Test Bank For Continuity And Innovation 1st Edition by Gazso  – Test Bank

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Test Bank For Continuity And Innovation 1st Edition by Gazso  – Test Bank

Sample  Questions

 

 

1. In the West, in the past 50 years there has been a tendency toward individual female biography. What is meant by individual female biography?

a. Women have a greater chance of getting their autobiography published.
b. Women have greater sexual and personal agency, which enables new lifestyle options.
c. Men have greater sexual and personal agency, which enables new lifestyle options.
d. Women have greater sexual and personal freedom, which enables choice of multiple partners.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

2. There are many differences between the family formation and relationship patterns from your grandparents’ generation to yours. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

a. Marriages happen later in life, and mostly after cohabitation.
b. Same-sex marriages are legal in all countries in the world.
c. There are new ways to find a partner, such as online dating sites and mobile apps.
d. People choose to have a smaller family.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

3. According to Furstenberg et al. (2004), which of the following is NOT a marker of adulthood for millennials?

a. a complete education
b. a full-time job
c. the ability to support a family
d. a permanent relationship (marriage)

 

ANSWER:   d

 

4. What is the term for significant, repeated practices that constrain actions from the outside, such as laws or threats of social exclusion, surrounding marriage?

a. regulative traditions
b. meaning-constructive traditions
c. unwanted traditions
d. feminist traditions

 

ANSWER:   a

 

5. Which of these topics is NOT a focus in theoretical conversations on coupling and forming families?

a. impacts of changes in gender relations on intimate and family life
b. the growing options for both men and women in intimate and family life
c. the growing economic precarity and complexity of life courses
d. the impact of modern medicine and increased life expectancy

 

ANSWER:   d

 

6. “Queer approaches seek to highlight gender inequalities by problematizing three major elements of inquiry.” Which of the following is NOT one of those elements of inquiry?

a. the research subjects
b. the researchers
c. the masculinity of institutions
d. the process of inquiry itself

 

ANSWER:   c

 

7. What sociological framework views couples and families as systems of interdependent parts working together to ensure stability?

a. symbolic interactionism
b. conflict theory
c. structural functionalism
d. organic solidarity

 

ANSWER:   c

 

8. Samantha is conducting a study that looks at family formations in Streetsville, Mississauga. Her research focuses on social inequalities such as education and job stability, as well as the connectedness of these aspects. What theoretical approach is she focusing on?

a. critical and social conflict
b. economic analysis
c. incomplete revolution
d. qualitative interpretive approach

 

ANSWER:   a

 

9. Paul is conducting a study that looks at family formations in Port Credit, Mississauga. His research focuses on how our interactions determine the importance and meaning of events. What theoretical approach is he focusing on?

a. critical and social conflict
b. economic analysis
c. incomplete revolution
d. qualitative interpretive

 

ANSWER:   d

 

10. Which of these activities is a courting ritual?

a. going for walks
b. sharing a meal
c. spending supervised time
d. seeing a movie

 

ANSWER:   c

 

11. In sociological terms, which category of couplehood involves obtaining permission from the woman’s family, followed by interactions taking place at the woman’s home?

a. dating
b. courting
c. hooking up
d. friends with benefits

 

ANSWER:   b

 

12. Which was a more common way to meet a partner in the early 1990s?

a. going to a weekend dance
b. going to church
c. going online
d. using a phone app

 

ANSWER:   a

 

13. How do more than 70 percent of same-sex couples meet?

a. at university
b. through friends and family
c. online
d. at church

 

ANSWER:   c

 

14. Which one of these groups may find difficulty in dating/(re)coupling?

a. older women
b. heterosexual men
c. young adults
d. people with no disabilities

 

ANSWER:   a

 

15. Which of the following is an example of sexual double standards?

a. Men who get good grades are praised, but women who get bad grades are shamed.
b. Men who sleep around are praised, but women who do the same are shamed.
c. Men who are rich are praised, and women who are poor are shamed.
d. Males who work hard are praised, and females who are lazy are shamed.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

16. Which of these statements applies to cohabitation?

a. It is legal in Canada.
b. It is practised only by same-sex couples.
c. The couple must share fiscal responsibilities 50/50.
d. A couple may not raise children while cohabiting.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

