Test Bank for Cognition Theory And Applications 8th Edition By Reed – Test Bank

$20.00

Description

Test Bank for Cognition Theory And Applications 8th Edition By Reed – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

 

Chapter 3-Attention

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following two characteristics of attention discussed in William James’ famous Principles of Psychology are still studied today?
a. shadowing and memory selection c. intensity and pitch
b. shadowing and attenuation d. focalization and concentration

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction

 

  1. With regard to attention, which of the following does not belong?
a. concentration c. selectivity
b. focalization d. transduction

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Introduction

 

  1. With regard to Broadbent’s model of attention, which of the following does not belong?
a. filter c. limited-capacity perceptual channel
b. bottle-neck d. attenuation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. When two different digits are simultaneously presented, one to each ear, the percentage of correct recall
a. is higher when reporting by ears.
b. is higher when reporting by pairs.
c. is uninfluenced by the method of reporting.
d. is uninfluenced by the time between pairs.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Bottleneck Theories

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. Broadbent’s filter model proposes that it is easier to report a message to one ear followed by the message to the other ear because
a. it is easier to organize memory according to where the information arrived.
b. attention does not have to be continuously switched.
c. reporting by ears requires less capacity.
d. people have more practice in using that procedure.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Where does the bottleneck occur in Broadbent’s filter model?
a. sensory store c. STM
b. pattern recognition d. LTM

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Shadowing is an experimental technique that is used to verify that people
a. are attending to the correct message.
b. are attending to the unattended message.
c. are using all their available capacity.
d. are using less than their available capacity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Which experimental finding created a problem for the filter model? People could report
a. all 6 digits after hearing 3 simultaneous pairs.
b. by ‘ears’ better than they could report by pairs.
c. information to the attended ear in a shadowing task.
d. information to the unattended ear in a shadowing task.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. One of the problems for Broadbent’s model of attention, but not Triesman’s, is that
a. in shadowing tasks people reported hearing their names in the unattended channel.
b. in shadowing tasks people reported only hearing the information from the attended ear.
c. in shadowing tasks people could follow information from either ear.
d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Which is not part of Triesman’s model of attention?
a. dictionary c. allocation policy
b. selective filter d. word threshold

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not true of Treisman’s model of attention?
a. The bottleneck occurs after pattern recognition.
b. The unattended message is attenuated.
c. Thresholds vary across words.
d. Expectations influence thresholds.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Which component of the information processing system plays an important role according to both Broadbent’s ‘filter’ theory and Triesman’s Attenuation theory of attention?
a. the filter c. STM
b. the sensory store d. pattern recognition

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. The main difference between early and late-selection models of attention is
a. where the bottleneck in information processing occurs.
b. the role of the sensory store in information processing.
c. the role of short-term memory in information processing.
d. the role of long-term memory in information processing.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. A major difference between the selective attention theories of Treisman and Deutsch/Norman concerns the
a. stage at which selective attention takes place.
b. use of semantic information.
c. use of feature analysis.
d. role of echoic memory.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. In which model does the bottleneck occur after the pattern recognition stage?
a. Deutsch/Norman model c. attenuation model
b. filter model d. capacity model

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. With respect to models of attention, which of the following does not belong?
a. filter model c. selection model
b. attenuation model d. capacity model

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Which model proposes that performance is limited by the extent to which two activities are similar and use the same information-processing stages?
a. a bottleneck model c. both models
b. a capacity model d. neither model

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Which of the following models is not associated with bottleneck theories of attention?
a. Broadbent’s filter model
b. Treisman’s attenuation model
c. Kahneman’s capacity model
d. Deutsch/Norman’s memory selection model

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Which of the following theories is concerned with the allocation of mental effort to various activities?
a. Broadbent’s filter model
b. Treisman’s attenuation model
c. Kahneman’s capacity model
d. Deutsch/Norman’s memory selection model

