explained by
    A.the pressure-flow hypothesis.
    B. active transport.
    C. imbibition.
    D. bulk flow.
    E. the cohesion-tension theory.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #19
 

 

  1. When humidity is high
    A.transpiration rates increase.
    B. transpiration rates decrease.
    C. transpiration ceases altogether.
    D. leaves absorb moisture from the air.
    E. stomata open wider.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #21
 

  1. Plants that have their stomata elevated above the surface include
    A.a few tropical plants.
    B. pines.
    C. cacti.
    D. water lilies.
    E. most grasses.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #22
 

  1. Which particular ions are believed to be primarily involved in regulation of transpiration by the guard cells?
    A.sodium
    B. calcium
    C. potassium
    D. magnesium
    E. iron

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #25
 

  1. Approximately how much water typically leaves the plant by transpiration?
    A.90% or more
    B. 25% or less
    C. 75%
    D. 65%
    E. 50%

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #28
 

 

  1. At present the most widely accepted theory for movement of sugars in the phloem is called the
    A.pressure-flow hypothesis.
    B. cohesion-tension-transpiration theory.
    C. translocation theory.
    D. water-potential theory.
    E. imbibition-guttation hypothesis.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #11
 

  1. An area within a leaf where food is utilized is called a
    A.food-storage region.
    B. translocation region.
    C. sink.
    D. sub-stomatal chamber.
    E. tension column.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #14
 

  1. Many studies leading to our present knowledge of translocation of food in plants utilized radioactive tracers and
    A.cane sugar (sucrose).
    B. aphids.
    C. osmometers.
    D. fungi.
    E. algae.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #20
 

  1. Organic molecules produced in photosynthesis are mainly transported in the form of _______.
    A.  glucose
    B.  starch
    C.  carbon dioxide
    D.  cellulose
    E.  sucrose

 

 

  1. The direction of movement of food molecules in plants is ______________.
    A. from the top of the plant to the root system
    B.  from the roots to the shoot system
    C.  from sink to source
    D.  from source to sink
    E.  none of these are correct answers

 

  1. The process of transport of food through phloem tissue involves which of the following factors?
    A.  osmosis
    B.  active transport
    C.  mass flow
    D.  osmotic pressure
    E.  all of these are involved in phloem transport

 

  1. Plants obtain most of their mineral nutrients  ______________.
    A. from minerals dissolved in water entering the root system
    B.  from dust in the air
    C.  when they enter the plant through the stomata in the leaves
    D.  from fertilizer
    E.  as a solid

 

  1. Which is an essential trace element in plants?
    A.iron
    B. phosphorus
    C. copper
    D. sulfur
    E. nitrogen

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #6
 

 

  1. All essential macro- and microelements exist as part of organic molecules in the plant except
    A.potassium.
    B. phosphorus.
    C. nitrogen.
    D. hydrogen.
    E. carbon.

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #9
 

  1. Which of the following is a micronutrient in terms of a plant’s mineral requirements for growth?
    A.magnesium
    B. sulphur
    C. calcium
    D. phosphorus
    E. manganese

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #23
 

  1. Relatively uniform loss of color in leaves, occurring first on the older ones, is usually a sign of deficiency of which of the following?
    A.potassium
    B. iron
    C. nitrogen
    D. magnesium
    E. boron

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #24
 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the nutrients that constitute about 99% of the nutrient total used by plants?
    A.nitrogen
    B. potassium
    C. phosphorus
    D. sodium
    E. calcium

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #29
 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Active transport is the reverse of transpiration.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #31
 

  1. A state of equilibrium exists when molecules have become evenly distributed, through their random movement, in the space available to them.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #32
 

  1. Osmotic potential is the amount of pressure needed to make water rise in a narrow tube.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #33
 

  1. The primary force that enables water to move to the top of very tall trees is root pressure.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #34
 

 

  1. Guttation involves loss of water in liquid form from a leaf.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #35
 

  1. A hydathode is normally located at the top of a leaf vein.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #36
 

  1. More than 90% of the water entering most plants passes on through the plant.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #37
 

  1. Most plants have their stomata closed during the day and open at night.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #38
 

  1. Dew is water that has been transpired at night.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #39
 

  1. During plasmolysis water leaves a cell’s central vacuole.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #40
 

 

  1. A differentially permeable membrane is one that permits anything up to the size of large molecules to pass through.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #41
 

  1. If plasmolyzed cells are placed in fresh water before permanent damage is done, they can become turgid once more.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #42
 

  1. Some sort of physiological pump is believed to be involved in active transport.
    TRUE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #43
 

  1. All water that passes through a plant leaves the plant via stomata.
    FALSE

 

Stern – 009 Chapter… #44
 

  1. The force created by imbibition of water by wooden structures can be used to split stones.
    TRUE