17. Peggy and Lara are living apart together (LAT). Which of the following is NOT likely to be a characteristic of their relationship?

a. They have been together for three years.
b. They are sexually exclusive.
c. Peggy has her own loft downtown, and Lara lives in an apartment near her work.
d. They rent a townhouse in the suburbs.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

18. When did same-sex couples get the right to marriage in Canada?

a. 1974
b. 1993
c. 2005
d. 2012

 

ANSWER:   c

 

19. Steve and Anne live common law. They share their expenses, have a dog together, and have decided to live together before they tie the knot. Which of these characteristics may they be most likely to share?

a. They are very religious.
b. They were born in Canada.
c. They are in their late 30s.
d. Their dog is a German Shepherd.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

20. According to Stack and Eshleman (1998), which of these statements has been proved by international comparative research?

a. There is a strong correlation between marriage and happiness.
b. Cohabitants are happier than married people.
c. Single people are happier than cohabitants.
d. You are responsible for your own happiness.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

21. According to Statistics Canada (2011), what percentage of the Canadian population never marries or lives common law?

a. 2 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 80 percent

 

ANSWER:   b

 

22. Employment and Social Development Canada (2011) states that the average age of entering the first marriage has changed. What is the average age for the first marriage in Canada?

a. 18 years for women and 20 for men
b. 20 years for women and 18 for men
c. 29 years for women and 31 for men
d. 31 years for women and 29 for men

 

ANSWER:   c

 

23. Neil and Ellie met at university. They were both majoring in Sociology. They dress mostly in the same style, and both love the Blue Jays and poutine. Learning these similarities, what term best describes their coupling?

a. monogamy
b. homogamy
c. endogamy
d. polygamy

 

ANSWER:   b

 

24. Jack’s grandparents, Will and Jada, have been married for 53 years. They were high school sweethearts and neither of them ever loved anyone else. What term best describes their relationship?

a. monogamy
b. homogamy
c. endogamy
d. polygamy

 

ANSWER:   a

 

25. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of living apart together (LAT) couples in Canada?

a. 7 percent of Canadian couples reported living apart together in 2011.
b. 31 percent of young adults aged 20 to 24 are in LAT arrangements.
c. Among those aged 30 to 59, the percentage varied from 30 to 59 percent.
d. 17 percent of those aged 25 to 29 were in LAT arrangements.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

26. Which of these “lovers” may NOT be legally married to each other in Canada?

a. Ellen and Portia
b. Neil and Bob
c. Justin and Selena
d. Edie and Lisa and Ron

 

ANSWER:   d

 

27. Janet’s mom insists that she partners up with a cool, Christian, Korean boy, preferably from a family of a socio-economic class similar to Janet’s family. What kind of coupling best describes Janet’s mom’s expectations?

a. monogamy
b. homogamy
c. endogamy
d. polygamy

 

ANSWER:   c

 

28. According to Statistics Canada, the fertility rate continues to decline. What is meant by fertility rate?

a. the number of births per 1,000 during a calendar year for women aged 15 to 44 in a given region
b. the number of births per 1,000 couples in their lifetime in a given region
c. the number of births per 1,000 women in their lifetime
d. the number of births per 1,000 that men father in their lifetime

 

ANSWER:   a

 

29. What does your textbook refer to as replacement rate?

a. the fertility rate needed for a population to replace itself over time
b. the length of time required to replace one’s current relationship
c. the fertility rate needed for ethnicities percentages to stay constant
d. the rate at which individuals must marry in order to provide a stable number of nuclear families

 

ANSWER:   a

 

Figure 3.1

 

30. Refer to Figure 3.1 from your textbook. Which of these statements may NOT be concluded based on the figure?

a. Women may live longer than men.
b. More men than women in their reproductive age live alone.
c. More than 5 percent of Canadian men and women live alone by the age of 20 years.
d. Canadian women move straight from their parents’ home to their spouse’s home.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

31. According to a 2011 Statistics Canada report, what were the average ages of women giving birth in Canada in 1966 and 2011?