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Capacity theories propose that the ability to perform simultaneous activities is limited when the activities
a. require more mental effort than is available.
b. do not interest the individual.
c. are unfamiliar ones.
d. are very similar to each other.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. In Kahneman’s capacity model of attention, performance is
a. best at very low levels of arousal. c. best at very high levels of arousal.
b. best at intermediate levels of arousal. d. uninfluenced by the level of arousal.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. In Kahneman’s capacity model of attention, involuntary attention is controlled by
a. subliminal perception. c. enduring dispositions.
b. momentary intentions. d. evaluation of demands.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

  1. With respect to involuntary and voluntary capture of attention,
a. voluntary attention can influence involuntary attention.
b. involuntary attention can influence voluntary attention.
c. involuntary and voluntary attention never interact.
d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. An example of a momentary intention would be
a. looking for a friend on campus.
b. noticing that a bug just hit your windshield.
c. having a very brief nightmare.
d. overhearing your name in another conversation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Capacity Theories

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. One aspect of involuntary attention is enduring dispositions. For example,
a. noticing when a teacher calls your name. c. listening to a homework assignment.
b. listening to a teacher’s lecture. d. looking for a teacher after class.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Why have many psychologists shifted away from research on where the bottleneck occurs in information processing?
a. It now seems reasonable that people can control where the bottleneck occurs, depending on the task.
b. Watson and other behaviorists argued convincingly that consciousness could not be studied scientifically.
c. There is no evidence for a bottleneck.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Johnston and Heinz’s (1978) multimode model of attention
a. does not include a bottleneck in processing information.
b. includes a bottleneck but asserts that the person can control the location of the bottleneck.
c. includes a bottleneck only if the person actively constructs one.
d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. The multi-mode theory of attention proposed by Johnston and Heinz suggests that
a. there is no relation between the amount of required capacity and the stage at which selection occurs.
b. the amount of required capacity is the same for an early and a late mode of selection.
c. more capacity is required for an early mode of selection.
d. more capacity is required for a late mode of selection.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. According to Posner and Snyder, a skill is automatic if it
a. occurs without intention. c. interferes with other mental activities.
b. gives rise to conscious awareness. d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Automatic Processing

  1. Automatic processing can be a disadvantage when people
a. ride a bicycle. c. name the color of words (Stroop effect).
b. discriminate between unfamiliar letters. d. fly jet aircraft.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. The _____ indicates that tasks are performed more slowly because of competing responses.
a. attenuation model c. Stroop effect
b. bottleneck effect d. filter model

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. Evidence that word recognition is not completely automated was the finding that Dutch-English bilingual students fixated longer on Dutch words that were
a. spelled differently from English words. c. difficult to spell in English.
b. spelled like English words. d. difficult to spell in Dutch.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. Evidence for ‘unitization’ in perception includes Healy’s finding that it is difficult to detect
a. frequently occurring letters. c. letters in frequently occurring words.
b. infrequently occurring letters. d. letters in infrequently occurring words.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. Hasher and Zacks argue that when it is possible to perform a task automatically, performance should be influenced by
a. practice. c. depression.
b. task interference. d. None of these

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. Which of the following is not true with regards to automatic processing according to Hasher and Zacks?
a. It occurs without intention. c. It is not prone to task interference.
b. It improves with practice. d. It is not impacted upon by arousal.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. A possible limitation of Hasher and Zack’s theory of automatic encoding is that it ignores the effect of
a. task complexity. c. high arousal.
b. age. d. depression.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. The University of Massachusetts Driver Training Program did not improve performance on a
a. simulator test given immediately after training.
b. simulator test given 3-5 days after training.
c. on a field test in a real environment.
d. none of the above.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Applications

 

 

 

  1. Brain imaging (fMRI) indicates that processing language decreased the amount of activity in the
a. occipital lobe used to encode visual information.
b. parietal lobe used to encode other skills involved in driving.
c. Both a and b.
d. Neither a nor b.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Applications

 

  1. The research of Strayer and Johnston (2001) indicates that
a. listening to the radio is equivalent to driving while using a cell phone.
b. hands-free cell phones while driving were safer than hand-held cell phones.
c. Both a and b
d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Applications

