Test Bank For EARTH2 2nd Edition by Hendrix – Test Bank

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Test Bank For EARTH2 2nd Edition by Hendrix – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

1. The process of rocks breaking down into smaller pieces is known as ____________________.

ANSWER:   weathering

 

2. When magma cools and crystallizes, ____________________ rocks are formed.

ANSWER:   igneous

 

3. Melted rock within Earth is called ____________________, while melted rock on Earth’s surface is called ____________________.

ANSWER:   magma; lava

 

4. ____________________ igneous rocks form within Earth’s crust and have medium to large-sized grains.

ANSWER:   Intrusive

Plutonic

 

5. The most common igneous rock is ____________________.

ANSWER:   granite

 

6. ____________________ is the older igneous and metamorphic rock underlying sedimentary rock.

ANSWER:   Basement rock

 

7. Most of the oceanic crust is made up of ____________________, whereas most of the continental crust is composed of ____________________.

ANSWER:   basalt; granite

 

8. The upper mantle is primarily composed of the ultramafic rock ____________________.

ANSWER:   periditote

 

9. Loose sediment becomes solid rock in the process called____________________.

ANSWER:   lithification

cementation

 

10. As peat is buried and compacted by overlying sediment, it converts to ____________________.

ANSWER:   coal

 

11. The process by which rocks and minerals change in response to changing temperature, pressure, and/or chemical composition within the crust is ____________________.

ANSWER:   metamorphism

 

12. Country rock is separated from an igneous intrusion by a zone called the ____________________.

ANSWER:   metamorphic halo

 

13. ____________________ occurs where hot magma intrudes cooler rock of any type.

ANSWER:   Contact metamorphism

 

14. Parallel growth of mica (and other minerals) during metamorphism and deformation of shale produces layering called ____________________.

ANSWER:   foliation

 

15. Hot water causes ____________________ metamorphism.

ANSWER:   hydrothermal

 

Fill in the blank.

 

16. The size, shape, and arrangement of mineral crystals describe a rock’s ____.

a. habit
b. texture
c. form
d. foliation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

17. Rocks and mineral fragments that accumulate in loose, unconsolidated layers are ____.

a. erosives
b. sediments
c. secretions
d. accretions

 

ANSWER:   b

 

18. ____ rocks form when pre-existing rocks are altered by heat, pressure, or hot water.

a. Metamorphic
b. Igneous
c. Sedimentary
d. Volcanic

 

ANSWER:   a

 

19. ____ is an economically important rock that is the source of most oil and natural gas.

a. Shale
b. Slate
c. Sandstone
d. Limestone

 

ANSWER:   a

 

20. Ocean crust is primarily composed of the rock ____.

a. limestone
b. sandstone
c. shale
d. basalt

 

ANSWER:   d

 

21. When rocks melt, they ____ in volume and become ____ dense.

a. expand; less
b. expand; more
c. contract; less
d. contract; more

 

ANSWER:   a

 

22. Rock that has NOT undergone weathering, metamorphism, or another geologic process is called ____.

a. original rock
b. country rock
c. basement rock
d. parent rock

 

ANSWER:   d

 

23. Sandstone, siltstone, and shale are ____ rocks.

a. clastic sedimentary
b. organic sedimentary
c. chemical sedimentary
d. metamorphic

 

ANSWER:   a

 

24. The process of ____ compresses buried sediment and forces water out of pore spaces.

a. partial melting
b. compaction
c. lithification
d. metamorphism

 

ANSWER:   b

 

25. ____ is the layering that develops as sediments are deposited.

a. Bedding
b. Superposition
c. Original horizontality
d. Foliation

 

ANSWER:   a

 

26. With increasing depth in Earth, temperature ____, and pressure ____.

a. decreases; increases
b. increases; increases
c. increases; decreases
d. decreases; decreases

 

ANSWER:   b

 

27. ____ is the smallest type of sedimentary clast.

a. Sand
b. Shale
c. Clay
d. Silt

 

ANSWER:   c

 