a. 25.8 and 30.2 years
b. 28 and 30.2 years
c. 28 and 35.4 years
d. 30.2 and 28 years

 

ANSWER:   b

 

32. Which of the following is a lone-parent family?

a. Ali’s dad raises Ali and his sister by himself.
b. Nita’s dad is working in the States and comes home on weekends.
c. Alex and Denise are planning to adopt one child.
d. Michael lives with his three roommates.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

33. Even though not permitted in Canada, individuals might take more than one legal spouse and have a consensually non-monogamous relationship. What is this relationship called?

a. monogamy
b. homogamy
c. endogamy
d. polygamy or polyandry

 

ANSWER:   d

 

34. Giddens refers to a general shift in choice and equality in intimate life as “plastic sexuality.” Which of the following is an example of plastic sexuality?

a. Alexa had plastic surgery to look younger.
b. Ben uses condoms as a form of protection against STDs.
c. Cathie is sexually active but uses birth control.
d. Dylan has decided not to have sex until he gets married.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

35. Which of these correctly sums up Canada’s fertility landscape?

a. immigrants; more children
b. older moms; smaller families
c. live in East; marry late
d. North is cold; fewer children

 

ANSWER:   b

 

36. According to Country Comparison, 2015, what is the average number of children in a Canadian household?

a. 0 children
b. 1 to 2 children
c. 3 to 4 children
d. 5 to 6 children

 

ANSWER:   b

 

37. According to a Statistics Canada 2011 report, how has the Canadian fertility rate compared to the replacement rate since 1971?

a. double replacement rate
b. above replacement rate
c. same as replacement rate
d. below replacement rate

 

ANSWER:   d

 

38. The average age of Canadian women at their first child’s birth has significantly changed. What were those average ages in 1966 and 2011?

a. 18.9 and 23.7 years
b. 23.7 and 18.9 years
c. 23.7 and 28.5 years
d. 28.5 and 23.7 years

 

ANSWER:   c

 

39. Alex and Piper describe themselves as a childfree couple. What does this term imply?

a. They are expecting children within the next five years.
b. They have free child care since Piper’s mom lives with them.
c. Their children grew up and went away to university.
d. They made a choice to not have children.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

40. Which of these methods is NOT an example of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)?

a. artificial insemination
b. in vitro fertilization
c. fertility medication
d. the birth control pill

 

ANSWER:   d

 

41. Which of these women is most likely to use assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)?

a. Jen; 20 years old, third-year university student
b. Paula; 45 years old, lives on social assistance
c. Niki; 27 years old, librarian with a long-term boyfriend
d. Anjela; 38 years old, lawyer, married for three years

 

ANSWER:   d

 

42. Which of these is NOT a likely characteristic of a couple searching for assisted reproductive technologies?

a. above-average socio-economic status
b. female partner aged 35 years or older
c. university graduates
d. has four children

 

ANSWER:   d

 

43. What term is used to describe a woman who carries a pregnancy for (an) intended parent(s), and may also serve as egg donor?

a. surrogate parent
b. adoptive parent
c. foster parent
d. same-sex parent

 

ANSWER:   a

 

44. Roger was adopted as an infant. His adoptive parents and birth mother know each other and they have weekend brunches on special occasions. Which term best describes this adoption?

a. international adoption
b. domestic adoption
c. open adoption
d. closed adoption

 

ANSWER:   c

 

45. Anie and Ken are married and have a 5-year-old son. Which of these terms best describes their family?

a. nuclear family
b. lone-parent family
c. blended family
d. complex family

 

ANSWER:   a

 

46. Alice lives with her mom, stepdad, and two stepsisters. Which of these terms best describes their family?

a. nuclear family
b. lone-parent family
c. blended family
d. complex family

 

ANSWER:   c

 

47. Susan is a single mother with two sons. Which of these terms best describes their family?

a. nuclear family
b. lone-parent family
c. blended family
d. complex family

 

ANSWER:   b

 

48. According to a 2011 Statistics Canada report, which of these types of family is the most common type in Canada?

a. nuclear family
b. lone-parent family
c. blended family
d. complex family

 

ANSWER:   a

 

49. Which of the following may NOT be a factor that has an impact on Nick and Sarah’s family planning?

a. the extent of Sarah’s employer-based provisions for maternity leave
b. the number of children in the daycare where Nick works
c. the cost and availability of subsidized daycare programs
d. extended healthcare plans that cover ARTs and adoption costs

 

ANSWER:   b

 

50. Which of the following is NOT a platform for coupling today?

a. online dating
b. phone apps
c. arranged marriages
d. living solo

 

ANSWER:   d

 

51. What is meant by critical and social conflict approaches? Give two examples of how this may describe relationship patterns in today’s world.

