Test Bank for Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

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Nutrition for Health and Healthcare 6th Edition By DeBruyne Pinna – Test Bank

c6 Energy_Balance_and_Body_Composition

 

True / False

 

1. Fat can be made from an excess of any energy-yielding nutrient.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. The body metabolically recognizes the difference between fasting and starving.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

3. Ketones can meet some of the nervous system’s energy needs.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

4. Normally, the nervous system consumes less than 10% of the total glucose used each day.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. The body’s adaptations to fasting are sufficient to maintain life for only a very short period.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

6. Basal metabolic needs are large compared to energy needs for activities.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. ​Voluntary activities normally require less energy in a day than basal metabolism does.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. People can change their voluntary actions to spend more or less energy in a day, but they cannot change their basal metabolic rate.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

9. A smoker may weigh less than a non-smoker, but will likely have more visceral fat.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. Skinfold measurements provide an inaccurate estimate of total body fat.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

Multiple Choice

 

11. ​Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscles when:

a. ​excessive fat is present in the blood.
b. ​vigorous muscular activity has just ended.
c. ​excessive glucose is present in the blood.
d. ​excessive cholesterol is present in the blood.
e. ​starvation conditions are present.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. ​Surplus dietary carbohydrate is first stored as:

a. ​glycogen.
b. ​protein.
c. ​fat.
d. ​triglycerides.
e. ​cholesterol.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. When carbohydrate consumption exceeds body needs, the excess glucose is:​

a. ​not absorbed from the small intestine.
b. ​excreted in the feces.
c. ​stored as glucose.
d. ​stored as glycogen only.
e. ​stored as glycogen and fat.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. Alcohol contributes to obesity because it:​

a. ​diminishes the body’s use of fat for fuel.
b. ​has as many kcalories as fat.
c. ​increases appetite.
d. ​encourages storage of body protein.
e. ​reduces activity levels.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

15. Which of the following statements is true regarding the effect of alcohol on body weight?​

a. ​Alcohol yields no energy so it does not affect body weight.
b. ​Alcohol is low in kcalories and has very little effect on body weight.
c. ​Alcohol slows down the body’s use of fat, causing more fat to be stored.
d. ​Alcohol speeds up the body’s metabolism and discourages the storage of body fat.
e. ​Alcohol contains enzymes that convert protein to fat, encouraging the storage of body fat.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Of all the nutrients, which is the easiest for the body to store as fat?​

a. ​protein
b. ​carbohydrates
c. ​fat
d. ​vitamins
e. ​minerals

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

17. When protein consumption exceeds body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and:​

a. ​stored as fat.
b. ​excreted in the feces.
c. ​stored as amino acids.
d. ​stored as glycogen and fat.
e. ​stored in the gallbladder as bile.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

18. Energy is stored in the body for future use as:​

a. ​nitrogen.
b. ​glycerol.
c. ​fatty acids.
d. ​lecithin.
e. ​body fat.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

19. Within a day of beginning a fast, most of the body’s stores of which of the following are depleted?​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​amino acids
c. ​fatty acids
d. ​glycerol
e. ​protein

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

20. In the first few days of a fast, what percentage of needed glucose is supplied by protein breakdown?​

a. ​25
b. ​50
c. ​75
d. ​90
e. ​100

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

21. The part of a triglyceride that can be made into glucose is:​

a. ​the saturated fatty acids.
b. ​the medium-chain fatty acids.
c. ​the unsaturated fatty acids.
d. ​the long-chain fatty acids.
e. ​the glycerol backbone.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

22. In the first few days of fasting, body protein is used primarily to:​

a. ​rebuild tissue.
b. ​replace worn out cells.
c. ​provide glucose.
d. ​stabilize fluid balance.
e. ​provide immunity to infection.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

23. Which of the following are acidic, water-soluble compounds formed from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available?​

a. ​amino acids
b. ​pyruvate molecules
c. ​carbon dioxide
d. ​ketone bodies
e. ​ammonia and urea

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

24. As the body shifts to partial dependence on ketones for energy during prolonged fasting:​

a. ​the body increases its energy output.
b. ​the body conserves its lean tissue.
c. ​the body increases its metabolism.
d. ​the body’s loss of lean tissue increases.
e. ​the body’s fat stores increase.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. Your client, Samantha, has been fasting to lose weight. Which of the following changes in her body would be least likely?​

a. ​loss of lean tissue.
b. ​disturbances of fluid and electrolyte balance.
c. ​impairment of disease resistance.
d. ​increased body temperature.
e. ​increased metabolic rate.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

26. Fasting results in:​

a. ​degradation of lean body tissue.
b. ​safe, quick, and easy loss of fat tissue.
c. ​immediate loss of energy and mental alertness.
d. ​cleansing of toxins from the body.
e. ​improved resistance to infections.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

27. The amount of fat a person’s body stores when excess food is consumed:​

a. ​is directly proportional to weight.
b. ​is not influenced by GI functioning.
c. ​always equals 1 pound per 3500 kcal.
d. ​varies widely among individuals.
e. ​cannot exceed 200,000 kcalories.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

