Test Bank Essentials of Geology 5th Edition By Stephen

$25.00

Category:

Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

Essentials of Geology 5th Edition By Stephen – Test Bank

Sample  Questions

 

CHAPTER 03: Patterns in Nature: Minerals

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The internal ordering of mineral crystals can be detected using ________.
a. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
b. X-ray diffraction
c. a scanning electron microscope (SEM)
d. cathodized axial tomography (CAT)

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.3

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When two different minerals have the same chemical formula but different crystal structures, they are said to be ________.
a. polymorphs
b. polyliths
c. monoliths
d. This is not possible. Two minerals cannot have the same chemical formula.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.3

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When a solution becomes oversaturated, new solid particles are said to ________.
a. precipitate from the solution
b. dissolve into the solution
c. react with the solution and produce heat
d. rapidly expand, causing an explosion

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.3

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Natural glass is NOT considered a mineral because it ________.
a. is not produced by geologic processes
b. is organic
c. does not have a fixed crystalline structure
d. can be made synthetically as well as be a naturally occurring substance

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.2

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about minerals?
a. All minerals are compounds of more than one element.
b. All minerals are naturally made.
c. Some minerals are precipitated by organisms.
d. All minerals can be expressed as chemical formulas.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.2

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Minerals are all naturally occurring solid substances with a definable chemical composition. They must also possess ________.
a. an ability to be synthesized in the laboratory as well as be found in nature
b. metallic elements, such as iron, calcium, or magnesium
c. a nonmetallic, vitreous luster
d. a fixed crystalline structure (spatial arrangement of atoms and ions)

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.2

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a mineral?
a. quartz c. petroleum
b. diamond d. gold

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.2

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a way for minerals to crystallize?
a. solidification of a melt (lava/magma)
b. bonding carbon to oxygen atoms to form organic compounds
c. solid-state diffusion
d. biomineralization

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.3

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is a mineral?
a. granite c. salt dissolved in water
b. cubic zirconia d. calcite

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.2

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is a mineral?
a. petroleum (oil), which is a liquid
b. cubic zirconia, which is a synthetic diamond substitute
c. ice, which is water in the solid state
d. obsidian, a type of volcanic glass

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.2

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The ________ class of minerals contains the anion S2.
a. oxides c. sulfides
b. halides d. sulfates

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. The ________ class of minerals includes a substance commonly known as rust.
a. oxides c. halides
b. carbonates d. silicates

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Understanding

 

  1. The ________ class of minerals are very good conductors due to the ability of the electrons in the atoms to move around.
a. native metals c. silicates
b. sulfides d. carbonates

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Remembering

 

  1. The silica tetrahedron that forms the backbone of all the silicate minerals is composed of silicon and what other element?
a. magnesium c. iron
b. oxygen d. carbon

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Understanding

 

  1. The mineral calcite is in the ________ mineral class.
a. sulfate c. silicate
b. carbonate d. oxide

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Understanding

 

  1. The framework silicates are the most complicated because they ________.
a. contain silica tetrahedral c. produce flat sheets
b. have crystal lattices d. share all four oxygen

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Understanding

 

  1. Minerals are grouped into mineral classes primarily on a basis of ________.
a. chemistry, specifically the cations within the chemical formula
b. chemistry, specifically the anions within the chemical formula
c. hardness; hard, soft, and medium are the three primary classes
d. the number of cleavage directions present

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Understanding

 

  1. The silicates are broken into several groups based on the way the silica tetrahedral are ________.
a. bonded to anions c. arranged and bonded
b. bonded to iron atoms d. arranged and charged

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Understanding

 

  1. Calcite (CaCO3) is in which mineral class?
a. silicates c. oxides
b. carbonates d. sulfides

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Applying

 

  1. Potassium feldspar (KAlSi3O8) is in which mineral class?
a. silicates c. oxides
b. carbonates d. sulfides

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Applying

 

  1. Pyrite (FeS2) is in which mineral class?
a. silicates c. oxides
b. carbonates d. sulfides

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Applying

 