ANSWER:   ∙ “group of theoretical approaches that focus on social inequalities and the connectedness of macro-level structures to aspects of everyday lives”
∙ Examples of critical approaches include queer approaches, feminist approaches, and intersectional approaches to the family. Conflict approaches might include Marxist theories.
∙ Critical and conflict approaches can question how individuals in family contexts apportion work, responsibility, accountability, and value when engaging in the activities of social reproduction.

 

52. What are the three main focuses in theoretical conversations on coupling and forming families?

ANSWER:   ∙ impacts of changes in gender relations on intimate and family life
∙ the growing options for both men and women in intimate and family life
∙ how growing economic precarity and complex life courses can be challenging

 

53. Picking a partner has changed from courting to dating in the past few decades. What are the similarities and differences?

ANSWER:    

Courting Dating
Formal Less formal
Supervised interactions
Permission from the woman’s family
In the woman’s home Often in public
Could lead to a more stable, permanent relationship, or may be recreational

 

54. One of the theoretical conversations on relationships focuses on impacts of changes in gender relations on intimate and family life. These discussions acknowledge shifts toward a greater focus on gender, and assumptions about gender and sexuality. What is meant by a queer approach?

ANSWER:   Queer approaches seek to highlight gender inequalities by problematizing three major elements of inquiry: the subjects being researched, those who are doing the research, and the process of inquiry itself. Critical, gender-focused research often adopts an intersectional approach, whereby other sources of (dis)advantage are examined alongside gender.

 

55. What is a thin dating market? Which individuals may face this barrier to coupling?

ANSWER:   ∙ dating demographics wherein potential mates are scarce

o heterosexuals in mid-30s and older
o gays and lesbians
o individuals with disabilities

 

56. What is meant by sexual double standard? How do you think it affects individuals trying to find suitable partners?

ANSWER:   ∙ a set of principles governing sexual behaviour that applies stricter standards to one group (women) than another
∙ Women may become more assertive.
∙ Men may become ashamed to be assertive.

 

57. Define the term living apart together (LAT) in your own words.

ANSWER:   ∙ being together in a long-term or permanent relationship
∙ intimate relationship
∙ maintaining separate dwelling places

 

58. What does the term assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) mean? Give a few examples and likely characteristics of individuals who may use the service.

ANSWER:   ∙ medical intervention to assist reproduction
∙ exampleso in vitro fertilization
o artificial insemination
o fertility medication

∙ characteristics of individuals

o above-average socio-economic status
o female partner aged 35 or older
o infertile

 

59. Name a few factors that impact Canadians’ family planning.

ANSWER:   ∙ extent of state- and employer-based provisions for maternity, parental, and adoption leave
∙ the cost and availability of subsidized daycare programs
∙ extended healthcare plans that cover ARTs and adoption costs
∙ national programs for live-in caregivers

 

60. How are macro-level and micro-level qualitative methods used in sociological research methods? Give a few examples.

ANSWER:   ∙ macro-level: large-scale quantitative analyses, guided by a structural functionalist framework
∙ can illuminate how changes in family forms affect other social trends, and vice versa
∙ They can also work with critical and social conflict approaches to reveal the uneven impact of changes across different demographic groups, such as assessing how technology affects couple formation in different age groups.
∙ Micro-scale qualitative methods from feminist, queer, and interpretive approaches are ideal for demonstrating nuances in lived experience.

