Test Bank For Corrections From Research to Policy to Practice by Stohr -Test Bank

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Test Bank For Corrections From Research to Policy to Practice by Stohr -Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3: Correctional History: Early Prisons to Corrections Today

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the early institutions built in America that followed the Quaker principles and ideas?
  2. Newgate Prison
  3. Eastern Pennsylvania Prison
  4. Walnut Street Jail
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Walnut Street Jail

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In what year did the American Prison Congress convene?
  2. 1860
  3. 1870
  4. 1880
  5. 1890

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The 1870 American Prison Congress

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The separate system is part of which model?
  2. Pennsylvania Prison Model
  3. New York Prison Model
  4. Walnut Street Jail
  5. Western Pennsylvania Prison

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The congregate system is part of which model?
  2. Pennsylvania system
  3. New York system
  4. Walnut Street Jail
  5. Western Pennsylvania Prison

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which early prison was built to hold inmates in complete solitary confinement, with no labor, for the full span of their sentence?
  2. Walnut Street Jail
  3. Western Pennsylvania Prison
  4. Auburn Prison
  5. Sing Sing Prison

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. To which early facility did inmates refer to as being sent “up the river”?
  2. Walnut Street Jail
  3. Eastern Pennsylvania Prison
  4. Auburn Prison
  5. Sing Sing Prison

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In Beaumont and Tocqueville’s outline, which prison did they consider to be even worse than Walnut Street?
  2. Auburn
  3. Sing Sing
  4. Pittsburgh
  5. Cherry Hill

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following institutions was also known as Cherry Hill?
  2. Auburn
  3. Sing Sing
  4. Western Pennsylvania Prison
  5. Eastern Pennsylvania Prison

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Walnut Street Jail was a part of which prison system?
  2. Pennsylvania prison system
  3. Texas prison system
  4. New York prison system
  5. Georgia prison system

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Auburn prison was a part of which of the following prison systems?
  2. Georgia prison system
  3. New York prison system
  4. Pennsylvania prison system
  5. Texas prison system

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Western and Eastern prisons were a part of which of the following prison systems?
  2. Texas prison system
  3. New York prison system
  4. Pennsylvania prison system
  5. Georgia prison system

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Sing Sing prison was a part of which of the following prison systems?
  2. Pennsylvania prison system
  3. Georgia prison system
  4. Texas prison system
  5. New York prison system

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which New York prison was most ambitious in reform efforts?
  2. Elmira
  3. Auburn
  4. Sing Sing
  5. Walnut Street Jail

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Elmira

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which prison was constructed in 1773 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania?
  2. Elmira
  3. Walnut Street Jail
  4. Sing Sing
  5. Auburn

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Walnut Street Jail

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which philosophy was embedded within the Walnut Street Jail?
  2. Deterrence
  3. Rehabilitation
  4. Penitence
  5. Incapacitation

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Walnut Street Jail

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following was the focus of the Newgate Prison in New York?
  2. Rehabilitation
  3. Religious redemption
  4. Work programs
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Newgate Prison, New York City

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The western Pennsylvania prison was devised to operate in which fashion?
  2. Solitary and separate
  3. Labor intensive
  4. Religious redemption
  5. None of the above

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which prison was the first prison to incorporate hot water and flush toilets in the individual cells?
  2. Western Pennsylvania prison
  3. Eastern Pennsylvania prison
  4. Auburn prison
  5. Sing Sing prison

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Pentonville prison was modeled after which of the following prison systems?
  2. Auburn prison system
  3. New York prison system
  4. Pennsylvania prison system
  5. Walnut Street Jail system

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Pentonville Prison

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Why was the practice of solitary confinement in prison cells abandoned in the New York model?
  2. Mental anguish
  3. Insanity
  4. It hampered the efficient production of goods
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Why did Beaumont and Tocqueville support the practice of maintaining solitude of inmates at night and silence during the day?
  2. Silence led to reflection and redemption
  3. Reduction of cross-contamination of inmates
  4. Both A and B
  5. None of these

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who was Dorothea Dix?
  2. Humanitarian
  3. Teacher
  4. Penal and insane asylum reformer
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-3: Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Dorothea Dix’s Evaluation of Prisons and Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which system was a graduated reward system for prisons, developed by Maconochie in which if one behaves, it is possible to earn points that in turn entitled one to privileges?
  2. Points system
  3. Marks system
  4. Maconochie’s system
  5. Rewards system

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Elmira

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which century was probation and parole developed in?
  2. 19th century
  3. 18th century
  4. 20th century
  5. 21st century

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Creation of Probation and Parole

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following did Dorothea Dix not believe to be true of most prison systems?
  2. The prisons were understaffed
  3. While the prisons were overcrowded, there was still good leadership
  4. The prisons were overcrowded
  5. None of these

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-3: Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Dorothea Dix’s Evaluation of Prisons and Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The New York model for imprisonment was preferred over which prison system?
  2. Georgia prison system
  3. Texas prison system
  4. Pennsylvania prison system
  5. None of these

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who was the first warden of the Auburn Prison?
  2. Elam Lynds
  3. Dorothea Dix
  4. Thomas Eddy
  5. Charles Dickens

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following has been the overriding theme in correctional history?
  2. Power
  3. Money
  4. Religion
  5. None of these

