Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World 7th Edition By John Satzinger – Test Bank

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Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World 7th Edition By John Satzinger – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3 – Managing Systems Projects

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following are metrics of a successful project ____.
a. late completion
b. completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset
c. completion over budget
d. delivery of a product that satisfies users

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   90

 

  1. A project manager’s planning _____.
a. involves guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload
b. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target
c. consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   91

 

  1. A project manager’s scheduling function _____.
a. involves guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload
b. includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target
c. involves staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   92

 

  1. For a project manager, monitoring _____.
a. requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload
b. involves controlling capital
c. consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   92

 

  1. For a project manager, reporting _____.
a. involves controlling capital
b. includes informing management, users, and the project team about the progress of the project
c. consists of staffing, which includes selecting the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members
d. includes identifying and arranging project tasks and estimating completion times and costs

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   92

 

  1. Effective project reporting requires ____.
a. strong communication skills c. creating Gantt charts
b. staffing the project team d. assigning specific tasks to team members

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   92

 

 

  1. The accompanying figure shows task ____, which simplify a complex task by combining several activities.
a. groups c. aggregates
b. clusters d. links

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   92

 

  1. PERT/CPM is called a(n) ____ technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks.
a. top-down c. indexed
b. bottom-up d. cataloging

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. The first step in the creation of a PERT/CPM chart is to ____.
a. determine the logical order of project tasks
b. identify the graphical planning aids to use
c. identify all the project tasks
d. determine the status of all tasks

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. Many project managers find ____ charts more helpful for scheduling, monitoring, and controlling projects.
a. Gantt c. index
b. PERT/CPM d. task

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. A(n) ____ chart displays complex task patterns and relationships.
a. Gantt c. PERT/CPM
b. index d. task

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. The first step in creating a WBS is to ____.
a. mark all recognizable events c. identify all tasks
b. determine time requirements d. estimate task completion time and cost

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. A event is a recognizable reference point that you can use to ____.
a. monitor progress c. manage time
b. assign people d. allocate money

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. In addition to tasks, every project has ____, which are reference points used to monitor progress and manage the project.
a. targets c. members
b. milestones d. workloads

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. A ____ might involve maximums for one or more resources.
a. successor task c. constraint
b. task group d. bottom-up technique

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   97

 

  1. In a PERT/CPM chart, each task has which of the following  ____.
a. references to successor tasks c. start day/date
b. references to predecessor tasks d. resources allocated

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   98

 

  1. When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a(n) ____ task.
a. synchronous c. baseline
b. asynchronous d. concurrent

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. Two or more concurrent tasks often depend on a single prior task, which is called a(n) ____ task.
a. predecessor c. antecedent
b. a priori d. ancestor

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, the concurrent tasks are called ____ tasks.
a. descendent c. children
b. successor d. antecedent

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. A ____ path includes all tasks that are vital to the project schedule.
a. vital c. critical
b. baseline d. foundational

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   102

 

  1. Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track.
a. vital c. foundational
b. baseline d. critical

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   102

 

  1. When maintaining schedules, if enough ____ and frequent checkpoints exist, problems will be detected rapidly.
a. success indices c. milestones
b. critical paths d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   104

 

  1. ____ is open-source software that is supported by a community of users and developers.
a. GanttProject c. Microsoft Project Professional
b. Microsoft Project Standard d. Both b and c

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   109

 

  1. GanttProject can open files created with ____.
a. Apptivo c. Microsoft Word
b. HTML d. Microsoft Project

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   109

 

  1. The Apptivo ____ is free of charge with unlimited duration.
a. Full Plan c. Expanded Plan
b. Enhanced Plan d. Standard Plan

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   111

 

  1. _____ is a full-featured program that holds the dominant share of the project management software market.
a. Apptivo c. Microsoft Project
b. GanttProject d. OpenProject

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   107

 

  1. A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed.
a. dependent task c. predecessor task
b. concurrent task d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.
a. menace c. doubt
b. threat d. risk

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   111

 

  1. A risk management plan includes a review of  ____.
a. employees c. program code
b. project scope d. open source

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   111

 

  1. Most risk identifications include a brief description of ____.
a. the team member who might cause a risk to occur
b. who would be responsible for responding to a given risk
c. the project manager most vulnerable to a given risk
d. the team member most vulnerable to a given risk

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   111

 

  1. A(n) ____ chart can be used to display the qualitative risk analysis matrix.
a. pie c. bar
b. XY d. line

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. A risk ____ plan is a proactive effort to anticipate a risk and describe an action plan to deal with it.
a. identification c. response
b. management d. balancing

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. A continuous risk-tracking process can ____.
a. identify new risks
b. prevent human resource turnover issues
c. increase employee satisfaction
d. encourage team building

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. Microsoft claims that Microsoft Project has the capability of ____.
a. linking risks with specific vendors
b. assign ownership of risks
c. eliminating risk
d. preventing fraud

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. Microsoft’s risk management model includes ____.
a. category, which specifies the risk type
b. probability, which indicates the degree of adverse effect should the risk occur, on a scale of 1 to 10
c. impact plan, which identifies plans to control or limit the risk
d. contingency, which identifies a condition that would initiate the contingency plan

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112-113

 

  1. When an information system does not meet business requirements, causes might include ____.
a. identified requirements c. imprecise targets
b. adequately defined scope d. sufficient testing

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   113

 

  1. ____ is a possible cause of cost overruns related to human resource issues.
a. unrealistic estimates c. inaccurate TCO forecast
b. poor monitoring of progress d. turnover

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   114

 

  1. Problems with timetables and project milestones can indicate ____.
a. recognition of task dependencies
b. continuity of project personnel
c. good control methods
d. personality conflicts among team members

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   114

 