 

61. Norms surrounding marriage today are different from the past few decades. According to Gross (2005), regulative traditions have declined, and meaning-constructive traditions have been retained. What do these terms mean? Give a few examples for each and describe how they affect the formation of families.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

62. According to the table from Canadian Population by Marital Status and Sex, 2015, in your textbook, there is a significantly higher number of separated, widowed, or divorced women than men. How can you use Giddiness’ theory about democratization of personal life to explain this phenomenon?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

63. What does sexual double standard mean? How do the coupling patterns of courting, dating, and hooking up relate to sexual double standards?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

64. Introduce a sociological research question regarding modern family formation that can be further explored, and describe how it may be beneficial to study the patterns.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

65. In the past few decades, seeking intimacy and forming families has been quite innovative. However, these factors of life have kept somewhat consistent. Explain how you see the consistencies and innovation in relationships, now and previously.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

1. According to the Canadian Payroll Association survey of 2015, which is the province with the highest number of employees who save substantially smaller amounts for retirement?

a. Ontario
b. Prince Edward Island
c. British Columbia
d. Alberta

 

ANSWER:   d

 

2. In the same survey, Albertans thought that they will need how much in savings at the time they retire from the workforce?

a. $5 million
b. $4 million
c. $3 million
d. $1 million

 

ANSWER:   d

 

3. In the same survey, Albertans stated that, if their paycheques were delayed by one week, they would face hardships in managing their budgets. What percentage of respondents said this?

a. 40 percent
b. 45 percent
c. 48 percent
d. 50 percent

 

ANSWER:   c

 

4. In 2015, the federal election platforms from three major parties endorsed very similar promises for the security of families in Canada. Which one of these statements do those promises apply to?

a. Canadians do not need financial help.
b. Only no-income families need state support.
c. Income from employment is insufficient to support families.
d. Higher income taxes are necessary.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

5. The author contends that household insecurity is affecting Canadians. Which of these groups is one that felt that impact most?

a. racialized groups
b. lesbian couples
c. gay couples
d. tourists

 

ANSWER:   a

 

6. In 2015, Canadian families were affected very badly by income stagnation. In which of these results could this impact could be seen?

a. increasing family debts
b. increasing family savings
c. decreasing family savings
d. increasing intra-familial conflicts

 

ANSWER:   a

 

7. According to the textbook, which family type is still presented as the ideal family in Canada?

a. an upper-class, two-parent family
b. a middle-class, two-parent, nuclear family
c. a farm family
d. an urban, two-parent family

 

ANSWER:   b

 

8. Canadian families are formed in multiple ways. Which of the following is NOT one such configuration?

a. blended-family households
b. two-parent households
c. boomerang households
d. living together apart families

 

ANSWER:   d

 

9. In Canada, which of these households is most likely to have a better economic chance than all the other options?

a. two-parent households
b. unmarried singles
c. divorced women
d. single-mother families

 

ANSWER:   a

 

10. In presenting the diverse range of families in Canada, the author uses which of the following theoretical approaches to inform their writing?

a. sociological imagination
b. frustration–aggression theory
c. critical political economy approach
d. pattern variables of Parsons

 

ANSWER:   c

 

11. The author asks certain questions in examining families, including, “who gets what, in what amounts, under what conditions, and what forces affect this distribution?” The above questions fall under which theoretical perspective?

a. symbolic interactionism
b. theory of capitalism
c. critical political economy theory
d. dependency theory

 

ANSWER:   c

 

12. In which school of thought does the theory of critical political economy have its affiliations and origins?

a. Weberian
b. Durkheimian
c. Parsonian
d. Marxian

 

ANSWER:   d

 

13. The critical political economy theory addresses micro-level interpersonal dynamics, and it does NOT use which of these theories?

a. Weberian theory
b. symbolic interactionist theory
c. Freudian theory
d. psychological theories

 

ANSWER:   b

 

14. How do the authors of the text characterize the difference between the concepts of families and households?

a. Families and households are the same entity.
b. Families and households are different entities.
c. Families and households are not distinct or scientific concepts.
d. Families and households are straightforward and easy to differentiate.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

15. Compared to the 1950s, jobs in Canada are more precarious today. What does this mean?

a. They are part-time or contract based.
b. They are lacking in office space.
c. They are lacking in foreign travel benefits.
d. They are insured and protected.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