28. The formation of limestone reduces the amount of ____ gas in the atmosphere and ocean.

a. natural
b. sulfur dioxide
c. carbon dioxide
d. methane

 

ANSWER:   c

 

29. A large river carrying massive amounts of sediment to the ocean every year that accumulates on the delta produces ____ metamorphism.

a. regional dynamothermal
b. hydrothermal
c. contact
d. burial

 

ANSWER:   d

 

30. Rocks are classified into three types based on ____.

a. how they formed
b. their mineral composition
c. where they are found
d. the presence of fossils

 

ANSWER:   a

 

31. Igneous rocks are classified according to ____.

a. degree of foliation and composition
b. grain size and composition
c. degree of foliation and grain size
d. grain size and fossil content

 

ANSWER:   b

 

32. Igneous rocks form by ____.

a. lithification of sediment
b. solidification of magma
c. solid state textural or mineralogical alteration of existing rocks
d. precipitation of seawater

 

ANSWER:   b

 

33. Intrusive igneous rocks form when magma solidifies ____.

a. on Earth’s surface
b. within Earth
c. on the sea floor
d. on mountain tops

 

ANSWER:   b

 

34. How do grain sizes compare between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks?

a. Grains are larger in intrusive rocks because they cool slowly.
b. Grains are larger in intrusive rocks because they cool rapidly.
c. Grains are larger in extrusive rocks because they cool slowly.
d. Grains are larger in extrusive rocks because they cool rapidly.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

35. The most abundant igneous rock in continental crust is ____.

a. basalt
b. granite
c. rhyolite
d. gabbro

 

ANSWER:   b

 

36. The most common type of sedimentary rock is ____.

a. clastic
b. chemical
c. organic
d. biogenic

 

ANSWER:   a

 

37. Both bioclastic and organic sedimentary rocks contain organic material. How are they different?

a. Only bioclastic rocks form in the ocean.
b. Only organic rocks form in the ocean.
c. Organic rocks display a greater variety of grain sizes.
d. Materials in bioclastic rocks have not been weathered and/or eroded.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

38. In order, the steps to forming a sedimentary rock are____.

a. erosion, compaction, lithification, and weathering
b. weathering, erosion, compaction, and lithification
c. erosion, weathering, compaction, and lithification
d. compaction, lithification, erosion, and weathering

 

ANSWER:   b

 

39. Country rock is always ____ than the intrusion that cuts across it.

a. younger
b. harder
c. older
d. softer

 

ANSWER:   c

 

40. According to the rock cycle, sedimentary rock can ultimately become ____.

a. igneous rock only
b. metamorphic rock only
c. igneous or metamorphic rock
d. igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock

 

ANSWER:   d

 

41. Clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified by ____.

a. grain size
b. depth of formation
c. composition
d. depositional environment

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. When a chemical reaction causes a solid salt to form from a liquid solution, ____ has occurred.

a. lithification
b. precipitation
c. conglomeration
d. foliation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

43. Ripple marks are useful to geologists because they ____.

a. help date the rocks
b. trap fossils
c. indicate the direction of current flow
d. always occur with mud cracks

 

ANSWER:   c

 

44. Metamorphic rock forms when ____.

a. seawater precipitates
b. sediments are lithified
c. magma cools and solidifies
d. igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks change because of high temperature and/or pressure, or compositional changes, or are deformed during mountain building

 

ANSWER:   d

 

45. Regional dynamothermal metamorphism refers to metamorphism ____.

a. where major crustal movements build mountains and deform rocks
b. caused by intrusion of cold magma into hot rocks
c. caused by intrusion of hot magma into cooler rocks
d. that is not accompanied by deformation

 

ANSWER:   a

 

46. Rocks are permanent over geologic time.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

47. Bedrock refers to igneous or metamorphic rock that lies underneath sedimentary rock.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

48. Plutonic rocks are usually medium- or coarse-grained, whereas volcanic rocks are fine-grained.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