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-6: Describe the prevailing themes in correctional history.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Themes That Prevail in Correctional History

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In which part of the country were prisons seldom used before the Civil War?
  2. The North
  3. The South
  4. The East
  5. The West

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following reflects the purpose of the “marks” system?
  2. Discipline
  3. Encourage reform
  4. Justify “good time”
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Elmira

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

  1. The Walnut Street Jail was a part of the Pennsylvania prison system.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Auburn was a part of the Pennsylvania prison system.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The stated purpose of solitary confinement was to achieve reform or rehabilitation.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Dorothea Dix explored the idea of recidivism.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-3: Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Dorothea Dix’s Evaluation of Prisons and Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Dorothea Dix was the first warden of the Elmira Reformatory.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-3: Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Dorothea Dix’s Evaluation of Prisons and Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The state of Ohio shocked Beaumont and Tocqueville by the barbarous state of its prisons compared to its humanitarian penal code.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-3: Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Early Prisons and Jails Not Reformed

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The eastern Pennsylvania prison was the largest building in America in 1820s.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Inmates did not suffer in the first prison systems.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The term correctional institutions was originally applied only to prisons.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Walnut Street Jail was originally used to house violent offenders.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Walnut Street Jail

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Dr. Benjamin Rush led the reform efforts of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Walnut Street Jail

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Contamination and indolence were the two major faults of the Walnut Street Jail.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Walnut Street Jail

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Newgate prison in New York used corporal punishment.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Newgate Prison, New York City

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Pennsylvania prison model was known as the separate system.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Prisoners from the Walnut Street Jail built Sing Sing in 1825.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Contract and lease systems were devised to use inmates’ labor.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Stateville prison in Illinois was built as an octagon.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Medical Model is a rehabilitation model that assumes criminals are sick and need treatment.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. There was a boom in prison building across the country between 1950 and 1970.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Rehabilitation was the philosophy behind warehouse prisons.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Why were Southern prisons little used prior to the Civil War?

Ans: Slavery was a large component of their economy with labor being prized and needed in the fields.

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which prison model did Dorothea Dix prefer?

Ans: The Pennsylvania model.

Learning Objective: 3-3: Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Dorothea Dix’s Evaluation of Prisons and Jails

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which institutions utilized the separate system?

Ans: Western Pennsylvania Prison and Eastern Pennsylvania Prison

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which institutions utilized the congregate system?

Ans: Auburn Prison and Sing Sing Prison.

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Where did Elam Lynds find workers to build Sing Sing prison?

Ans: Auburn Prison.

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Auburn, Sing Sing, and the New York (Congregate) System

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who drafted the Declaration of Principles?

Ans: The Prison Congress of 1870.

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The 1870 American Prison Congress

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What prison, that opened in London in 1842, was modeled after the separate system?

Ans: The Pentonville Prison.

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pentonville Prison

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What famous criminal did time at Eastern Pennsylvania Prison?

Ans: Al Capone.

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is the name of the reformatory that opened in 1876 that utilized the marks system?

Ans: Elmira Reformatory.

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Elmira

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The contract and lease system would eventually give rise to what?

Ans: Industrial Prisons.

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss in detail the history and significance of the Walnut Street Jail.

Ans: The Walnut Street Jail was originally constructed in 1773 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and operated as a typical local jail of the time: holding pretrial detainees and minor offenders; failing to separate by gender, age, or offense; using the fee system, which penalized the poor and led to the near starvation of some; and offering better accommodations and even access to liquor and sex to those who could pay for it (Zupan, 1991). It was remodeled, however, in 1790 and reconceptualized so that many correctional scholars, though not all, regard it as the “first” prison. The remodeled cellhouse was of a frame construction and was built for the inmates of the “prison” section of the jail, with separate cells for each inmate. Based on the reforms that John Howard (and later Bentham and Fry) had envisioned for English and European jails, several reforms were instituted in this prison: The fee system was dropped, inmates were adequately clothed and fed regardless of their ability to pay, and they were separated by gender and offense. Children were not incarcerated in the prison, and debtors were separated from convicted felons. Though inmates were to live in isolated cells (to avoid “contaminating” each other), some work requirements brought them together. In addition, medical care was provided and attendance at religious services was required. The availability of alcohol and access to members of the opposite sex and prostitutes was stopped. The impetus for this philosophical change came from the reform efforts of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons (or the Philadelphia Prison Society, currently known as the Pennsylvania Prison Society), led by Dr. Benjamin Rush who was a physician, reformer, statesman, and a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Rush agitated for laws to improve the jail’s conditions of confinement and a different belief about correctional institutions—namely, that they could be used to reform their inmates (Nagel, 1973; Roberts, 1997). Ideally, the Walnut Street Jail (prison) was to operate based on the religious beliefs of the Quakers and their emphasis on the reflective study of the Bible and an abhorrence for violence, which was so prevalent in other correctional entities. In 1789, the General Assembly of Pennsylvania enacted legislation based on these recommendations and the Pennsylvania system was born (Nagel, 1973). The Walnut Street Jail, as a prison, was also an entity with a philosophy of penitence, which, it was hoped, would lead to reform and redemption. This philosophy was combined with an architectural arrangement shaped to facilitate it by ensuring that inmates were mostly in solitary cells. As Roberts (1997) aptly notes, the reason the Walnut Street Jail’s new wing was the first real prison, as opposed to the other prisons such as Newgate of Connecticut that preceded it or some of the early European prisons, was “[b]ecause it carried out incarceration as punishment, implemented a rudimentary classification system, featured individual cells, and was intended to provide a place for offenders to do penance—hence the term ‘penitentiary’” (p. 26). But in reality, the Walnut Street Jail soon became crowded, reportedly housing 4 times its capacity. As Johnston (2010) notes, “At one point 30 to 40 inmates were sleeping on blankets on the floor of rooms [which were] 18 feet square” (p. 13). Moreover, the institutional industry buildings that provided work for inmates burned down, leading to idleness, and the Walnut Street Jail (prison) by 1816 was little different from what it had been before the reforms (Harris, 1973; Zupan, 1991).