16. Which of the following has become a norm for families as they meet their needs?

a. Only women need to work harder.
b. Children of the family need to work.
c. Only men need to work harder.
d. Both partners need to work for an income.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

17. What does the term generational squeeze refer to?

a. higher incomes
b. decreased cost of housing
c. fewer social supports, such as child care
d. more people at the bottom of the population pyramid

 

ANSWER:   c

 

18. A new political discourse that affects people’s thinking and actions tends to put more emphasis on success in life being due to good individual choices rather than to collective solutions. What is this discourse?

a. conservative economic theory
b. dependency theory
c. neo-liberal perspective
d. take-off theory of Rostow

 

ANSWER:   c

 

19. It is reported that, over the past 20 years, the top 1 percent of the Canadian population received what percent of the total income in Canada?

a. 10 percent
b. 12 percent
c. 14 percent
d. 16 percent

 

ANSWER:   c

 

20. According to OECD analysis, which of these statements is accurate?

a. The top 10 percent of Canadians have an after-tax income at least 4.2 times higher than the bottom 10 percent of the population.
b. The top 10 percent of Canadians receive an amount of income equal to the bottom 10 percent of Canadians.
c. The bottom 10 percent of Canadians have begun to share national income with the top 10 percent.
d. The middle 25 percent of income earners are much happier than all others.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

21. According to the textbook, what factors contribute to the risk of lower income and poverty?

a. being a man
b. being a non-Indigenous person
c. being a recent immigrant or a racialized person
d. being a child

 

ANSWER:   c

 

22. According to the Broadbent Institute, what percentage of Canadian workers hold permanent full-time work today?

a. 50 percent
b. 66 percent
c. 85 percent
d. 90 percent

 

ANSWER:   b

 

23. In 2016, most lone-parent families in Canada were led by which of the following groups?

a. single fathers
b. single mothers
c. divorced women
d. separated men

 

ANSWER:   b

 

24. Which of these conclusions is found in the 2011 National Household Survey?

a. Indigenous full-time and permanent workers have a higher median income than all other categories of workers.
b. Racialized workers and other Canadian workers have a very similar median income.
c. There is hardly any difference among different categories of workers in Canada in terms of their annual median income.
d. Permanent, full-time workers have a higher annual median income than racialized workers.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

25. According to Duxbury and Higgins (2012), compared to 20 years ago, how has the number of work hours changed?

a. People now work more hours.
b. People now work fewer hours.
c. People now work only the minimum required hours by their job and use the rest of their time for leisure.
d. People work fewer hours at a higher pay, so their pay balances out compared to the past.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

26. Employees have reported work–life conflicts and high stress levels due mainly to one of the following reasons. What is that reason?

a. continuing disagreements with supervisors
b. dropping of flextime arrangements by one third during the past 10 years
c. intra-familial conflicts
d. decreasing number of full-time jobs

 

ANSWER:   b

 

27. Which of these statements accurately characterizes the conditions of working women today?

a. Although women continue to hold the primary role as caregivers in their families, division of labour between men and women is gradually being recognized in the sphere of unpaid domestic work.
b. Men have now begun to play a bigger role in domestic unpaid work.
c. Women have begun to remove themselves from unpaid domestic work and family caregiving.
d. Family caregiving has now become the primary responsibility of men.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

28. In families led by a lone parent, there appears to be a difference in after-tax income between single fathers and single mothers. Which of these statements characterizes this difference?

a. Single mothers have a higher income than single fathers because women grow.
b. Single fathers have a higher income than single mothers.
c. There is no difference between single fathers and mothers.
d. Single mothers take multiple jobs, which provides them with a greater income.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

29. Writing about intensive motherhood, Elisabeth Badinter argued that intensive motherhood amounts to what kind of role in the family?

a. anointed sainthood that gives the mother moral authority
b. a burdensome nuisance that derails mothers’ careers
c. voluntary servitude that places the child as master of the household
d. anomic disconnection that prevents the mother from fully becoming part of the home and instead is a fixture in it

 

ANSWER:   c

 

30. Which of the following is one essential requirement of intensive mothering?

a. foregoing contact with their child for long periods of time
b. changing diapers
c. unconditionally giving their resources and time
d. giving up their career

 