49. Volcanic rock forms when magma solidifies within Earth’s crust.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

50. Basalt is mineralogically identical to gabbro.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

51. Obsidian is volcanic glass where the atoms are arranged in a random chaotic pattern.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

52. The crystals in granite cannot be seen with the naked eye.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

53. Clastic sedimentary rocks are classified based on sediment size.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

54. Sedimentary rocks are relatively rare in Earth’s crust, however they cover most of Earth’s surface.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

55. The interaction between limestone and the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and that dissolved in the oceans are an important determinant to global climate.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

56. After metamorphism, rocks commonly have a different texture and mineral assemblage.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

57. Contact metamorphism commonly causes deformation.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

58. Major crustal movements build mountains and deform rocks in a process known as hydrothermal metamorphism.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

59. Burial metamorphism is occurring today deep within the Mississippi River delta.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

60. Ultramafic and mafic rocks are rich in magnesium and iron.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

1. ____________________ is the broad term that describes economically valuable geological materials, whether metallic or non-metallic ores.

ANSWER:   Mineral resource

Mineral resources

 

2. ____________________ form mineral deposits as liquid magma solidifies to form an igneous rock.

ANSWER:   Magmatic processes

 

3. Often, early-formed minerals sink to the bottom of a magma chamber in a process called ____________________.

ANSWER:   crystal settling

 

4. A(n) ____________________ deposit forms when dissolved metals precipitate in a fracture in rock.

ANSWER:   hydrothermal vein

 

5. Electricity is generated in nuclear reactions through fission of ____________________ atoms.

ANSWER:   uranium

 

6. Hydrothermal solutions concentrate metals by the process of ____________________, in which metals are dissolved from country rock and concentrated in another location.

ANSWER:   scavenging

 

7. Golf-ball to bowling-ball sized ____________________ rich in a variety of minerals are found on the Pacific Ocean floor.

ANSWER:   manganese nodules

 

8. Layers of iron-rich minerals sandwiched between beds of silica minerals are called ____________________.

ANSWER:   banded iron formations

 

9. ____________________ are the known amount of ore in the ground.

ANSWER:   Mineral reserves

 

10. Propane, gasoline, and heating oil are examples of fuels refined from ____________________.

ANSWER:   crude oil

petroleum

 

11. A(n) ____________________ may consist of tens of kilometers of interconnected subterranean passages that follow ore veins or coal seams.

ANSWER:   underground mine

 

12. When crude oil is heated above 100 degrees Celsius, organic molecules break down to form the hydrocarbon ____________________, which is the main gas in natural gas.

ANSWER:   methane

 

13. The application of heat and pressure to shale causes the organic matter to become a solid, waxy material called ____________________.

ANSWER:   kerogen

 

14. ____________________ energy resources are replenished by natural processes as we use them.

ANSWER:   Renewable

 

15. A(n) ____________________ produces electricity directly from sunlight.

ANSWER:   solar cell

photovoltaic cell

 

Fill in the blank.

 

16. Ores can be recovered from ____.

a. igneous rocks only
b. sedimentary rocks only
c. metamorphic rocks only
d. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks

 

ANSWER:   d

 

17. The presence of dissolved ____ in hydrothermal water’s increases the water’s ability to dissolve minerals.

a. carbon dioxide
b. silica
c. salts
d. sulfur

 

ANSWER:   c

 

18. Evaporite deposits form by ____.

a. sedimentary sorting
b. hydrothermal solutions
c. precipitation from water
d. magma solidification

 

ANSWER:   c

 

19. ____ is partially decayed organic material that will eventually form coal if exposed to additional heat and pressure.

a. Peat
b. Perlite
c. Bitumen
d. Bauxite

 

ANSWER:   a

 

20. The majority of rare-earth elements are mined in ____.

a. ocean floor deposits
b. tropical countries
c. the United States
d. China

 

ANSWER:   d

 

21. ____ commonly erupt jets of mineral-rich, hot water from fractures along the mid-ocean ridges

a. Black spitters
b. Black smokers
c. Black chimneys
d. Black vents

 

ANSWER:   b

 