28. BMR is lowest during:​

a. ​pregnancy.
b. ​physical activity.
c. ​sleep.
d. ​sedentary activity.
e. ​exercise.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

29. The energy needed to maintain life when a person is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest is termed:​

a. ​basal metabolism.
b. ​the kcalorie.
c. ​physiological fuel value.
d. ​the Estimated Energy Requirement.
e. ​body composition.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

30. Basal metabolic rate is lowered by:​

a. ​bodybuilding.
b. stress or fever.​
c. ​high thyroid gland activity.
d. ​an increase in lean body mass.
e. ​loss of lean body mass.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

31. Which of the following individuals would have the lowest basal metabolic rate?​

a. ​a pregnant woman
b. ​a tall, thin person
c. ​a malnourished person
d. ​a person with a fever
e. ​a bodybuilder

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

32. ​Which of the following individuals would have the slowest basal metabolic rate?

a. ​a 51-year-old male
b. ​a 20-year-old inactive woman
c. ​a 25-year-old pregnant woman
d. ​a 3-year-old child
e. ​a 32-year-old hyperthyroid woman

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

33. An individual can most easily alter his/her energy output by altering:​

a. ​the time of day he/she exercises.
b. ​the intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise.
c. ​his/her eating patterns.
d. ​the combination of foods eaten at a meal.
e. ​sleep patterns.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

34. The thermic effect of food represents about what percentage of the total food energy taken in?​

a. ​4
b. ​10
c. ​16
d. ​25
e. ​50

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

35. Men generally have a higher BMR than women do because:​

a. ​women have less lean body mass.
b. ​women tend to eat less.
c. ​men tend to eat more.
d. ​men have less lean body mass.
e. ​testosterone reduces BMR.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. ​Which of the following statements would you be least likely to tell your client regarding metabolic rate?

a. ​BMR is measured after a 12-hour fast.
b. ​RMR is higher than BMR.
c. ​RMR represents only that energy needed for life-sustaining processes.
d. ​BMR is increased during growth.
e. ​BMR is typically expressed as kcalories per kilogram of body weight per hour.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

37. The basal metabolic rate slows with increasing age because:​

a. ​ the elderly are malnourished.
b. ​fat mass in the body decreases.
c. ​digestive efficiency declines.
d. ​lean body mass diminishes.
e. ​kidney function decreases.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. You are discussing energy requirements with your client. Which of the following would you be least likely to mention to her regarding variability of energy needs between individuals?​

a. ​gender
b. ​age
c. ​physical activity
d. ​body composition
e. ​food preferences

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

39. What body component has the greatest variability in quantity and quality?​

a. ​bone mass
b. ​muscle mass
c. ​fluid
d. ​fat mass
e. ​nervous tissue

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

40. Which of the following individuals would be classified as being very active?​

a. ​a carpenter
b. ​a teacher
c. ​a football player
d. ​a gardener
e. ​a golfer

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

41. Given that EER for women = [354 – (6.91 ´ age)] + PA ´ [(9.36 ´ wt) + (726 ´ ht)], estimate the energy requirements for Anne, an active 27 year old (PA = 1.27) who is 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighs 130 pounds. ​

a. ​1700-1800
b. ​2300-2400
c. ​2600-2700
d. ​3200-3300
e. ​3500-3700

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

42. When calculating a person’s EER, which of the following is required?​

a. ​height, weight in kg, and physical activity factor
b. ​height, weight in kg, and percent body fat
c. ​weight in kg, physical activity factor, and percent body fat
d. ​weight in kg, gender, and percent body fat
e. ​height, daily fiber intake in grams, and physical activity factor

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. Calculate the BMI of a male who is 5’11” tall and weighs 210 pounds.​

a. ​18
b. ​23
c. ​27
d. ​29
e. ​33

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

44. According to BMI criteria, a person with a BMI of 24 would be considered:​

a. ​underweight.
b. ​overweight.
c. ​obese.
d. ​normal weight.
e. ​physically fit.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. ​A weakness in using BMI to assess body weight is:

a. ​it doesn’t distinguish between male and female.
b. ​it doesn’t distinguish between young and old.
c. ​it doesn’t indicate where excess fat is located on the body.
d. ​it doesn’t indicate the ideal weight for a given height.
e. ​it distinguishes between muscle weight and fat weight.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

46. Which type of fat poses the greatest risk to health?​

a. ​visceral fat
b. ​dietary fat
c. ​subcutaneous fat
d. ​lower body fat
e. ​fat accumulated due to alcohol consumption

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

47. ​The health risk associated with central obesity has to do with:

a. ​an imbalance in adipokines.
b. ​the proximity of the excess fat to the gallbladder.
c. ​an imbalance in cytokines.
d. ​the proximity of excess fat to the small intestine.
e. ​an imbalance in estrogen.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

48. A good indicator of fat distribution on an individual is:​

a. ​BMI.
b. ​body weight.
c. ​hip circumference.
d. ​visual assessment.
e. ​waist circumference.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

49. ​Which of the following people would be at lowest risk for the accumulation of abdominal fat?