ANSWER:   d

 

31. Practices and concepts promoted under intensive mothering helped educationists and healthcare professionals to create an ideal parenting model for mothers. However, it also made certain mothers uncomfortable in practising such a model due to their _____

a. laziness.
b. poverty and inability to conform to such standards.
c. existence under a patriarchal authority.
d. unwillingness to do so.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

32. Which of the following is NOT a theme of the Generation Squeeze campaign to reduce the time and money squeeze?

a. make it easier to find good jobs
b. boost household income
c. make it easier to save for retirement
d. send people on compulsory vacations

 

ANSWER:   d

 

33. According to the text, what specific influences come from neo-liberal thinking to families in general?

a. high emphasis on communalism
b. emphasis on choice that goes well with collective thinking
c. more protection for savings
d. increasing security to some families, and drastically reducing such benefits to others

 

ANSWER:   d

 

34. The impact of neo-liberalism on human societies goes beyond economics. Which of the following is an impact that you have seen in the discussion in Chapter 5?

a. Neo-liberalism promotes high levels of collectivism.
b. Neo-liberalism emphasizes state responsibilities while ignoring individual responsibilities.
c. Neo-liberal principles are hegemonic, and are so often repeated that they seem common sense.
d. Neo-liberalism avoids blaming individuals for their failures.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

35. The ideas and practice of neo-liberalism were grounded in certain countries in the 1980s. Identify two such countries.

a. Canada and England
b. United States and United Kingdom
c. Nicaragua and Chile
d. Australia and New Zealand

 

ANSWER:   b

 

36. According to the textbook, the thrust of neo-liberalism that guarantees a positive economic reward in life for everyone who follows its principles, including hard work, seems to be _____

a. a correct vision.
b. a result based on evidence.
c. a misleading proposition for those who are already in low socio-economic positions.
d. a guaranteed result for all its followers.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

37. The main reason for Canada NOT having a coherent policy on family is due to which of the following factors?

a. decentralized federalism
b. certain provinces having more power than other provinces
c. some provinces competing with other provinces
d. the still evolving Canadian family

 

ANSWER:   a

 

38. Of all Canadian provinces/territories, which of the following seems to have an active, well-coordinated, family policy?

a. Nunavut
b. Ontario
c. Prince Edward Island
d. Quebec

 

ANSWER:   c

 

39. Canada is identified with certain policies that include limited support for childcare, child tax benefits, employment insurance, and maternity/paternity benefits. Which of these descriptions applies to those policies?

a. temporary family policies
b. patchwork family policies
c. very individualistic family policies
d. comprehensive family policies

 

ANSWER:   b

 

40. Canada is presented as a residualist welfare state. Which of the following does this mean?

a. Support is given as the first step.
b. Support comes only after families spend their own personal resources.
c. People are supported along the life course.
d. Government gives welfare support generously.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

41. Which of the following is a limitation of the coverage provided by the Canadian Employment Insurance program?

a. limited, and covers only 40 percent of Canadians
b. unlimited in its coverage
c. limited to unemployed women
d. limited to unemployed men

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. In the chapter, which of these groups benefits the most from the Canadian system’s transfers and social policies, while other groups are ignored?

a. those who have full-time jobs and can afford daycare fees
b. those who cannot afford to pay daycare fees
c. those who do not have such well-paying or full-time jobs
d. those who prefer to stay home

 

ANSWER:   a

 

43. Social welfare in Canada is not easily accessible to everyone. Which of these family models benefits the most from the assumptions built into the model?

a. a blended family
b. a living apart together family
c. a nuclear, white, heterosexual family
d. an extended family

 

ANSWER:   c

 

44. According to Statistics Canada, which province/territory had the highest number of mothers holding insurable jobs in 2013?

a. Manitoba
b. Nunavut
c. Ontario
d. Quebec

 

ANSWER:   d

 

45. What kinds of actions are taken by parents who are on social assistance and need to do many things to meet their families’ needs?

a. combining multiple part-time jobs and moving to cheaper housing
b. spending less time in meal preparations and giving up leisure time
c. moving to housing that is expensive but closer to the workplace
d. purchasing cars and vans for travelling to work

 