  1. When a project manager first recognizes that a project is in trouble, the options available to her include ____.
a. expanding the project requirements c. reducing the project resources
b. delaying the project deadline d. eliminating controls and procedures

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   114

 

  1. A project triangle shows three legs: _____.
a. project cost, scope, and time
b. project cost, size, and scope
c. project size, scope, and time
d. project size, cost, and time

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   90

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

Modified Multiple Choice

 

  1. In the end, every successful information system must ____.
a. support business requirements c. be completed on time
b. stay within budget d. not have any errors

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C           PTS:   1                    REF:   116

 

  1. Project managers typically perform the tasks of ____.
a. project planning c. project scheduling
b. project reconciliation d. project monitoring

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D          PTS:   1                    REF:   91

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an event?
a. the start of user training c. project creep
b. conversion of system data d. completion of interviews

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D          PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. ____ is a time estimate the project manager makes for a task.
a. The weight c. The best-case estimate
b. The worst-case estimate d. The probable-case estimate

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D           PTS:   1                    REF:   96

 

  1. Structured walk-throughs take place throughout the SDLC and are called ____ reviews, depending on the phase in which they occur.
a. technical c. design
b. code d. testing

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D           PTS:   1                    REF:   103

 

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. A PERT/CPM chart does not show the project as a network diagram with tasks connected

by arrows.

 

ANS:  F, does show

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   116

 

  1. Critical time is the amount of time that a task would be late without pushing back the completion date of the entire project. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, Slack

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   103

 

  1. Gantt charts often are included in progress reports to show project status graphically. _________________________

 

ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1                    REF:   105

 

  1. Quantitative risk analysis evaluates each risk by estimating the probability that it will occur and the degree of impact. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, Qualitative

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. The purpose of quantitative risk analysis is to understand the actual impact in terms of dollars, time, project scope, or quality. _________________________

 

ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. System developers can initiate a formal project as early as the preliminary investigation stage, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   90

 

  1. A project manager, or project leader, usually is a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   91

 

  1. Although a Gantt chart provides more detailed information about a project, a PERT/CPM chart offers a rapid overview that graphically displays the timing, duration, and progress of each task.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. PERT/CPM and Gantt charts are mutually exclusive techniques.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. Gantt charts are an ideal tool for controlling a complex project because they provide plenty of detailed information.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. Using a WBS allows you to manage a project as one large task.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. If it will take one person 20 days to perform a particular task, it is true that two people could complete the same task in 10 days or that 10 people could perform the task in two days.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   95-96

 

  1. In most systems analysis tasks, time and people are interchangeable.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   96

 

  1. If you do not have previous experience to measure a project in a given environment, you could design a prototype or pilot system to gain technical and cost estimating experience.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   97

 

  1. Using prior experience to make time and cost estimates works best for large projects.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   97

 

  1. In a PERT/CPM chart, each rectangular box, called a task box, has five sections that contain important information about a task.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   98

 

  1. In any project, large or small, tasks depend on each other and must be performed in a sequence.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. When tasks must be completed one after another, they are called concurrent tasks.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. When several tasks can take place at the same time, each is called a sequential task.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. Often, two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, which is called a successor task.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. When two or more concurrent tasks depend on a single prior task, each of the concurrent tasks is called a predecessor task.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. Project management software can highlight the series of tasks that form the critical path.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   102

 

  1. If any task along the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project is delayed.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   102

 

  1. Generally, systems analysts review the work of other systems analysts, and programmers review the work of other programmers, as a form of peer review, in structured walk-throughs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   103

 

  1. Tasks that are not on the critical path cannot be ignored.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   104

 

  1. Project status meetings give project managers an opportunity to seek input and conduct brainstorming sessions.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   104

 

  1. Most managers recognize that problems do occur on most projects; it is better to alert management sooner rather than later.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   105

 

  1. In GanttProject, unlike in Microsoft Project, you create tasks and durations, indicate dependencies, and assign resources.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   108

 

  1. Project management is dynamic and challenging, regardless of which software you use..

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   111

 

  1. If team members lack experience with certain aspects of the required technology, temporary help might be obtained from IT consultants or part-time staff.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   115

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. The ____________________ handles administrative responsibilities for a project development team and negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time or expense.

 

ANS:  project coordinator

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   91

 

 

  1. To schedule a project, a project manager can use a(n) ____________________ like the one in the accompanying figure, which is a horizontal bar chart that represents a series of tasks.

 

ANS:  Gantt chart

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   92

 

  1. To simplify a Gantt chart for a large project, a project manager can combine related activities into ____________________ that represent several activities.

 

ANS:  task groups

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   92

 

  1. In the project planning process, a(n) ____________________ is any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources.

 

ANS:

 

task

activity

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is a recognizable reference point that can be used to monitor progress and manage a project.

 

ANS:

 

event

milestone

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. Instead of training a project as one large task, you break the project down into a series of smaller tasks, called a(n) ____________________.

 

ANS:

WBS

work breakdown structure

work breakdown structure (WBS)

WBS (work breakdown structure)

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ represents the amount of work that one person can complete in one day.

 

ANS:  person-day

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   95

 

  1. When estimating the duration of a task, the project manager makes three time estimates for the task and then assigns a(n) ____________________, which is an importance value, to each estimate.

 

ANS:  weight

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   96

 

  1. ____________________ can involve dependent tasks, multiple successor tasks, and multiple predecessor tasks.

 

ANS:  Task patterns

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   98

 

  1. The ____________________ is the time that a task is scheduled to begin.

 

ANS:  start day/date

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. A project is based on a pattern of ____________________.

 

ANS:  tasks

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. The ____________________ is the time that a task is scheduled to be completed.

 

ANS:  finish day/date

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is a review of a project team member’s work by other members of the team.