  1. In which type of silicate are the greatest proportion of oxygen atoms shared by pairs of adjacent tetrahedra?
a. chain silicates
b. framework silicates
c. sheet silicates
d. Sharing of oxygen atoms does not occur in silicates.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Analyzing

 

  1. The mineral class that makes up more than 95% of the continental crust is termed the ________.
a. silicates c. halides
b. carbonates d. oxides

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which layer of Earth does NOT contain silicates?
a. oceanic crust c. outer core
b. upper mantle d. asthenosphere

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The major rock-forming minerals fall into the ________ mineral class.
a. oxides c. sulfates
b. silicates d. sulfides

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Fewer than 50 minerals on Earth are ________.
a. found on other planets c. found in the crust
b. used for industrial purposes d. commonly found in rocks

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following minerals is more commonly known as table salt?
a. gypsum c. halite
b. feldspar d. quartz

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The mantle is composed almost entirely of the mineral class ________.
a. silicates c. halides
b. oxides d. sulfates

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following minerals is a silicate?
a. galena c. calcite
b. olivine d. halite

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which common rock-forming mineral shows up in all three major rock types (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic)?
a. diamond c. olivine
b. quartz d. kaolinite

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The color of a mineral in powdered form is termed ________.
a. color c. luster
b. specific gravity d. streak

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Cleavage in minerals refers to ________.
a. a tendency to break in an irregular pattern
b. a tendency to break along planes of weakness
c. the sharpness of edges between crystal faces
d. the development of well-formed crystal faces

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Synthetically made glass and natural quartz crystals both exhibit a fracture pattern termed ________.
a. glassy fracture c. one-directional cleavage
b. conchoidal fracture d. obtuse fracture

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following common minerals is softest?
a. quartz c. talc
b. calcite d. fluorite

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. With regard to minerals, hardness refers to the ability to resist ________.
a. breaking
b. being scratched
c. chemical reactions with other substances
d. bending

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. ________ is a mineral property defined by the density of the mineral sample divided by the density of water (1.0 g/cm3).
a. Mass c. Luster
b. Specific gravity d. Streak

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. The image below shows a mineral specimen of quartz. What is the term for the smoothly curving, clamshell-shaped surface on the sample below?
a. conchoidal fracture c. cleavage plane
b. facet d. striation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. The image below shows a mineral with hydrochloric acid applied to it. What mineral is this?
a. quartz c. calcite
b. halite d. fluorite

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Applying

 

  1. Trace amounts of impurity in a mineral can commonly produce significant differences in ________ among individual crystals of this mineral.
a. color c. luster
b. cleavage d. streak

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Applying

 

  1. Ore minerals, such as galena, tend to be different from typical minerals (such as quartz) in that they have a ________.
a. very dark color c. large specific gravity
b. diamond-like crystal habit d. vitreous luster

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Applying

 

  1. For the majority of minerals, the streak color obtained when the mineral is scratched against a porcelain plate is ________.
a. only useful if the mineral is softer than porcelain
b. more variable than the color in a hand sample among crystals
c. not useful because the porcelain will often chemically react with the mineral
d. always dark brown or black

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Applying

 

  1. Using the Mohs hardness scale below, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Your fingernail can scratch a sample of gypsum.
b. Diamonds are twice as hard as apatite.
c. Diamonds are more than seven times as hard as quartz.
d. Quartz cannot scratch anything made of diamond.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Which common gemstone results from biomineralization?
a. diamond c. pearl
b. garnet d. sapphire

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Diamonds are usually found in ________.
a. graphite c. metamorphic rocks
b. kimberlite d. sedimentary rocks

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. A facet is a ________ on a gem.
a. polished surface c. small impurity
b. cleavage plane d. crystal face

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Gemstones are commonly found in pegmatites, which are igneous rocks that are ________.
a. exceptionally mafic c. exceptionally coarse grained
b. extrusive, forming from lava d. exceptionally fine grained