a. ​a smoker
b. ​a postmenopausal woman
c. ​a middle-aged man
d. ​a premenopausal woman
e. ​a 15-year-old male football player

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

50. The recommended range of body fat for a woman is:​

a. ​13-21%.
b. ​15-23%.
c. ​23-31%.
d. ​27-35%.
e. ​30-40%

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. A lack of body fat can result in:​

a. ​infertility in women.
b. ​depression.
c. ​abnormal hunger regulation.
d. ​insomnia.
e. ​increased blood pressure.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 – Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

52. ​Approximately what percentage of U.S. adults are overweight or obese?

a. ​33
b. ​42
c. ​57
d. ​69
e. ​100

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 – Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. ​Obesity is officially defined as a BMI of equal to or greater than which of the following?

a. ​25
b. ​30
c. ​35
d. ​40
e. ​43

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 – Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

54. You are discussing the health risks of obesity with a middle school class. Which of the following would you be least likely to mention?​

a. ​hypertension.
b. ​diabetes.
c. ​sleep apnea.
d. ​tuberculosis.
e. ​lowered self-esteem.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 – Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

55. Which person is at the greatest health risk?​

a. ​a 27-year-old woman with a waist circumference of 40 inches
b. ​a 25-year-old athlete with a BMI of 33
c. ​a 50-year-old male with a BMI of 29 who works out every day
d. ​a 42-year-old woman with a waist circumference of 34 inches
e. ​a 20-year-old woman with a BMI of 18.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 – Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

56. ​Which of the following are the three indicators established by obesity experts for evaluating health risks from overweight and obesity?

a. ​disease risk profile, body fat percentage, and blood pressure
b. ​BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure
c. ​waist circumference, blood pressure, and body fat percentage
d. ​diet history, BMI, and disease risk profile
e. ​disease risk profile, BMI, and waist circumference

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 – Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Which of the following describes anorexia nervosa?​

a. ​An eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.
b. ​Recurring episodes of binge eating combined with a morbid fear of becoming fat, often followed by purging.
c. ​The absence of cessation of menstruation.
d. ​Energy restriction followed by binging.
e. ​Use of a cathartic after a binge.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 – Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Which of the following is most likely to occur among young competitive athletes with disordered eating?​

a. ​hyperlipidemia
b. ​fluid retention
c. ​increased bone density
d. ​stress fractures
e. ​weight gain

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 – Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

59. You suspect that your 14-year-old female client may have an eating disorder. What advice would you give her?​

a. ​cut kcalories
b. ​only eat when hungry
c. ​monitor blood glucose regularly
d. ​take a multivitamin
e. ​establish a reasonable weight goal based on a healthy body composition

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 – Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

60. Sara is a 22-year-old college student with a BMI of 17.5. She is very anxious and stress triggers binge eating episodes followed by self-induced vomiting. From which of the following disorders does Sara most likely suffer?​

a. ​bulimia nervosa
b. ​anorexia nervosa
c. ​clinical depression
d. ​binge eating disorder
e. ​relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S)

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   6.5 Nutrition in Practice 6: Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.5 – Compare the criteria for diagnosis, characteristics, and treatments of the different eating disorders.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analyze

 

Matching

 

Match each range to the appropriate health indicator.​

a. ​normal BMI
b. ​obese BMI
c. ​overweight BMI
d. ​underweight BMI
e. ​waist size (in inches) indicating risk in men
f. ​waist size (in inches) indicating risk in women

 

REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

61. ​less than 18.5

ANSWER:   d

 

62. 18.5-24.9 ​

ANSWER:   a

 

63. 25.0-29.9 ​

ANSWER:   c

 

64. 30.0 or more ​

ANSWER:   b

 

65. 35.0 or more ​

ANSWER:   f

 

66. ​40.0 or more

ANSWER:   e

 

Essay

 

67. Describe how fat can be made from an excess of each of the energy nutrients—carbohydrate, protein, or fat.​

ANSWER:   Surplus carbohydrate can be first stored as glycogen, but when glycogen stores are exceeded, excess glucose is converted to fat. Surplus dietary fat is routed directly to the body’s adipose tissue, where it can be stored until needed for energy. Protein can be converted to body fat, but it is an inefficient process.​
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

68. Explain why less fat may be lost during fasting than is lost when at least some food is supplied.​

ANSWER:   In fasting, muscle and lean tissues give up protein to supply amino acids for conversion to glucose for the brain and nerves. Fasting causes lean tissue to be degraded, rather than fat. A moderately restricted diet promotes primarily fat loss and retention of more lean tissue.​
REFERENCES:   6.1 Energy Imbalance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.1 – Explain how an excess of any of the three energy-yielding nutrients contributes to body fat and how an inadequate intake of any of them shifts metabolism.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

69. Define the thermic effect of food and explain its effect on energy expenditure​

ANSWER:   The thermic effect of food is an estimation of the energy required to process food (digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and storage of ingested nutrients). It is thought to represent approximately 10% of the total food energy taken in.​
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

70. Identify and briefly describe five factors that affect a person’s basal metabolic rate.​

ANSWER:   Age- lean body mass diminishes with age; height- greater height=greater BMR; fever- fever increases BMR; stress- increases BMR; fasting- lowers BMR.​
REFERENCES:   6.2 Energy Balance
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.2 – Describe energy balance and identify the components of energy expenditure, the factors that affect a person’s BMR, and the factors that influence a person’s energy expenditure.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

71. ​Explain the mechanism through which excessive abdominal fat is thought to increase the risk of chronic disease.