 

  1. The research of Strayer and Johnston (2001) indicates that listening to a cell phone
a. increases the probability of missing a signal.
b. increases the response time to react to a signal.
c. Both a and b
d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Applications

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. According to James, there are two aspects of attention: selectivity and concentration.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction

 

  1. Early selection models are those in which the sensory store is the bottleneck for attention.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Some words have permanently lower thresholds than other, so they are more easily recognized.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Bottleneck Theories

 

  1. Incidental learning occurs only under conditions of attentional effort.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Subsidiary tasks are those that are utilized to assess the attentional demands of the primary task.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Capacity Theories

 

  1. Automatic processing occurs without conscious awareness.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. The shadowing method requires the participant to visually track a moving object.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. Reading the word red when the word is printed in red is easier than reading the

word red when the word is printed in green. This is the ‘word superiority effect’.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Automatic Processing

 

  1. Brief training in a simulated driving computer program enhances selective attention in inexperienced drivers.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Applications

 

  1. In a dual task paradigm, the goal is to investigate two competing cognitive theories.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Applications

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Have you ever had the experience when you were driving home from work or school where you remember getting in the car but then the next thing you remember is getting out of the car? Use the concepts discussed in the chapter on attention to explain this phenomenon.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain the Stroop effect. What does the Stroop effect tell us about reading? About automatic processing of information?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain the difference between enduring dispositions and momentary intentions. Give an example of each.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain Hasher and Zacks’s theory of automatic encoding. What are its implications for frequency information?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Do you think that the use of cell phones while driving should be banned? Use information in the text to support your opinion.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Describe in detail one of the following models of attention: Broadbent’s, Treisman’s, or Deutsch-Norman’s. In what ways does the model you have chosen differ from the other two?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Describe capacity models of attention. How do these models differ from bottleneck models of attention? Which type of model do you prefer, and why?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Johnston and Heinz did a series of five experiments investigating their multimode model of attention. What is this model? What were the results of the experiments, and how did they support the model?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss automatic processing of attention. Include in your answer the characteristics of automatic processing.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Your text discusses two instances where cognitive psychology can inform public policy:  predicting road accidents and using cell phones while driving. How can you apply what you have learned about attention to other everyday events?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

Chapter 5-Long-Term Memory

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Memory for names and concepts in a cognitive psychology course stabilizes at above-chance levels after how many years of retention?
a. 1 year c. 5 years
b. 3 years d. 10 years

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction

 

  1. Studies of long-term memory for material learned in cognitive psychology classes indicate that
a. 10 years from now you will not remember anything that you now know.
b. 10 years from now you will remember almost everything you know now.
c. 10 years from now you will remember about 25 percent of what you know now.
d. 10 years from now you will remember about 50 percent of what you know now.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction

 

  1. The best predictor of retention of high school algebra is
a. the grade in the course.
b. math SAT scores.
c. continued study of advanced mathematics.
d. grades in other high school mathematics courses.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction   MSC:  WWW

 

  1. In Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model of LTM, all of the following are control processes, except
a. coding. c. rehearsal.
b. sensory inhibition. d. retrieval strategies.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, which of the following is not a characteristic of LTM?
a. The rate of forgetting is slow.
b. The capacity of LTM is unlimited.
c. Control processes determine what information is acquired.
d. Information is acquired only through repetition.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Selection of a search strategy occurs during which stage of learning?
a. acquisition c. retrieval
b. retention d. rehearsal

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Which of the following is not an acquisition strategy suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin?
a. priming c. imaging
b. rehearsal d. coding

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

 

  1. The coding strategy in the Atkinson and Shiffrin model involves
a. verbal repetition of information. c. creating visual images.
b. semantic elaboration of information. d. selecting a search strategy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Rote learning
a. means simply repeating information over and over.
b. can be useful for learning abstract information.
c. Both a and b
d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Which strategy is most likely to lead to rote learning?
a. rehearsal c. imaging
b. coding d. elaboration