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The diamonds we typically see today in engagement rings do not display their natural crystal faces but rather ________, which are made by grinding the gem on a spinning lap.
a. striations c. cleavage planes
b. facets d. facades

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a gem?
a. clay c. garnet
b. feldspar d. gold

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the images below shows a gem?
a. A c. C
b. B d. D

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Why are diamonds used in saw blades not nearly as expensive as diamonds used in jewelry?
a. They are neither rare nor beautiful.
b. They are beautiful but very common.
c. They are actually man-made diamonds.
d. They are the cuttings from gems.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Analyzing

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Explain why a cubic zirconia is NOT a mineral.

 

ANS:

Cubic zirconia are man-made and therefore not considered a mineral.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.2

OBJ:   Understand that the term mineral has a very special meaning in geologic contexts.

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Draw and label a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron.

 

ANS:

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5

OBJ:   Understand how to organize the thousands of different minerals into just a few classes based on the chemicals the minerals contain.           MSC:             Applying

 

  1. Why are minerals often referred to as “the building blocks of Earth”?

 

ANS:

Earth is made of many different types of rocks, and rocks are composed of a mixture of minerals in various forms. Thus, the smallest “building block” of Earth is actually the mineral.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1

OBJ:   Understand which minerals are the most common ones on Earth, and thus serve as the main building blocks of this planet.                MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Some physical properties are more useful for certain minerals than others. Explain how color can be useful to identify some minerals but not others. Be sure to use mineral examples in your answer.

 

ANS:

Some minerals, like olivine, are always the same color. However, other minerals, such as quartz, come in a variety of colors, and thus color is not a useful physical property to use to identify quartz.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   3.4

OBJ:   Understand how to identify common mineral specimens.         MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Diamond is a polymorph of graphite. What is a polymorph, and explain how a piece of graphite could be turned into a diamond by geologic processes.

 

ANS:

A polymorph is a mineral with the same chemical composition but a different crystal structure. If graphite is buried down deep enough into Earth the pressure will cause the bonds between carbons to rearrange, strengthening the crystal and turning it into a diamond.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   3.3 | 3.6

OBJ:   Understand why we consider some minerals to be gems, and how their shiny facets are produced.     MSC:           Analyzing

 

CHAPTER 07: Metamorphism: A Process of Change

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Preexisting rock that is subsequently altered to form a metamorphic rock is termed a ________.
  2. xenolith c.             protolith
  3. source rock d.            phenocryst

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.1

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. ________ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of quartzite.
  2. Limestone c.             Shale
  3. Sandstone d.            Slate

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. ________ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of slate.
  2. Limestone c.             Shale
  3. Sandstone d.            Basalt

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Broadly, metamorphism involves ________.
  2. the settling of crystals in a melt as it cools
  3. the sorting of grains by size, as accomplished by rivers and beach waves
  4. the cementation of loose grains and the precipitation of new minerals into pore spaces
  5. changes in mineralogy and texture in response to heat and stress

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.1

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. The blueschist facies is a metamorphic realm of ________.
  2. high temperature and pressure
  3. low temperature and pressure
  4. high temperature but relatively low pressure
  5. high pressure but relatively low temperature

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following processes CANNOT occur in the formation of metamorphic rock?
  2. the realignment of minerals so that they develop a preferred orientation
  3. the segregation of minerals into layers of different compositions
  4. the solid-state rearrangement of atoms or ions to create a new assemblage of minerals
  5. complete remelting of the rock, followed by solidification to form a new rock

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. A buried body of shale is subjected to differential stress, causing clay minerals to realign and produce slate. This is an example of ________.
  2. diagenesis c.             metamorphism
  3. erosion d. weathering

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Clay minerals within a buried body of slate are recrystallized at high temperatures and pressures to form mica, producing a rock called phyllite. This is an example of ________.
  2. diagenesis c.             metamorphism
  3. erosion d. weathering

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Which list properly orders metamorphic rocks from lowest grade to highest grade?
  2. conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale
  3. shale, slate, phyllite, and quartzite
  4. slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss
  5. gneiss, phyllite, schist, and slate