ANSWER:   Hormones, called adipokines, are released by the adipose tissue, and regulate inflammation and energy metabolism in nearby tissues. In central obesity, the adipokines released favor inflammation and insulin resistance, which may contribute to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases.​
REFERENCES:   6.3 Body Weight and Body Composition
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.3 – Describe the differences between body weight and body composition, including methods to assess them and health implications.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

72. Discuss three indicators used to identify and evaluate the health risks from overweight and obesity.​

ANSWER:   1) BMI- overweight is defined as BMI of 25.0-29.9, and obesity is defined as BMI greater than or equal to 30. 2) Waist circumference- Overweight or obese people whose waist measurement is greater than 35 inches (women) or 40 inches (men) often face a greater risk of heart disease and mortality; 3) Disease risk profile- life-threatening diseases, family history, risk factors for heart disease (blood lipid profile).​
REFERENCES:   6.4 Health Risks of Underweight and Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.6.4 – Identify relationships between body weight and the risk of health problems and summarize the guidelines for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

c7 Weight_Management_Overweight_and_Underweight

True / False

 

1. ​Genetics influences the way the body consumes, stores, and expends energy.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. ​Genetics alone determines a person’s susceptibility to obesity.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

3. Some research indicates that obese people have much more lipoprotein lipase activity in their fat cells than lean people do.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

4. Obese people who are maintaining weight have lower blood levels of ghrelin than thinner people on weight-loss diets.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. ​Most obese people have a leptin deficiency.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

6. ​Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the stomach that acts much like leptin.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. On a sensible weight-control program, meals and snacks should include whole-grain foods and fiber-rich vegetables.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

8. ​Steam and sauna baths that melt fat off the body are appropriate obesity interventions.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   7.3 Inappropriate Obesity Treatments
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.3 – Describe the dangers of over-the-counter weight-loss products.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

9. The greatest appeal of fad diets is that they tend to ignore current diet recommendations.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   7.7 Nutrition in Practice: Fad Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.7 – Discuss the popular fad diets and how to evaluate weight-loss diets based on sound nutrition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

10. Weight-loss advice applies equally to all overweight people.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   7.2 Obesity Treatments: Who Should Lose?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.2 – Explain why weight-loss advice does not apply equally to all overweight people.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

11. Belviq works by interacting with brain serotonin receptors to increase satiety.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Multiple Choice

 

12. Which of the following is a hormone produced by the stomach cells that promotes positive energy balance by stimulating appetite and promoting efficient energy storage?​

a. ​Insulin
b. ​Leptin
c. ​Ghrelin
d. ​Yohimbe

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. The development of excess fat cells is most likely to occur:​

a. ​when you eat a large breakfast.
b. ​during late childhood and puberty.
c. ​if you are inactive.
d. ​around the age of 40.
e. ​during pregnancy.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. The theory that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls is referred to as:​

a. ​environmental stimuli.
b. ​genetics.
c. ​learned behavior.
d. ​obesogenic theory.
e. ​set-point theory.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

15. Which of the following is an environmental stimulus that is least likely to contribute to obesity?​

a. ​the abundance of food available
b. ​an increase in portion sizes
c. ​energy-dense fast food
d. ​the year-round availability of fresh fruits and vegetables
e. ​heavy advertising for fast food

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

16. ​Fast food contributes to obesity because it generally provides:

a. ​nutrient-dense foods.
b. ​smaller portions.
c. ​plenty of low-kcalorie choices.
d. ​large portions and energy-dense foods.
e. ​kcalorie information on menu boards.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

17. The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:​

a. ​satiety.
b. ​appetite.
c. ​hunger.
d. ​obesity.
e. ​set-point.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

18. Which of the following is the best example of the link between food behavior and emotions?​

a. ​someone who eats fast food for lunch every day
b. ​someone who would rather sit home and eat than ask a friend to go to a movie and risk rejection
c. ​someone who always eats popcorn while watching a movie
d. ​a pregnant woman who craves pickles
e. ​a 5-year-old boy who only wants to eat macaroni and cheese

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

19. Susie has been overweight for many years. She tends to eat when she is not really hungry and eats more food when she is angry or depressed. Which of the following could explain Susie’s problem of overweight?​

a. ​lipoprotein lipase
b. ​set-point theory
c. ​learned behavior
d. ​genetics
e. ​food desert

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

20. Screen time contributes to obesity by:​

a. ​limiting access to fresh foods.
b. ​increasing energy expenditure.
c. ​increasing risk of depression.
d. ​increasing time spent cooking.
e. ​​replacing time spent being active.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