 

ANS:  structured walk-through

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   103

 

  1. ____________________ is software that can assist in project planning, estimating, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting.

 

ANS:  Project management software

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   107

 

  1. In Microsoft Project, a(n) ____________________ is similar to a PERT chart.

 

ANS:  network diagram

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   108

 

  1. Projects with general scope definitions are risky, because they tend to expand gradually, without specific authorization, in a process called ____________________.

 

ANS:  project creep

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   113

 

  1. According to the concept called ____________________, adding manpower to a late software project only makes it later.

 

ANS:  Brooks’ Law

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   115

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is a series of tasks with no slack time.

 

ANS:  critical path

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   116

 

 

  1. Over time, the distinctions between the Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) and the Critical Path Method (CPM) have disappeared, and today the scheduling technique is called ____________________, as represented in the accompanying figure.

 

ANS:

 

PERT/CPM

PERT

CPM

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. The PERT chart called a network diagram in the accompanying figure represents a bottom-up technique, because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual ____________________.

 

ANS:  tasks

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   93-94

 

MATCHING

 

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.

a. project management f. weight
b. project coordinator g. bottom-up technique
c. project leader h. dependent
d. milestone i. concurrent
e. constraint j. predecessor

 

 

  1. Usually a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager, if the project is large.

 

  1. A condition, restriction, or requirement that the system must satisfy.

 

  1. The process of planning, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting on the development of an information system.

 

  1. Handles the administrative responsibilities for the development team.

 

  1. An importance value assigned to an estimate.

 

  1. PERT/CPM is an example.

 

  1. The kind of tasks that must be completed one after another.

 

  1. A recognizable reference point that can be used to monitor progress and manage the project.

 

  1. Tasks that can start at the same time are this kind of task.

 

  1. Tasks that must be completed before another task can start.

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   91

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   97

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   90

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   91

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   96

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    REF:   93

 

  1. ANS:  H                    PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   94

 

  1. ANS:  I                     PTS:   1                    REF:   99

 

  1. ANS:  J                     PTS:   1                    REF:   95

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Project managers typically perform four main tasks. Identify these and explain what they are.

 

ANS:

  • Project planning includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion time and costs.
  • Project scheduling involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts that show tasks, task dependencies, and critical tasks that might delay the project. Scheduling also involves selecting and staffing the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members. Project scheduling uses Gantt charts and PERT/CPM charts.
  • Project monitoring requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload. The project manager must monitor the project’s progress, evaluate the results, and take corrective action when necessary to control the project and stay on target.
  • Project reporting tasks include regular progress reports to management, users, and the project team itself. Effective reporting requires strong communication skills and a sense of what others want and need to know about the project.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   91-92             TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. As you enter the start and finish times for tasks in the process of transforming a task list into a PERT/CPM chart, you move through the tasks, adding the task duration for each task to its start time to determine its finish time. As you move through the tasks, there are three important rules to keep in mind. What are they?

 

ANS:

  • If a successor task has more than one predecessor task, use the latest finish time of the predecessor tasks to determine the start time for the successor task.
  • If a predecessor task has more than one successor task, use the predecessor task’s finish time to determine the start time for all successor tasks.
  • Continuing from left to right, add the task duration for each task to its start time to determine and enter its finish time. Again, be very careful not to add too many days. For example, if a task starts on Day 10 and has a duration of 5 days, then the finish would be Day 14 — not Day 15.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   106                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. What would a basic list of risk management steps include?

 

ANS:

  • Develop a risk management plan. A risk management plan includes a review of the project’s scope, stakeholders, budget, schedule, and any other internal or external factors that might affect the project. The plan should define project roles and responsibilities, risk management methods and procedures, categories of risks, and contingency plans.

 

  • Identify the risks. Risk identification lists each risk and assesses the likelihood that it could affect the project. The details would depend on the specific project, but most lists would include a means of identification, and a brief description of the risk, what might cause it to occur, who would be responsible for responding, and the potential impact of the risk.

 

  • Analyze the risks. This typically is a two-step process: Qualitative risk analysis and quantitative risk analysis. Qualitative risk analysis evaluates each risk by estimating the probability that it will occur and the degree of impact. Project managers can use a formula to weigh risk and impact values, or they can display the results in a two-axis grid. For example, a Microsoft Excel XY chart can be used to display the matrix. In the chart, notice the various combinations of risk and impact ratings for the five sample values. This tool can help a project manager focus on the most critical areas, where risk probability and potential impact are high.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   111-112         TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

CASE

 

Critical Thinking Questions

Case 3-1

 

Mauricio needs to develop a project plan for a new software release that he and his team will develop. He turns to you for assistance in developing the plan.

 

  1. You begin by reviewing some of the key points of project planning. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the process of developing a project plan?
a. You should break the project down into a series of smaller tasks, called a work breakdown structure.
b. Projects with general scope definitions tend to expand gradually in a process called project creep.
c. A project that is twice as large as another project will typically be twice as complex.
d. Adding manpower to a late software project only makes it later.

 

 

ANS:

C

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   92|113|115     TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. You show Mauricio the formula that project managers often use for estimating the duration of a task. Which of the following is NOT one of factors in that formula?
a. the best-case estimate
b. the initial-case estimate
c. the worst-case estimate
d. the probable-case estimate

 

 

ANS:

B

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   96                  TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

Critical Thinking Questions

Case 3-2

 

Alicia needs to develop a schedule for a project that her team of software engineers is about to begin. You suggest that she consider one of the graphical planning aids that can help a project manager in the scheduling process, and you give her a description of two of those tools.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about Gantt charts?
a. It is a horizontal bar chart that represents a series of tasks.
b. The position of a bar shows the planned start and end of the task, and the length of the bar indicates its duration.
c. They can show task status in several ways, including the use of a vertical line to represent the current date.
d. They provide the detailed information that is necessary when managing a complex project.