Learning Objective: 3-1: Describe the origins of early modern prisons.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Walnut Street Jail

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the Pennsylvania and New York Systems. Which do you believe was better from inception? Why?

Ans: Answers will vary. Must include significant differences between the separate and congregate systems.

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Various Pages

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Discuss the features and creation of Cherry Hill. Include the reasoning behind its unique structures.

Ans: At the Eastern Pennsylvania Prison, known as “Cherry Hill” for much of its 150 years of operation, the idea that inmates could be contaminated or corrupted by their fellow inmates was officially embraced. The Eastern Pennsylvania Prison was designed and built by the architect John Haviland, a relative newcomer from England. It cost three-quarters of a million dollars to build, which was an incredible expenditure for the time. It was the largest building in America in the 1820s (Alosi, 2008; Orland, 1975). The prison itself was huge, with seven massive stone spokes of cells radiating off of a central rotunda, as on a wheel. A 30-foot wall was constructed around the outside perimeter of the prison, thus physically and symbolically reinforcing the separation of the prison and its inhabitants from their community (Nagel, 1973). The cells were built large (15 by 7.5 feet with 12-foot ceilings), and those on the lowest tier had their own small outside exercise yard attached, so that inmates could do virtually everything in their cells (Harris, 1973; Orland, 1975). The cells had both hot water and flush toilets, reportedly the first public building in the country to have such amenities. There were 400 solitary cells in this prison (Orland, 1975). At first, inmates were not to work, but that dictate was later changed and they were allowed to work in their cells (Harris, 1973). The only contact inmates were to have with the outside was with the clergy and some vocational teachers: “The reading of the Scriptures would furnish the offender with the moral guidance necessary for reform” (Nagel, 1973, p. 7). They had no access to visitors or letters or newspapers. Even their exercise yards were surrounded by a high stone fence. When they were brought into the prison, were taken for showers, or to see the doctor, they had to wear a mask or a draped hood so as to maintain their anonymity and to prevent them from figuring out a way to escape (Alosi, 2008). As to how else they could occupy their time, “They made shoes, wove and dyed cloth products, caned chairs, and rolled cigars. Those products were sold to defray prison costs” (Roberts, 1997, p. 33).

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What were the problems faced by the Eastern Pennsylvania Prison and separate system?

Ans: According to Johnston (2010) the solution to the problem of criminal contamination for the reformers was to be a regimen of near-total isolation and absolute separation of prisoners from one another, the use of numbers rather than names, and a program of work, vocational training, and religious instruction, all taking place within the inmate’s individual cell (p. 13). The stated purpose of this solitary confinement was to achieve reform or rehabilitation. Quakers believed that God resides in everyone, and for a person to reach God, he or she must self-reflect. Silence is required for this self-reflection, the Quakers thought. The Quakers also believed that as God was in everyone, all were equal and were deserving of respect (Alosi, 2008). Solitary confinement as a practical matter remained in existence at the Eastern Penitentiary until after the Civil War, but was not formally ended until 1913 (Alosi, 2008). When it was rigorously applied, there are indications that it drove inmates insane. In fact, and tellingly, most of the European countries that copied the Eastern Pennsylvania model and its architecture did not isolate the inmates for this reason. Moreover, at a minimum, solitary confinement debilitated people by making them incapable of dealing with other people. For instance, the wardens’ journals for Eastern in the early years indicate that it was not uncommon for an inmate to be released and then to ask to be reinstated at Eastern because he or she did not know how to live freely. Some inmates, once released, would actually sit on the curb outside the prison, as they said they no longer understood the outside world or how to function in it (Alosi, 2008). Though the separation of inmates under the Pennsylvania system was to be complete, there are indications that it was not. In testimony before a special investigation by a joint committee of the houses of the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1834 (before the whole prison was even completed), it was noted that a number of male and female inmates (there were a small number of female inmates housed separately at Eastern) were used for maintenance cleaning and for cooking at the facility and roamed freely around it, speaking and interacting with each other and staff (Johnston, 2010). Moreover, there were indications from this testimony that inmates were tortured to maintain discipline: One had died of blood loss from the iron gag put in his mouth, and another went insane after buckets of cold water were poured on his head repeatedly. It was alleged that food and supplies meant for inmates were given to guards or community members by the prison cook (who was a wife of one of the guards). There were also indications of the use and abuse of alcohol by staff and inmates and of sexual improprieties involving the warden and his clerk, some male inmates, and the female cook. Although ultimately charges against the warden and his clerk related to these improprieties were dropped, the cook was blamed and the guards who testified about the scandal (the whistle- blowers) were fired. In addition to these problems of implementation at Eastern, a debate raged among prison experts regarding the value of separation. As a result of the experiment with the Western Pennsylvania Prison, the early use of the Eastern prison and the Auburn prison (which we will describe further on), the idea of “total separation” was under siege. As mentioned it was observed that for those truly subjected to it, solitary confinement and separation caused serious psychological problems for some inmates.