21. Which of the following would be least likely to be considered when deciding whether a person should lose weight?​

a. ​the extent of overweight.
b. ​age.
c. ​health.
d. ​basal metabolic rate.
e. ​genetics.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.2 Obesity Treatment: Who Should Lose?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.2 – Explain why weight-loss advice does not apply equally to all overweight people.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. Which of the following is an amphetamine-like substance once available over the counter for weight loss but was banned by the FDA due to many ill effects reported by consumers?​

a. ​Ephedrine
b. ​Pyruvate
c. ​Chitosan
d. ​Yohimbe
e. ​Orlistat

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.3 Inappropriate Obesity Treatments
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.3 – Describe the dangers of over-the-counter weight-loss products.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

23. Which of the following statements is true regarding weight loss?​

a. ​Laxatives promote weight loss.
b. ​Hot baths speed up metabolism.
c. ​Grapefruit juice melts body fat.
d. ​Some weight-loss products can be dangerous.
e. ​Wraps performed by a professional will reduce body fat.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.3 Inappropriate Obesity Treatments
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.3 – Describe the dangers of over-the-counter weight-loss products.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. Which of the following is a prescription drug that alters release of the brain’s neurotransmitters to suppress appetite?​

a. ​Orlistat
b. ​Phentermine
c. ​Olestra
d. ​Belviq
e. ​Alli

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

25. Which of the following is a drug used to treat obesity that reduces the absorption of fat?​

a. ​Orlistat
b. ​Phendimetrazine
c. ​Belviq
d. ​Qsymia
e. ​Gastric bypass

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

26. ​The surgical approach to weight loss can often be justified in cases of:

a. ​BMI 25-30.
b. ​uncontrolled diabetes.
c. ​clinically severe obesity.
d. ​peptic ulcer disease.
e. ​uncontrolled hypertension.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

27. Weight-loss surgeries:​

a. ​reduce the capacity of the colon.
b. ​are dangerous and should be avoided.
c. ​have no complications.
d. ​worsen existing health conditions associated with obesity.
e. ​reduce the capacity of the stomach.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

28. Which of the following complications would be least likely to result from weight-loss surgery?​

a. ​infections
b. ​nutritional deficiencies
c. ​the development of diabetes
d. ​psychological problems
e. ​dehydration

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

29. ​The long-term safety and effectiveness of gastric surgery depend largely on:

a. ​compliance with dietary instructions.
b. ​avoidance of all fats.
c. ​the patient’s age.
d. ​regular monitoring of blood glucose levels.
e. ​gastrointestinal hormone levels.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. The secret to safe and permanent weight loss is a sensible approach involving:​

a. ​physical activity and a healthy low-kcalorie diet.
b. ​hormones and diet pills.
c. ​a very-low-kcalorie diet combined with regular exercise.
d. ​herbal supplements and a low-kcalorie diet.
e. ​a low-carbohydrate diet and weekly fat-melting body wraps.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

31. Which of the following is most likely to occur with the implementation of severe kcalorie restriction and rapid weight loss?​

a. ​excessive loss of lean tissue.
b. ​a lower basal metabolism.
c. ​rapid regain of weight.
d. ​rapid loss of fat tissue.
e. ​increased risk for development of an eating disorder

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. In order to lose 1-2 pounds per week while retaining lean tissue, you would need to reduce your food intake by how many kcalories per day?​

a. ​5
b. ​250
c. ​650
d. ​100
e. ​2000

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

33. Women following a weight-loss diet many need supplements of _____.​

a. ​amino acids and/or essential fatty acids
b. ​iron and/or calcium
c. ​sodium and/or potassium
d. ​vitamin C and/or calcium
e. ​vitamin B12 and/or zinc

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

34. Donna currently weighs 160 pounds, is 5 feet tall and needs 1700 kcal/day to maintain weight. How many kcalories should Donna consume daily in order to lose weight?​

a. ​1200
b. ​1600
c. ​1800
d. ​2000
e. ​2200

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

35. Jill, who currently weighs 180 pounds and is 4’ 8” tall, has asked to be placed on a weight-loss diet. Jill should cut how many kcalories/day from her energy intake?​

a. ​300-500
b. ​700-800
c. ​1500-2000
d. ​600-1200
e. ​500-1000

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

36. Nutritional adequacy is difficult to achieve on fewer than how many kcalories per day?​

a. ​1300
b. ​1200
c. ​1500
d. ​1700
e. ​2000

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

37. Warning signs of an unsound weight-loss program include:​

a. ​a diet that provides at least 1200 kcalories.
b. ​recommendations to consume ordinary foods.
c. ​requirements to purchase a particular brand of foods/supplements.
d. ​encouragement to pursue physical activity.
e. ​a diet that limits added sugars and alcohol.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

38. Sarah is trying to lose 10 pounds. Which of the following would you suggest?​

a. ​Reduce your kcalorie intake by 100-200 kcalories a day and engage in 15 minutes of exercise per day.
b. ​Ask your physician for a prescription for orlistat.
c. ​Replace two meals a day with a bowl of cereal.
d. ​Reduce your kcalorie intake by 300-500 kcalories a day and engage in at least 250 minutes of physical activity per week.
e. ​Cut carbohydrates completely from your diet and apply fat-burning cream to your skin daily.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