 

 

ANS:

D

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   92                  TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. In discussing PERT/CPM charts, you discuss the types of task patterns that can occur in a project schedule. You give an example of two tasks, A and B, that can both begin as soon as task C is finished. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about tasks A and B?
a. They are predecessor tasks of each other.
b. They are concurrent tasks.
c. They each depend on task C.
d. They are multiple successor tasks of task C.

 

 

ANS:

A

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   99                  TOP:   Critical Thinking

Chapter 7 – Development Strategies

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Although the traditional model of software acquisition still accounts for more software acquisition, a new model, called ____, is changing the picture dramatically.
a. Hardware as a Help c. Processing as a Product
b. Software as a Service d. Storage as a Solution

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. ____ is a model of software deployment where an application is hosted as a service provided to customers over the Internet.
a. Hardware as a Help c. Processing as a Product
b. Software as a Service d. Storage as a Solution

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. ____ reduces the customer’s need for software maintenance, operation, and support.
a. Hardware as a Help c. Processing as a Product
b. Software as a Service d. Storage as a Solution

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. ____ promotes a broader vision of Software + Services, which refers to the company’s strategy for cloud computing — integrating software applications, platforms, and infrastructure.
a. Oracle c. IBM
b. Hewlett-Packard d. Microsoft

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. Gartner, Inc. predicts that by 2015 SaaS revenue will grow to ____.
a. $7.1 billion c. $14.5 billion
b. $8.6 billion d. $22.1 billion

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   261

 

  1. Microsoft’s ____ is one of the major Web-based development environments.
a. WebSphere c. NetSphere
b. .NET d. .WEB

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   261

 

  1. Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment.
a. GUI c. cloud
b. Web-based d. multinational

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Web-based software usually requires additional layers, called ____, to communicate with existing software and legacy systems.
a. freeware c. middleware
b. shareware d. public domain software

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. When companies acquire Web-based software as a(n) ____, they can limit in-house involvement to a minimum.
a. product c. service
b. value-add d. outsource

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology.
a. interpolated c. outsourced
b. mainframe d. cloud

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis.
a. Outsourcing c. Subscription
b. Commission d. External provision

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider.
a. subscription c. service
b. software d. resource

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Oracle Corporation offers a service called ____, which provides e-business applications on a fixed fee basis.
a. WebSphere c. Business Process Outsourcing
b. .NET d. Oracle On Demand

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Outsourcing a basic business process is often called ____.
a. RFO c. BPO
b. TFO d. TCO

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. The ____ environment enhances interactive experiences, including wikis and blogs, and social networking applications.
a. outsourcing c. Web 2.0
b. SaaS d. Web 3.0

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Some ____ providers concentrate on specific software applications; others offer resources like order processing and customer billing.
a. subscription c. service
b. software d. resource

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a firm that delivers a software application, or access to an application, by charging a usage or subscription fee.
a. ASP c. ISP
b. OSP d. USP

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. Some firms offer ____, which provide powerful Web-based support for transactions such as order processing, billing, and customer relationship management.
a. ASP c. fixed usage
b. IBS d. fixed-fee transfer

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ uses a set fee based on a specified level of service and user support.
a. fixed fee model c. subscription model
b. usage model d. transaction model

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. When determining outsourcing fees, a ____ has a variable fee based on the number of users or workstations that have access to the application.
a. fixed fee model c. subscription model
b. usage model d. transaction model

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264-265

 

  1. A(n) ____ model is an outsourcing fee model that charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application.
a. method c. transaction
b. administrative d. interpolated

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. The choice between developing versus purchasing software often is called a ____ decision.
a. build or make c. transactional
b. subscription d. build or buy

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. The software that a company’s IT department makes, builds, and develops is called ____ software.
a. in-house c. external
b. internal d. indexed

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. A software ____ is software that is obtained from a vendor or application service provider.
a. package c. subscription
b. cluster d. aggregate

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. Companies that develop software for sale are called software ____.
a. VARs c. vendors
b. resellers d. packages

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. A firm that enhances a commercial package by adding custom features and configuring it for a particular industry is called a(n) ____.
a. BRE c. OSP
b. IRH d. VAR

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons EXCEPT to ____.
a. minimize changes in business procedures and policies
b. meet constraints of existing systems and existing technology
c. develop internal resources and capabilities
d. obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   268

 

  1. Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
a. satisfaction of unique business requirements
b. lower costs and less time to implement
c. proven reliability and performance benchmarks
d. less technical development staff

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   268

 

  1. Buyers can customize a software package by ____.
a. negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyer’s needs by paying for the changes
b. purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyer’s needs
c. purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under the terms of the software license
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   270

 

  1. A user ____ utilizes standard business software, such as Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel, which has been configured in a specific manner to enhance user productivity.
a. application c. interface
b. configuration d. interpolation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   270

 

  1. In addition to configuring software, the IT staff can create a user ____, which includes screens, commands, controls, and features that enable users to interact more effectively with the application.
a. montage c. interface
b. index d. package

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. Some data files should be hidden totally from view, while others should have ____ so users can view, but not change, the data.
a. no-access properties c. full-access properties
b. read-only properties d. write-only properties

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The ____ team must include users, who will participate in the selection process and feel a sense of ownership in the new system.
a. prototyping c. JAD
b. evaluation and selection d. assessment

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. Nearly ____ percent of total costs occur after the purchase of hardware and software.
a. 15 c. 80
b. 45 d. 95

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required.
a. request for quotation (RFQ) c. request for proposal (RFP)
b. net present value (NPV) d. return on investment (ROI)