Learning Objective: 3-2: Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Pennsylvania Prison Model (Separate System)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe the creation and history of the Elmira Reformatory.

Ans: The Elmira Reformatory was founded in 1876 in New York (Rothman, 1980). The reformatory would encompass all of the rehabilitation focus and graduated reward system (termed the marks system, as in if one behaves, it is possible to earn marks that in turn entitle one to privileges). The marks system, as mentioned in Chapter 2, was practiced by Machonochie, and later by Crofton in Irish prisons, and was promoted by reformers. Elmira was supposed to hire an educated and trained staff and to maintain uncrowded facilities (Orland, 1975). Zebulon Brockway was appointed to head the reformatory, and he was intent on using the ideas of Machonochie and Crofton to create a “model” prison (Harris, 1973, p. 85). He persuaded the New York legislature to pass a bill creating the indeterminate sentence, which would be administered by a “board” rather than the courts. He planned on the reformatory handling only younger men (ages 16–30), as he expected that they might be more amenable to change. He planned to create a college at Elmira that would educate inmates from elementary school through college. He also sought to create an industrial training school that would equip inmates with technical abilities. In addition, he focused on the physical training of inmates, including much marching, but also the use of massages and steam baths (Harris, 1973). The marks system had a three-pronged purpose: to discipline, to encourage reform, and to be used to justify “good time” to reduce the sentence of the offender. Brockway did not want to resort to the use of the lash. Much lauded around the world and visited by dignitaries, the Elmira Reformatory, and Brockway’s management of it, led to the creation of good time, the indeterminate sentence (defined in Chapter 5), a focus on programming to address inmate deficiencies, and the promotion of probation and parole. “After Brockway, specialized treatment, classification of prisoners, social rehabilitation, and self-government of one sort or another were introduced into every level of the corrections system” (Harris, 1973, pp. 86–87). Unfortunately, and as before, this attempt at reform was thwarted when the funding was not always forthcoming, and the inmates did not conform as they were expected to. The staff, who were not the educated and trained professionals that Brockway had envisioned, soon resorted to violence to keep control. In fact, Brockway administered the lash himself on many occasions (Rothman, 1980). It should not be forgotten, however, that even on its worst day, the Elmira prison was likely no worse, and probably much more humane, than were the old Auburn or Sing Sing prisons.

Learning Objective: 3-4: Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Elmira

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss the difference between the contract system and the lease system including historical context.

Ans: Contract and lease systems were both devised to use inmates’ labor. Inmate labor under Southern states’ lease systems was leased by the prison to farmers or other contractors. Inmates under a contract system in northern and Midwestern prisons worked in larger groups under private or public employers. Southern prisons, because of the institution of slavery, developed on a different trajectory from that of other prisons. As indicated by Young’s (2001) research, prisons were little used before the Civil War. In agriculturally based societies, labor is prized and needed in the fields, particularly slave labor, and that served as a rampart for the Southern economy. Once slavery was abolished with the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, Southern states in the Reconstruction period following the Civil War began incarcerating more people, particularly ex-slaves, and recreating a slave society in the corrections system. As Oshinsky (1996) documents for Mississippi prisons, blacks were picked up and imprisoned for relatively minor offenses and forced to work like slaves on prison plantations or on plantations of Southern farmers. The North and Midwest, and later the West, built prisons somewhat on the Auburn model, but for the most part abandoned the attempt to completely silence inmates. It was no longer emphasized, as maintaining such silence required an excess of staff and constant vigilance, which were usually not available in these understaffed and overcrowded facilities (Jacobs, 1977). Inmates in such prisons worked in larger groups under private or public employers, and order was maintained with the lash or other innovations in discipline as discussed in Chapter 2 (see also Lawes [1932] regarding the management of Sing Sing). Though there was no pretense of high-minded reform going on in these prisons, their conditions and the accommodations of inmates were thought to be far superior to those provided in Southern prisons of the time. Conditions under both the contract and lease systems could be horrible, but were likely worse under the Southern lease system where contractors were often responsible for both housing and feeding inmates. Such contractors had little incentive for feeding or keeping inmates in good condition, as the supply of labor from the prison was almost inexhaustible.

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Southern and Northern Prisons and the Contract and Lease Systems

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Describe the history and significance of Statesville Prison.

