Test Bank for Language Culture And Communication 7th Edition by Bonvillain – Test Bank

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Test Bank for Language Culture And Communication 7th Edition by Bonvillain – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3—Language and Cultural Meaning

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

  1. What did Edward Sapir investigate?
  • how ancient texts reveal the worldviews of early civilizations
  • how the vocabulary of a language influences its speakers’ view of the world
  • how the grammatical structures of a language influence thought
  • how pronunciations of certain words influence how a person sees the world
  • how children in different cultures acquire their first language

Answer: B             p. 39-41

 

  1. Benjamin Whorf investigated
  • how ancient texts reveal the worldviews of early civilizations.
  • how people learn a second language as adults.
  • how the grammatical structures of a language influence thought.
  • how pronunciations of certain words influence how a person sees the world.
  • how a person’s language and worldview change after a traumatic brain injury.

Answer: C             p. 39-41

 

  1. Who was the soviet linguist who was a contemporary of Sapir and Whorf and a supporter of the theory of linguistic relativity?
  • Orlova
  • Trubetskoy
  • Jakobson
  • Krushevksy
  • Volosinov

Answer: E              p. 41

 

  1. In order to investigate how language affects thought, it is vital that researchers
  • conduct extensive studies on a single language.
  • use anecdotal evidence from their own life experience.
  • compare the linguistic structures and belief systems of different languages.
  • analyze how certain phonemes are pronounced differently in different contexts.
  • do extensive tests on their subjects’ brains before beginning any study.

Answer: C             p.41-42

 

  1. What is a major difference between the way Mandarin speakers and English speakers express concepts of time?
  • Mandarin speakers express time in circular terms, whereas English speakers express time in terms of

vertical space.

  • Mandarin speakers commonly express time in terms of vertical space, whereas English speakers express

time in terms of horizontal space.

  • Mandarin speakers only express time in terms of horizontal space, whereas English speakers express time in circular terms.
  • Mandarin speakers usually express time in terms of horizontal space, whereas English speakers express time in terms of vertical space.
  • There is no major difference between the two languages because both languages express time in terms of vertical space.

Answer: B             p. 43

 

 

 

 

  1. In Boroditsky’s (2001) study, what was the significant factor that determined the effect of English on native Mandarin speakers’ perception of time?
  • age of acquisition
  • the gender of the speaker
  • length of exposure to English
  • the number of languages the person spoke
  • socioeconomic class

Answer: A             p. 43

 

  1. Unconsciously carrying conversational inferences from a native language to a new language
  • may result in intercultural miscommunications.
  • helps people learn the new language more quickly.
  • can help make intercultural interactions go smoothly.
  • usually prevents learners from improving their pronunciations in the new language.
  • may facilitate the acquisition of complex grammatical patterns.

Answer: A             p. 45

 

  1. Which of the following lists of words provides an example of a semantic domain?
  • dream, stream, ream, seam, beam
  • arm, leg, head, chest, foot
  • too, to, two
  • mountain, desk, puppy, coffee, love
  • tongue, cheek, teeth, arm

Answer: B             p. 46

 

  1. What explains the fact that English has terms to differentiate horses and cattle on the basis of sex, age, and breed, but no common terms to differentiate other animals, such as chipmunks, in the same ways?
  • English speakers talk about animals like chipmunks more often than animals such as horses and cattle.
  • English-speaking societies have more cultural interest in horses and cattle than in chipmunks.
  • English-speaking societies have more cultural interest in chipmunks than in horses and cattle.
  • The English language has not yet changed to reflect modern day cultural interest in chipmunks.
  • Some animals, like chipmunks, are hard to differentiate because scientists don’t know much about them.

Answer: B             p. 46-47

 

  1. English speakers often use __________ to linguistically signal that a term is a member of a fuzzy category.
  • questions
  • affixes
  • hedges
  • allomorphs
  • deictic terms

Answer: C             p. 49

 

  1. Of the following which can be used to classify nouns into categories?
  • gender relationships
  • animate/inanimate distinctions
  • SVO agreement
  • OVS agreement
  • fricative/generative agreement

Answer: B             p. 49-50

 

 

 

 

 

  1. According to Berlin and Kay’s (1969) cross-linguistic study of color terms, if a language has only two color terms, what will they be?
  • white and red
  • yellow and blue
  • black and grue
  • pink and orange
  • white and black

Answer: E              p. 52

 

  1. According to Berlin and Kay’s (1969) cross-linguistic study of color terms, what will be the third color term a language has?
  • red
  • yellow
  • green
  • blue
  • grue

Answer: A             p. 52

 

  1. In semantic analyses, the term prototype means
  • a group of vocabulary words with related meanings, such as kinship terms.
  • an unstated comparison between entities or events that share certain features.
  • a cultural model that affects communicative behavior.
  • an idealized, internalized conceptualization of an object, quality, or activity.
  • an object, quality, or activity that is on the boundary between two semantic categories.