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   276

 

  1. When companies use a ____, they already know the specific products or service they want and need to obtain price quotations or bids from vendors.
a. request for quotation (RFQ) c. request for proposal (RFP)
b. net present value (NPV) d. return on investment (ROI)

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   277

 

  1. Many IT ____ offer specialized services that help companies select software packages.
a. proxies c. consultants
b. forums d. managers

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   278

 

  1. ____ is an example of a nonprofit organization that publishes standards and reports for its members and the general public.
a. IEEE c. The TPC
b. RFP d. Oracle

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. A ____ measures the time a package takes to process a certain number of transactions.
a. newsgroup c. benchmark
b. parameter d. default

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. When planning a slide presentation to management at the end of the systems analysis phase, systems analysts should keep all of the following suggestions in mind EXCEPT ____.
a. summarize the primary viable alternatives
b. ignore time for discussion and questions and answers
c. explain why the evaluation and selection team chose the recommended alternative
d. obtain a final decision or agree on a timetable for the next step in the process

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   282

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

Modified Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following is true of a traditional systems development environment?
a. systems design is influenced by compatibility issues
b. systems are designed to run on local and wide-area company networks
c. systems often utilize Internet links and resources
d. scalability is not affected by network limitations and constraints

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C           PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Which of the following is a path that development can follow?
a. in-house development
b. construct a legacy system
c. purchase of a software package with possible modification
d. use of outside consultants

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D          PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Web-based development?
a. Web-based systems are easily scalable.
b. Large firms tend to deploy Web-based systems as enterprise-wide software solutions for applications such as customer relationship management and order processing.
c. Internet-based development treats the Web as a communication channel, rather than as the platform.
d. Systems are developed and delivered in an Internet-based framework.

 

 

ANS:  A, B, D          PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Web-based development?
a. Web-based software treats the software as a service that is more dependent on desktop computing powers and resources.
b. Web-based software usually requires middleware to communicate with existing software and legacy systems.
c. Web-based systems can run on multiple hardware environments.
d. When companies acquire Web-based software as a service rather than a product they purchase, they can limit in-house involvement to a minimum.

 

 

ANS:  B, C, D           PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Outsourcing can refer to ____.
a. relatively minor programming tasks
b. the rental of software from a service provider
c. the handling of a company’s entire IT function
d. BPO

 

 

ANS:  A, B, C, D      PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. An ASP provides more than a license to use the software; it rents an operational package to the customer. _________________________

 

ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. A software package that can be used by many different types of organizations is called a vertical application. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, horizontal

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. A software package developed to handle information requirements for a specific type of business is called a horizontal application. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, vertical

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. Net present value is a percentage rate that compares the total net benefits (the return) received from a project to the total costs (the investment) of the project. _________________________

 

ANS:  F

Return on investment

ROI

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   274

 

  1. The ROI of a project is the total value of the benefits minus the total value of the costs, with both costs and benefits adjusted to reflect the point at which they occur. _________________________

 

ANS:  F

net present value

NPV

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   274

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Typically, customers purchase licenses that give them the right to use the software under the terms of the license agreement.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   260

 

  1. Building an application in a Web-based environment might involve greater risks and benefits, compared to a traditional environment.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. In a traditional systems development environment, security issues usually are less complex than with Web-based systems, because the system operates on a private company network, rather than the Internet.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   262

 

  1. Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company’s long-term business strategy.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. A subscription model charges a variable fee based on the volume of transactions or operations performed by the application.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. A company considering outsourcing must realize that the solution can be only as good as the outsourcing firm that provides the service.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. Mergers and acquisitions typically have no impact on clients and customers of large, financially healthy firms.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. The main reason for offshore outsourcing is the same as domestic outsourcing: lower bottom-line costs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   266

 

  1. By designing a system in-house, companies can develop and train an IT staff that understands the organization’s business functions and information support needs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Compared to software developed in-house, a software package almost always is more expensive, particularly in terms of initial investment.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Many firms feel that in-house IT resources and capabilities provide a competitive advantage because an in-house team can respond quickly when business problems or opportunities arise.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Companies that use commercial software packages always must increase the number of programmers and systems analysts on the IT staff.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   269

 

  1. Empowerment makes an IT department less productive because it must spend more time responding to the daily concerns of users and less time on high-impact systems development projects that support strategic business goals.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The decision to develop software in-house will require less participation from the systems analyst than outsourcing or choosing a commercial package.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The primary objective of an evaluation and selection team is to eliminate system alternatives that will not work, rank the system alternatives that will work, and present the viable alternatives to management for a final decision.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. A request for quotation (RFQ) is less specific than an RFP (request for proposal).

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   277

 

  1. A standard method exists for assigning the weight factors in the evaluation of responses to an RFP.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   277

 

  1. Some vendors limit their reference lists to satisfied clients, so you can expect mostly positive feedback from those firms.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. Benchmark tests must precisely match the day-to-day situation at your company.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. For large-scale systems, license agreement terms can be negotiated.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   280

 

  1. For desktop applications, software license terms and conditions usually can be modified.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   280

 

  1. If a purchased package will be used without modification, you can begin planning the systems implementation phase upon its purchase.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   282

 

  1. Whereas the logical design of an information system is concerned with how the system will meet requirements, physical design is concerned with what the system must accomplish.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

  1. In general, systems development is faster, more flexible, and more user-oriented than in the past.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. An ultimate form of SaaS would be ____________________ computing, which would deliver services and data to users who would need only an Internet connection and a browser.

 

ANS:  cloud

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. Traditionally, firms ____________________ IT tasks as a way of controlling costs and dealing with rapid technological change.

 

ANS:

outsourced

outsource

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. If a company uses a(n) ____________________ to supply a data management package, the company does not have to design, develop, implement, or maintain the package.