22. Differential settling occurs because materials have different ____.

a. densities
b. precipitates
c. volumes
d. concentrations

 

ANSWER:   a

 

23. _____ is the world’s largest producer of many mineral resources, and ____ is the world’s largest consumer of many mineral resources.

a. China; the United States
b. the United States; the United States
c. China; China
d. the United States; China

 

ANSWER:   c

 

24. Coal forms when buried peat loses most of its ____ and ____.

a. hydrogen; oxygen
b. hydrogen; carbon
c. oxygen; carbon
d. nitrogen; hydrogen

 

ANSWER:   a

 

25. ____ releases no sulfur when burned, has a higher net energy yield than other fossil fuels, and can be extracted and used without refining.

a. Coal
b. Petroleum
c. Kerogen
d. Natural gas

 

ANSWER:   d

 

26. The United States relies most heavily on fossil fuels, particularly ____ to supply its energy.

a. natural gas
b. coal
c. oil
d. biofuels

 

ANSWER:   c

 

27. Natural gas can be extracted from unconventional reservoirs by ____, where water and sand are is forced into rocks like shale.

a. horizontal fracturing
b. pressurized extraction
c. hydraulic fracturing
d. tertiary removal

 

ANSWER:   c

 

28. Sand deposits saturated with heavy oil and bitumen that are too thick to pump are called ____.

a. tar sands
b. kerogen reserves
c. placer deposits
d. oil shales

 

ANSWER:   a

 

29. Energy sources, such as sunlight and wind, are ____.

a. renewable
b. nonrenewable
c. limited
d. usually more polluting than nuclear fuels

 

ANSWER:   a

 

30. The largest source of renewable energy in the United States is ____.

a. nuclear energy
b. hydroelectric power
c. solar energy
d. wind energy

 

ANSWER:   b

 

31. A nonmetallic resource is ____.

a. an ore
b. a concentration of metals that can be mined profitably
c. a concentration of fossil fuels
d. any useful rock or mineral that is not a metal, such as salt, building stone, sand, or gravel

 

ANSWER:   d

 

32. In order for plant matter to decay, what must happen?

a. Organisms must consume plants’ carbon dioxide.
b. Oxygen concentrations should be high.
c. Water currents must slow down.
d. Oxygen concentrations should be low.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

33. In the U.S., most of the energy produced is used for ____.

a. running motors during manufacturing processes
b. mining resources to produce more energy
c. transporting people and goods.
d. heating, air-conditioning, and lighting

 

ANSWER:   d

 

34. Geothermal energy has an advantage over solar and wind energy because ____.

a. it produces more jobs for communities
b. it has a smaller capacity factor
c. it doesn’t require the use of water
d. it has a larger capacity factor

 

ANSWER:   d

 

35. A(n) ____ is a hole in Earth’s surface from which minerals or fuel resources are recovered.

a. excavation mine
b. surface mine
c. extraction mine
d. spiral mine

 

ANSWER:   b

 

36. Placer ore deposits form ____.

a. whenever metal-bearing solutions encounter changing conditions that cause precipitation
b. when magma cools slowly deep underground
c. when landlocked lakes dry up
d. when streams or waves sort sediment according to density

 

ANSWER:   d

 

37. Salts (such as halite) that are left behind when water evaporates are called ____.

a. placer deposits
b. hydrothermal vein deposits
c. metallic ores
d. precipitates

 

ANSWER:   d

 

38. Petroleum forms in ____ rocks.

a. igneous rocks only
b. sedimentary rocks only
c. metamorphic rocks only
d. sedimentary and metamorphic rocks

 

ANSWER:   b

 

39. Turning off the lights or turning down the thermostat and wearing a sweater are examples of which type of energy conservation strategy?

a. inconvenient solutions
b. technical solutions
c. social solutions
d. dependence reducing solutions

 

ANSWER:   c

 