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. The mineral assemblage within metamorphic rock is ________.
  2. always identical to that found within its protolith
  3. dependent only on the mineral assemblage of its protolith
  4. dependent only on the temperature and pressure of formation
  5. dependent on both the mineral content of its protolith and the temperature and pressure of formation

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Analyzing

 

  1. The net chemical change in metamorphic rock induced by a reaction with hot groundwater is termed ________.
  2. foliation c.             anachronism
  3. metasomatism d.            hydrosomatism

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Foliation is the alignment of ________ in a metamorphic rock.
  2. minerals c.             stress
  3. strata d.            facies

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Metamorphism occurs at temperatures between ________ and ________.
  2. diagenesis; lithification c.             magmatism; sedimentation
  3. diagenesis; melting d.            melting; pressure solution

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following processes CANNOT induce metamorphism?
  2. contact with a hot pluton
  3. contact with hydrothermal fluids
  4. heat and pressure associated with deep burial
  5. cementation and compaction of grains during diagenesis

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. The application of ________ during metamorphism causes elongated crystals to align parallel with each other. When this happens, the rock develops ________.
  2. pressure; a homogeneous texture c.             high temperatures; foliation
  3. differential stress; foliation d.            pressure; foliation

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Preferential stress will cause crystals to rotate into a preferred orientation unless the crystals are ________.
  2. primarily mica c.             equant
  3. platy d.            elongate

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. The image below shows ________.

 

  1. foliation c.             pressure solution
  2. migmatites d.            metasomatism

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Clay minerals within a slate are changed into mica minerals due to the application of heat to a rock. This is an example of ________
  2. pressure solution c.             plastic deformation
  3. neocrystallization d.            phase change

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Spreading peanut butter on bread is an application of ________.
  2. compressive stress c.             shear stress
  3. pressure d.            metasomatism

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. The figure below shows the application of ________.

 

  1. tension c. tensional stress
  2. pressure d.            shear stress

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Analyzing

 

  1. Heating up a rock causes the atoms in the rock to vibrate and break their bonds. The atoms can then move slightly and create new bonds with nearby atoms. This process is called ________.
  2. preferred orientation c.             plastic deformation
  3. solid-state diffusion d.            melting

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. The development of a preferred orientation of large, flaky mica crystals within metamorphic rock is termed ________.
  2. slaty cleavage c.             schistosity
  3. phyllitic luster d.            compositional banding

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. ________ commonly serves as a protolith in the formation of marble.
  2. Limestone c.             Shale
  3. Sandstone d.            Gneiss

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Foliated metamorphic rocks possess ________.
  2. leafy plant fossils (ancient foliage)
  3. a homogeneous texture resulting from randomly oriented grains
  4. mineral grains in preferred orientations or patterns of association (banding)
  5. minerals precipitated directly from seawater

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. In the formation of gneiss from granite, distinctive compositional bands form because of ________.
  2. crystals migrating within the rock
  3. crystals dissolving, with atoms and ions migrating and reorganizing as new crystals
  4. crystals melting, with new crystals solidifying in color bands
  5. chemical reactions with groundwater

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Slaty cleavage, schistosity, and compositional banding are all examples of ________.
  2. mineral cleavage c.             recrystallization
  3. foliation d.            metamorphic facies

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Rocks subjected to ________ feel a squeezing motion.
  2. metasomatism c.             compression
  3. diagenesis d.            extension

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Applying

 

  1. If mineral grains have been smeared out, the rock was subjected to ________.
  2. shear c.             tension
  3. compression d.            extension

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Applying

 

  1. What was the direction of compression that formed the foliation in the image below?

 

  1. top and bottom, pressing inward
  2. both sides, pressing inward
  3. top and bottom, pulling outward
  4. in and out of the image, pulling outward

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.2

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Marble and quartzite are nonfoliated rocks because ________.
  2. they are never found beneath fault zones or collisional mountain ranges
  3. both are dominated by minerals that produce equant grains
  4. both are dominated by minerals with crystalline structures that cannot be dissolved
  5. dynamothermal metamorphism can break down the structures of their constituent minerals, but neither of these minerals is stable in that metamorphic environment

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Analyzing

 

  1. Consult the figure below. The region of thermally metamorphosed rock surrounding a cooled pluton is called a(n) ________.