 

ANS:

application service provider

ASP

application service provider (ASP)

ASP (application service provider)

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. In ____________________ hosting, system operations are managed by an outside form, or host.

 

ANS:  managed

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. When a company considers outsourcing, it should estimate ____________________ characteristics to determine which fee structure would be most desirable, and then attempt to negotiate a service provider contract based on that model.

 

ANS:  usage

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. Offshore outsourcing is also called ____________________ outsourcing.

 

ANS:  global

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. Several years ago, Gartner predicted that ____________________ would evolve from labor-intensive maintenance and support to higher-level systems development and software design.

 

ANS:  outsourcing

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265

 

  1. An accounting package is a good example of a(n) ____________________ application because it can be utilized by many different businesses, for example.

 

ANS:  horizontal

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

 

  1. Both of the businesses shown in the accompanying figure need ____________________ applications to handle their unique business requirements.

 

ANS:  vertical

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   267

 

  1. Some advantages of purchasing a standard software package disappear if the product must be ____________________.

 

ANS:  customized

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   270

 

  1. In most large and medium-sized companies, a(n) ____________________ within the IT department is responsible for providing user support.

 

ANS:

service desk

information center

IC

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. Some user applications have powerful ____________________ that allow users to design their own data entry forms and reports.

 

ANS:

report generators

screen generators

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   271

 

  1. The evaluation and selection of alternatives is not a simple process; the objective is to obtain the product with the lowest ____________________, but actual cost and performance can be difficult to forecast.

 

ANS:

TCO

total cost of ownership

TCO (total cost of ownership)

total cost of ownership (TCO)

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   272

 

  1. When selecting hardware and software, systems analysts often work as a(n) ____________________, which ensures that critical factors are not overlooked and that a sound decision is made.

 

ANS:  evaluation and selection team

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   273

 

  1. ____________________ determines how long it takes an information system to pay for itself through reduced costs and increased benefits.

 

ANS:  Payback analysis

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   274

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is a technique that uses a common yardstick to measure and compare vendor ratings.

 

ANS:  evaluation model

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   276

 

  1. Based on a(n) ____________________, vendors can decide if they have a product that will meet your needs.

 

ANS:

RFP

request for proposal

request for proposal (RFP)

RFP (request for proposal)

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   276

 

 

  1. No matter what topics interest you, there are sure to be one or more ____________________, as shown in the accompanying figure, where people gather to meet, offer support, and exchange ideas.

 

ANS:

forums

newsgroups

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   278

 

  1. When users purchase software, what they are buying is a(n) ____________________ that gives them the right to use the software under certain terms and conditions.

 

ANS:  software license

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   280

 

  1. The ____________________ contains the requirements for a new system, describes the alternatives that were considered, and makes a specific recommendation to management.

 

ANS:

system requirements document

software requirements specification

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   281

 

MATCHING

 

Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.

a. cloud computing f. physical design
b. IBS g. logical design
c. managed hosting h. Web 2.0
d. WebSphere i. benchmarking
e. BPO j. systems requirement document

 

 

  1. Predicted by industry leaders to offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology.

 

  1. Describes a second generation of the Web that will enable people to collaborate, interact, and share information much more effectively.

 

  1. An example of a Web-based development environment.

 

  1. Attractive to customers because it offers online data center support, mainframe computing power for mission-critical functions, and universal access via the Internet.

 

  1. Another name for IBS.

 

  1. A good way to measure relative performance of two or more competing products in a standard environment.

 

  1. Like a contract that identifies what the system developers must deliver to users.

 

  1. The outsourcing of a basic business function.

 

  1. With an information system, a plan for the actual implementation of the system.

 

  1. With an information system, design that does not address the actual methods of implementation.

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ANS:  H                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   261

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   264

 

  1. ANS:  I                     PTS:   1                    REF:   279

 

  1. ANS:  J                     PTS:   1                    REF:   281

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    REF:   263

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1                    REF:   283

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss at length the concerns and issues related to outsourcing.

 

ANS:

When a company decides to outsource IT functions, it takes an important step that can affect the firm’s resources, operations, and profitability. Mission-critical IT systems should be outsourced only if the result is a cost-attractive, reliable, business solution that fits the company’s long-term business strategy and involves an acceptable level of risk. Moving IT work overseas raises even more issues, including potential concerns about control, culture, communication, and security.

 

In addition to long-term strategic consequences, outsourcing also can raise some concerns. For example, a company must turn over sensitive data to an external service provider and trust the provider to maintain security, confidentiality, and quality. Also, before outsourcing, a company must carefully review issues relating to insurance, potential liability, licensing and information ownership, warranties, and disaster recovery.

 

Most important, a company considering outsourcing must realize that the solution can be only as good as the outsourcing firm that provides the service. A dynamic economy can give rise to business failures and uncertainty about the future. In this climate, it is especially important to review the history and financial condition of an outsourcing firm before making a commitment.

 

Mergers and acquisitions also can affect outsourcing clients. For example, after their merger, Compaq and Hewlett-Packard restructured and streamlined the products and services offered by the new company. Even with large, financially healthy firms such as these, a merger or acquisition can have some impact on clients and customers. If stability is important, an outsourcing client should consider these issues.

 

Outsourcing can be especially attractive to a company whose volume fluctuates widely, such as a defense contractor. In other situations, a company might decide to outsource application development tasks to an IT consulting firm if the company lacks the time or expertise to handle the work on its own. Outsourcing relieves a company of the responsibility of adding IT staff in busy times and downsizing when the workload lightens. A major disadvantage of outsourcing is that it raises employee concerns about job security. Talented IT people usually prefer positions where the firm is committed to in-house IT development — if they do not feel secure, they might decide to work directly for the service provider.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   265                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. What are the advantages of purchasing a software package?