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin, the probability of recalling an item depends on
a. the probability of including that item in the rehearsal set.
b. the number of rehearsal trials.
c. the number of intervening trials between the end of rehearsal and the test.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. A subject was told to study the following words: book, chair, calendar, alarm, phone, lamp, pencil, and desk. Later he recalled book, chair, pencil, and desk. This result is best explained as
a. the primacy effect. c. the serial position effect.
b. the recency effect. d. the proactive interference effect.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. The primacy effect in a serial position curve can be eliminated if
a. subjects rehearse all words equally often, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
b. subjects rehearse all words equally often, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.
c. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
d. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The recency effect found in a serial position curve can be eliminated if
a. subjects rehearse all words equally often, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
b. subjects rehearse words equally often, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.
c. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
d. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Dunlosky and Nelson found that immediate judgments of learning were superior to delayed judgments of learning when judging
a. which of two learning strategies was most effective.
b. which individual items were learned.
c. Both a and b
d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. When people have ample time to study, they focus on _____, while when they are under time constraints they focus on _____.
a. difficult concepts; easy concepts c. difficult concepts; difficult concepts
b. easy concepts; difficult concepts d. easy concepts; easy concepts

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A negative recency effect (decreased recall of words at the end of the list) occurs for
a. immediate recall of a word list.
b. delayed recall of a word list.
c. Both immediate recall of a word list and delayed recall of a word list.
d. Neither immediate recall of a word list nor delayed recall of a word list.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A benefit of taking a Cognitive Psychology course is that you are more likely to use _____ judgments to make predictions about your learning.
a. experientially-based c. functionally-based
b. brain-based d. theory-based

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A method for increasing the number of tip-of-the-tongue states is to include questions that elicit
a. autobiographical experiences. c. scientific knowledge.
b. literature knowledge. d. emotional arousal.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

MSC:  WWW

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Both Brown & McNeill and Read & Bruce found that the most frequently used strategy for searching LTM during the ‘tip-of-the-tongue’ stage was to
a. spontaneously recall the name without thinking.
b. use contextual information associated with the name.
c. use partial information related to the spelling of the name.
d. generate a list of plausible names.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A difference between naturalistic and laboratory studies of the tip-of-the-tongue effect is that people are more likely in naturalistic studies to
a. spontaneously recall the name without thinking.
b. use contextual information associated with the name.
c. use partial information related to the spelling of the name.
d. generate a list of plausible names.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. One of the primary problems with the use of hypnosis to help eyewitnesses recall crimes is
a. hypnotism does not really work. It is just a sham that has been debunked by modern cognitive scientists.
b. hypnotists can induce witnesses to report things they never saw, or to report incorrectly.
c. no one can tell whether or not a person is actually hypnotized, or just faking it.
d. hypnotism is only effective within the first 24 hours after the incident.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. A biasing effect in administering a police lineup occurs when
a. a person in a lineup has a distinctive feature.
b. the investigator’s body language reveals unintentional cues.
c. a person in a lineup was included in a mug shot photo.
d. All of these.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. A cognitive interview involves
a. reinstating the context and reporting everything.
b. assessing the duration and capacity of the witness’s Long-Term Memory to see if he or she is capable of providing valid testimony.
c. revisiting the scene of the crime under hypnosis.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. The cognitive interview procedure is
a. more difficult to learn than hypnosis.
b. more effective than the standard interview procedure.
c. less effective than the standard interview procedure.
d. currently ineffective for real crimes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In a review of wrongly convicted cases based on subsequent DNA evidence, Wells et al. (2000) found
a. there was no primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.
b. eyewitness testimony was the primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.
c. courtroom error was the primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.
d. juror memory constraints were the primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. Accurate eyewitness identification depends on
a. recognizing familiar faces.
b. recalling the perpetrator in context.
c. viewing mug shots prior to a line-up.
d. having prior media exposure of the suspect.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. One disadvantage of showing people mug shots is that it
a. produces retroactive interference.
b. produces proactive interference.
c. increases the probability of a false identification.
d. increases the probability of not recognizing a subject.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. Which of the following does not belong?
a. multiple-choice question c. true/false question
b. essay question d. word fragment identification