39. On a sensible weight-loss plan, which of the following should be consumed in the largest volumes?​

a. ​vegetables and fruit food groups
b. ​grains and protein foods groups
c. ​milk and fruit food groups
d. ​most energy-dense foods
e. ​energy drinks and whey protein

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. Compared to refined foods, high-fiber, unprocessed, or lightly processed foods aid in weight loss because they provide:​

a. ​less absorption, resulting in fewer kcalories.
b. ​a faster transit time through the intestinal tract.
c. ​more kcalories in a larger amount of food.
d. ​bulk and satiety for fewer kcalories.
e. ​blockage of fats from being absorbed.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. An appropriate food to consume before a meal to increase one’s feeling of fullness is:​

a. ​a cup of cream of chicken soup.
b. ​an unbuttered roll.
c. ​a cup of vegetable soup.
d. ​a breadstick dipped in olive oil.
e. ​chips and salsa.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

42. ​Which food has the lowest energy density?

a. ​15 fresh grapes
b. ​1/2 cup rice
c. ​1/2 cup ice cream
d. ​16 baked chips
e. ​1 chicken wing

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

43. The average U.S. diet delivers approximately how many kcalories a day from sweetened beverages?​

a. ​50-75
b. ​75-150
c. ​160-185
d. ​190-225
e. ​250-300

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   : 7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

44. Which of the following would be the least likely benefit of physical activity?​

a. ​It expends energy.
b. ​It reduces abdominal obesity.
c. ​It lowers basal metabolism.
d. ​It may help to counteract the negative effects of excess body weight on health.
e. ​It reduces stress.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

45. The benefits of regular physical activity in weight loss include which of the following?​

a. ​ appetite control.
b. ​a long-term decrease in basal metabolism.
c. ​increase in stress.
d. ​loss of lean body mass.
e. ​increased risk of stroke.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. ​Benefits of physical activity in a weight-control program include:

a. ​it helps a person to not think about food.
b. ​it decreases energy expenditure.
c. ​it speeds up basal metabolism.
d. ​it helps one “spot reduce.”
e. ​increased appetite.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

47. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends how many minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week for weight gain prevention?​

a. ​15
b. ​60
c. ​90
d. ​120
e. ​150

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

48. Basal metabolism remains elevated for how long after intense and prolonged activity?​

a. ​30 minutes
b. ​2-3 days
c. ​several hours
d. ​only a few minutes
e. ​indefinitely

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

49. A good way to begin a safe and effective weight-loss program is to:​

a. ​keep a food and activity diary.
b. ​reduce energy intake to 800 kcalories per day.
c. ​start on a Monday.
d. ​recognize that the feelings of starvation are inevitable.
e. ​sign up for a marathon.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

50. The best form of physical activity for a person who is trying to lose weight is:​

a. ​running 5 miles at least 3 times a week.
b. ​walking 2 miles in 30 minutes.
c. ​a daily workout at the gym.
d. ​something he or she enjoys and will do regularly.
e. ​strength training.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. ​Lucie is practicing good cognitive skills for weight loss when she tells herself:

a. ​“I shouldn’t have eaten that ice cream yesterday… no wonder I’m fat.”
b. ​“I was able to walk on the treadmill 15 minutes longer today than I could 2 weeks ago… my fitness level is improving.”
c. ​“I really, really want to lose weight; I just can’t seem to succeed no matter how hard I try.”
d. ​“I need to remember to stop by the grocery store and pick up some more fresh vegetables for salads, and some light vinaigrette.”
e. ​“I was only able to run for 20 minutes… I’ll never be fit enough for a half-marathon.”

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

52. A key to preventing weight regain is to:​

a. ​only check weight once a month.
b. avoid thinking thoughts that promote self-efficacy.​
c. ​view weight maintenance as a lifestyle, not a goal.
d. ​skip breakfast every day.
e. ​change eating patterns frequently.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. A person trying to gain weight should:​

a. ​avoid any form of exercise.
b. ​eat energy-dense foods.
c. ​eat faster.
d. ​consume fewer beverages.
e. ​eat small portions.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.6 Strategies for Weight Gain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.6 – Summarize strategies for gaining weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

54. ​James is trying to gain weight. Which of the following would you suggest to help James with his goal?

a. ​Eat peanut butter instead of lean meats.
b. ​Drink black coffee.
c. ​Skip beverages.
d. ​Choose cream cheese-filled pastries for breakfast.
e. ​Avoid working out as much as possible.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.6 Strategies for Weight Gain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.6 – Summarize strategies for gaining weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

55. David has a difficult time gaining weight. Your recommendations to him include:​

a. ​“Eat all you want and avoid physical activity.”
b. ​“Limit low-kcalorie foods like fruits and vegetables.”
c. “Ask your doctor for a prescription for orlistat.”
d. ​“Consume energy-dense foods and engage in weight training.”
e. ​“Drink only water and avoid snacks.”