Ans: Stateville Prison in Illinois. It was built as a panopticon in 1925 in reaction to the deplorable conditions of the old Joliet, Illinois, prison built in 1860. Joliet was overcrowded, and the Stateville Prison was also built to relieve that overcrowding, but ironically, by 1935 Stateville itself was full at 4,000 inmates and the population at Joliet had not been reduced at all. In a reformist state such as Illinois at the time (juvenile court reform began here, and it was one of the first states to initiate civil service reforms), Stateville was conceived as a place where inmates would be carefully classified into treatment programs that would address their needs and perceived deficiencies, where inmates could earn good time and eventual parole. Inmates were believed to be “sick,” and a treatment regimen provided by the prison would address that sickness and hopefully “cure” them so that they might become productive members of society. Thus, correctional institutions would use the “medical model” to treat inmates. Even though it was built as a maximum security prison, Stateville’s conception fit the definition of a correctional institution, where inmates were not to be merely warehoused, but to be corrected and treated. However, though inmates in the Illinois system were classified and good time was available for those who adhered to the rules, there was little programming available, the prison was crowded, it was understaffed, and the staff who were employed were ill trained (Jacobs, 1977). Moreover, the first 10 years of operation were filled with disorganized management and violent attacks on staff and inmates in a prison controlled by Irish and Italian gangs. In essence, and despite the intent to create a correctional institution, Stateville became what is termed a Big House prison. These, according to Irwin (2005), are fortress stone or concrete prisons, usually maximum security, whose attributes include “isolation, routine, and monotony” (p. 32). Strict security and rule enforcement, at least formally, and a regimentation in schedule are other hallmarks of such facilities.

Learning Objective: 3-5: Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Correctional Institutions or Warehouse Prisons?

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Who was Dorothea Dix and why was she important?

Ans: Dorothea Dix was a humanitarian, a teacher, and a penal and insane asylum reformer who, after 4 years of study of prisons, jails, and almshouses in northeast and Midwestern states, wrote the book Remarks on Prisons and Prison Discipline in the United States, in 1843 (reprinted in 1845 and 1967). The data for her book were assembled from multiple observations at prisons; conversations and correspondence with staff, wardens, and inmates in prisons; and a review of prisons’ annual reports. Dix tended to prefer the Pennsylvania model over the New York because she thought inmates benefited from separation from others. However, she forcefully argued that both prison models that had promised so much in terms of reform for inmates, were in fact abject failures in that regard. She found these and most prisons to be understaffed, overcrowded, and with inept leadership that changed much too often. She argued against the long sentences for minor offenses that she found in prisons of the day (e.g., Richmond, Virginia; Columbus, Ohio; Concord, Massachusetts; Providence, Rhode Island) and the disparity in sentencing from place to place. She thought such sentences were not only unjust, but that they led to insubordination by inmates and staff who recognized the arbitrary nature of the justice system. On the other hand, in her study of prisons she found that the pardoning power was used too often, and this again led, she thought, to less trust in the just and fair nature of the system and to insubordination of its inmates. Dix also remarked on the quality and availability of food and water for inmates in early correctional facilities. She found the food to be adequate in most places, except Sing Sing where there was no place to dine at the time of the second edition of her book (1845), and the water inadequate in most places except the Pennsylvania prisons where it was piped into all of the cells. Her comments on the health, heating, clothing, cleanliness, and sanity of inmates were detailed, also, by institution, and indicated that though there were recurrent problems with these issues in prisons of the time, some prisons (i.e., Eastern Penitentiary) did more than others to alleviate miseries by changing the diet, providing adequate clothing, and making warm water for washing available to inmates.

Learning Objective: 3-3: Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Dorothea Dix’s Evaluation of Prisons and Jails

Difficulty Level: Hard

Chapter 5: Sentencing: The Application of Punishment

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. What is a punitive penalty ordered by the court after a defendant has been convicted of a crime, either by a jury, a bench trial, by a judge, or in a plea bargain?
  2. Conviction
  3. Justice
  4. Revenge
  5. Sentence

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-1: Explain how modern sentencing engages Aristotle’s notion of justice.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Sentencing?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A moral concept that is difficult to define, but in essence means to treat people in ways consistent with norms of fairness and in accordance with what they justly deserve by virtue of their behavior is known as what?
  2. Conviction
  3. Justice
  4. Revenge
  5. Sentence

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-1: Explain how modern sentencing engages Aristotle’s notion of justice.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Sentencing?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Who provided the following definition: “Justice consists of treating equals equally, and unequals unequally according to relevant differences?”
  2. Plato
  3. Beccaria
  4. Aristotle
  5. Homer

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-1: Explain how modern sentencing engages Aristotle’s notion of justice.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Sentencing?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of sentence is one in which the actual number of years a person may serve is not fixed, but is rather a range of years?
  2. Split
  3. Determinate
  4. Indeterminate
  5. Mandatory

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of sentence means that convicted criminals are given a fixed number of years they must serve rather than a range?
  2. Split
  3. Determinate
  4. Indeterminate
  5. Mandatory

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Determinate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of sentence can exist in the context of both determinate and indeterminate sentencing structures and simply means that probation is not an option and that the minimum time be set by law?
  2. Split
  3. Determinate
  4. Indeterminate
  5. Mandatory

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mandatory Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of sentences are two sentences ordered to be served at the same time?
  2. Split
  3. Determinate
  4. Consecutive
  5. Concurrent

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Concurrent and Consecutive Sentences

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of sentences are two or more sentences that must be served sequentially?
  2. Split
  3. Determinate
  4. Consecutive
  5. Concurrent

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Concurrent and Consecutive Sentences

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which statutes are derived from the same punitive atmosphere that led to truth in sentencing statutes?
  2. Habitual offender
  3. Truth in sentencing
  4. Life without parole
  5. None of the above