Answer: D             p.53

 

  1. What are the three systems of coordination for expressing spatial relations?
  • absolute, prototypical, and relative
  • absolute, cultural, and prototypical
  • absolute, relative, and deictic
  • absolute, cultural, and deictic
  • absolute, relative, and cultural

Answer: C             p. 55

 

  1. Which of the sentences below demonstrates the use of an absolute system of coordination for spatial relations?
  • The car is parked to the side of the restaurant.
  • The car is parked in front of the restaurant.
  • The car is parked to the right of the restaurant.
  • The car is parked north of the restaurant.
  • The car is parked behind the restaurant.

Answer: D             p. 55

 

  1. People have cultural presuppositions about
  • how conversations are structured.
  • what arguments are like.
  • how conversations should be structured.

Answer: E              p. 58-59

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which sentence below contains a conceptual metaphor that reveals how English speakers conceptualize time as a valuable commodity?
  • I’ll meet you there in an hour.
  • Thank you for spending time with me.
  • The movie is two hours long.
  • You should take a nap for a few minutes.
  • I just saw him about thirty minutes ago.

Answer: B             p. 62

 

  1. Which statement below is true of metaphors?
  • Metaphors are used only in poetry and creative writing.
  • English speakers never attribute animate or human qualities to nonliving entities.
  • Metaphors provide the basis for our conceptual systems.
  • Metaphors are found only in English and a few other languages.
  • English uses a metaphor that expresses negative things as “up.”

Answer: C             p. 62

 

  1. Zapotec uses terms for ___________ to describe parts of any animate being or inanimate object.
  • the human body
  • geographic features
  • kinship
  • containers
  • emotions

Answer: A             p. 64

 

 

IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

 

 

  1. ___________ and ___________ were the two most influential linguistic anthropologists in the first half of the twentieth century.

Answer: Edward Sapir; Benjamin Whorf       p. 39

 

  1. A group of words that share a core meaning related to a certain topic is known as a ___________.

Answer: semantic domain                 p. 46

 

  1. The procedure of ___________ is used to determine significant contrasts between related vocabulary words.

Answer: componential analysis        p. 48

 

  1. ___________ categories are based on the idea that individual terms are in the category to a certain degree. Membership in these categories is often signaled in English by words such as sort of, somewhat, and loosely speaking.

Answer: Fuzzy     p. 49

 

  1. The term __________ refers to the classification systems people construct to organize knowledge of the world.

Answer: ethnoscience         p. 51

 

  1. Words may have a range of meanings, but a word’s primary sense is its __________.

Answer: focal meaning      p. 53

 

  1. The ___________ system of spatial reference describes objects from the point of view of the speaker.

Answer: deictic     p. 55

 

  1. People enter into interactions with a variety of ___________, or knowledge and understandings of their culture as expressed and transmitted through language.

Answer: cultural presuppositions      p. 58-59

 

  1. The process of attributing animate attributes to inanimate objects is known as ___________.

Answer: personification     p. 62

 

  1. In the sentence He likes to read Shakespeare, the author stands in for the plays he has written. This is an example of __________.

Answer: metonymy            p. 62

 

 

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

 

 

  1. Cultural models can be expressed overtly through proverbs, myths, and legends, or covertly through interaction.

Answer: TRUE     p. 38

 

  1. Linguistic anthropologists agree that the language one speaks completely controls one’s thoughts.

Answer: FALSE   p. 39-41

 

  1. In most societies, cultural interests remain constant over time.

Answer” FALSE   p. 46-47

 

  1. When children are acquiring their first language, the language they are learning influences the way they think about spatial relations at a very young age.

Answer: TRUE     p. 56

 

  1. Advertisements often rely on cultural presuppositions to help sell their products.

Answer: TRUE     p. 60

 

 

ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary.

 

 

  1. Explain the theory of linguistic relativity and describe how the grammatical differences between English and Hopi contribute to this theory.