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.6 Strategies for Weight Gain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.6 – Summarize strategies for gaining weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

56. Zachary is trying to gain weight. He complains that he has a hard time eating a lot of food at one meal. You advise him to:​

a. ​eat energy-dense snacks between meals.
b. ​eat more slowly.
c. ​drink less water.
d. ​eat a salad before his meal.
e. ​eat faster.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.6 Strategies for Weight Gain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.6 – Summarize strategies for gaining weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

57. ​For someone who is trying to gain weight, an easy way to add kcalories is to:

a. ​drink a lot of water.
b. ​increase consumption of healthy caloric beverages.
c. ​use fat-free salad dressings freely.
d. ​add more salt to food.
e. ​skip breakfast and eat a larger lunch.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.6 Strategies for Weight Gain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.6 – Summarize strategies for gaining weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

58. Which of the following statements is true regarding fad diets?​

a. ​They are based on credible scientific research.
b. ​The FDA requires proof that they work and are safe.
c. ​They usually offer distorted bits of legitimate research, which makes them sound feasible.
d. ​Scientists have overlooked the obvious facts and a lay person has figured out the key to successful weight loss.
e. ​They tend to follow current diet recommendations.

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.7 Nutrition in Practice: Fad Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.7 – Discuss the popular fad diets and how to evaluate weight-loss diets based on sound nutrition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

59. Quite simply, the key to weight loss is:​

a. ​combining foods correctly at meals.
b. ​not eating desserts.
c. ​eating less carbohydrate.
d. ​eating only grapefruit for breakfast.
e. ​consuming fewer kcalories.

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   7.7 Nutrition in Practice: Fad Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.7 – Discuss the popular fad diets and how to evaluate weight-loss diets based on sound nutrition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

60. Despite claims that each new fad diet is different and offers a new approach to weight loss, most fad diets:​

a. ​cut kcalories.
b. ​eliminate animal-based foods.
c. ​encourage skipping meals.
d. ​are individualized.
e. ​require supplements for effectiveness.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.7 Nutrition in Practice: Fad Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.7 – Discuss the popular fad diets and how to evaluate weight-loss diets based on sound nutrition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. The major drawback of most fad diets is:​

a. ​they promote false information about weight loss.
b. they do not create lifestyle changes to support long-term weight control.
c. ​they create false hopes among those who try them.
d. ​they usually require the purchase of dietary supplements.
e. ​they often suggest kcalorie intakes that are unsustainably low.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.7 Nutrition in Practice: Fad Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.7 – Discuss the popular fad diets and how to evaluate weight-loss diets based on sound nutrition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

62. Which of the following is a component of the national goals to combat obesity?​

a. ​Reduce funding for bike and walking paths.
b. ​​Advertise healthy lifestyle choices.
c. ​Increase funding for obesity research.
d. ​Increase the number of food deserts.
e. ​Encourage physical activity for children only.

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

63. Intestinal bacteria that can influence energy balance are known as:​

a. ​obesogenic.
b. ​obligate aerobes.
c. ​gastrointestinal viruses.
d. ​microbiota.
e. ​lipoprotein activators.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

64. Your client has struggled with obesity for many years. She gets tested for leptin levels and it is discovered that she has a genetic deficiency of leptin. What is likely to happen when she begins daily leptin injections?​

a. ​She will lose weight.
b. ​She will gain weight.
c. ​Her weight will not change.
d. ​Her ghrelin levels will increase.
e. ​She will develop type II diabetes.

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

65. A modest, sustained weight loss (3-5 percent of body weight) can have which of the following effects?​

a. ​Improved levels of low-density and high-density lipoproteins
b. ​Increased risk of diabetes
c. ​Improved control of diabetes
d. Discontinuation of all diabetic and cardiovascular medication​
e. Fat cell loss

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

66. You are helping your client develop a healthy eating plan to lose weight. Which of the following would you be least likely to tell her?​

a. ​Include physical activity in your plan.
b. ​Choose fiber-rich vegetables over higher fat meats and cheeses.
c. ​Drink plenty of water.
d. ​Drink plenty of kcalorie-rich fluids- juice, chocolate milk.
e. ​Plan snacks appropriately.

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

67. ​You are researching a new diet plan that everyone is talking about. Which of the following statements would cause you the least concern regarding this new diet?

a. ​“Read testimonials from people who lost 50 pounds in 6 weeks!”
b. ​“Based on complex carbohydrates and lean protein.”
c. ​“Only $99 per month to find out more about this great weight loss plan!”
d. ​“Dairy-free, soy-free, gluten-free diet.”
e. ​“De-toxifies your digestive tract and resets your metabolism.”

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   7.7 Nutrition in Practice: Fad Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.7 – Discuss the popular fad diets and how to evaluate weight-loss diets based on sound nutrition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Apply

 

Matching

 

Matching

a. ​an enzyme mounted on the surface of fat cells that hydrolyzes triglycerides in the blood into fatty acids and glycerol for absorption into the cells.
b. the buildings, roads, utilities, homes, fixtures, parks, and all other man-made entities that form the physical characteristics of a community.​
c. a hormone produced by fat cells that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure.​
d. ​a hormone produced primarily by the stomach cells that promotes increased appetite and food intake.
e. ​urban and rural low-income areas with limited access to affordable and nutritious foods.
f. ​the physiological need to eat, experienced as a drive to obtain food.
g. ​the psychological desire to eat.
h. ​the theory that proposes that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls.
i. ​a brain center that controls activities such as maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite.