40. Which statement best describes mineral reserves?

a. They can increase because new and inexpensive methods of processing lower grade ore can be developed.
b. They can become profitable if the price of the metal in a mineral deposit increases.
c. They are constant and do not change.
d. They can increase because new and inexpensive methods of processing lower grade ore can be developed and can become profitable if the price of the metal in a mineral deposit increases.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

41. Fossil fuels are ____.

a. formed from the remains of plants and animals
b. renewable
c. found mainly in igneous rocks
d. being formed as rapidly as they are being consumed

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. Mud converts to shale and organic material converts to liquid petroleum ____.

a. when pressure and temperature are decreased by burial under younger sediment
b. very quickly in the ocean
c. when pressure and temperature are increased due to burial under younger sediment
d. in the range of 0 to 30° C

 

ANSWER:   c

 

43. Combustion of fossil fuels results in the release of ____, a greenhouse gas.

a. carbon dioxide
b. methyl mercury
c. chlorofluorocarbon
d. bitumen

 

ANSWER:   a

 

44. An oil reservoir is most similar to ____.

a. an underground pool or lake
b. a thick deposit of tar
c. kerogen saturated shale
d. an oil-soaked sponge

 

ANSWER:   d

 

45. Although oil shale deposits could supply the U.S. with petroleum for several centuries, they are impractical to mine because ____.

a. they generate too much waste
b. they are nonrenewable energy resources
c. the source rock is too deep to reach
d. they will generate less energy than will be required to mine them

 

ANSWER:   d

 

46. All mineral resources are renewable since they are created by natural processes.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

47. Mining of non-metallic mineral resources like sand and gravel is more profitable than mining metallic mineral resources like gold and silver.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

48. The majority of ore deposits are formed by hydrothermal processes.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

49. Several times during the history of Earth, shallow seas covered large portions of North America and precipitated evaporite deposits.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

50. Bauxite is an example of a residual ore deposit.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

51. Bacteria and algae on the seafloor can actually precipitate mineral deposits.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

52. Fossil fuels are renewable.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

53. Plant matter is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and silicon.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

54. If conditions are favorable, petroleum is forced out of the source rock and migrates to a nearby layer of sandstone or limestone to accumulate in a reservoir.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

55. On the average, more than half of the oil in a reservoir is left behind after a well has “gone dry,” using primary recovery techniques.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

56. Minerals resources are uniformly distributed across the world.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

57. During burial, most of the hydrogen and oxygen are expelled from peat to concentrate carbon and form coal.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

58. Unlike the prices of energy resources, the prices of mineral resources do not fluctuate.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

59. All of the world’s energy needs could potentially be supplied by renewable energy methods.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

60. Research has found that it is possible to change from a fossil fuel based economy to a renewable energy based economy with the technology that currently exists.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

1. A rock will ____________________ when the energy applied to the rock exceeds the limit beyond which it cannot deform elastically.

ANSWER:   fracture

 

2. A(n) ____________________ is a sudden motion or trembling of Earth caused by the abrupt release of energy stored in rocks

ANSWER:   earthquake

 

3. Most movement of crustal rock occurs due to slippage along established ____________________.

ANSWER:   faults

 

4. ____________________ ____________________ are elastic waves that travel through rock and are produced by earthquakes.

ANSWER:   Seismic waves

 

5. The initial rupture point of an earthquake, where abrupt movement occurs, is the ____________________.

ANSWER:   focus

 

6. Surface waves radiate from the earthquake’s ____________________ along Earth’s surface.

ANSWER:   epicenter

 

7. ____________________ are body waves that move much more slowly than P waves.

ANSWER:   S waves

 

8. Earthquakes are detected and measured with a device called a(n) ____________________.

ANSWER:   seismograph

 

9. Most earthquakes occur along ____________________ boundaries.

ANSWER:   plate

 

10. The San Andreas Fault is an example of a(n) ____________________ fault in that it is vertical, but the rocks on opposite sides move horizontally.

ANSWER:   strike-slip

 

11. A sea wave or series of sea waves produced by an earthquake are known as ____________________.

ANSWER:   tidal waves

tsunamis

 

12. ____________________ are small earthquakes that precede a large quake by an interval ranging from a few seconds to a few weeks.