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Habitual-Offender Statutes

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of sentence exposes offenders to the reality of prison life for a short period of time, followed by probation?
  2. Shock probation
  3. Split sentences
  4. Noncustodial sentences
  5. Drug court

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Alternatives to Incarceration

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following types of sentences may seem popular with the public at large until they get the bill?
  2. Habitual offender
  3. Truth in sentencing
  4. Life without parole
  5. None of these

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Habitual-Offender Statutes

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which type of sentence requires felons to serve brief periods of confinement in a county jail prior to placement on probation?
  2. Shock probation
  3. Split sentences
  4. Noncustodial sentences
  5. Drug court

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Alternatives to Incarceration

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which type of sentence requires participants to be involved in an intensive treatment program that lasts about 1 year?
  2. Shock probation
  3. Split sentences
  4. Noncustodial sentences
  5. Drug court

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Alternatives to Incarceration

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What occurs when there is a wide variation in sentences received by different offenders?
  2. Sentencing disparity
  3. Fair Sentencing Act
  4. Anti-Drug Abuse Act
  5. U.S. Sentencing Commission Report to Congress

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sentencing Disparities: Legitimate and Illegitimate

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What established a 100 to 1 quantity ratio differential between powder and crack cocaine?
  2. Sentencing disparity
  3. Fair Sentencing Act
  4. Anti-Drug Abuse Act
  5. U.S. Sentencing Commission Report to Congress

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder Cocaine

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What increased the amount of cocaine subject to the five year minimum sentence from five grams to 28 g?
  2. Sentencing disparity
  3. Fair Sentencing Act
  4. Anti-Drug Abuse Act
  5. U.S. Sentencing Commission Report to Congress

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder Cocaine

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Congress reacted to media hype about how addictive crack was based on what?
  2. Sentencing disparity
  3. Fair Sentencing Act
  4. Anti-Drug Abuse Act
  5. U.S. Sentencing Commission Report

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder Cocaine

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is used to assist judges in making sentencing recommendations?
  2. Presentence investigation reports
  3. Sentencing files
  4. Investigation reports
  5. Judge’s reports

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A presentence investigation report is generally written by whom?
  2. The judge
  3. The judge’s clerk
  4. The probation officer
  5. The parole officer

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. How many states currently require disclosure of the presentence investigation report?
  2. 10
  3. 14
  4. 15
  5. 16

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What was charged with the task of creating mandatory sentencing guidelines?
  2. United States Sentencing Commission
  3. Sentencing guidelines
  4. Sentencing disparity
  5. Fair Sentencing Act

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Forms containing scales that come with a set of rules for numerically computing sentences that offenders should receive based on the crime they committed and their criminal records are known as what?
  2. United States Sentencing Commission
  3. Sentencing guidelines
  4. Sentencing disparity
  5. Fair Sentencing Act

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The creation of the sentencing guidelines intended to do what?
  2. Create judicial bias
  3. Help determine guilt or innocence
  4. Reign in judicial discretion
  5. Classify offenders into institutions

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Sentencing guidelines are now ______, meaning that judges can consult them and follow them or not.
  2. presumptive
  3. advisory
  4. mandatory
  5. wishful thinking
  6. none of these

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In which Supreme Court case did the court rule that the federal sentencing guidelines were no longer to be binding on the states?
  2. United States v. Booker
  3. Apprendi v. New Jersey
  4. Blakely v. Washington
  5. Rita v. United States

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following factors can affect a judge’s decision when sentencing a defendant?
  2. Seriousness of crime
  3. Prior record
  4. Offender cooperation
  5. All of these

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Various Pages

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What type of sentence is work release, whereby a person is consigned to a special portion of the jail on weekends and nights, but released to go to work during the day?
  2. Shock probation
  3. Split sentences
  4. Noncustodial sentences
  5. Drug court

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Alternatives to Incarceration

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is reasonable and just if the members of a group being more harshly punished commit more crimes than the individual members of other groups, but discriminatory and unjust if they do not?
  2. Sentencing disparity
  3. Sentencing variation
  4. Fair Sentencing Act
  5. Presentence report

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sentencing Disparities: Legitimate and Illegitimate

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Truth-in-sentencing laws require that there be a truthful, realistic connection between the custodial sentence imposed on offenders and the time they actually serve, and they mandate that inmates serve at least ______ % of their sentences before becoming eligible for release.
  2. 20
  3. 45
  4. 85
  5. 60

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A Fair Sentencing Act was introduced and passed by Congress, and was signed into law by which president?
  2. Clinton
  3. Bush
  4. Regan
  5. Obama

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder Cocaine

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In what year was the Anti-Drug Abuse Act passed?
  2. 1984
  3. 1986
  4. 1988
  5. 1990

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder Cocaine

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

  1. Sentencing refers to a post-conviction stage of the criminal justice process.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Explain how modern sentencing engages Aristotle’s notion of justice.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What Is Sentencing?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Justice is a moral concept that is easy to define.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-1: Explain how modern sentencing engages Aristotle’s notion of justice.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: What is Sentencing?

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The determinate sentencing model prevailed most strongly under the so-called “medical model.”