 

REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

68. ​hypothalamus

ANSWER:   i

 

69. ​appetite

ANSWER:   g

 

70. built environment ​

ANSWER:   b

 

71. food deserts ​

ANSWER:   e

 

72. ghrelin ​

ANSWER:   d

 

73. hunger ​

ANSWER:   f

 

74. leptin ​

ANSWER:   c

 

75. lipoprotein lipase ​

ANSWER:   a

 

76. ​lipoprotein lipase

ANSWER:   h

 

Matching

a. ​stimulates insulin production and the release of glucagon; suppresses appetite.
b. ​enhances the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine and makes food taste less appealing.
c. ​works by suppressing appetite.
d. ​interacts with brain serotonin receptors to increase satiety.
e. ​inhibits pancreatic lipase activity, blocking digestion and absorption of fat.
f. ​enhances the release of norepinephrine
g. ​a surgical weight loss method that reduces the capacity of the stomach.

 

REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

77. ​Phentermine plus topiramate combination

ANSWER:   b

 

78. ​Saxenda

ANSWER:   a

 

79. Belviq​

ANSWER:   d

 

80. ​Naltrexone

ANSWER:   c

 

81. Phentermine​

ANSWER:   f

 

82. Orlistat​

ANSWER:   e

 

83. Gastric bypass​

ANSWER:   g

 

Essay

 

84. Briefly describe the following theories for the cause of obesity: (a) fat cell development. and (b)  set-point theory​

ANSWER:   Fat cell development: excess energy is stored in fat cells and obesity results when a person’s fat cells increase in number, size, or both. After fat cells reach their maximum size, more fat cells can develop to store more fat; however, these newly developed fat cells will not be lost with weight loss, only shrunk. Set-point theory: proposes that the body physiologically regulates body weight as it does body temperature. The body chooses a preferred body weight and strives to maintain it by regulating eating behaviors and hormone actions.​
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

85. Discuss the role of environmental stimuli in the development of obesity.​

ANSWER:   Genetic factors cannot fully explain obesity. The environment a person lives in also contributes to obesity- overeating (readily-available fast food, large serving sizes), learned behaviors (appetite, satiety), physical inactivity, built environment (buildings and transportation that discourage physical activity), and food deserts.​
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

86. ​Discuss the pros and cons of gastric bypass and gastric banding surgeries for weight loss.

ANSWER:   Surgical weight loss can be the most effective method for those who are at critical risk of death due to obesity-related conditions. Surgeries limit food intake by reducing the capacity of the stomach and suppress hunger by altering production of GI hormones. Nearly 50% of excess weight remains off 15 years after surgery. Complications with surgical weight loss include infections, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and psychological problems.​
REFERENCES:   7.4 Aggressive Treatments of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.4 – Explain the risks and benefits, if any, of drugs and surgery used to treat obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

87. Describe why physical activity is very important in a weight-loss program.​

ANSWER:   Physical activity increases energy output, increases basal metabolic rate for a few hours after vigorous exercise, serves to control the appetite, and reduces boredom/depression eating.​
REFERENCES:   7.5 Reasonable Strategies for Weight Loss
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.5 – Outline reasonable strategies for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

88. Describe some strategies for successful weight gain.​

ANSWER:   Use resistance training to build muscle mass, consume energy-dense foods (fat adds kcalories without adding much bulk), consume at least three healthy meals per day, consume larger portions, work in extra snacks during the day, and include kcalorie-containing beverages (milk and juice) in the diet.
REFERENCES:   7.6 Strategies for Weight Gain
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.6 – Summarize strategies for gaining weight.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

89. ​Describe the roles of the built environment and food deserts in the development of obesity.

ANSWER:   Buildings, sidewalks, and transportation can discourage physical activity (inconveniently located stairwells in buildings, unsafe/unavailable sidewalks, air pollution on sidewalks/bike lanes near busy roads. Many low-income urban and rural areas lack access to affordable, fresh, nutrient-dense foods and must consume foods from convenience stores and fast-food restaurants, which increases the risk of obesity.​
REFERENCES:   7.1 Causes of Obesity
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.1 – Discuss the genetic and environmental causes of obesity.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Understand

 

90. What are some identifying characteristics of fad diets and weight-loss scams?​

ANSWER:   It sounds too good to be true, the diet recommends a single food consistently in order to succeed, promises of quick and easy weight loss with no effort, blames weight gain on a single nutrient (carbohydrates, gluten), requires you to buy special products that are not available in markets at an affordable price.
REFERENCES:   7.7 Nutrition in Practice: Fad Diets
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   NHHE.DEBR.17.7.7 – Discuss the popular fad diets and how to evaluate weight-loss diets based on sound nutrition.
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Remember