ANSWER:   Foreshocks

 

13. ____________________ are compressional waves and can travel through gases, liquids, and solids.

ANSWER:   P waves

 

14. The boundary between the crust and the mantle is known as the ____________________.

ANSWER:   Moho

Mohorovicic discontinuity

 

15. Earth’s magnetic field is most likely generated within the ____________________.

ANSWER:   outer core

 

Fill in the blank.

 

16. A rock that has deformed ____ under stress keeps its new shape when the stress is released.

a. elastically
b. non-permanently
c. plastically
d. flexibly

 

ANSWER:   c

 

17. When stressed by a tectonic force, rock stores elastic energy that causes deformation, or ____, to build.

a. compression
b. strain
c. fractures
d. vibrations

 

ANSWER:   b

 

18. The initial rupture point of an earthquake (below Earth’s surface) is the ____.

a. focus
b. disaster zone
c. seismic center
d. epicenter

 

ANSWER:   a

 

19. A seismograph is a device that records ____.

a. Earth’s temperature
b. magnetic anomalies
c. seismic waves
d. isostasy

 

ANSWER:   c

 

20. The ____ magnitude is calculated from the height of the largest earthquake body wave recorded on a specific type of seismograph.

a. Mercalli
b. Roncalli
c. Richter
d. moment

 

ANSWER:   c

 

21. ____ is a continuous, slow movement of solid rock along a fault, usually not causing large earthquakes.

a. Fracturing
b. Fault slipping
c. Fault creep
d. Strike-slip

 

ANSWER:   c

 

22. Earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries tend to occur in the ____.

a. travel-time curve
b. Mercalli zone
c. Benioff zone
d. Richter zone

 

ANSWER:   c

 

23. During the process of ____, soil loses its shear strength and behaves like a fluid.

a. liquefaction
b. liquidation
c. subduction
d. fault creeping

 

ANSWER:   a

 

24. In earthquake-prone areas, ____ is the best foundation choice for building your home

a. clay
b. bedrock
c. sandy-clay
d. silty-clay

 

ANSWER:   b

 

25. ____ are not considered a reliable tool for short-term prediction of earthquakes because they precede only about half of earthquakes and many times, are not followed by a large quake.

a. Foreshocks
b. Seismic waves
c. P waves
d. Tsunamis

 

ANSWER:   a

 

26. Earth’s deepest borehole is located in northern ____ and extends to a depth of 12 kilometers.

a. China
b. Russia
c. Iceland
d. Canada

 

ANSWER:   b

 

27. When a wave passes from one material to another, it ____ (bends) and sometimes ____ (bounces back).

a. reflects; refracts
b. compresses; refracts
c. refracts; reflects
d. reflects; compresses

 

ANSWER:   c

 

28. S waves are shear waves and travel only through ____.

a. boundaries
b. liquids
c. gases
d. solids

 

ANSWER:   d

 

29. The Mohorovicic discontinuity was identified through the passage of seismic waves between the ____ and the ____.

a. inner core; outer core
b. upper mantle; lower mantle
c. crust; mantle
d. mantle; core

 

ANSWER:   c

 

30. Earth’s magnetic polarity reversals are caused by the magnetic field generated within the ____.

a. inner core
b. outer core
c. lower mantle
d. upper mantle

 

ANSWER:   b

 

31. Rock deforms ____ under small amounts of stress and returns to its original shape and size when the stress is removed.

a. elastically
b. plastically
c. seismically
d. fracturally

 

ANSWER:   a

 

32. What process prevents tectonic plates from slipping past one another continuously?

a. compression
b. deformation
c. friction
d. threshold levels

 

ANSWER:   c

 

33. P, or primary, waves ____.

a. are characterized by alternate compression and expansion of rock
b. are the slowest waves generated by an earthquake
c. pass through liquids only
d. move along Earth’s surface only

 

ANSWER:   a

 

34. S, or shear, waves ____.

a. are faster than P waves
b. move through solids, liquids, and gases
c. move along Earth’s surface only
d. vibrate perpendicular to the direction they travel