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Warrington and Weiskrantz discovered that patients with severe amnesia performed as well as control subjects on
a. a recall test. c. a recognition test.
b. a word-fragment test. d. None of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Memory for the context in which a word occurs is unimportant when people are tested by
a. indirect memory tests. c. recall tests.
b. recognition tests. d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Semantic memory is _____ while episodic memory is _____.
a. general knowledge; memory for skills
b. general knowledge; memory for temporally linked information
c. memory for skills; memory for temporally linked information
d. memory for temporally linked information; general knowledge

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

 

 

  1. Procedural memory is a part of
a. episodic memory. c. STM.
b. semantic memory. d. LTM.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. A distinction between direct and indirect tests of memory, according to multimemory theories, is that direct tests measure
a. episodic memory. c. procedural memory.
b. semantic memory. d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which is an example of episodic memory?
a. tying your shoe c. recalling your 5th birthday
b. naming capitals of states d. learning definitions

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. Which is an example of procedural memory?
a. tying your shoe c. recalling your 5th birthday
b. naming capitals of states d. learning definitions

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Reading the same passage twice helps amnesics increase their
a. confidence level. c. performance on a multiple choice test.
b. reading speed. d. performance on a recall test.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which task requires explicit memory in Squire and Knowlton’s memory taxonomy?
a. learned skills and procedures c. classical conditioning
b. a recall test d. reflex learning

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which part of the brain supports explicit memory in Squire and Knowlton’s memory taxonomy?
a. amygdala c. medial temporal lobe
b. cerebellum d. neocortex

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which research topic has the least amount of reliable evidence according to experts?
a. Long-term repression of memories c. Hypnotic suggestability
b. Wording of questions d. Mugshot induced bias

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Learning can be characterized as the transfer of information between STM to LTM.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. The rate of decay from STM is less rapid than that of LTM.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. The worst recall in the serial position effect occurs at the middle of the list.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is when you know the information but you have difficulty articulating because of a motor deficit of the tongue.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. The primacy effect is better memory performance early in the morning.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Acquisition, retention, and retrieval are all important in using our knowledge.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. Showing mug shots to eyewitnesses is a good method for improving the reliability of the witness.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. Evidence from neuroscience and neuropsychology suggest that there are different types of memory: implicit and explicit.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual    REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Memory for skills is a component of implicit memory.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. An important structure of the brain underlying memory is the parietal lobe.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Knowing what you now know about memory, apply what you have learned to how best to study.  Include, where possible, specific examples of research to support your claims.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain the primacy effect and the recency effect on the rehearsal of a list of words. How could you use your knowledge of these two effects to better remember an entire list of words?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. When you experience the “tip of the tongue” phenomenon, what methods do you use to try to recall the information from your long-term memory? Do these methods usually work? Are there any other methods that might work better for you?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Given what you now know about memory, do you think that the justice system should convict someone of a crime based solely on eye-witness testimony? Use the research discussed in your text to support your position.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss direct (explicit) and indirect (implicit) memory tests. What are some advantages to using implicit memory tests when assessing memory?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss the importance of acquisition, retention, and retrieval in learning and memory. What are some of the factors that influence each?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory. Include in your answer how information is entered into long-term memory. Include also relevant supporting research.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss what you have learned about memory and the issue of eyewitness recall and identification. Would you as a member of a jury convict a defendant solely on the basis of eyewitness testimony? Why or why not?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Compare and contrast explicit and implicit aspects of memory. What research is there to support this distinction?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. What is Squire and Knowlton’s conceptualization of long-term memory? How are the various brain structures related to different aspects of memory? (Hint: The diagram in your text was a good summary of this.)

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.