 

ANS:

If a company decides not to outsource, a commercially available software package might be an attractive alternative to developing its own software. Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include lower costs, less time to implement a system, proven reliability and performance benchmarks, less technical development staff, future upgrades that are provided by the vendor, and the ability to obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software.

 

LOWER COSTS Because many companies use software packages, software vendors spread the development costs over many customers. Compared with software developed in-house, a software package almost always is less expensive, particularly in terms of initial investment. However, even though the initial cost is less, purchased software can involve expenses caused by business disruption, changing business processes, and retraining employees.

 

REQUIRES LESS TIME TO IMPLEMENT When you purchase a package, it already has been designed, programmed, tested, and documented. The in-house time normally spent on those tasks, therefore, is eliminated. Of course, you still must install the software and integrate it into your systems environment, which can take a significant amount of time. Also, even though implementation is quicker, TOC can be higher due to added training expenses and software modifications.

 

PROVEN RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE BENCHMARKS If the package has been on the market for any length of time, any major problems probably have been detected already and corrected by the vendor. If the product is popular, it almost certainly has been rated and evaluated by independent reviewers.

 

REQUIRES LESS TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT STAFF Companies that use commercial software packages often are able to reduce the number of programmers and systems analysts on the IT staff. Using commercial software also means that the IT staff can concentrate on systems whose requirements cannot be satisfied by software packages.

 

FUTURE UPGRADES PROVIDED BY THE VENDOR Software vendors regularly upgrade software packages by adding improvements and enhancements to create a new version or release. A new release of a software package, for example, can include drivers to support a new laser printer or a new type of data storage technology. In many cases, the vendor receives input and suggestions from current users when planning future upgrades.

 

INPUT FROM OTHER COMPANIES Using a commercial software package means that you can contact users in other companies to obtain their input and impressions. You might be able to try the package or make a site visit to observe the system in operation before making a final decision.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   269-270         TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. Contrast logical and physical design.

 

ANS:

A logical design defines what must take place, not how it will be accomplished. Logical designs do not address the actual methods of implementation. In contrast, a physical design is like a set of blueprints for the actual construction of a building. Typically, a physical design describes the actual processes of entering, verifying, and storing data; the physical layout of data files and sorting procedures, the format of reports, and so on. Because logical and physical designs are related so closely, good systems design is impossible without careful, accurate systems analysis. For example, you might return to fact-finding if you discover that you overlooked an important issue, if users have significant new needs, or if legal or governmental requirements change.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   283-284         TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

CASE

 

Critical Thinking Questions

Case 7-1

 

Now that they have joined the firm, Priscilla is providing the junior analysts on the team with some real-world illustrations to explain some of the recommendations that they must be prepared to make to clients, based on what they have studied in their coursework, in order to solidify their understanding.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason Priscilla would offer as a reason for in-house software development?
a. The client has unique business requirements that must be satisfied by this software application.
b. The client wants to be able to use fewer technical development staff members.
c. The client has a number of very distinctive security requirements.
d. The client has some existing technology in place whose requirements must be met by the new software.

 

 

ANS:

B

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   268                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a reason Priscilla will share with the new analysts, with regard to a client that wants to purchase a software package?
a. The client wants to be able to develop internal resources and capabilities among the technical staff.
b. The client is looking for the lowest possible costs.
c. The client is looking to spend the least possible time in implementation.
d. The client wants to be able to rely on a vendor to provide future upgrades.

 

 

ANS:

A

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   268                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

Critical Thinking Questions

Case 7-2

 

You have started the process of selecting a new system for the firm and you are weighing all of the various issues that need to be considered and the resources you have at your disposal as you make this important decision.

 

  1. As you prepare to winnow the field in your selection of a new system, you want a quick refresher on the difference between RFPs and RFQs. If you need an RFP, Simone will write it, and if you need an RFQ, Marny is responsible for writing that. Which of the following is true?
a. An RFP that Simone writes is more specific than an RFQ Marny will write.
b. When Simone is tasked with the job, you already know the specific product or service you want and you need to obtain price quotations or bids.
c. When Marny is tasked with the job, her output can involve outright purchase or a variety of leasing options.
d. RFPs and RFQs have very different objectives.

 

 

ANS:

C

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   277                TOP:   Critical Thinking

 

  1. You have two candidates for the new system. Which one of the following is NOT a strategy you can pursue for making the final selection from among the two candidates?
a. For vertical applications, use a demo copy to enter a few sample transactions in both.
b. Contact existing users to obtain feedback for both of the contenders.
c. Perform a benchmark test to measure the time each of the two applications needs to perform a number of transactions.
d. Consult Web sites maintained by consultants and software publishers with product references and links to vendors.

 

 

ANS:

A

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   279                TOP:   Critical Thinking

Toolkit Part A – Communication Tools

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. To know ____, ask the question, “Is this communication necessary, and what specific results am I seeking?”
a. WHY you are communicating c. WHEN to speak
b. WHO your targets are d. HOW to communicate effectively

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   564

 

  1. Knowing WHAT is expected and when to go into detail is directly related to knowing ____.
a. WHO your targets are
b. WHEN to speak and when to remain silent
c. HOW to communicate effectively
d. WHERE to communicate best

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   564

 

  1. When preparing written documents, which of the following is not a suggestion to keep in mind?
a. Keep your writing concise and well-organized
b. Use an appropriate style
c. Impress your audience with the size of your vocabulary
d. Check your work carefully

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   565-566

 

  1. For most standard documents, Microsoft suggests writers aim for a Flesch Reading Ease score of ____.
a. 10-20 c. 60-70
b. 30-40 d. 90-100