Answers will vary.                p. 42-43

 

  1. Describe John Lucy’s (1996) experiments with Yucatec and English speakers and explain the significance of his findings.

Answers will vary.                p. 42-43

 

  1. Compare and contrast the ways people express spatial relations in Guugu Yimithirr and Tzeltal.

Answers will vary.                p. 55-56

 

  1. Compare and contrast the underlying cultural presuppositions regarding individual autonomy in English and Navajo. Give examples to illustrate how these different cultural presuppositions affect each language.

Answers will vary.                p. 59

 

  1. Describe the metaphorical extension of the morpheme for “mother” to other entities in Navajo.

Answers will vary.                p. 63

 

Chapter 5—Communicative Interactions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

  1. Which statement below is true of turn-taking in American conversation?
  • Usually, each person takes several turns in a row before turning the floor over.
  • People usually talk at the same time for long stretches of the conversation.
  • There are usually long gaps between each turn.
  • People sometimes briefly talk at the same time at the transition of turns.
  • Each person in a multi-party conversation will get the same number of turns.

Answer: D             p. 102-103

 

  1. Which of the following people is most likely to have the longest turns in American conversation?
  • a woman
  • a child
  • a high-status person
  • a low-status person
  • none of them as turns in American conversation are usually of equal length

Answer: C             p. 103

 

  1. What effect do tag questions have on conversational structure?
  • They help end the conversation.
  • They keep the speaker’s turn going.
  • They prevent another interlocutor from entering the conversation.
  • They bring a topic of conversation to a close.
  • They end the speaker’s turn and select another speaker.

Answer: E              p. 103

 

  1. Which option below contains a tag question?
  • Is it snowing right now?
  • It’s getting late, don’t you think?
  • Do you want to meet for lunch tomorrow?
  • Where is the closest bus station?
  • What do you want to eat for dinner?

Answer: B             p. 103

 

  1. People use backchannel cues in conversation to indicate that
  • they want to speak.
  • they are about to end their turn.
  • they want to change topics.
  • they are trying to start a conversation.
  • they are paying attention.

Answer: E              p. 103

 

  1. What is one way Cree conversational structures differ from those of American-Canadians?
  • Cree speakers have a longer pause between turns.
  • Cree speakers have a shorter pause between turns.
  • Cree speakers do not pause between turns.
  • Cree speakers do not use backchannel cues.
  • Cree speakers do not engage in turn-taking.

Answer: A             p. 104

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the purpose of repetition in conversation?
  • It allows speakers to stall while they think.
  • It connects turns of talk.
  • It is used for humorous effect.
  • It demonstrates that the addressee is listening.
  • All of the above.

Answer: E              p. 105

 

  1. What does the maxim of quantity state?
  • Speakers should be relevant.
  • Speakers should avoid ambiguity.
  • Speakers should be informative.
  • Speakers should take brief turns.
  • Speakers should be truthful.

Answer: C             p. 107

 

  1. What does the maxim of relation state?
  • Speakers should be relevant.
  • Speakers should avoid ambiguity.
  • Speakers should be informative.
  • Speakers should take brief turns.
  • Speakers should be truthful.

Answer: A             p. 107

 

  1. According to Gordon and Lakoff (1971), directives must meet certain __________ in order to be considered legitimate.
  • downgrader conditions
  • felicity conditions
  • repetition conditions
  • politeness conditions
  • honorific conditions

Answer: B             p. 109

 

  1. Which option below is an example of an imperative?
  • May I have some coffee?
  • Could you make me some coffee?
  • I want some coffee.
  • Bring me some coffee.
  • That coffee looks delicious.

Answer: D             p. 110

 

  1. Which option below is an example of a permission directive?
  • I need to make a call.
  • Can you make a call for me?
  • I forgot my cell phone.
  • May I use your phone?
  • Do you have a phone?

Answer: D             p. 110

 

  1. Which option below is an example of a hint?
  • The dog is getting pretty stinky.
  • Does the dog need a bath today?
  • Please wash the dog today.
  • Could you wash the dogs today?
  • Wash the dogs!

Answer: A             p. 110

 

  1. Examine the following sentence: We need to get started on dinner.

This sentence is an example of a(n) ___________ directive.

  • hearer-oriented
  • speaker-oriented
  • speaker- and hearer-oriented
  • group-oriented
  • impersonal

Answer: C             p. 111

 

  1. Examine the following sentence: Could I use the car tomorrow?

This sentence is an example of a(n) ___________ directive.