ANSWER:   a

 

46. What term do sociologists use to describe the work of supplying the necessities of life on a daily and generational basis?

a. reproduction
b. social reproduction
c. social supply
d. social safety network

 

ANSWER:   b

 

47. According to 2015 Metro News reports, which of the following correctly characterizes the rate of child poverty in two-parent households in Winnipeg, Manitoba?

a. It has the lowest rate.
b. It sets the median rate for all Canadian cities.
c. It has a near-zero rate thanks to policy initiatives.
d. It has the highest rate.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

48. According to the textbook, what social mechanism can help disadvantaged families to overcome many difficulties they encounter in their daily lives?

a. mutual assistance from their neighbours
b. social policies
c. village or town associations
d. multinational corporations

 

ANSWER:   b

 

49. According to media reports in Metro News Winnipeg, even to make a monthly income of $2,000 to keep a family of three going, one needs to work how many hours per week?

a. 65 hours
b. 60 hours
c. 55 hours
d. 40 hours

 

ANSWER:   a

 

50. According to the textbook, the new Canadian Liberal government has brought forward family-friendly policies in their budget allocations and planning for which of the following social policies?

a. increased welfare payments
b. reduction of infrastructure funding
c. child benefits
d. work–life balance

 

ANSWER:   d

 

51. The number of children in poverty is a good reflection of income inequality in Canada. Discuss.

ANSWER:   ∙ Children are poor when their parents do not have sufficient income.
∙ variations across Canadian provinces regarding child poverty
∙ Parents’ poverty is connected with low-income precarious jobs.

 

52. What are essential characteristics of precarious work?

ANSWER:   ∙ part-time, temporary, and low-paying jobs
∙ no benefits
∙ affects self-employed individuals, contract workers
∙ the new norm

 

53. Compared to families in the 1950s and 1960s, what are some important changes in the family landscape in Canada today?

ANSWER:   ∙ incomes
∙ employment structures
∙ political landscape
∙ people’s expectations

 

54. Identify and describe some important studies in the area of precarious work?

ANSWER:   ∙ Broadbent Institute (2012)
National Household Survey (2011)
∙ OECD (2011)

 

55. What is the campaign Generation Squeeze? Discuss with examples.

ANSWER:   ∙ an awareness campaign driven by scholars and service providers to show the challenges faced by people between 20 and 50 years of age
∙ They offer solutions to address generational inequality. Give examples.

 

56. What are some direct and indirect impacts of neo-liberalism on people?

ANSWER:   ∙ reduced welfare programs and taking the state away from the market
∙ leaving the market to decide the lives of people
∙ putting responsibilities on individualism while ignoring the social context within which they have to operate
∙ blaming the individual for his/her failures
∙ increasing gap between rich and poor

 

57. What are some “false hopes” created by neo-liberal thinking in people who are already vulnerable in terms of their social location?

ANSWER:   ∙ If they work harder, they will reap unprecedented financial benefits.
∙ If they make better choices, their life standards will improve.
∙ If they make better food choices, they will be better off.

 

58. Why is Canada considered by some as a residualist welfare state?

ANSWER:   ∙ Welfare services are given only after people exhaust their personal funds and resources.
∙ There is no complete coverage of welfare services for all Canadians.
∙ Welfare services are rendered as a last resort.

 

59. What can social policies do to alleviate difficulties faced by people affected by income inequality?

ANSWER:   ∙ develop policies to provide home care for the seniors
∙ establish workplace-connected daycare facilities
∙ assist with post-surgery care at home

 

60. What do you see as progressive steps already taken by the new Liberal government to mitigate some insecurities experienced by common people?

ANSWER:   ∙ work–life balance in the forefront of government agendas
∙ family-friendly parliamentary discussions
∙ more coherent and supportive family policy affecting all Canadians

 

61. Discuss how families in Canada have changed over the past 50 to 75 years?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

62. Define “precarity of work.” Discuss the Canadian scene of precarious work with examples.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

63. Write an analysis of Table 5.1.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

64. How does intensive mothering affect single mothers?

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.

 

65. Neo-liberalism has worked for some families but definitely not for many. Discuss.

ANSWER:   Answers may vary.