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Determinate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Under indeterminate sentencing, offenders know how much time they will serve.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The habitual offender statute is a way of selectively incapacitating felons only after they have demonstrated the inability to live by society’s rules.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Habitual-Offender Statutes

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Shock probation is typically reserved for chronic offenders.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Alternatives to Incarceration

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In addition to saving the states many millions of dollars in jail and prison costs, drug courts appear to be unsuccessful in reducing recidivism.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Alternatives to Incarceration

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The biggest concern with sentencing disparity is racial discrimination.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Disparities: Legitimate and Illegitimate

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Asian Americans receive harsher sentences on average than Whites or African Americans.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Disparities: Legitimate and Illegitimate

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In 1988, Congress passed the U.S. Sentencing Commission Report which established a 100 to 1 quantity ratio differential between powder and crack cocaine.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder Cocaine

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The PSI is not an important document in regard to sentencing.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In the federal system, probation officers create the PSI.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In a PSI, generally officers make sentencing recommendations to the judge.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Prior to 1984, federal judges enjoyed almost unlimited sentencing discretion as long as they stayed within the statutory maximum penalties.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Truth-in-sentencing laws have led to longer sentences.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An indeterminate sentence is a range of years.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In a determinate sentence, offenders are given a fixed number of years.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Indeterminate sentences are also known as fixed sentences.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Sentencing guidelines are now mandatory in the federal system.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Plea bargains are agreements between defendants and prosecutors in which defendants agree to plead guilty in exchange for certain concessions.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-3: Assess the benefits and criticisms of plea bargains.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Plea Bargaining

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Short Answer

 

  1. What is a victim impact statement?

Ans: A victim impact statement allows persons directly affected by the crime (or victims’ survivors in the case of murder) to inform the court of the personal and emotional harm they have suffered as a result of the defendant’s actions and, in some states, to make a sentencing recommendation.

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Victim Impact Statements

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is indeterminate sentencing?

Ans: A prison sentence in which the actual number of years a person may serve is not fixed, but is rather a range of years.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Indeterminate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is determinate sentencing?

Ans: A prison sentence of a fixed number of years that must be served rather than a range.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Determinate Sentence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term consecutive sentencing.

Ans: Two or more sentences that must be served sequentially.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Concurrent and Consecutive Sentences

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term concurrent sentencing.

Ans: Two separate sentences are served at the same time.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Concurrent and Consecutive Sentences

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What was the purpose of the United States Sentencing Commission?

Ans: A commission charged with creating mandatory sentencing guidelines to control judicial discretion.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term habitual offender statutes?

Ans: Statutes mandating that offenders with a third felony conviction be sentenced to life imprisonment regardless of the nature of the third felony.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Habitual-Offender Statutes

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What are sentencing guidelines?

Ans: Scales for numerically computing sentences that offenders should receive based on the crime they committed and on their criminal records.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss habitual offender statutes. What are they? How do you feel they have affected sentencing today?

Ans: Habitual offender statutes are statutes mandating that offenders with a third felony conviction be sentenced to life imprisonment regardless of the nature of the third felony. This is a way of selectively incapacitating felons only after they have demonstrated the inability to live by society’s rules. Few of us would be against the lifetime incarceration of seriously violent offenders, but many states include relatively minor nonviolent crimes in their habitual status offenders. The last part of the essay question is subjective

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Habitual-Offender Statutes

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Compare and contrast a sentence of shock probation versus a split sentence. Which would you want if you could choose and why?

Ans: Shock probation is a type of sentence aimed at shocking offenders into going straight by exposing them to the reality of prison life for a short period followed by probation. Shock probation is typically reserved for young, first-time offenders who have committed a relatively serious felony but who are considered redeemable. Split sentences are sentences that require felons to serve brief periods of confinement in a county jail prior to probation placement. Jail time may have to be served all at once or spread over a certain period, such as every weekend in jail for the first year of probation placement. Second part of the essay is subjective.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Describe the different types of sentencing and their rationales.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alternatives to Incarceration

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Discuss the issues between crack versus powder cocaine. Do you believe the sentencing ratio should remain where it is? Why or why not?

Ans: One of the biggest concerns in the sentencing disparity literature is the huge differences in sentencing received by crack possession versus sentences imposed on possession of powder cocaine. Of particular concern was the difference in sentencing imposed on those who used or sold the cheaper crack cocaine, who tended to be minority group offenders, particularly African Americans, versus those who used or sold powder cocaine, which tended to be more expensive and more likely used and trafficked by White offenders. In 1988, Congress passed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, which established a 100-to-1 quantity ratio differential between powder and crack cocaine. That act also specified that simple possession of crack cocaine was to be treated more seriously than the simple possession of other illegal drugs. According to a U.S. Sentencing Commission Report to Congress in 1995, in 1986 Congress was reacting to media hype about how addictive crack was, with congressional members claiming crack use was at “epidemic” levels, crack babies were severely impaired, and about crime related to crack use was out of control in some cities. At the time of this 1995 report, the Commission knew that “88.3 percent of the offenders convicted in federal court for crack cocaine distribution in 1993 were Black and 7.1 percent were Hispanic,” and critics were concerned that instead of fair and evenhanded sentences for all, the effect of the Anti-Drug Act was to be unfair and harsh in sentencing of racial minorities. Criticisms of the different treatment of people convicted of possession of pharmacologically identical drugs resulting in the increased incarceration of minorities for longer periods of time mounted to the point where Congress had to do something. In 2009, a Fair Sentencing Act was introduced and passed by Congress and signed into law by President Obama on August 3rd, 2010. Under the act, the amount of crack cocaine subject to the 5-year minimum sentence is increased from 5 g to 28 g, thus reducing the 100-to-1 ratio to 18-to-1 ratio (28 g of crack gets as much time as 500 g of powder cocaine). Thus, there is still a large sentencing differential between possessors of crack versus possessors of powder cocaine. This ratio probably reflects lawmaker’s perceptions that crack is more intimately related to violence (in territorial battles) and to a higher probability of addiction than the powder variety. Second part of essay is subjective.