  • hearer-oriented
  • speaker-oriented
  • speaker- and hearer-oriented
  • group-oriented
  • impersonal

Answer: B             p. 111

 

  1. Examine the following sentence: It would be great if this report could get printed today.  

This sentence is an example of a(n) ___________ directive.

  • hearer-oriented
  • speaker-oriented
  • speaker- and hearer-oriented
  • group-oriented
  • impersonal

Answer: E              p. 111

 

  1. Examine the following sentence: I’m sorry to ask you this, but could you help for just a moment?

This sentence is an example of the speaker using a ___________ strategy.

  • bald on-record
  • positive politeness
  • neutral politeness
  • negative politeness
  • off-record

Answer: D             p. 116

 

  1. Examine the following sentence: So, when do we get to try your famous barbecued hamburgers, buddy?

This sentence is an example of the speaker using a ___________ strategy.

  • bald on-record
  • positive politeness
  • neutral politeness
  • negative politeness
  • off-record

Answer: B             p. 116

 

  1. Examine the following sentence: Hand me that tape measure.

This sentence is an example of the speaker using a ___________ strategy.

  • bald on-record
  • positive politeness
  • neutral politeness
  • negative politeness
  • off-record

Answer: A             p. 116

 

  1. When do Japanese speakers use humbling forms in their utterances?
  • When referring to themselves.
  • When referring to their family members.
  • When referring to the family members of certain interlocutors such as doctors and professors.
  • Both A and B.
  • Both B and C.

Answer: D             p. 123

 

 

IDENTIFICATION/SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

 

 

  1. Utterances that typically occur in a set order, such as questions and answers or requests and refusals, are known as ___________.

Answer: adjacency pairs    p. 103

 

  1. People use ___________ to let other people in the conversation know they would like to speak next.

Answer: turn-entry devices                p. 103

 

  1. When errors occur in conversation, people use ___________ to fix them so that the conversation begins flowing smoothly again

Answer: repair mechanisms              p. 103

 

  1. The maxim of quality states that people should be __________ in conversation

Answer: truthful                   p. 107

 

  1. The maxim of __________ states that people should be brief, orderly, and avoid ambiguity in their utterances.

Answer: manner

 

  1. Utterances intended to get the hearer to do something are called ___________.

Answer: directives               p. 107

 

  1. Politeness strategies that involve avoiding imposing on the hearer are called ___________ politeness strategies.

Answer: negative                 p. 116-117

 

  1. Politeness strategies that involve expressing solidarity with the hearer are called ___________ politeness strategies. 119

Answer: positive

 

  1. Politeness strategies exist to mitigate ___________, or utterances that risk imposing on the hearer.

Answer: face-threatening acts (FTAs)             p. 116

 

  1. Some languages express politeness through __________, or the use of special markers on nouns, verbs, and modifiers to show deference to the addressee.

Answer: honorification/honorifics   p. 122

 

 

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

 

 

  1. Conversation is structured and based on turn-taking in all languages.

Answer: TRUE     p. 102

 

 

  1. Malagasy speakers adhere to the maxim of quantity because they readily share new information with other community members.

Answer: FALSE   p. 107

 

  1. English does not use syntactic strategies to mitigate directives, so English speakers must rely on pragmatic strategies to soften directives.

Answer: FALSE   p. 111-113

 

  1. In Malagasy, indirect speech is favored for directives.

Answer: TRUE     p. 112

 

  1. In Japanese, men tend to use more polite language than women.

Answer: FALSE   p. 124

 

 

ESSAY. Write a well-organized essay of [will vary: between 50–100 words] for each of the questions below. Make sure your essay has an introductory and concluding sentence and evidence from class to back up your points as necessary.

 

 

  1. Compare and contrast the conversational structures that govern Cree conversations with those that are used in American-Canadian interactions.

Answers will vary.                p. 104-106

 

  1. Compare and contrast the acquisition of directives by children learning Hungarian and Norwegian and discuss how the use of directives changes as the children grow older.

Answers will vary.                p. 112

 

  1. Explain how the Akan of Ghana and the Malagasy of Madagascar mitigate face-threatening acts.

Answers will vary.                p. 120-121

 

  1. Describe the ways that Japanese speakers show deference and humility and in which situations each method of politeness is used.

Answers will vary.                p. 123

 

  1. Explain how politeness in Japanese is affected by age, gender, and context.

Answers will vary.                p. 122-123