 

  1. shear zone c.             chilled margin
  2. aureole d.            metamorphic ring

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Thermal (contact) metamorphism occurs ________.
  2. in areas surrounding igneous intrusions
  3. only where gneiss is in contact with schist
  4. as a consequence of the sinking of a broad region to great depth
  5. only at the surface, where rock is in contact with the atmosphere

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Regional metamorphism ________.
  2. takes place at cool temperatures and low pressure
  3. takes place at cool temperatures but high pressure
  4. is another name for thermal metamorphism
  5. is another name for dynamothermal metamorphism

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Dynamothermal (regional) metamorphism occurs when ________.
  2. rock becomes deeply buried during continental collision and mountain building
  3. regression of the sea leads to erosion of sedimentary cover on a body of rock
  4. the upper surface of a body of rock develops a thick soil profile
  5. a pluton causes metamorphism in a small surrounding region

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. The rapid, deep burial of sediments in an accretionary prism leads to the formation of a metamorphic rock termed ________.
  2. blueschist c.             migmatite
  3. greenschist d.            gneiss

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. The rock hornfel is often formed due to ________ metamorphism.
  2. dynamothermal c.             dynamic
  3. hydrothermal d.            thermal

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. ________ metamorphism affects the greatest volumes of rock and produces the greatest variety in metamorphic rock types.
  2. Thermal c.             Dynamic
  3. Dynamothermal d.            Shock

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Thermal (contact) metamorphism produces ________.
  2. foliated rocks only
  3. nonfoliated rocks only
  4. both foliated and nonfoliated rocks
  5. Thermal metamorphism does not produce any metamorphic rocks.

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Mylonites, formed from dynamic metamorphism, typically do NOT display ________.
  2. foliation roughly parallel to a fault
  3. very fine grains
  4. shear zones
  5. bands of randomly oriented mica grains

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Within a single mountain range, ________.
  2. only low-grade metamorphic rocks are likely to be found
  3. only high-grade metamorphic rocks are likely to be found
  4. only nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are likely to be found
  5. it is possible to find a variety of metamorphic rocks produced in distinct facies, including high-, intermediate-, and low-grade rocks

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Analyzing

 

  1. Two common metamorphic rocks that typically lack foliation are ________ and ________.
  2. slate; phyllite c.             quartzite; marble
  3. gneiss; migmatite d.            schist; metaconglomerate

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. ________ is a common foliated metamorphic rock.
  2. Marble c. Hornfel
  3. Gneiss d.            Diorite

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is a high-grade metamorphic rock?
  2. quartzite c.             gneiss
  3. slate d.            schist

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Remembering

 

  1. Geologists classify metamorphic rocks according to ________.
  2. whether they are foliated c.             the percentage of silica
  3. whether they contain pseudomorphs d.            the size of their crystals

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are classified based on their ________.
  2. metamorphic texture c.             percentage of preferred orientation
  3. mineral composition d.            proximity to the metamorphic source

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. What is a primary difference between phyllite and schist?
  2. Schist contains mica, whereas phyllite contains only clay.
  3. Phyllite contains mica, whereas schist contains only clay.
  4. Mica crystals within schist are larger than those within phyllite.
  5. Mica crystals within phyllite are larger than those within schist.

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following images is of a foliated metamorphic rock?