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. For most standard documents, Microsoft suggests writers aim for a Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score of ____.
a. 5.0 to 6.0 c. 9.0 to 10.0
b. 7.0 to 8.0 d. 11.0 to 12.0

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. In a report, the findings section is used to ____.
a. summarize the entire project in several paragraphs
b. present the best system alternative, with a brief explanation
c. contain a large number of supporting documents
d. describe the major conclusions reached

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   571

 

  1. In a report, the recommendations section is used to ____.
a. summarize the entire project in several paragraphs
b. present the best system alternative, with a brief explanation
c. contain a large number of supporting documents
d. describe the major conclusions reached

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   572

 

  1. Which of the following is not a guideline for preparing an effective slide presentation?
a. use bullets rather than numbers, unless showing a specific sequence
b. strive for a consistent look and feel among slides
c. use appropriate point sizes for titles and body text
d. during the presentation, read the slides to the audience

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   574

 

  1. When preparing a slide presentation, try to follow the rule often called the 7 by 7 rule: ____.
a. at least seven topics per slide, and at least seven items per topic
b. no more than seven topics per slide, and no more than seven items per topic
c. at least seven items per slide, and at least seven words per item
d. no more than seven items per slide, and no more than seven words per item

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   574

 

  1. Which of the following is not a suggestion to keep in mind if nervousness is a problem when facing an audience?
a. Control your environment c. Use filler words and phrases
b. Turn your nervousness to your advantage d. Practice and build your confidence

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   576

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The why, who, what, when, and how of communications are important questions that must be answered before you communicate.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   564

 

  1. When preparing a written document, use a conversational tone in formal documents and a business tone in informal documents.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   565

 

  1. A spell checker will identify instances when the word “their” is used instead of the word “there.”

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. The Flesch Reading Ease score measures the average sentence length and the average number of syllables per word and produces a rating level to a U.S. grade-school level.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. E-mail usually is less formal than other written communication, but rules of good grammar, correct spelling, and clear writing still must be followed.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. Although many authors use a more conversational style for e-mail, users should remember that e-mail messages often are forwarded to other recipients or groups.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. Most firms have social media policies that govern workplace behavior.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   568

 

  1. When you have a large number of supporting documents such as questionnaires or sampling results, you should put those items in an appendix located at the end of the document.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   572

 

  1. In a report, the executive summary is used to summarize an entire project, including recommendations, in several paragraphs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   571

 

  1. A presentation should be planned in three stages: the introduction, the information, and the summary.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   573

 

  1. In a presentation, specialized or technical terminology should be used whenever possible.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   573

 

  1. Visual aids can direct audience attention away from the speaker, which is useful if the speaker is nervous when giving a presentation.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   573

 

  1. When preparing a presentation, the first step (and perhaps the most important) is to prepare an overall outline that will be the foundation of the presentation.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   573

 

  1. When preparing slides for a presentation, use serif styles, such as Times Roman, for all body text; if a sans serif style (such as Arial) is used, apply it only in titles.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   574

 

  1. When preparing slides for a presentation, select special effects liberally — many graphics, colors, sounds, or other special effects will concentrate the audience.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   574

 

  1. When practicing a presentation, write a script so the presentation can be read.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   575

 

  1. A brilliant presentation will not convince top managers to approve a system if they are not sold on the person who gave the presentation.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   575

 

  1. To control a presentation, avoid eye contact with the audience and use no humor, but insert irrelevant jokes and make a joke at someone else’s expense.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   575

 

  1. When preparing for a presentation, try to anticipate the questions an audience will ask so a response can be prepared ahead of time.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   575

 

  1. Microsoft offers a robust Web-conferencing platform called PowerPoint 2010.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   576

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. When preparing written communications, ____________________, as in the sentence, “Tom designed the system,” should be used whenever possible.

 

ANS:  active voice

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   565

 

  1. When preparing written communications, ____________________, as in the sentence, “The system was designed by Tom,” should be avoided.

 

ANS:  passive voice

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   565

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is a tool that identifies words that do not appear in a word processing program’s dictionary.

 

ANS:  spell checker

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. Most word processing programs include a(n) ____________________, which is a tool that can detect usage problems and offer suggestions.

 

ANS:  grammar checker

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. All writers must consider ____________________, which analyzes the ease of comprehension by measuring specific characteristics of syllables, words, and sentences.

 

ANS:  readability

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   566

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ gives your work a consistent look and makes the job easier.

 

ANS:  template

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   567

 

  1. Most companies now use ____________________ as the main form of internal communication.

 

ANS:  e-mail

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   567

 

  1. Many companies use ____________________, which enables users to manage and share their calendars, task lists, schedules, contact lists, and documents.

 

ANS:

workgroup software

groupware

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   570

 

  1. To avoid getting fired, be absolutely sure your message content is appropriate and in no way violates your company’s ____________________ policy.

 

ANS:  confidentiality

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   568

 

  1. In a report, the ____________________ usually includes a title page, table of contents, and brief description of a proposal.

 

ANS:  introduction

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   571

 

  1. Include a(n) ____________________ when a report is long or includes many exhibits.

 

ANS:  table of contents

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   571

 

  1. Many word processing programs include a tool that can generate a(n) ____________________ automatically.

 

ANS:  table of contents

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   571

 

  1. A(n) ____________________, which is required at the end of the preliminary investigation and again at the conclusion of the systems analysis phase, might have to be given more than once in some situations.

 

ANS:  oral presentation

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   572

 

  1. In a presentation, ____________________ can help to display a graphical summary of performance trends, a series of cost-benefit examples, or a bulleted list of important points.

 

ANS:  visual aids

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   573

 

  1. With a computer and a projection system, ____________________, such as Microsoft PowerPoint, can be used to create a multimedia slide show.

 

ANS:  presentation software

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   573

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