 

ANSWER:   d

 

35. P waves and S waves ____.

a. move along Earth’s surface only
b. travel through Earth’s interior
c. do not reflect and refract at boundaries
d. are the principal source of movement and damage on the surface

 

ANSWER:   b

 

36. The Mercalli scale measures ____.

a. numbers of earthquake waves generated
b. the intensity of an earthquake based on its destructive power
c. the amount of energy released during an earthquake based on the largest recorded body wave
d. the amount of energy released during an earthquake based on the amount of movement and fault area

 

ANSWER:   b

 

37. The moment magnitude scale ____.

a. is based on the highest peak recorded on a specific type of seismograph
b. can be used to locate the earthquake epicenter
c. more closely reflects the total amount of energy released during an earthquake
d. is measured by recording the amount of structural damage in an area

 

ANSWER:   c

 

38. The San Andreas Fault zone is an example of a(n) ____.

a. earthquake zone at a transform plate boundary
b. Benioff zone
c. earthquake zone at a subduction plate boundary
d. earthquake zone at a divergent plate boundary

 

ANSWER:   a

 

39. The New Madrid fault zone in the United States is thought to be caused by ____.

a. weaknesses in the lithosphere resulting from the failed development of a divergent boundary
b. a Precambrian convergent zone
c. sand volcanoes
d. a prehistoric strike-slip fault

 

ANSWER:   a

 

40. ____ are common effects of earthquakes in hilly areas due to soil liquefaction.

a. Volcanoes
b. Landslides
c. Tsunamis
d. Fault scarps

 

ANSWER:   b

 

41. Which of the following building materials normally bend and sway during an earthquake?

a. steel
b. brick
c. adobe
d. stone

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was caused by a ____.

a. fault rupture
b. strike-slip
c. tsunami
d. divergent boundary

 

ANSWER:   a

 

43. Which procedure is used in short-term predictions of earthquakes?

a. measurements of coastal marsh sediments near subduction zones
b. measurements of changes in the land surface near an active fault zone
c. monitoring of P wave formation
d. monitoring of tidal wave formation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

44. The boundary in the mantle where seismic wave velocities increase because pressure is great enough that the minerals in the mantle recrystalize to form denser minerals is called the ____ discontinuity.

a. mantle belt
b. 660-kilometer
c. Moho
d. mantle-mineral

 

ANSWER:   b

 

45. The most likely source of Earth’s magnetism is ____.

a. the flow of liquid metals in the outer core
b. a permanent magnet within Earth’s core
c. the Sun
d. convection currents in the mantle

 

ANSWER:   a

 

46. Where two tectonic plates move past one another, rock near the plate boundary can stretch or compress elastically for decades, and then fracture suddenly and create an earthquake.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

47. Earthquakes do not occur when rocks deform plastically.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

48. Surface waves travel faster than S waves.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

49. Geologists use a travel-time curve to calculate the distance between the earthquake epicenter and the earthquake focus.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

50. Earthquakes at divergent plate boundaries are deeper and stronger than earthquakes that form at convergent plate boundaries.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

51. Slippage at the New Madrid fault zone caused the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

52. In liquefaction, the soil loses its shear strength and becomes a slurry.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

53. The Tohoku earthquake caused Earth’s rotational axis to shift and to rotate slightly faster.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

54. A tsunami, produced by an undersea earthquake, may travel at 750 kilometers per hour.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

55. Virtually all of the 30 strongest earthquakes recorded since 1900 have occurred at transform plate boundaries.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

56. Long-term predictions of when earthquakes will occur are fairly accurate.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

57. It is sometimes possible to predict a large earthquake a few seconds before a building begins to shake and topple.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

58. The monitoring of the electrical conductivity of rock near fault zones is used in short-term predictions of earthquakes.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

59. P and S waves travel more rapidly in the crust than they do in the mantle below the asthenosphere.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

60. The Mohorovicic discontinuity is the boundary between the outer and inner core.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False