 

  1. A c.             C
  2. B d.            D

 

 

ANS:      B             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Which of the following processes is NOT involved directly with the creation of foliation?
  2. recrystallization c.             compression
  3. preferential stress d.            shear stress

 

 

ANS:      A             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. A geologist finds a nonfoliated metamorphic rock that is composed entirely of calcite. What is the name of the rock?
  2. hornfels c.             quartzite
  3. slate d.            marble

 

 

ANS:      D             DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Applying

 

  1. Foliated rock is created by a preferential stress oriented ________ the foliation.
  2. the same way as c.             perpendicular to
  3. diagonally to d.            parallel to

 

 

ANS:      C             DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Analyzing

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Metamorphism includes a solid-state change in a rock due to heat, pressure, and/or hydrothermal fluids. Explain what is meant by solid-state change.

 

ANS:

A solid-state change takes place when the rock is solid, in other words the rock has not been melted or weathered into a solution. All changes in size, shape, or composition of minerals is done while the rock remains solid.

 

DIF:        Easy       REF:       7.1

OBJ:       Understand what metamorphism is, and why it takes place.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Describe the resulting metamorphism that occurs next to an igneous intrusion.

 

ANS:

A metamorphic aureole forms next to an intrusion. Each layer of the aureole has progressively lower-grade metamorphism the farther away from the intrusion it is. The metamorphism created by the intrusion is called thermal metamorphism or contact metamorphism and takes place in the absence of pressure.

 

DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand how changes in temperature, pressure, and stress can cause metamorphism.

MSC:     Understanding

 

  1. Draw the orientation of the preferential stress that created the foliation in the image below.

 

 

ANS:

See image below. Red arrows indicate stress orientation.

 

 

DIF:        Moderate           REF:       7.1 | 7.2

OBJ:       Understand why metamorphism alters the texture and mineral content of rocks, and how foliation develops.                MSC:     Applying

 

  1. During dynamothermal metamorphism several metamorphic processes are at work. Describe these processes and what effect they might have on the rocks subjected to metamorphism.

 

ANS:

Dynamothermal metamorphism occurs in the cores of mountain ranges and thus subjects rocks to changes in heat, pressure, and preferential stresses. Temperatures increase within the cores of mountains due to the geothermal gradient and igneous intrusions; this will cause changes in the mineral assemblages of the rocks including recrystallization and neocrystallization. Rocks within mountain cores are also subjected to high pressures due to increased overburden, compression, and shear stress. The increase in stress and pressure on the rocks will work to align minerals (by rotation and plastic deformation) to the preferred orientation and may also cause pressure solution to occur along grain boundaries.

 

DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.4

OBJ:       Understand where metamorphism occurs, in the context of plate tectonics theory.

MSC:     Analyzing

 

  1. Metamorphic grade describes the intensity or degree of metamorphism. The metamorphic grade of a rock is determined mainly by the temperature and amount of recrystallization or neocrystallization to which a rock is subjected. List the following rocks in order from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks and then describe the changes seen in the suite of rocks as the grade is increased: gneiss, slate, schist, phyllite, and migmatite.

 

ANS:

Order from low grade to high grade: slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss, and migmatite. The changes seen in these rocks as they progress from low grade to high grade are primarily in mineral assemblage and size. At the lowest grade, slate contains clay minerals that are preferentially aligned with each other (and the stress direction). As metamorphic grade increases to phyllite the clay minerals begin to recrystallize as mica minerals; however, they remain very small. As the rock progresses to schist the mica minerals continue to grow larger and begin to form a series of wavy layers referred to as schistocity. In addition, it is common to have new minerals form as porphyroblasts. The jump from schist to gneiss shows a separation of light-colored and dark-colored minerals into distinct color bands. Felsic minerals such as quartz and feldspar grow larger as well. If the temperature reaches a bit past the melting point of felsic minerals, then the rock becomes a migmatite with light-colored layers of much larger felsic crystals that have been partially melted and recrystallized.

 

DIF:        Difficult                REF:       7.3

OBJ:       Understand how geologists describe and classify metamorphic rocks.

MSC:     Analyzing

0.0/5
0 reviews
0
0
0
0
0

There are no reviews yet.

Be the first to review “Test Bank Essentials of Geology 5th Edition By Stephen”