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Sentencing for Crack Versus Powder Cocaine

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the case of United States v. Booker (2005). What did this case do to the sentencing guidelines as they were first implemented?

Ans: The circumstances of the case are that Freddie Booker was arrested in 2003 in possession of 92.5 g of crack cocaine. He also admitted to police that he had sold an additional 566 g. A jury found Booker guilty of possession with intent to sell at least 50 g, for which the possible penalty ranged from 10 years to life. At sentencing, the judge used additional information (the additional 566 g and the fact the Booker had obstructed justice) to sentence Booker to 30 years. Booker’s sentence would have been 21 years and 10 months based on the facts presented to the jury and proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Booker appealed his sentence, arguing that his Sixth Amendment rights had been violated by the judge “finding facts” when this is the proper role of the jury. An earlier federal appeals court had ruled that the facts of prior convictions are the only facts judges can “find” as justification for increasing sentencing. In other words, anything other than prior record that is used to increase a criminal penalty beyond what the guidelines call for must be submitted to a jury and proved beyond a reasonable doubt. The Supreme Court agreed with Booker that his sentence violated the Sixth Amendment and sent the case back to District Court with instructions either to sentence Booker within the sentencing range supported by the jury’s findings or to hold a sentencing hearing before a jury (Bissonnette, 2006). The remedial portion of the Court’s opinion (what can be done to prevent this happening again?) is much more controversial. The Court held that the guidelines were to be advisory only, and therefore no longer binding on judges. However, the Court did require them to “consult” the guidelines and take them into consideration, but there is no way of assuring that judges comply. John Ashcroft, the U.S. Attorney General at the time, called the decision “a retreat from justice,” and Congressman Tom Feeney decried, “The extraordinary power to sentence” now afforded federal judges who are accountable to no one, said that the decision “flies in the face of the clear will of Congress” (Bissonnette, 2006, p. 1499). In fact, Booker was resentenced by the same judge to the same 30-year sentence that he originally received. Because the sentencing guidelines had then become merely advisory, the judge did not have to further justify his sentence since it was within the range of the statutorily defined penalty. The Court’s ruling on guidelines only applies to the federal system at present.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Future of Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss sentencing disparity. Give an example of legitimate sentencing disparity and illegitimate sentencing disparity in your discussion.

Ans: Sentencing disparity occurs when there is wide variation in sentences received by different offenders. This disparity is legitimate if it is based on considerations such as crime seriousness and/or prior record, but discriminatory if it is not. We think of sentencing disparity as discriminatory if differences in punishment in cases in which no rational justification can be found for it. The biggest concern is racial discrimination. There is no doubt that the American criminal justice system has a dark history of racial discrimination, but does this indictment still apply? African Americans receive harsher sentences on average than White or Asian American offenders, a fact often seen as racist. Sentencing variation is reasonable and just if the group being more harshly punished commits more crimes than other groups, but discriminatory and unjust if they do not. The second part of the essay is subjective.

Learning Objective: 5-4: Discuss the role of victim impact statements and the issues surrounding sentencing disparity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Sentencing Disparities: Legitimate and Illegitimate

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Name the six outcomes consistent with Aristotle’s definition of justice regarding the sentencing guidelines, according to Lubitz and Ross (2001).

Ans: (i) A reduction in sentencing disparity.

(ii) More uniform and consistent sentencing.

(iii) A more open and understandable sentencing process.

(iv) Decreased punishment for certain categories of offenses and offenders and increased it for others.

(v) Aid in prioritizing and allocating correctional resources.

(vi) Provision of rational basis for sentencing and increased judicial accountability.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sentencing Guidelines

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Discuss some of the controversies associated with the PSI report.

Ans: Because the future of a defendant depends to a great extent on the content of the report, the information contained therein should be reliable and objective. All pertinent information must be verified by cross-checking with more than one source, and that source should be reliable. The officer must be careful in the terms he or she uses to describe the offender. The use of phrases such as “morally bankrupt” or “sweet young lady” may reveal more about the officer’s attitudes and values rather than the defendant’s character. It is feared that if victims and other informants from whom the investigating officer has sought information know that the offender will see their comments, they will refuse to offer their information, thus the judge will not have complete information on which to make the sentencing decision.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What information is included in the presentence investigation report? Do you think all of this information should be included?

Ans: Demographic information, circumstances of the offense, defendant’s version, prior record, present family status, present employment or support, physical health, mental health, evaluative summary, sentence recommendation. Second part of the essay question is subjective

Learning Objective: 5-5: Identify the purpose of presentence reports and sentencing guidelines, as well as the contentious issues surrounding them.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Presentence Investigation Report

Difficulty Level: Hard